Nitya sevaniya - asevaniya dravya

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'Nitya' means regulary or daily. 'Sevaniya' means consumable or that can be taken for a long time. This chapter is about daily consumable and non consumable food items as prescribed in ayurveda and their contemporary aspects.

Nutrition is a prerequisite for healthy life. A proper diet is essential from a very early age of life for growth, development, and active life. Nutrition is the science that deals with all the factors of which food is composed and how proper nourishment is brought about. Due to a lack of time and awareness, junk food intake has been increasing. ‘Junk foods' are foods that lack nutrients like vitamins and minerals and are high in calories, salts, sugars, and fats.[1] Junk food is so-called because it doesn’t play a role in healthy eating, especially if it's eaten excessively or frequently. An unhealthy diet is one of the leading risks for the global disease burden, mainly for noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer.[2] So, there is a need to elaborate on the concept of daily consumable and non-consumable food items.

Section/Chapter/topic Concepts & Contemporary practices/Nitya sevaniya - asevaniya dravya
Author Deshmukh Saylee1
Reviewers Basisht G.2
Khandel S.K.
Editor Deole Y.S.3
Affiliations 1 RRAP Central Ayurveda Research Institute, CCRAS, Worli, Mumbai, India
2 Rheumatologist, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A.
3 Department of Kayachikitsa, G. J. Patel Institute of Ayurvedic Studies and Research, New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India
Correspondence emails,
Publisher Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre, I.T.R.A., Jamnagar, India
Date of publication: September 27, 2023
DOI 10.47468/CSNE.2023.e01.s09.153

Etymology and meaning

Wholesome (pathya) in ayurveda is the regimen that does not adversely affect the body channels i.e., Patha/Srotas. The word “Nitya” means constantly/continuously. Criteria for the classification of food items have not been clearly mentioned in the texts of Ayurveda, but in context of vitiation of body channels (srotodushti), Acharya Charak has stated that food and regimens that promote the morbidity by aggravation of dosha and go contrary to the well-being of dhatu vitiates the channels. With the help of this quotation, it can be said that the food that leads to vitiation of body channels by vitiation of dosha and dhatu can be considered as daily non-consumable (nitya asevaniya). On the contrary, it can be said that a diet that does not lead to any srotodushti by vitiation of any dosha and dhatu can be said as daily consumable (nitya sevaniya), maintaining equilibrium of all the dosha.
Daily consumable and daily non-consumable food items have been quoted in ‘Matrashitiya Adhyaya’ of Charak Samhita and Ashtanga Hridaya, ‘Annapanavidhi adhyaya’ of Ashtanga Samgraha and Vihara varga of Kaiyyadevanighantu. In a similar context, ekanta hitakara (solely wholesome) and ekanta ahitakara (solely unwholesome) food etc. have also been described at various places in the texts of ayurveda. Nitya sevaniya and ekanta hitakara dravya have been stated for daily intake for maintenance of health because of their specific properties described in the texts of ayurveda, while Nitya asevaniya and Ekanta ahitakara dravya are prohibited for regular/long time use because of their harmful effects on body.

Daily consumable food items

List of daily consumable food items described in Charak Samhita, Ashtanga hridaya, Ashtanga samgraha and Kaiyyadeva Nighantu is as follows:

Some food items have been uniquely mentioned like:
  • Indian gooseberry- Emblica officinalis Gaertn (Amalaki)
  • Cow’s milk (Godugdha)
  • Cow’s ghee (Goghrita)
  • Meat of animal in arid climate (Jangala mamsa)
  • Honey (Madhu)
  • Rainwater (Antariksha jala)
  • Green gram- Vigna radiata L. (Mudga)
  • Rock salt- Sodii chloridum (Saindhava)
  • Rice- Oryza sativum L. (Shashtika Shali)
  • Barley- Hordeum vulgare L. (Yava)
[Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 5/12]
A.Sa.Sutra Sthana 10/45,
A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 8/42,
  • Unripen radish-Raphanus sativus L. (Bala mulaka)
  • Pomegranate-Punica granatum L. (Dadima)
  • Wheat- Triticum aestivum L. (Godhuma)
  • Cork swallow wort- Leptadenia reticulata Retz./ Holostemma adakodien schultes (Jivanti)
  • Dried grapes-Vitis vinifera L. (Mridvika)
  • Chebulic myrobalan- Terminalia chebula Retz. (Pathyaa/Haritaki)
  • Pointed gourd- Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Patola)
  • Rock sugar (Sharkara)
  • Clover fern plant- Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. (Sunishannaka)
  • White goosefoot/ pigweed- Chenopodium album L. (Vastuka)

Properties of daily consumable food items from different classics and contemporary sciences are summarized in Table-2.

