The word ‘guna’ literally means attribute, property [SAT-A.125], quality, peculiarity, virtue, merit or excellence. It also represents a single thread or strand of a cord or twine. This article deals with the guna which represents quality or property.
|Section/Chapter/topic||Sharira / Guna|
|Authors||Deole Y.S.,Aneesh E.G.|
|Reviewed by||Basisht G.|
|Affiliations||Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre, I.P.G.T.& R.A., Jamnagar|
|Publisher||Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre, I.T.R.A., Jamnagar, India|
|Date of first publication:||July13, 2020|
Etymology and derivation
The word guna is derived from the root ‘guna amantrane’, which means to invite. That which attracts or invites towards a particular object is called its guna. [Vachaspatyam]
Guna is the inseparable concomitance (samavaya) with the substance but is devoid of any action (nishcheshta).[Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 1/51] The action is always presented through medium of a substance (dravya).
The word ‘guna’ is also implied to denote other contextual meanings like importance, good quality, advantage, multiplication (folds/times).
Total 41 guna are explained in Ayurveda. They are classified under the following headings[Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 1/49]
- Physical properties (sharira guna): These are 20 in number.
- General properties (samanya guna): These are 10 in number.
- Spiritual properties (adhyatmika guna): These are 06 in number.
- Properties of objects of senses (indriyartha/ vishishta guna): These are 05 in number.
Physical properties (sharira guna)
There are twenty physical properties which form ten pairs with their opposites. Each property has a specific fundamental constitution. The property shows biological effects through medium of a substance. The properties (guna) have inseparable concomitance (samavaya) with substance. Following table shows details about fundamental constitution, biological effects of each property with their applications in treatment.
|Serial No||Physical Property (guna)||Fundamental constitution||Effect on dosha||Biological effect||Application in treatment||Example|
|1||Heavy (guru)||Prithvi,Jala||Increases Kapha, Pacifies Vata||Produces heaviness(gaurava), increases excreta (mala) and coats the body channels (srotas upalepa), nourishes and increases mass, density||Nourishing therapy(brimhana), Oleation therapy (snehana), Sudation therapy (swedana)||Black gram (Masha) etc.|
|2||Light (laghu)||Vayu , Akasha , Agni||Increases Vata, Pacifies Kapha||Reduces weight and volume (lekhana) of excreta (mala), clears the channels of the body (srotas), enhances enthusiasm, weakens, wound healing||Reducing therapy (langhana), Drying therapy (rukshana), Styptic therapy (stambhana), Scrapping therapy (lekhana), Scarification (vranalekhana)||Hot water, Green gram (Mudga)|
|3||Cold (hima/sheeta)||Jala||Increases Kapha and Vata, Pacifies Pitta||Styptic action (sthambhana) and produces pleasantness||Nourishing therapy (brimhana), Oleation (snehana), styptic therapy (stambhana); pacifies burning sensation (daha), giddiness (murchcha) and thirst(trit)||Chandana (Santalum album)|
|4||Hot (ushna)||Agni||Increases Pitta, Pacifies Kapha and Vata||Produces sweating and burning sensation||Reducing therapy (langhana), Drying therapy (rukshana), sudation therapy (swedana), Increases the digestive fire (dipana), digestion of toxins (pachana)||Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica)|
|5||Unctuous (snigdha)||Jala||Increases Kapha, Pacifies Vata||Produces unctuousness and softness in the body, lubricates elements||Nourishing therapy (brimhana), oleation therapy (snehana), sudation therapy (swedana), provides strength, improves complexion, aphrodisiac||Ghee, oil|
