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The term ‘ritucharya’ is derived from two different words: ‘ritu’ meaning season and ‘charya’ meaning ‘regimen’. Seasonal regimen prescribed for preservation of health and prevention of diseases is termed as ‘ritucharya’.
Ayurveda, the science of life defined the human body (sharira) is always in a state of change towards degeneration called as sharira (human body) [Vaidyaka shabdasindhu]. Ancient scriptures were aware of astronomy; they keenly observed the change in seasons with respect to the sun, moon, stars, wind, and rainfall. The concept of “yat pinde tat brahmande‘- whatever there is in the environment is also there is the human body is applied in understanding health. This leads to appreciating changes in the human body according to seasons and regimens are made accordingly. The seasonal regimen's main aim is to prevent diseases due to the derangement of dosha. Hence ritucharya is one of the ways to be in synchronize with ever-changing nature and being healthy all at the same time.

Section/Chapter/topic Concepts/Ritucharya
Authors P.Sudhakar Reddy1
Beena MD2
Nimmi A.N.1
Reviewer Basisht G.3,
Editor Deole Y.S.4
Affiliations 1 Department of Post Graduate Studies in Swasthavritta, JSS Ayurveda Medical College, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Post Graduate Studies in Kayachikitsa, JSS Ayurveda Medical College, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
3 Rheumatologist, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A.
4 Department of Kayachikitsa, G. J. Patel Institute of Ayurvedic Studies and Research, New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India
Correspondence emails drpsreddy05@yahoo.com,
Publisher Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre, I.T.R.A., Jamnagar, India
Date of publication: December 13, 2022
DOI 10.47468/CSNE.2022.e01.s09.121

Utpatti (derivation)

The term ritu is derived from the root word ‘Ru’, which means to go. Ritu represents the form in which nature expressed itself in a sequence in specific conditions of two months duration (Amarakosha).

Nirukti (etymology)

In Ayurveda, the season is represented by the term kala. Kala is a broad term. In one context it is mentioned as seasons, while in some other context, it merely represents time. The term ritu is the most suitable term to explain seasons. The term ritu refers to a specific period having a cyclic rotation. In the context of ritucharya, ritu is mentioned as the term in which nature expresses itself in sequence, in specific forms of a two-month duration (dvau masau). [A.Hr. Sutra Sthana 3/1 Hemadri]. Charya means regimen or action. Dalhana defines ritucharya as the regimen that should be followed concerning seasons. [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/1 Dalhana] Vagbhata defines it as the changes in diet and practices with respect to changes in climate conditions like heat, cold, rain etc. [A.Sa. Sutra Sthana 3/1 Hemadri]

Concept of ritucharya (seasonal regimen)

The concept of ritucharya is applied in healthcare management in various aspects as below.

Seasonal regimen:

The strength and lusture is enhanced by following suitable diet and regimen for every season. [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/3] The year is divided into six parts according to seasons. The northward movement of the sun and its act of dehydration brings about three seasons beginning from late winter to summer. The southward movement of sun and its act of hydration gives rise to the rainy season to early winter. [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/4] Qualitative dietetics includes the wholesome and unwholesome diet and lifestyle regimen as per seasons. [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/51]

Seasonal purification:

Purpose of seasonal purification procedures is to maintain normalcy of dosha, dhatus in different seasons. One should eliminate the accumulated dosha in the first month of spring, rainy and winter. [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 7/46] To prevent seasonal diseases, doshas accumulated during hemanta (December – February) be eliminated in the month of Chaitra (March-April). Those accumulated during summer(April-June) in the month of Shravana (July-August). The dosha accumulated during rainy season (August- October) should be eliminated in the month of Margasheersha (November-Octomber)[Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 7/45]. The elimination therapies should be administered only in seasons with moderate heat and cold nature. In other seasons having extreme cold, heat or rain, such therapies should not be administered. Moderate seasons are enjoyable and they do not adversely affect the conditions of the body and drugs. [Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 8/126] However, in emergency situations, when the therapy is utmost needed, one should administer the therapy with great care after modifying the seasonal effects sufficiently by artificial means, producing qualities contrary to the seasons and by making the measure appropriate in standard potency with variation in combination, processing and quantity. [Cha. Sa.Vimana Sthana 8/126]

Seasonal conditions in nasal administration therapy:

