Sudha Kalpa Adhyaya

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Kalpa Sthana Chapter 10.Pharmaceutical preparations of Sudha

Sudha Kalpa Adhyaya
Section/Chapter Kalpa Sthana Chapter 10
Preceding Chapter Tilvaka Kalpa Adhyaya
Succeeding Chapter Saptalashankhini Kalpa Adhyaya
Other Sections Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana
Translator and commentator Rao R.
Reviewer Sawant B. , Nishteswar K.
Editors Nishteswar K., Sawant B., Deole Y.S., Basisht G.
Year of publication 2020
Publisher Charak Samhita Research, Training and Skill Development Centre
DOI 10.47468/CSNE.2020.e01.s07.011


This chapter deals with the preparations of sudha for the purpose of virechana (therapeutic purgation). Sudha is a strong purgative in comparison to all other drugs discussed in previous chapters. The chapter includes synonyms of sudha, its therapeutic utility, varieties, limitations for the usage, methods of collection, purification, preparation and administration of sudha ksheera and other recipes viz vati (tablets), leha (linctus) etc. along with total twenty different formulations of the same drug to suit different needs of the physician. Even though it is contraindicated for mridukoshthi (sensitive to mild laxatives) its usage has been advised here by altering its form to reduce its untoward effect which is a novel approach.

Keywords: Sudha, Virechana, therapeutic purgation, Eurphobia neriifolia Linn., Ksheera (latex).


In Sutra Sthana , latex of snuhi is described as best among strong purgatives.[Cha Sa. Sutra Sthana 25/40] In the sequence of describing purgative drugs in this section, sudha (Eurphobia neriifolia Linn.) is described in this chapter.

Sudha /snuhi (Eurphobia neriifolia Linn.), popularly known as Indian Spurge Tree, Oleander Spurge, or Hedge Euphorbia, belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. It is attributed with properties such as ushnaveerya (hot in potency), snigdha (oily), katu (pungent), and laghu (light) and tikshna.[1] Snuhi is a large succulent shrub, with stipular thorns and is found throughout the Deccan peninsula of India. It is believed to be a native of India. It is commonly found in rock ground, among rock crevices of hills; extensively cultivated in the Bengal for hedges and elsewhere in native villages.[2] Today, it is widely distributed throughout the world. Snuhi has been given various names in different regions and languages. The more common local names of Snuhi are shij (Bengal), dog’s tongue (English), thor (Gujarati), ilakkalli (Malayalam), siju (Oriya), danda thohar (Punjab), dotathur (Rajputana), zaqqum (Urdu).[3] Snuhi is a small erect fleshy glabrous shrub, branches ¾ in diam., jointed cylindric or obscurely 5-angled with sharp stipular thorns arising from thick subconfluent tubercles in 5 irregular rows. Leaves are succulent, deciduous, 6-12 inch long, terminal on the branches, waved narrowed into a very short petiole.