|6||Rough (ruksha)||Prithvi, Vayu, Agni||Increases Vata, Pacifies Kapha||Produces dryness, absorbs fluid and moisture||Drying therapy (rukshana), styptic therapy (stambhana), reducing therapy (langhana)||Barley (yava)|
|7||Slow or dullness (manda)||Prithvi, Jala||Increases Kapha, Pacifies Pitta||Responsible for slow and mild effector delayed response||Nourishing therapy (brimhana), oleation (snehana), styptic therapy (stambhana)||Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia)|
|8||Sharp (tikshna)||Agni||Increases Pitta, Pacifies Kapha||Responsible for quick and severe effect||Sudation therapy (swedana), reducing therapy (langhana), drying therapy (rukshana)||Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium), pepper|
|9||Stable or immobile (sthira)||Prithvi||Increases Kapha, Pacifies Vata||Produces firmness, stability||Nourishing therapy (brimhana), drying therapy (rukshana), styptic therapy (stambhana)||Bala (Sida cordifolia)|
|10||Mobility (sara)||Vayu||Increases Vata, Pacifies Kapha||Responsible for fast spreading or initiates the movement||Sudation therapy (swedana), reducing therapy (langhana), oleation therapy (snehana)||Haritaki (Terminalia chebula)|
|11||Soft (mridu)||Jala, Akasha||Increases Kapha, Pacifies Pitta||Produces softness or fragility||Nourishing therapy (brimhana), oleation (snehana), styptic therapy (stambhana), reduces burning sensation, inflammation and secretions||Ghee|
|12||Hard (kathina)||Prithvi||Increases Vata, Pacifies Kapha||Produces hardness or rigidity||Reducing therapy (langhana), drying therapy (rukshana)||Bone, teeth, pravala|
|13||Non-slimy/clear (vishada)||Prithvi, Vayu, Agni, Akasha||Increases Vata, Pacifies Kapha||Reduces the moisture and cleans channels||Reducing therapy (langhana), drying therapy (rukshana), Wound cleaning and healing||Nimba (Azadirachta indica), alkali (kshara)|
|14||Slimy (pichchila)||Jala||Increases Kapha, Pacifies Vata||Produces stickiness or coating||Nourishing therapy (brimhana), Oleation therapy (snehana)||Isabgola|
|15||Smooth (shlakshna)||Jala||Increases Kapha, Pacifies Vata||Produces soothing effect||Nourishing therapy (brimhana), styptic therapy (stambhana)||Ghee, Milk|
|16||Coarse/Rough (khara)||Vayu||Increases Vata, Pacifies Kapha||Produces scrapping effect||Reducing therapy (langhana), drying therapy (rukshana)||Honey, vacha (Acorus calamus)|
|17||Gross (sthula)||Prithvi||Increases Kapha, Pacifies Vata||Produces bulkiness and cause obstruction in body channels||Nourishing therapy (brimhana), oleation therapy (snehana)||Curd|
|18||Minute/fineness/subtleness(sukshma)||Agni, Vayu, Akasha||Increases Vata, Pacifies Kapha||Penetrate into the minute body channels||Reducing therapy(langhana), sudation therapy (swedana), styptic therapy (stambhana)||Poison (visha), alcoholic preparation (madya)|
|19||Solid (sandra)||Prithvi||Increases Kapha||Produces compactness||Nourishing therapy (brimhana)||Butter|
|20||Liquidity/Fluidity (drava)||Jala||Increases Kapha||Increases the fluidity and reduces the compactness||Sudation therapy (swedana), Oleation therapy (snehana), styptic therapy (stambhana)||Water, milk|
Rough (karkasha) property is mentioned by Sushruta instead of coarse (khara). He added quickly acting(ashukari), pleasant odour (sugandha), foul smell (durgandha), pervading (vyavayi) and expanding by destroying body tissues (vikashi) in the list of properties.[Su.Sa.Sutra Sthana 46/515-524] Dehydrated (shushka) property is added by Bhavamishra.
Cold(sheeta), hot (ushna), unctuous (snigdha), dry (ruksha), non-slimy (vishada), slimy (pichchila), heavy (guru), light (laghu), soft (mridu) and sharp (tikshna) show specific capacity for specific functions,hence they are also termed as ‘active properties’ (karmanyaguna) [Rasavaisheshika].