In summer, the nasal administration therapy should be given in the morning. In winter, it should be given during mid-day. In rainy season, it should be given when the sky is clear and not cloudy. In the case of an emergency, it can be given in the seasons other than early rains, autumn and spring by artificially creating the congenial environment. [Cha. Sa. Siddhi Sthana 2/23]

Ritusandhi (period of climatic transition):

The last seven days of a season and the first seven days of the next season is considered as period of transition of climate (ritusandhi). In this period, one should taper the regimens of the previous season and practice those of the next season in a gradual, phased manner. Immediate abandoning and adoption of regimens causes various diseases due to improper adoption. [A. Hr. Sutra Sthana 3/58]

Seasons, constellations and Sun signs:

When the sun is in aries and taurus constellations, it is grishma ritu (summer April-May). When in Gemini and cancer, it is pravrit (early rains, June-July). When in leo and virgo, it is rainy season, (August-September). When it is in libra and scorpio, it is sharada (Autumn, October-November). When it is in sagitarrus and capricorn, it is hemanta (winter, December-January). When the sun is in aquarius and piscus, it is vasanta (Spring, February-March). [Sha.Sa. 2/25-26] This also identifies sun signs according to the birth.

Concept of Yamadamshtra:

The last eight days of kartika masa (third week of November) and the first eight days of avagrahayana (fourth week of November) are known as yamadamshtra kala. During this period, one can be healthy if he takes only small quantity of food. [Sha.Sa. 2/30]

Concept of ritu haritaki:

Seasonal changes shall be considered while taking some medicines for specific actions. A person, who wishes to attain the vitalizing actions of haritaki shall consume it with specific substances as per seasons. Haritaki shall be taken with salt during rainy season, with sugar during post monsoon period, with dry ginger during winter, with pepper during autumn with honey during spring and with jaggery during summer. [Bha.Pra.Purva khanda 6/34]
Table: Anupana according to seasons for consuming haritaki
Ritu (season) Anupana(vehicle)
Varsha(rainy) Saindhava lavana (rocksalt)
Sharada(autumn) Sharkara (sugar)
Hemanta (winter) Shunthi (dry ginger)
Shishira(late winter) Pippali (long pepper)
Vasanta(spring) Madhu (honey)
Grishma (summer) Guda (jaggery)

Epidemic or diseases affecting communities (Janamara)

The concept of seasonal regimens is applied to understand epidemics, their spread and favourable factors for their transmission. If the specific climatic characteristics are not observed in a season or abnormal features are observed, then it can be an alarming sign of an epidemic. Abnormal climatic conditions can favor the transmission of diseases. For example, when in any particular region, the cloud does not rain in rainy season, but rains in the winter season; it is in such times of seasonal derangement that the epidemic or the killer diseases of population commences or sets forth its activities. [Bhe. Sa. Sutra Sthana 13/8]

Remedies for epidemic:

During the epidemic, one shall follow fasting, keep high mental strength by avoding negative emotions, engage himself in offering worships, prayers, saluting the preachers (brahmin) and requisite inchantations of (mantras) and drugs. [Bhe. Sa. Sutra Sthana 13/9]

Autumnal fever:

Body is unable to cope up with suddent climatic changes. By sudden increase in heat at the end of the rainy season, pitta gets mobilized and aggravated. This leads to fever that occurs mostly in the early winter. This is called sharada jwara or autumnal fever. [Bhe. Sa. Sutra Sthana 13/10]

Prevention of occurrences of diseases :

Taking honey habitually in rainy season, ghee in autumn, varuni (a type of alcohol preparation) with gandhaka in shishira (late winter), grape juice in spring and drinking milk in summer prevent the occurrence of diseases due to seasonal variations. [ Bhe. Sa. Sutra Sthana 14/16-17]

Importance of ritucharya

Kala or time constantly makes change in everything, so it is also known as ‘parinama’. This change brings abnormality or excellences of all substances including dosha, dhatu and rasa etc. This kala is the cause for division of seasons (ritu vibhaga), which directly influences the body strength (deha bala), and digestion (agni bala) etc. So, if one who follows the regimens prescribed under each and every ritu, such person is never afflicted with seasonal diseases. He always remains as a healthy person. [Yogaratnakara 1/830]