SN Items Taste Post digestive effect Potency


Effect on Dosha

Pharmacological properties

1.        Indian gooseberry sour, sweet, bitter, astringent, pungent Sweet cold dry alleviates all the 3 dosha antioxidant, immuno-modulatory, hepato-protective ,  cyto-protective [3],[4],[5],[6]
2.        Rainwater Unmanifested - cold - alleviates all the 3 dosha, purifies blood -
3.        Pomegranate Sour, astringent, sweet sweet cold - alleviates Vata, does not vitiate Kapha & Pitta antioxidant, skin protecting activity against AGEs and UV-A, hepatoprotective, immune-modulatory, cytoprotective, embryo-protective. [7],[8],[9],[10],[11]
4.        Cow’s milk sweet Sweet cold - alleviates Vata & Pitta anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory, gut protective [12],[13]
5.        Cow’s ghee sweet Sweet cold - alleviates Vata & Pitta antioxidant, and anti-atherogenic properties, gastroprotective and adaptogenic, antimicrobial activity, immunostimulant, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity. [14],[15],[16],[17]
6.        Wheat sweet Sweet cold Heavy, unctuous   alleviates Vata & Pitta anti- oxidant, anti-hyperlipidemic, neuro-protective, anti-microbial activity, protective to the skin and gastric, intestinal mucosa. [18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24]
7.        Meat of arid animal astringent, sweet - cold - alleviates all the 3 Dosha, at some extent causing fluid secretion -
8.        Leptadenia reticulata Retz./ Holostemma adakodien schultes sweet Sweet cold - alleviates all the 3 Dosha antioxidant, free radical scavenging property, hepatoprotective, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory     [25],[26],[27],[28],[29]
9.        Honey astringent, sweet Pungent cold - alleviates Kapha & Pitta, partially vitiates Vata  hepatoprotective, cardio- protective, cyto-protective, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and nephroprotective properties. [30],[31],[32],[33]
10.     Dry grapes sweet Sweet cold - alleviates Vata & Pitta antioxidant, hepato-protective, immuno-modulatory, Vaso protective, neuroprotective, anti-cancer, cardioprotective, gastroprotective and nephroprotective properties. [34],[35],[36],[37],[38],[39],[40],[41]
11.     Green gram astringent, sweet Pungent cold Laghu, Vishada alleviates Kapha & Pitta, partially vitiates Vata  anti-oxidant, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-anemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-microbial [42],[43],[44],[45],[46]
12.     Unripen radish pungent, bitter - hot - alleviates all the 3 dosha - -
13.     Chebulic myrobalan Astringent, pungent, bitter, Madhura sweet, sour sweet hot - alleviates all the 3 dosha antioxidant and anti-microbial, anti-aging, cardio-protective, hepato-protective activities [47],[48],[49],[50]
14.     Pointed gourd bitter, pungent Sweet hot - alleviates all the 3 dosha antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antitumor, cytotoxic, arsenic poisoning ameliorative, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal [51]
15.     Rock salt salty,sweet Sweet cold - alleviates all the 3 dosha - -
16.     Red rice sweet, astringent Sweet cold - alleviates all the 3 dosha antioxidant, cytoprotective, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective. [52],[53],[54],[55]
17.     Rock sugar sweet Sweet cold - alleviates Pitta - -
18.     Clover fern sweet, astringent - cold - alleviates all the 3 dosha anti-inflammatory activity, diuretic activity, anti-venom activity, hypo glycemic activity and anti-bacterial activity [56],[57],[58],[59],[60],[61],[62],[63]
19.     White goosefoot/ pigweed sweet Pungent cold - alleviates all the 3 dosha anti-inflammatory, analgesic, gastroprotective, hepato-protective, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial , [64],[65],[66],[67]
20.     Hordeum vulgare L. sweet, astringent Pungent cold - alleviates Kapha & Pitta anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory [68],[69]