General properties (samanya guna)
These properties can be assessed by their effects or relative actions on more than one substance. The properties are essential for assessment in clinical practice and judgment. [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 26/35]
|Serial No||General property||Effect and assessment||Example|
|1||Superiority/Dominance (paratva)||It shows superiority or excellence of some substance over other. Dominance of a principle is also assessed||Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica) is superior anti-ageing (vayasthapana)drug over other [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 25/40]; Dominance of dosha in fundamental constitution (prakriti) and disease.|
|2||Inferiority/dormant (aparatva)||It shows the substance with inferior or dormant quality||Sheep’s milk is inferior in quality for health in comparison to other varieties of milk.[Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 25/40]|
|3||Reasoning (yukti)||Success depends upon rational application based upon dose and time of administration. Logical reasoning is applied in clinical treatment||Poison is fatal, but if used judiciously it will act as medicine.|
|4||Enumeration (sankya)||Counting/numbering is possible||There are three doshas, seven dhatu|
|5||Conjunction (samyoga)||Combination of two or more substances||Combination of two(dwidoshaja) or three doshas(tridoshaja) in a disease; use of compound formulations in medicine|
|6||Disjunction (vibhaga)||The disintegration of a substance into its components||Reductionist approach; separating active principle of a drug and using in treatment|
|7||Separation (prithakatva)||Quality by which one substance is differentiated from other||Oil is separated from water if mixed together|
|8||Measurement (parimana)||It is quality by which measurement of various substances is possible||Amount of blood in body of adult male is approximately 5 liters|
|9||Transformation (samskara)||The original quality of a substance is changed after processing it with other substance||Ghee when processed with medicinal drugs shows qualities of that drug|
|10||Repetition (abhyasa)||Repeated practice or consumption of a particular substance||Regular consumption of milk and ghee is best for rejuvenation.[Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 25/40]|
These properties are important in view of research perspectives. The comparative studies (para-aparatva), analytical studies and reasoning (yukti), statistical analysis (sankhya), combination in multi drug therapy (samyoga), pharmaceutical processing (samskara), long term follow up studies (abhyasa) are essential components of research.
Spiritual properties (adhyatmika guna)
These properties are related to psycho-spiritual aspects of human being. These are presented through mind (mana) and can be assessed subjectively.
- Intellect (buddhi)
- Happiness or comfort (sukha)
- Sorrow or discomfort (dukha)
- Desire (ichcha)
- Aversion (dvesha)
- Perseverance (prayatna)
Properties of objects of sense organs (indriyartha guna)
These properties are based upon sensory perception of senses. It represents the fundamental constituent also. These can be assessed subjectively as well as objectively.
- Sound (shabda) property of auditory senses (shravanendriya) and represents akasha mahabhuta
- Touch (sparsha) property of tactile senses (sparshanendriya) and represents vayu mahabhuta
- Shape/Form (rupa) property of visual senses (darshanendriya) and represents agni mahabhuta
- Taste (rasa) property of gustatory senses (rasanendriya) and represents jala mahabhuta
- Odour (gandha) property of olfactory senses (ghranendriya) and represents Prithvi mahabhuta
Along with this,one more classification of guna that is mahaguna is considered. [A.S.Sutra Sthana.1/29]
Fundamental universal properties (Mahaguna)
- Sattva guna: It means goodness. It is purest quality of mind which is responsible for knowledge, enlightenment and happiness. It is the quality of balance, harmony, goodness, purity, universalism, holism, construction, creativity, positivity, peacefulness, and virtue.
- Rajas guna: It means passion. This is responsible for all deeds(karma), desires and sorrows. It is the quality of passion, activity, neither good nor bad and sometimes either, self-centeredness, egoism, individualization, drivenness, movement, and dynamism.
- Tamas guna: It means ignorance. This is responsible for laziness and delusions. It is the quality of imbalance, disorder, chaos, anxiety, impurity, destruction, delusion, negativity, dullness or inactivity, apathy, inertia or lethargy, violence, viciousness, and ignorance.