Phytochemical Constituents

The latex contains 69 to 93.3 % water and is water soluble and has 0.2 to 2.6% caoutchouc,[4] a gum resin which is the active principle, traces of an alkaloid; wax, caoutchouc, chlorophyll, resin (2.40%), tannin, sugar, mucilage, calcium oxalate, carbohydrates albuminoids, “gallic acid quercetin, a new phenolic substance and traces of an essential oil”. Latex is bioactive on the BSLT (Brine shrimp lethality test); it displayed LC 50 values of 76,7 μg/ml.[5] Latex enzyme profiles of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. helps in the separation of this plant from other latex bearing plants. Euphol (Whole plant, bark, latex, root); friedelan-3alpha and 3beta-ol, D:B-friedoolen- 5(10)-en-1-one, glut-5(10)-en-1-one and taraxerol (stem, leaves); n-hexacosanol, euphorbol, hexacosanoate, 12-deoxy-4beta-hydroxyphorbol-13- dode-canoate-20-acetate and pelargonin-3,5- diglucoside (bark); 24-methylenecycloartenol and tulipanin-3,5-diglucoside (bark, root); nerifoliol (latex) cycloartenol, euphorbol, ingenol triacetate, 12-deoxyphorbhol-13, 20-diacetate, delphinidin-3,5- diglucoside (root). It has been reported by Anjaneyalu and Row[6] that the crystalline principles of snuhi leaves are triterpenes. Antiquorin was identified by comparison of the spectral data reported by Mizno et al.[7] Snuhi yielded in the isolation of several classes of secondary metabolites, many of which expressed biological activities such as tritertenes (nerrifolione), flavonoids and steroidal saponins.[8] Two novel tetracyclic triterpenes, such as neriifolione [9,19-Cyclolanost-20(21)-en-24-ol-3-one], and cycloartenol (C10H50O) were isolated from Euphorbia neriifolia latex .[9] Several triterpenoids like 24- methylenecycloartenol, euphorbol hexacosonate, Glut-5-en 3-ol, Glut-5(10)-en-1-one, Glut-5-en-3 beta-yet-acetate, taraxerol, friede-lan-3 alpha-ol, and -3 beta-ol and amyrin was isolated from the powdered plant, stem and leaves of Euphorbia neriifolia.[10] This plant is rich in many pharmaceutical active ingredients like sugars several terpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, anthocyanins, triterpenoidal saponin like Glut-5-en- 3-ol, Glut-5(10)-en-1-one, teraxerol, euphol, and amyrin. Two crystalline compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of fresh roots of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. i.e. Atisine diterpene antiquorin (C20H28O3) and neriifolene (C20H30O3).

Sanskrit Text, Transliteration with English Translation

अथातः सुधाकल्पं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||

इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||

athātaḥ sudhākalpaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||

iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

athAtaH sudhAkalpaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||

iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

Now we shall expound the chapter "Sudha Kalpa" (Pharmaceutical preparations of Sudha). Thus said Lord Ateya. [1-2]

Purgative effects of Sudha

विरेचनानां सर्वेषां सुधा तीक्ष्णतमा मता|

सङ्घातं हि भिनत्त्याशु दोषाणां कष्टविभ्रमा||३||

तस्मान्नैषा मृदौ कोष्ठे प्रयोक्तव्या कदाचन|

न दोषनिचये चाल्पे सति मार्गपरिक्रमे ||४||

virēcanānāṁ sarvēṣāṁ sudhā tīkṣṇatamā matā|

saṅghātaṁ hi bhinattyāśu dōṣāṇāṁ kaṣṭavibhramā||3||

tasmānnaiṣā mr̥dau kōṣṭhē prayōktavyā kadācana|

na dōṣanicayē cālpē sati mārgaparikramē ||4||

virecanAnAM sarveShAM sudhA tIkShNatamA matA|

sa~gghAtaM hi bhinattyAshu doShANAM kaShTavibhramA||3||

tasmAnnaiShA mRudau koShThe prayoktavyA kadAcana|

na doShanicaye cAlpe sati mArgaparikrame ||4||

Guna (qualities): Tikshnatama(strongest/drastic), among all purgative drugs snuhi is the drastic purgative. It disintegrates the accumulated impurities quickly.


  • to person with mridukoshta (laxed bowel).
  • When there is less accumulation of doshas,
  • Not preferably used when other purgative drugs bring out the desired purgation. [3-4]

Note: Among purgative drugs, snuhi is said to be drastic purgative. It is sharp and instantaneous action is responsible for unmanageable adverse reactions due to the inappropriate administration of this drug.