Among daily consumable food items mentioned in classical Ayurvedic texts, green gram (Mudga i.e. Vigna radiata L.), easily available in all parts of India, has been described best in Shamidhanya i.e. pulses. It has high nutritional value. It is a good source of protein, carbohydrate, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorous, iron and vitamins like carotene, thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, ascorbic acid.[70] Its regular consumption can regulate enterobacterial flora of the intestine, decrease absorption of toxic substances, reduce the risk of hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease, and prevent cancer. Extracts of green gram were also found to have a potent scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and an inhibitory effect on low-density lipoprotein oxidation.[71][72]
Red rice (Shashtika shali- Oryza sativum L.), grown in Kerala and known locally by the Dravidian name Njavara. has been described as best among Shukadhanya i.e. cereals. It is a very good source of carbohydrate, vitamin B complex and minerals like Iron.[73][74]
Wheat (Godhuma- Triticum aestivum L.) is a good source of carbohydrate, vitamins like, thiamine, niacin, calcium, and vitamin B6 and minerals like iron.
Cow’s milk (Godugdha) is compatible since birth, increases vital power of the body. It is a source of high-quality protein, calcium and vitamins like vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin and folic acid.
Cow’s ghee (Goghrita) has been described in Ayurvedic texts to possess many beneficial properties like rejuvenating, nootropic, improves immunity, energy, luster, beauty, promotes longevity, aphrodisiac. It contains omega-3 fatty acids, Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which improve cardiovascular health.[75] It can penetrate blood brain barrier and also to facilitate building or supporting the biochemical activities of tissues such as neurons.[76]
Rock salt (Saindhava) has been advised for daily use in the texts of Ayurveda. It is best among all salts because all other salts have hot potency and penetrating property. They vitiate Kapha, Pitta which produce laxity in muscles and diseases like hair fall, grey hair. Yet, worldwide common salt is being used in daily diet. Chemical formula of both is same as NaCl but the contents of both differ as rock salt contains some extra minerals like potassium which are beneficial to the health. Sodium has a contractile mechanism while potassium has proven to have a relaxing effect on the smooth muscles of the arterioles which prevents hypertension.[77][78]
Indian gooseberry (Amalaki-Phyllanthus emblica L.) has rejuvenating property and promotes longevity, maintains the equilibrium of the three Dosha. It is a rich source of vitamin C, effective in free radical scavenging.
Pomegranate (Dadima- Punica granatum L.) and dry grape (Mridvika- Vitis vinifera L.) are mentioned as ‘best among wholesome diet.’ Pomegranate is rich source of flavonoids, vitamin C and E. Dry grape contains vitamin B3, B6, B1, B2 and B9.
Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz.) possess strong rejuvenating property and alleviate all the three Dosha.
Jivanti (Cork swallow-wort- Leptadenia reticulata Retz./ Holostemma ada-kodien) has been described as the best among all the vegetables as it alleviates all the three dosha and is a  rich source of vitamin A.
Rock sugar (Khanda sharkara) has low    glycemic index while refined sugar which is commonly used in daily diet worldwide, has high glycemic index. It leads to obesity and diabetes mellitus by disturbing ghrelin-leptin-insulin equilibrium.
White goosefoot/pigweed (Vastuka- Chenopodium album) is a nutritious leafy vegetable that is available during winters in Northern India. It is rich in proteins, essential amino acids, calcium, iron and vitamins A, C.[79]
Clover fern (Sunishannaka- Marsilea quadrifolia Linn.) found in south-west India, Nepal, China, central and southern Europe. It is a rich source of polyphenols with strong antioxidants.
Pointed gourd (Patola- Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) used as a vegetable in Bangladesh and Northern part of India, is rich in carbohydrates, vitamins like A and C, Potassium, Magnesium, Copper, Sulphur and Chlorine.
Solely wholesome food items (Ekanta hitakara dravya):Water, ghee/clarified butter, milk and rice are solely wholesome food items mentioned in Sushruta samhita. They are always suitable and accustomed to human being by birth.

Miscellaneous daily consumable food items/drugs

  1. For strengthening of vision:
    Daily intake of Triphala (combination of 3 fruits- Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellirica) with honey and ghee has been stated to improve the eye-site in healthy person.
  2. To improve digestion:
    Salt (preferably rock salt) and ginger have been quoted for daily intake before meal by in Bhavaprakash to improve appetite and digestion.
  3. For promotion of aphrodisiac activity and mind rejuvenation:
    Daily intake of ghee and milk have been advised in Charakasamhita due to their nootropic, nourishing and aphrodisiac properties.