Division of seasons

Season is defined as a division of the year.[1] It is based on the changes in weather, ecology and the number of daylight hours in a given region. Seasons are the result of earth’s orbit around the Sun and Earth’s axial tilt relative to the ecliptic plane.[2] In temperate and polar regions, the seasons are marked by changes in the intensity of sunlight that reaches the earth’s surface, variations of which may cause animals to undergo hibernation or to migrate and plants to be dormant. various cultures define the number and nature of seasons based on regional variations. As such there are a number of both, modern and historical cultures with varied number of seasons. The northern hemisphere experiences more direct sunlight during May, June and July as the hemisphere faces the sun. The same is true of the southern hemisphere in November, December and January. It is earth’s axial tilt that causes the sun to be higher in the sky during the summer months, which inceases the solar flux. However due to seasonal lag, June, July and August are the warmest months in the northern hemisphere. While December, January and February are the warmest months in the southern hemosphere. In temperate and sub-polar regions four seasons based on the Gregorian calendar are generally recognized spring, summer, autumn and winter. .

The Year is divided in to six season(six ritu)

Solstice Indian season (Ritu) Month as per Hindu calender English month English Season
Nothern solstice (Adanakala/Uttarayana kala) Shishira MaghaPhalguna Mid January - Mid March Late winter
Vasanta Chaitra Vaishakha Mid March - Mid May Spring
Grishma Jyeshtha Ashadha Mid May – Mid July Summer
Southern solstice (Visarga kala/Dakshinayana) Varsha Shravana Bhadrapada Mid July - Mid September Rainy / monsoon
Sharad Ashwini Kartika Mid September - Mid November Atumn
Hemanta Margashirsha Pushya Mid November - Mid January Early winter

Seasons across globe:

Many parts of the world have four seasons in a year. They are spring, summer, autumn & winter. The weather is different during each season. As weather changes, plants change too and animals change their behavious to suit the weather. In spring, weather begins to get warmer and trees and other plants grow new leaves. Summer is the hottest season with long and usually sunny days. In the autumn the weather becomes mild and leaves starts falling from many types of trees. Winter is the coldest season, with short days.
Four season model
Northern hemisphere Southern hemisphere Start date End date
Winter Summer  1st December 28th February
Spring Autumn 1st March 31st May
Summer Winter 1st June 31th August
Autumn Spring 1st September 30th November
Indian Seasons model
Season  Months  Features 
Winter  December – February Coldest months, average temperature around 10-15 oC
Summer or Pre-monsoon March - May Hottest month is April in western and south region. In north region, May month is hottest. Temparature will be around 32-40oC
Monsoon or rainy June to September Dominated by humid, monsoon begins from north India and south India receives more rainfall
Post-monsoon or autumn October – November October and November are usually cloudless in north-west. Tamilnadu receives most of its annual precipitation in north-east monsoon season

General charactristics of seasons

  1. Winter
    Weather is cold, the air or wind element is high. So one should stay nourished and warm, and work on increasing physical stamina. Apply sesame or almond oil to Skin and hair to prevent the tissues from drying.
  2. Diet:
    • Eat fats and foods like homemade butter, ghee, olive oil, dry fruits, dates and honey.
    • Mustard, spinach, fenugreek, amaranthus, chinopodium, beens, raddish, carrots, onion , garlic, ash guard, yam.
    • Fruits like Orange, guava, strawberrys, grapes, figs and Indian gooseberry & hot beverages

    Lifestyle :

    • Warm water for drinking & bath.
    • Physical exercise.
  3. Monsoon
    There is wet, cloudy weather, the element of fire is disturbed, which affects the digestive power. In this season, immunity is at its lowest.
  4. Diet:
    • Prefer foods that are sour, salty, and greasy.
    • Freshly-cooked warm meals shall be taken.
    • Include ginger, lemon, and cinnamon in diet.
    • Vegetables like gourds, okra, colocasia leaves can be taken.
    • Fruits like apple , custard apple and stone fruit (drupe)
    • Avoid raw and uncooked meals
    • Avoid overeating

    Lifestyle :

    • Less physical exercise and avoid barefoot walking
  5. Summer
    During this season fire and air energies dominate, inside and outside the body. This gives rise to heat and dryness. So it is important to keep light and hydrated.
  6. Diet:
    • The foods consumed should be light, cool and non-greasy.
    • Include more fresh fruits, veggies, juices, herbs and leafy greens, pumpkin, brinjal, jackfruit mango, melons, Indian blackberry, cashew, palm fruit and lots of coconut water
    • Avoid sour and spicy foods.