Therapeutic indications of snuhi

पाण्डुरोगोदरे गुल्मे कुष्ठे दूषीविषार्दिते|

श्वयथौ मधुमेहे च दोषविभ्रान्तचेतसि||५||

रोगैरेवंविधैर्ग्रस्तं ज्ञात्वा सप्राणमातुरम्|

प्रयोजयेन्महावृक्षं सम्यक् स ह्यवचारितः||६||

सद्यो हरति दोषाणां महान्तमपि सञ्चयम्|७|

pāṇḍurōgōdarē gulmē kuṣṭhē dūṣīviṣārditē|

śvayathau madhumēhē ca dōṣavibhrāntacētasi||5||

rōgairēvaṁvidhairgrastaṁ jñātvā saprāṇamāturam|

prayōjayēnmahāvr̥kṣaṁ samyak sa hyavacāritaḥ||6||

sadyō harati dōṣāṇāṁ mahāntamapi sañcayam|7|

pANDurogodare gulme kuShThe dUShIviShArdite|

shvayathau madhumehe ca doShavibhrAntacetasi||5||

rogairevaMvidhairgrastaM j~jAtvA saprANamAturam|

prayojayenmahAvRukShaM samyak sa hyavacAritaH||6||

sadyo harati doShANAM mahAntamapi sa~jcayam|7|

In diseases – pandu (anaemia), udara (obstinate abdominal diseases including ascitis), gulma (tumor), kushtha (skin diseases), shotha (edema), madhumeha (obstinate urinary disorder), unmada (insanity), dooshivisha (poisoning caused by artificially made toxic ingredients).

In these conditions sudha can be administered if the individual is strong. The properly administered sudha can expel out the excessively accumulated morbid doshas immediately.[5-6]

Varieties and synonyms of snuhi

द्विविधः स मतोऽल्पैश्च बहुभिश्चैव कण्टकैः||७||

सुतीक्ष्णैः कण्टकैरल्पैः प्रवरो बहुकण्टकः|

स नाम्ना स्नुग्गुडा नन्दा सुधा निस्त्रिंशपत्रकः||८||

dvividhaḥ sa matō'lpaiśca bahubhiścaiva kaṇṭakaiḥ||7||

sutīkṣṇaiḥ kaṇṭakairalpaiḥ pravarō bahukaṇṭakaḥ|

sa nāmnā snugguḍā nandā sudhā nistriṁśapatrakaḥ||8||

dvividhaH sa mato~alpaishca bahubhishcaiva kaNTakaiH||7||

sutIkShNaiH kaNTakairalpaiH pravaro bahukaNTakaH|

sa nAmnA snugguDA nandA sudhA nistriMshapatrakaH||8||

Snuhi is of two types:

  1. That which has numerous thorns and
  2. The other one being with less number of thorns.

But, both have sharp thorns. One with numerous thorns is considered as the best among the two.

Snuk (stem is rounded), guda (stem is rounded), nanda (one which brings about happiness), sudha (latex is being white in color)

Nistrimsha patraka (sword like sharp edged leaves) are the different names of snuhi. [7-8]

Method of collection

तौ विपाट्याहरेत् क्षीरं शस्त्रेण मतिमान् भिषक्|

द्विवर्षं वा त्रिवर्षं वा शिशिरान्ते विशेषतः||९||

tau vipāṭyāharēt kṣīraṁ śastrēṇa matimān bhiṣak|

dvivarṣaṁ vā trivarṣaṁ vā śiśirāntē viśēṣataḥ||9||

tau vipATyAharet kShIraM shastreNa matimAn bhiShak|

dvivarShaM vA trivarShaM vA shishirAnte visheShataH||9||

  • Incise the plants which are two-three years old and mature, with a sharp instrument.
  • Collect the milky latex.
  • The collection is done at the end of the winter.[9]