Non-consumable food items for daily practice (food that need to be avoided for long term and regular use)

Daily non-consumable food items described in various texts of Ayurveda are enlisted in Table 3. These food items can be consumed in certain conditions concerning the prakriti, season, or diseases. However, if taken regularly without any pre-requisite condition, the food items can produce harmful effects on health.

Table 3: List of daily non-consumable food items
  • Curd (Dadhi) (In the evenings)
  • Inspissated milk (Kilata)
  • Fermented curd/cheese (Kurchika)
[Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 5/10]

[A.Sa.Sutra Sthana 10/43]

[A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 8/40]


  • Uncooked radish (Aama mulaka)
  • Alkaline preparation (Kshara)
  • Flour preparation (Pishta)
A.Sa.Sutra Sthana 10/45

A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 8/40


  • Fish (Matsya)
Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 5/10

A.Sa.Sutra Sthana 10/43

A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 8/40

  • Lotus stalk (Bisa)
  • Cow’s meat (Gavya mamsa)
  • Buffalo meat (Mahisha mamsa)
  • Black gram- Phaseolus radiates (Masha)
  • Lotus rhizome (Shaluka)
Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 5/10

A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 8/40


  • Fermented food products (Shukta)
  • Sprouts (Virudhaka)
  • food items causing constipation (Vishtambhi)
  • Food items causing burning sensation (Vidahi)
  • Food items which block the body channels (Abhishyandi)
  • Dry food (Ruksha ahara)
  • Molasses (Phanita)
  • Flat beans (Nishpava)
A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 8/40


  • Dried vegetables (Shushka shaka)
  • Dried meat (Vallura)
  • Avena sativa L. (Yavaka)
  • Sheep meat (Aavi mamsa)
  • Cold food (Sheeta aahara)
  • Meat of emaciated animal (Krisha mamsa)
Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 5/10

A.Hr. Sutra Sthana 8/40

  • Pork meat (Shukara mamsa)
Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 5/10

Properties of daily non-consumable food items

The properties of non consumable food items as mentioned in different classics are summarized in Table 4.

Table 4: Properties of daily non-consumable food items
S.No. Substance (dravya) Taste (rasa) Post digestive effect(vipaka) Potency (veerya) Effect on dosha
1.        Uncooked radish  Bitter - Hot vitiates all the three dosha
2.        Lotus stalk sweet, astringent - Cold vitiates Kapha, alleviates Pitta, causing constipation, heavy to digest
3.        Curd sweet, sour sour Hot vitiates Kapha & Pitta
4.        Cow’s meat - - Hot heavy to digest
5.        Inspissated milk Sweet - - heavy to digest, vitiates Kapha, causing constipation, causing indigestion and Ama
6.        Alkaline preparation Pungent - Hot Vitiates Vata & Pitta, alleviates Kapha
7.        Fermented curd - - - heavy to digest, vitiates Pitta & Rakta
8.        Buffalo’s meat Sweet - Hot heavy to digest, vitiates Pitta & Rakta
9.        Black gram Sweet sour Hot vitiates Kapha & Rakta, alleviates Vata
10.     Fish Sweet sweet Hot vitiates Pitta & Kapha, alleviates Vata
11.     Flat beans sweet, astringent sour Hot vitiates Pitta & Vata, alleviates Kapha
12.     Molasses Sweet sweet Hot vitiates all the three dosha
13.     Flour preparation - - - heavy to digest
14.     lotus rhizome Sweet sweet Hot heavy to digest, causes manifestation of worms
15.     Pork meat Sweet sour Cold vitiates Rakta, alleviates Vata, heavy to digest
16.     Fermented food products Sour pungent Hot vitiates Pitta & Rakta alleviates Kapha
17.     Dried vegetables - - - vitiates all the three dosha
18.     Dried meat - - - vitiates all the three dosha
19.     Sprouts - - - vitiates all the three dosha, heavy to digest
20.     Avena sativa L. sweet, astringent pungent Cold vitiates kapha & rakta