    Lifestyle :

    • Avoid physical exercise or if needed less physical exercise shall be followed.
  7. Autumn :
    In this season the temperature starts falling gradually and the day light is less. Leaves on the trees turn yellow, orange, red and brown during autumn. The autumn months are the time of the harvest season
  8. Diet:
    • Vegetables like spinach, cabbage, cauliflower, beets, broccoli. Fruits like apples, lime, figs, grapes, blackberries, plums

    Lifestyle :

    • Waliking, jogging or mild physical exercise

Seasonal adaptation schedule

In order to adapt the climatic changes and maintain equilibrium, one shall follow a specific schedule of reducing previous regimen and enhancing new regimen as given below.[Hemadri on A.H.Su.3/48]
Table : Seasonal adaptation schedule
Day Quantity of previous regimen Quantity of ensuring
First ¾ ¼
Second Full -
Third ¾ ¼
Fourth ½ ½
Fifth  ¾ ¼
Sixth ¾ ½
Seventh  ½ ¾
Eighth  ¼ ½
Ninth  ½ ½
Tenth  ½ ½
Eleventh  ½ ½
Twelvth ¼ ¾
Thirteenth  - Full
Fourteenth ¼ ¾

There after a new season regimen to be continued.

Regimen in different Seasons

Season  Wholesome diet Wholesome lifestyle Unwholesome diet Unwholesome lifestyle
Early winter (Hemanta) Foods predominant of sweet, sour & salt
Fatty foods (Unctous)
Milk & milk products
Sugarcane products
Cereals like New rice, wheat & flour preparations
Pulses like blackgram (Masha) & Sesame (Tila)
Meat & meat soup of aquatic animals
Madira & seedhu (Wine prepared from sugar cane juice) type of alcohol & Honey
Full body oil massage & powder massage
Head massage
Using room heaters
Wearing heavy and warm cloths
Wrapping the body with silken cloth &blankets
Warm water bath
Anointing body with saffron & Aquilaria agallocha(Agaru) paste
Use of medicated smoking
Physical exercise
Sun bath
Excessive sexual intercourse
Foods which are easily digestible and likely to vitiate vata
Foods which are cold & dry in nature
Avoid underfeeding (Pramitahara)
Intake of gruels
Food which causes indigestion
Cold drinks
Exposing to strong & cold wind(waves)
Day sleep
Late winter (Shishira) Similar in nature of early winter except more dryness in the body and more cold because of cloud, wind and rains prevail. So in this season entire prescription of early winter regimen should be followed. Cereals and pulses, wheat/gram flour products, new rice, corn and others are prescribed. Even Ginger, Garlic, fruits of termianalia chebula, fruits of piper longum, sugarcane products, milk and milk products are advised in the diet.
In this season speciallly spending more time in windless & warm houses, avoiding foods & drinks possessed of pungent, bitter & astringent taste and as well as cold diet and drinks are prohibited and sleep at late night should be avoided.
Spring (Vasanta) Foods predominant in pungent, bitter and astringent taste
Easily digestible foods
Cereals like Barley, wheat, Sashtika shali (Rice- oryza sativum which is harvested in 60days)), maize (zea mays) neevara, kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum)
Pulses like greengram, lentil (Lens culinaris), .
Bitter taste Vegetables like Patola (Tricosanthese diocia, Nimba(Azadiracta indica) leaves, Vartaka (Brinjal).
Meats of easily digestible like Rabbit (sasha) etc,..
Bevarages- Sringaverambu(Water prepared by adding ginger), Madhavambu (Water adding honey) etc. can be used .
Honey and different fermented beverages like Asava & Arishta (self generated alcholic medicinal preparation), Seedhu (alcoholic preparation by using sugarcane),
Mridvika (wine prepared by using grapes) should be used