Purification of snuhi latex

बिल्वादीनां बृहत्या वा कण्टकार्यास्तथैकशः|

कषायेण समांशं तं कृत्वाऽङ्गारेषु शोषयेत्||१०||

ततः कोलसमां मात्रां पिबेत् सौवीरकेण वा|

तुषोदकेन कोलानां रसेनामलकस्य वा||११||

सुरया दधिमण्डेन मातुलुङ्गरसेन वा|१२|

bilvādīnāṁ br̥hatyā vā kaṇṭakāryāstathaikaśaḥ|

kaṣāyēṇa samāṁśaṁ taṁ kr̥tvā'ṅgārēṣu śōṣayēt||10||

tataḥ kōlasamāṁ mātrāṁ pibēt sauvīrakēṇa vā|

tuṣōdakēna kōlānāṁ rasēnāmalakasya vā||11||

surayā dadhimaṇḍēna mātuluṅgarasēna vā|12|

bilvAdInAM bRuhatyA vA kaNTakAryAstathaikashaH|

kaShAyeNa samAMshaM taM kRutvA~a~ggAreShu shoShayet||10||

tataH kolasamAM mAtrAM pibet sauvIrakeNa vA|

tuShodakena kolAnAM rasenAmalakasya vA||11||

surayA dadhimaNDena mAtulu~ggarasena vA|12|

  • Kashaya of bilvadi panchamoola (bilva, agnimantha, shyonaka, patala, gambhari) with brihati/kantakari is prepared.
  • To this equal quantity of sudha kshira (latex) is added.
  • And this is heated over pan till it gets dry.
  • From this paste, pills of size of kola (Approximately 6 gms) is prepared.
Preparations of sudha Procedure Anupana
Pills of sudha Milk of sudha mixed with equal quantity of decoction of bilvadi panchamula, brihati or kantakari. This is then dried in a pan. From the paste the pills ranging 1 kola(Approx. 6gms) is made.
  1. With sauviraka (sour vinegar)
  2. Tushodaka(sour fermented liquid prepared of husked paddy etc)
  3. Juice of kola(jujube fruit)
  4. Juice of amalaki
  5. Sura(alcohol)
  6. Dadhimanda(whey)
  7. Juice of matulunga

These pills should be taken along with either of following immunity-enhancing agents for purging.[10-11½]

Preparations of sudha pills

सातलां काञ्चनक्षीरीं श्यामादीनि कटुत्रिकम् ||१२||

यथोपपत्ति सप्ताहं सुधाक्षीरेण भावयेत्|
कोलमात्रां घृतेनातः पिबेन्मांसरसेन वा||१३||

sātalāṁ kāñcanakṣīrīṁ śyāmādīni kaṭutrikam ||12||

yathōpapatti saptāhaṁ sudhākṣīrēṇa bhāvayēt|
kōlamātrāṁ ghr̥tēnātaḥ pibēnmāṁsarasēna vā||13||

sAtalAM kA~jcanakShIrIM shyAmAdIni kaTutrikam ||12||

yathopapatti saptAhaM sudhAkShIreNa bhAvayet|
kolamAtrAM ghRutenAtaH pibenmAMsarasena vA||13||

Preparations of sudha Procedure Anupana
Sudha pills saptala, swarnaksheeri, shyama etc(trivrita, chaturangula, tilvaka, mahavriksha, saptala, shankini, danti and dravanti), shunthi, maricha, pippali – are made into powder. This powder should be triturated with the latex of sudha for one week. This paste is rolled into pills of the size of kola pramana(Approximately 6 gms). These pills can be given with either ghee or meat soup. With ghee and with meat soup


Various preparations of sudha

त्र्यूषणं त्रिफलां दन्तीं चित्रकं त्रिवृतां तथा|

स्नुक्क्षीरभावितं सम्यग्विदध्याद्गुडपानकम्||१४||

tryūṣaṇaṁ triphalāṁ dantīṁ citrakaṁ trivr̥tāṁ tathā|

snukkṣīrabhāvitaṁ samyagvidadhyādguḍapānakam||14||

tryUShaNaM triphalAM dantIM citrakaM trivRutAM tathA|

snukkShIrabhAvitaM samyagvidadhyAdguDapAnakam||14||

Recipe of Snuhi in the form of Syrup (Gudapanaka):

Preparations of Sudha Procedure Anupana
Sudha panaka/guda panaka Snuhi ksheera is impregnated with the powders of shunthi, pippali, maricha, haritaki, vibhitaki, amalaki, danti, trivrit and chitraka With jaggery is given in the form of syrup