Reasons behind avoiding curd for daily consumption

Curd should not be consumed at night. Otherwise, if curd is to be taken, it should be mixed with ghee, sugar, green gram soup, honey, or amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.). It should not be heated also. Excess consumption of curd can lead to jwara (fever), raktapitta (bleeding disorders), visarpa (erysipelas), kushtha (obstinate skin diseases), pandu (anemia like disorders), bhrama (giddiness, vertigo) and severe kamala (jaundice and other hepato-biliary disorders). [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 7/61-62]
Curd is an appetizer and an aphrodisiac. It increases unctuousness and strength. It is sour on digestion and hot in potency. It is effective in treating vata disorders. It is recommended to treat chronic illnesses like rhinitis, diarrhea, colds, irregular fevers, anorexia, dysuria, and emaciation. Generally, curd is prohibited in the autumn, summer, and spring seasons. It is also unwholesome in raktapitta (bleeding disorders) and kapha disorders. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 7/225-7]
Curd increases body's moisture content and blocks the bodily channels. Hence, it is known as ‘maha abhishyandi’. Curd can vitiate kapha and pitta dosha. It can lead to various disorders of over-nutrition and blood vitiation. Hence, it shall not be consumed daily or in excess quantity.

Other food items

Kilat is milk derivative which is in the solid form. It is prepared by fermentation of milk made in condensed form by removing excess water. This process can be correlated with preparation of Paneer. Kurchika, prepared by fermentation of curd and is solid like Kilat. This process can be correlated with the preparation of cheese which have further fermentation of curd.
Kilat (Paneer) stays longer in the stomach without digestion which decreases the digestive power, vitiation of Kapha. Kurchika vitiates Pitta, Rakta and is heavy to digest. Floor preparations consist of high carbohydrate diet. Continuous Intake of it leads to obesity and insulin resistance.
WHO dietary guidelines have long recommended limiting the intake of full-fat dairy products like cheese, stemming from their contribution to the dietary intake of saturated fat (SF) and the well-established relationship between SF intake and increased plasma LDL-C. Paneer, cheese and curd are dairy products which have high protein and high fat value. Saturated fat in dairy products increases LDL level which is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Certain types of cheese are linked with increased risk of breast Cancer. Soft cheese has the potential for promoting the growth of Listeria bacteria and E.Coli. Listeria monocytogenes can also result in serious infection in infant and pregnant woman and can be transmitted to the infant in-utero or after birth.[80][81][82][83][84]
Yavaka is a type of grain which needs to be avoided for daily intake. There is controversy regarding comparison of Yavaka with contemporary food items but according to some published literature, it can be correlated with Oats (Avena sativa L.).[85]
Oats is a rich source of starch, protein, β-glucan and potassium. β-glucan improves indices of brain function and cognition with major beneficial effects all along the gut-brain axis. A systematic review shows that acute short-term chronic supplementation of Avena sativa appeared to positively influence the accuracy and speed of performance and cognitive function. but long-term chronic supplementation did not. Despite being good sources of iron and zinc, cereals have high phytic acid content hinders their bioavailability.[86][87]

Prohibited items for long term/excessive intake (Nati-upayunjit dravya):

There is the description of some food items/drugs prohibited for long term use and also in more quantity- long pepper- Piper longum Linn. (Pippali), alkali (Kshara) and salt (Lavana). Long pepper if continuously used in large dose, aggravates Kapha and Pitta. It was commonly used as spice in ancient times but even presently used in some pickles in south India.
Alkali (Kshara) if used excess, produces harmful effects on hair, eyes, heart and virility. Carbonated drinks and baking soda are examples of alkaline preparations used routinely.
Salt (Lavana), if used excess leads to oozing, laxative effect, fatigue and harmful effects on hair, eyes. Chips, butter, junk food which are routinely being consumed contain excess amounts of salt.

Solely unwholesome food items (Ekanta ahitakara ahara dravya)

Alkali and toxins (Visha) are solely unwholesome food items.

Contemporary views

Nutravigilance in ayurveda

Nutravigilance is defined as the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects related to the use of food, dietary supplement, or medical food.[88] It is mainly concerned with the food safety. The Nutra vigilance approach is derived from well-defined principles of pharmacovigilance related to drug safety. The primary purpose of Nutra vigilance is to protect customer/patient safety.
Ayurvedic literature gives detailed descriptions of adverse events of selective food items like daily non-consumable food like curd, solely unwholesome food like alkali, food-food incompatibilities like intake of milk with certain food items and drug-food incompatibilities like prohibition of certain food items while administration of Shilajatu.