Physical exercise, Powder massage, medicated smoking, gargling
Using warm water all purposes
Bath with warm water
Smearing body with santalum and aqualaria
Panchakrma therapies like emesis, purgation and enema
Foods which are heavy to digest Foods which are Sweet, Sour, cold (Sheeta) unctuous, heavy(Guru), Liquid items Foods which are increases kapha
New grains , Curds and cold drinks
Day sleep which increases kapha
Summer (Greeshma) Foods predominant of Sweet taste , Cold, Liquid, unctuous and light(Easily digestible food) like rice, lentil etc,.. Food added with ghee, sweet and liquids, followed by boiled milk sweetned with sugar at night.
Beverages : Fragrant and cold drinks mixed with sugar shoud be used, cold water, fruit juices such as mago juice, meat soup and churned curd with pepper
Coconut water is useful.
Alcoholic drinks are generally prohibited however those who are addicted to drinking in smaller quantity is prescribed but it should be mixed with plenty of water During night one should take milk with sugar candy.
Exposing to cold breeze
Staying in cool places
Recreation in the lakes, wells , rivers and forests.
Dress should be of very thin cloth and sprinkled with perfumes.
Sleeping in apartment equipped with water fountains during day and during nights in an open area
Anointing body with camphor and sandal paste
Day time sleep
Foods predominant taste of pungent, sour and salty Alcoholic drinks should not be taken or taken in very little quantity or with addition of large quantity of water Excessive physical exercise , Basking in sun
Exertional activities or hard work
Excessive Sexual intercourse
Drying regimen
Rainy (Varsha ritu) Foods with predominant taste of sour & salt
Uunctous foods .
Foods like Barley, Rice & Wheat
Meat of arid animals/Meat soup
Yusha (Soups prepared with pulses)/ Vegetables soup
Alcoholic preparations like madhvika (wine prepared from madhuka indica) or arishta (fermented preparations) type of liquor,
Boiled and cooled water
In all preparations honey should be added
Rubbing the body with unctuous material(oil) after the bath
Anointing of body with aqualaria
Sleeping in upper storied cool room to avoid moisture with heavy coverings
Medicated enema(Basti)
Foods which are heavy to digest like meat
River water
Groat (Water mixed th flour) (Mantha)
Excessive intake of liquids (Ati drava)
Sexual intercourse
Exposing to dews, getting wet in rain Barefoot walking
Physical exercise
Exposure to sun rays
Staying at river bank
Hard work
Day sleep
Autumn (Sharad ritu) Foods predominat with sweet taste, bitter tastes & Cold properties
Foods which are laghu (Easy to digest) in nature
Sugarcane products
Cereals like Rice & wheat
Pulses like Green gram
Meat of wild animals like common quill, grey partridge, antelope, sheep, wapiti and rabbit,
Fruits like Amalaki(Gooseberry), vegetables like patola (Tricosanthese diocia)
Honey & Sugar candy
Bitter ghee
Panchakarmas like Purgation & bloodletting
One should pass evenings on the upper part of house enjoying the white moon light (moon rays first three hours of night are health promotive)
Body well - adorned with paste of sandal, camphor and with garlands of pearls and attractive dress
One may swim in tanks decorated with lotus and lilly.
Applying paste of sandal
Having food only when there is hunger
Astringent, bitter, sour & hot substances
Heavy meals
Excessive oil & fat substances
Strong wines
Meat of aquatic and marshy animals
Day sleep
Excessive Sexual intercourse
Sun bath (Exposing to sun light)
Exposing to frost
Night awakening
Excessive eating

[Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/46 & Su. Sa. Uttara Tantra 64/20]

Contemporary approach and researches

Impact of seasonal variation on health:

Three causes viz. improper union of senses with objects (asatmendriyartha samyoga), intellectual defect (prajnaparadha) and time (parinama) are responsible for manifestation of diseases. Among these, parinama or kala plays an important role in the health of the individuals. The excess (atiyoga), deficient (ayoga) and improper (mithya yoga) of kala results in dosha vitiation. As a part of normal seasonal variation also, doshas get vitiated in the individuals. A proper management of the environmental determinants of health is essential for the promotion of positive health and thereby preventing diseases. Recognition that human health can be affected by a wide range of ecological disruptions, consequent upon climate change, is a recent development in modern scientific world. But the idea that human health and disease are linked to climate probably predates written history. The Greek physician Hippocrates (about 400 BC) related epidemics to seasonal weather changes, stating that physicians should have “due regard to the seasons of the year, and the diseases which they produce, and to the states of the wind peculiar to each country and the qualities of its water”. He exhorts them to take note of “the water which people use, whether they be marshy and soft, or hard and running from elevated and rocky situations, and unfit for cooking,” and to observe “the localities of towns, and of the surrounding country, whether they are low or high, hot or cold, wet or dry and of the diet and regimen of the inhabitants”[3]
All these facts are well studied and presented by Ayurveda scientists along with the management protocol. More over recent studies have shown changes in the biochemical parameters along with seasonal variations. The physical health impacts of climate change, especially infections, allergies, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases are now well recognized. These objective evidences can be considered as a reflection of the physiological imbalance occurring in the equilibrium of tridosha due to seasonal variations, progressing to a pathological state as a result of unhealthy diet and regimen. So, in order to prevent seasonal outbreak of diseases, a regimen should be designed, including currently available facilities. For that a thorough knowledge of the physiological imbalances occurring in various seasons in terms of dosha vitiation, status of agni and bala are very essential.
The season is a variation for a particular time which includes environmental factors which consist of nature of land, water, atmospheric temperature, humidity, wind, rain, clouds and atmospheric pressure. All these factors undergo a continuous change and at a time, when no two movements are exactly alike in a given place.[4]
Some studies are carried out to establish the influence of seasonal changes on the development of opportunistic diseases. These show the effect of photo period on immune function and hormone synthesis has a positive result. It also showed that time of the year is important in changing the glucocortcoid concentrations in unstressed and stressed animals.[5][6]
A study was conducted to assess the biophysical, and biochemical changes and provocation of tridosha in ritusandhi. It shows that there was a increasing and decreasing pattern in biochemical changes within normal variations, but the changes were not remarkable. The study is also evident of occuring jwara (fever), pratishyaya (rhinitis), alasya (tiredness) frequently with dominance of vata and kapha provocation.[7]
Based on the principles of ritucharya, a study has been conducted on healthy volunteers to assess the bala (physical strength) in different ritus (seasons). The study showed that maximum bala was seen during winter (hemanta ritu), moderate bala during spring (vasanta ritu) and minimum bala during rainy season (varsha ritu).[6] Other systems of medicine also considered the effect of seasons on health. For instance, father of modern medicine, Hippocrates says that whoever wishes to investigate medicine properly should proceed thus in the first place to consider the seasons of the year and what affects of each of them produces. Tibetian system also believes that seasonal regimens are powerful instruments in prevention of diseases.[7]
Variation in state of dosha in different ritu results in diseases if the prescribed regiment is not followed. For example, increased occurrence of flu, dry skin in winter, heat stroke in summer, pollen allergy in spring, high incidence of air and water borne diseases in rainy season and skin diseases in autumn are observed.[8] Few studies show positive correlation between attack of asthma in winter season. Contemporary science also have evidences regarding seasonal affective disorders (SADs).[9]
Understainding of Ayurvedic concept of seasonal divisions (ritu vibhaga) is mainly based on specific characteristic features of seasons (lakshanas), based on the hindu calendar months (masa) and stars (rashi). In present scenario, the characteristic features of classically mentioned characteristic features are not uniform all over the geaographical areas. But still specific features during seasons based on biological and external environmental changes during the each seasons are observed. In this connection, a few reviews eshtablish the relation between ritus and gut microbial changes and their effect on health. The food habits and lifestyle changes during each season (ritu) changes the free living microorganism in gut. This increases individual susceptibility to inflammatory as well as metabolic diseases such as non- communicable diseases. Adopting a proper seasonal regimen including seasonal purification enhances the gut acclimatization, thus prevent the pathological manifestation of seasonal diseases and maintain health.[10]
A seasonal change in immune function has also been observed by researchers during animal studies. Immunological parameters like spleen mass, white blood cells, cellular immunity, IgG and IgM levels showed seasonal changes. Cellular immunity was found to be high in winter than in summer.[11]

Clinical researches on ritucharya

  1. Abha shankar (2021). A preventive trial on ritucharya in seasonal disease of Greeshma ritu- A non-randomized controlled trial . PG Dissertation, KUHS, Kerala.
  2. Ramesh Kumar L (2016). Concept of Kaala in relation to ecological, physiological and biochemical changes in Greeshma ritu. PhD Thesis, GAU, Jamnagar, Gujarat.
  3. Lakshmi V. (2012). An interventional trial on preomotion of positive health through seasonal purification w.s.r toSarat Ritu. PG Dissertation, KUHS, Kerala
  4. Neeru nathani, J.K. Samaria & S.K.Tiwari. Evaluation of the effect of ritucharya on spirometric parameters in patients of Bronchial asthma. International Journal of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJMPS) 4 (2). 2014: 111-118. BHU, Varanasi