त्रिवृतारग्वधं दन्तीं शङ्खिनीं सप्तलां समम्|

गोमूत्रे रजनीं कृत्वा शोषयेदातपे ततः||१५||

सप्ताहं भावयित्वैवं स्नुक्क्षीरेणापरं पुनः|

सप्ताहं भावयेच्छुष्कं ततस्तेनापि भावितम्||१६||

गन्धमाल्यं तदाघ्राय प्रावृत्य पटमेव च|

सुखमाशु विरिच्यन्ते मृदुकोष्ठा नराधिपाः||१७||

trivr̥tāragvadhaṁ dantīṁ śaṅkhinīṁ saptalāṁ samam|

gōmūtrē rajanīṁ kr̥tvā śōṣayēdātapē tataḥ||15||

saptāhaṁ bhāvayitvaivaṁ snukkṣīrēṇāparaṁ punaḥ|

saptāhaṁ bhāvayēcchuṣkaṁ tatastēnāpi bhāvitam||16||

gandhamālyaṁ tadāghrāya prāvr̥tya paṭamēva ca|

sukhamāśu viricyantē mr̥dukōṣṭhā narādhipāḥ||17||

trivRutAragvadhaM dantIM sha~gkhinIM saptalAM samam|

gomUtre rajanIM kRutvA shoShayedAtape tataH||15||

saptAhaM bhAvayitvaivaM snukkShIreNAparaM punaH|

saptAhaM bhAvayecchuShkaM tatastenApi bhAvitam||16||

gandhamAlyaM tadAghrAya prAvRutya paTameva ca|

sukhamAshu viricyante mRudukoShThA narAdhipAH||17||

Formulation of Sudha for Mridukoshthi:

Preparations of Sudha Procedure Anupana
Sudha powder on a garland Trivrita, aragwadha, danti, shankhini and saptala should be taken in equal quantity and made into powder. This should be triturated with cow’s urine in the night and dried in the sun. This process should be repeated for seven days. This recipe should again be triturated with milky latex of snuhi for seven days. Thus prepared churna should be sprinkled on aromatic garland or water soaked with this powder is impregnated on upper garment.Thus medicated garland/ upper garment may be worn by person of royal descent or person who has laxed bowel. By the smell of garland or of upper garment individual will get purgation easily and quickly. For mridu koshta (laxed bowel) to persons

Sudha lehya (linctus)

श्यामात्रिवृत्कषायेण स्नुक्क्षीरघृतफाणितैः|

लेहं पक्त्वा विरेकार्थं लेहयेन्मात्रया नरम्||१८||

śyāmātrivr̥tkaṣāyēṇa snukkṣīraghr̥taphāṇitaiḥ|

lēhaṁ paktvā virēkārthaṁ lēhayēnmātrayā naram||18||

shyAmAtrivRutkaShAyeNa snukkShIraghRutaphANitaiH|

lehaM paktvA virekArthaM lehayenmAtrayA naram||18||

Snuhi leha:

Preparations of Sudha Procedure Anupana
Sudha lehya In kashaya of shyama trivritaAdd snuhi ksheera, ghrita and phanita. This mixture is

cooked till it attains the consistency of avaleha


पाययेत्तु सुधाक्षीरं यूषैर्मांसरसैर्घृतैः|

भाविताञ्छुष्कमत्स्यान् वा मांसं वा भक्षयेन्नरः||१९||

pāyayēttu sudhākṣīraṁ yūṣairmāṁsarasairghr̥taiḥ |

bhāvitāñchuṣkamatsyān vā māṁsaṁ vā bhakṣayēnnaraḥ||19||

pAyayettu sudhAkShIraM yUShairmAMsarasairghRutaiH|19|

bhAvitA~jchuShkamatsyAn vA mAMsaM vA bhakShayennaraH||19||

Recipe of sudha to be taken with yusha(vegetable soup):

Preparations of Sudha Procedure Anupana
Snuhi ksheera with yusha (veg soup) Milky latex of snuhi is taken
  1. With yusha (veg soup)
  2. With meat soup (mamsa rasa)
  3. With ghrita (ghee)
Sudha ksheera Bhavana is to be given to dry fish (shushka matsya), dry meat (shushka mamsa)
  1. dry fish (shushka matsya)
  2. dry meat (shushka mamsa)

क्षीरेणामलकैः सर्पिश्चतुरङ्गुलवत् पचेत्|

सुरां वा कारयेत् क्षीरे घृतं वा पूर्ववत् पचेत्||२०||

kṣīrēṇāmalakaiḥ sarpiścaturaṅgulavat pacēt|

surāṁ vā kārayēt kṣīrē ghr̥taṁ vā pūrvavat pacēt||20||

kShIreNAmalakaiH sarpishcatura~ggulavat pacet|

surAM vA kArayet kShIre ghRutaM vA pUrvavat pacet||20||

Milky latex may also be used to prepare ghee as told in Chaturangula Kalpa Adhyaya.