Epigenetic Diet

Among all the external environmental factors, nutrition is thought to be one of the most important because it assists in modifying the expression of genes at the transcriptional level. Epigenetics is generally defined as heritable changes in gene expression that occur without altering the DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and RNA interference, may occur through external factors and are widely known for their reversibility.[89][90][91][92]
It has been proved that some compounds show potential in delaying aging-processes and degenerative diseases with regular consumption. The theory is more commonly referred to as the “Epigenetic Diet” as it introduces bioactive compounds that aid in delaying the onset of aging and age-associated disease processes.[93][94]
Nitya sevaniya food can be correlated with the concept of “Epigenetic diet” in modern science. Most of them possess anti-inflammatory potential which can facilitate to alleviate the inflammatory processes derived from diseases and unhealthy diets, and thereby promote healthy aging.

Research updates

  1. Experimental study of selected Nitya Sevaniya and Asevaniya food items:[95]
  2. Methodoogy:
    The study was conducted for in vivo safety evaluation of selected Nitya Sevaniya and Nitya Asevaniya food items. Thirty rats were randomly divided into five groups-each containing six Charle's Foster strain albino rats. Group 1 served as standard diet group, groups 2 and 3 served as test drug received groups namely NS50 and NS100, in which 50% and 100% mixture of Nitya Sevaniya food was administered, respectively. Group 4 and 5 as test drug received groups Nitya Asevaniya 50 (NAS50) and Nitya Asevaniya 100 (NAS100), in which 50% and 100% Nitya Asevaniya food mixtures was administered, respectively. The test diet was administered orally in the form of freshly prepared pellet twice a day ad libitum for 90 days. Parameters studied were gross behavior, body and organ weight, food and water intake, fecal and urine output, hematological and biochemical parameters, electrocardiogram and histology of various organs.

    In the NAS100 group, a significant change was observed in 20 of 47 parameters in view of pathological aspect. Among them, three parameters, i.e., platelet count, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and indirect bilirubin were above normal limits, while other parameters were within the normal limits. No significant change was observed in any of the parameters in the NS50 and NS100 group after 90 days of administration as compared with the control group. Considering findings of this study, it is concluded that selected NS food items are safe while consumption of only selected Nitya Asevaniya food items (when administered in 100% dose) for 90 days have the potential of inflammatory changes in the liver, spleen; fat deposition in kidney and impairment of cardiac and renal functions.
  3. Evaluation of effect of Rocksalt (Saindhava lavana)[96]:
  4. Methodology:
    This study was carried out to assess the effects of Saindhava Lavana (Rock salt) on general behavior and physiological parameters in albino rats at different doses. For control group, standard diet was provided throughout the study period. For Test diet group: Saindhava Lavana (Raw sample of Rock salt) mixed with powder of pellet at TED and TED*2 dose. The Therapeutic dose for experimental study was calculated based on body surface ratio by referring to the table of Paget’s and Barnes.

    Systolic and Mean Blood pressure is significantly increased. This is due to mridu-shlathana actions of saindhava; in spite of increase in blood pressure there is no any pathological change was found in heart or other organ in TED level. Significant increase in kidney weight may be because of high dietary sodium and further may be inflammation or other associated effects as observed in histo-pathological study of kidney. Elevated dietary sodium expands the extracellular volume and increases cardiac output and ultimately Blood Pressure. High salt diets were associated with a breakdown of muscle protein. Which is supported by increased s. globulin in this study. mild increase in Spermatogenesis in Testis in saindhava (TED) supports Vrishya (aphrodisiac) property; while there were mixed effects of normal cytoarchitecture, fatty changes, cell infiltration with significant weight increase of Kidney at TED*2 level. Saindhava lavana maintains normalcy of health but not in excess dose.

Limitations and future scope of research

In both of the studies, effect of the food items has been studied on gross level i.e. biochemical parameters, behavioural changes and histopathological changes and with combination of more than two food items. These can be studied individually and on molecular level using multi-omics studies. Moreover, other food items from the list of daily consumable and non-consumable food items can be studied.

Related chapters

Ama, Ahara vidhi(dietary guidelines), Dinacharya (daily regimen for health), Ritucharya (seasonal regimen for health), Viruddha Ahara (incompatible food), Matrashiteeya Adhyaya, Annapanavidhi Adhyaya

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