References from other Ayurveda classics

The Ayurveda classics support and mention the concept of ritucharya. Following list shows topics and references in the Ayurveda text.
  1. Sushruta Samhita :
    • Time and its importance, Units and definition of time, Months and Seasons [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/3-6]
    • Solistices and their characteristic features [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/7-9]
    • Nomencluature of ritus, seasonal changes [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/10-13]
    • Purification of doshas [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/14-15]
    • Progression of doshas in 24 hours [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/16]
    • Description of normal ritus [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/17-20]
    • Effects of abnormal ritu, causes and management [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/21]
    • Characteristics of different seasons [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/23-39] and purification according to seasons [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/40]
    • Importance of following seasonal regimen [Su. Sa. Uttara Tantra 64/5 & 55] and Do’s & Dont’s of different seasons [Su. Sa. Uttara Tantra 64/54]
  2. Ashtanga Hridaya
    • Names and divison of the seasons [A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 3/1-2]
    • Characteristic features of northern solistice or period of exhaustion and southern solistice or period of hydration [A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 3/3-6]
    • Relation between physical strength and seasons [A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 3/7]
    • Seasonal regimen in late winter [A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 3/8-16]
    • Seasonal regimen in extreme winter [A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 3/17]
    • Seasonal regimen in spring [A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 3/18-25]
    • Seasonal regimen in summer [A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 3/26-41]
    • Seasonal regimen in rainy season [A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 3/42-48]
    • Seasonal regimen in Autumn incuding Hamsodaka [A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 3/49-54]
    • The rasa and properties of food items recommended for use in each ritu [A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 3/54-55].
  3. Sharangadhara Samhita (14 AD):
    • Dosha accumulation, increase and decrease as per seasons [Sha.Sa. 2/27-28]
    • Seasons and status of tridoshas : Movement of the sun from one stellar constellation to the other makes for the six seasons during which the trodosas undergo mild increase, profound increase and derease to normal [Sha.Sa. 2/25]
    • Causes for state of dosha like mild increase , profound increase and back to normal are explained [Sha.Sa. 2/30-36]
  4. Bhava Prakasha (16 AD):
    • Formation of seasons and their characteristic features [Bha.Pra. Purva Khanda 5/309-315]
    • Merits and demerits of seasons [Bha.Pra. Purva Khanda 5/316-322]
    • Characters of a dosha, increased in its place [Bha.Pra. Purva Khanda 5/327-329]
    • Regulations during seasons [Bha.Pra. Purva Khanda 5/330-341] and importance of seasonal regimen. [Bha.Pra. Purva Khanda 5/342]
  5. Yogaratnakara :
    • Seasons and their qualities [Y.R.1/808-812]
    • Accumulation, aggrevation and purification of doshas in different seasons and their effect [Y.R.1/813-816]
    • Wholesome and unwholesome during rainy season [Y.R.1/817-820]
    • Wholesome and unwholesome during autumn season [Y.R.1/821-824]
    • Wholesome and unwholesome during winter season [Y.R.1/825]
    • Wholesome and unwholesome during cold season [Y.R.1/826]
    • Wholesome and unwholesome during spring season [Y.R.1/827]
    • Wholesome and unwholesome during summer season [Y.R.1/829]
    • Benefits of seasonal regimen for preventing disease [Y.R.1/830]
    • Description of hamsodaka (auspicious water) [Y.R.1/8321-832]
  6. Bhela Samhita :
    • Proper time for giving purification medicine [Bhe. Sa. Sutra Sthana 25/13-17]
    • Seasonal regimen: Rainy season [Bhe. Sa. Vimana Sthana 6/2-6], Autumn season [Bhe. Sa. Vimana Sthana 6/7-12], regimen for winter [Bhe. Sa. Vimana Sthana 6/13-18], regimen for cold season[Bhe. Sa. Vimana Sthana 6/19] and Rainy season regimen [Bhe. Sa. Vimana Sthana 6/20-23]
  7. Kasyapa Samhita :
    • Definition and properties of hamsodaka (auspicious water) [Ka. Sa. Khila Sthana 23/2]
    • Properties of water during different seasons [Ka. Sa. Khila Sthana 23/3-4]
    • Properties of untimely rained water- all waters having fallen immediately and without the appropriate season are not considered as praise-worthy water [Ka. Sa. Khila Sthana 23/6]
    • Water fit to be used in different seasons [Ka. Sa. Khila Sthana 23/26-27]
  8. Harita Samhita :
    • Names of the seasons [H.S. 3/19-20]
    • Description of two solistices [H.S.3/21-30]
    • Description of each ritu with characteristic features and regimen [H.S.3/32-62]

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