Preparations of Sudha Procedure Anupana
Sudha ghrita Snuhi ksheera boiled with milk. The cream is then used to make ghee. With juice of amalaki
Sudha sura Powders of Shunthi, pippali, maricha, haritaki, amalaki, danti chitraka and trivrita are mixed with latex of snuhi. From this sura is prepared


तत्र श्लोकौ-

सौवीरकादिभिः सप्त सर्पिषा च रसेन च|
पानकं घ्रेयलेहौ च योगा यूषादिभिस्त्रयः||२१||

द्वौ शुष्कमत्स्यमांसाभ्यां सुरैका द्वे च सर्पिषी|
महावृक्षस्य योगास्ते विंशतिः समुदाहृताः||२२||

tatra ślōkau-

sauvīrakādibhiḥ sapta sarpiṣā ca rasēna ca|
pānakaṁ ghrēyalēhau ca yōgā yūṣādibhistrayaḥ||21||

dvau śuṣkamatsyamāṁsābhyāṁ suraikā dvē ca sarpiṣī|
mahāvr̥kṣasya yōgāstē viṁśatiḥ samudāhr̥tāḥ||22||

tatra shlokau-

sauvIrakAdibhiH sapta sarpiShA ca rasena ca|
pAnakaM ghreyalehau ca yogA yUShAdibhistrayaH||21||

dvau shuShkamatsyamAMsAbhyAM suraikA dve ca sarpiShI|
mahAvRukShasya yogAste viMshatiH samudAhRutAH||22||

In brief to sum up:

In this chapter, twenty recipes of mahavriksha (sudha) have been told which are as follows:

  1. Pills with souviraka
  2. Pills with tushodaka
  3. Pills with juice of kola (jujube fruit)
  4. Pills with juice of amalaki
  5. Pills with sura
  6. Pills with dadhimanda
  7. Pills with juice of matulunga
  8. Pills with ghee
  9. Pills with meat soup
  10. In the form of panaka
  11. As inhalation
  12. In the form of lehya
  13. With vegetable soup
  14. With meat soup
  15. With dry fish
  16. With dry meat
  17. As a form of sura
  18. Ksheera of snuhi with ghee
  19. Ghrita with juice of amalaki
  20. Ghrita with kashaya of dashamoola, kulattha, yava, shyamadi.

Thus, ends the 10th Chapter of Kalpa Sthana which deals with “Pharmaceutics of mahavriksha” in Agnivesha’s work which is redacted by Charaka supplemented by Dridhabala.

Tattva Vimarsha (Fundamental Principles)

  • Snuhi is strongest purgative among all purgatives.
  • It is contraindicated in persons with mridu koshtha (soft bowel/sensitive to purgatives).

Vidhi Vimarsha (Applied Inferences )

Pharmacological activities and folkloric uses

Snuhi is known for its medicinal value, such as antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral, anti-parasitic, anti-arthritic, anti-diabetic, anti-convulsant, antioxidant, wound healing and immuno-modulatory, radioprotective, spasmodic, aphrodisiac, anticancer,[11],[12],[13] purgative and diuretic properties due to the presence of phytoconstituents like lectin, quercetin, saponin, flavonoids, triterpenes, diterpenes, anthocyanins and platelet derived growth factors.[14],[15] The plant is bitter, acrid, pungent, laxative; abortifacient, digestive, expectorant, depurative, febrifuge, carminative, stomachic, vermifuge, improves appetite, bronchitis, loss of consciousness, asthma, tumors, leucoderma, piles, inflammations, dropsy, dyspepsia, pain, flatulence intermittent fever, enlargement of spleen, anemia, ulcers, jaundice, leprosy, rheumatism and in chronic respiratory troubles.[16] In Ayurveda, the plant is aphrodisiac and rubefacient, anticancerous, used to heal anal fistula. The plant as a single and compound drug is widely used in the Unani medicine for the cure of arthritic and a large number of other ailments, such as respiratory stimulant, local anaesthetic, antibacterial, antiviral, interferolic and paronychia.

The leaves are reported to be useful as carminative, stomachic and expectorant.[17],[18] The mild CNS depressant, wound healing and immunomodulatory effect of leaf hydro-alcoholic extract was reported by Bigonia and Rana.[19]

According to Tavera and Guerrero, a fluid extracted from the roasted leaves is used for earache. It is also used in Malaya, as reported by Burkill and Haniff.[20] The expressed juice of the leaves is reported as very effective in relieving the paroxysm of spasmodic asthma. Gaur et al[21] reported that anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. is due to the presence of flavonoids. Snuhi is one of the chief constituents of kshaarasutra, which is used in Indian medicine to heal anal fistula.[22] The juice of the leaves is a popular cure for earache in the Philippine Islands.[23] Turmeric powder mixed with the juice of snuhi is recommended as an application for piles. Thread steeped in the above-mentioned mixture is used in ligaturing external hemorrhoids. The use of latex in skin warts, earache and in arthritis was investigated by Kirtikar and Basu. Nadkarni further reported the presence of purgative and local rubefacient activity of the juice and antispasmodic activity of the root. The white, acrid, milky juice is internally a purgative and externally it has rubefacient properties. As drastic purgative it is given in combination with other medicines such as haritaki, pippali, Indian jalapa trivrita root and which are kept steeped in it in cases of ascites, anasarca and tympanitis. The juice is also applied to remove warts and similar excrescences and to afford relief in earache; mixed with shoot it is used as an anjana (collyrium) mixed with neem oil it is used as an application in rheumatic diseases. The juice is largely used with clarified or fresh butter as an application to unhealthy ulcer and scabies and applied to glandular swellings to prevent suppuration. It is expectorant, pungent and is thus used in treating tumors, arthritis and abdominal pains. The tribal population of Chattisgarh region uses the milky latex as an ingredient of aphrodisiac mixture. Natives of Chhattisgarh use externally boiled thohar milk in castor oil with salt to cure the deep cracks in soles of feet. The milk of thohar is also used commonly like aloe gel in case of burns and for healing of wounds. Application of lukewarm thohar a prerequisite for global harmonization of herbal health leaves reduces itching pain and swelling in piles.[24],[25]

Ayurvedic pharmacological uses

Snuhi is being referred to as tikshnatama (strongest drastic) drug for inducing the purgation which suggests it has strong action and should be used cautiously. Snuhi can be used only when dosha accumulated is of large quantity where other drugs may not be effective. Even then it has been advised to use this drug carefully and is contraindicated in mridukoshtha (Laxed bowel). [3-4]

Charaka in 5th Chapter of Chikitsa Sthana advises use of this drug along with trivrita (Operculina turpethum) in vata gulma along with honey and ghee as adjuvants.[ Cha. Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 5 /153] Apart from this those suffering from udara (ascitis) and has krurakoshta (hard bowel) leaves of snuhi are to be used as vegetable.

Snuhi is indicated in some of the chronic diseases like pandu, udara etc. Charaka advises kshara gutika in grahani which has snuhi ksheera in it. Tandula ( Rice) soaked with snuhi ksheera should be dried and given to persons suffering from udara in the form of peya. Pippali should be given with 21 trituration of snuhi ksheera and may be administered to persons suffering from udara.

In case of cracks in foot (padadari), oil processed with snuhi latex should be applied with rock salt to hasten the healing of cracked foot.(vaidyamanorama)

Snuhi and arka latex processed oil is made into ointment with the base of beeswax helps to heal dushtavrana.(Sahasrayoga)

According to Shodala application of Latex of snuhi helps to hasten the delivery of child in mudagarbha (Obstructed labor).[26] [5-7]

Latex is collected at the end of winter as it has optimum quality in it. If collected soon after the rainy season it may be very much diluted and if collected in summer one may not get sufficient quantity of latex.

The said varieties of snuhi are called as manasa (bahukantaka) and sohanta (alpakantaka) in West Bengal. There are nearly 56 species of Euphorbia. P. V. Sharma opines that even though there are many varieties of snuhi few important among them are tridhara(Euphorbia antiquoram Linn), saptadhara (Euphorbia royleana Boiss) chimiya (Euphorbia tirucauli Linn). Euphorbia nivulia Buch Ham is considered as mahavriksha.[27]

Sehunda, sudhavriksha, samantadugdha, vajhravriksha, and mahavriksha are other synonyms explained in different Nighantus.

In Kaiyyadeva Nighantu, under oshadhi varga, drug is described with few more synonyms viz. vajratunda, gandhira, bahusrava and kalishadhruma. He is of opinion that it is drug of choice in chronic ailments.[28]

In Dhanwantari Nighantu, it has been opined that snuhi is useful in visha (poisoning), adhmana (flatulence), gulma (tumor) and udara (ascitis).

In Rajanighantu few more synonyms are mentioned like vatari (overcomes vata ), bhadra( auspicious), vyaghranakha (sharp in its action), netrari (harmful to eyes) and dandavrikshaka (small tree). A variety of snuhi i.e. tridhara is said to be useful in rasasiddhi.[29]

Ghee prepared with snuhi latex is useful in gulma, udara and garavisha.[Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 13/138].

In arsha, alepa (paste) of snuhi latex with powder of turmeric is done.[Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 14/52-57].[30]

In shwitra (leucoderma) bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium) is immersed in cow’s urine for 3 days dried in the shade and made into paste with snuhi latex and applied to the affected part.[31]

In udararoga, ghee prepared with dadhimanda is administered. [Cha. Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 13/141].

In vicharchika (eczema) – sarshapa (mustard plant) is made into a paste is concealed in snuhi plant which is cooked in the fire, is applied on eczema. The same has been explained in Chakradutta as grihadhoomadi lepa.[32]

Snehalavana prepared with snuhi is very much useful in vatavyadhi.[33] To protect from masoorika snuhi studded with red flag should be placed in an earthen pot and placed in the house.[34]

Snuhyadya taila is useful in baldness and hair loss.[35]

Snuhi ksheera is considered to be toxic, thus it needs purification prior to its therapeutic usage. Bilvadi drugs reduce the severe intensity of the latex and help to bring out the necessary action. Thus purified latex is given with seven different adjuvants according to individuals and physicians need.[10-12½]

Saptala is mentioned twice in this context which shows its importance. It is opined by chakrapaniji that sudha with saptala alone is very effective.[12½-13]

Trikatu when added enhances the absorption of the drug. Triphala in it potentiates the drug and enhances its absorption as well. Chitraka helps drug to be absorbed easily, whereas danti increases the purgative action of the drug. Syrup masks the bitter and pungent taste of the drug as well and is easy to administer. Those who desire to take drug in the sweet form can be given with gud(jaggery).[14]

Those who cannot withstand the strong purgative action of the drug may be administered the drug in the inhalation form where the purgative action is seen but intensity of action is reduced. This method of administration of the drug can be done to mridukoshthi (soft bowel). It is a novel way of administration of drugs which can be compared with aerosols [15-17]

Many a times it becomes difficult to preserve the fresh drug for the longer duration, in such cases, drug is used as avaleha (linctus) or arishta (medicated liquor) which can be stored for use later. In this form drug is palatable and is easily taken by the individual.[18-,19]With addition of kashaya of dashamoola, kulattha, yava, shyamadi ghrita may be taken.[Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 8/13] Three recipes of sudha according to their use with three different adjuvants can be given. Drug is mixed with either vegetable or meat juice or with ghee and given. Those who are completely non vegetarian, drug can be either given with fish or dry meat. It can be given as either ghrita(ghee) or sura(alcohol) form. Ghrita is taken with juice of amalaki as adjuvant which helps in better absorption of the drug.[36][ 19-20]

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