In human beings, these are represented in psychological plane as purest quality, initiator and regulator of all activities respectively. Sattva is pure form of mind, while rajas and tamas are causative factors for psychiatric disorders.[Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/57] These three guna connect soul (atma) with physical body. The eternal living entity (atma) is conditioned by these three modes of goodness, passion and ignorance. Salvation (moksha) is attained after freedom from all these properties.
|Universal property||Fundamental element (mahabhuta)||Cause and effect|
|Tamas||Prithvi||Extreme obstruction/covering (atyantaavaraktva)|
|Sattva + Rajas||Agni||Enlightenment (prakashakatva) and mobility (chalatva)|
|Sattva + Tamas||Jala||Clarity (swachchtva), enlightenment (prakashakatva), heaviness (gurutva), obstruction (awarakatva)|
[Su.Sa. Sharira Sthana 1/20 with Dallhana commentary]
Relation with dosha
The physical (sharira) and psychological (manas) planes are inter-connected to each other. Sattva guna in psychological plane is related to pitta dosha; rajas is related to vatadosha and tamas is related with kaphadosha. Accordingly, the physical and psychological activities are regulated.
Properties of constituents of human being
Properties of fundamental elements (panchamahabhuta)
The five fundamental elements possess specific properties and show effects.
|Prithvi||Heavy (guru), rough (khara), hard(kathina), dull (manda), stable (sthira), non-slimy(vishada), solid(sandra) and gross (sthula)|
|Jala||Liquid(drava), unctuous (snigdha), cold (sheeta), dull (manda), soft (mridu) and slimy (pichchila)|
|Agni||Hot (ushna), sharp (tikshna), subtle (sukshma), light (laghu), dry (ruksha) and non-slimy or clear (vishada)|
|Vayu||Light (laghu), cold (sheeta), dry (ruksha), rough (khara), non-slimy (vishada) and subtle (sukshma)|
|Akasha||Soft (mridu), light (laghu), subtle (sukshma) and smooth (shlakshna)|
[Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 26/11]
Properties of dosha
The effects of dosha on body are caused due to their properties.
|Vata||Dry (ruksha), cold (sheeta), light (laghu), subtle (sukshma), moving (chala), on-slimy or clear (vishada) and rough (khara)|
|Pitta||Slightly unctuous (sasneha), hot (ushna), sharp (tikshna), liquid(drava), mobile (sara)|
|Kapha||Heavy (guru), cold(sheeta), soft (mridu), unctuous (snigdha), stable (sthira), slimy (pichchila)|
[Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 1/59-61]
Properties of dhatu
|Rasa dhatu||Liquid, unctuous, cold, soft, slow/dull, slimy|
|Rakta dhatu||Subtle, light, liquid, mobile, unctuous|
|Mamsa dhatu||Heavy, dull, stable, hard, smooth, gross|
|Meda dhatu||Heavy, cold, soft, unctuous, stable, slimy|
|Asthi dhatu||Heavy, rough, hard, stable, clear, gross|
|Majja dhatu||Unctuous, soft, smooth, dull/slow|
|Shukra dhatu||Liquid, cold, heavy, unctuous|
The body components show actions according to their properties. These properties are considered while treating abnormal states.
Relation of properties and active constituents of substances
Properties and tastes
The substances with specific tastes (rasa) possess variable degrees of properties as below:
|Property||Highest degree||Moderate degree||Mild degree|
|Dryness (ruksha)||Astringent (kashaya)||Pungent (katu)||Bitter (tikta)|
|Unctuousness (snigdha)||Sweet (madhura)||Sour (amla)||Salt (lavana)|
|Hot (ushna)||Salt (lavana)||Sour (amla)||Pungent (katu)|
|Cold (sheeta)||Sweet (madhura)||Astringent (kashaya)||Bitter (tikta)|
|Heaviness (guru)||Sweet (madhura)||Astringent (kashaya)||Salt (lavana)|
|Lightness (laghu)||Bitter (tikta)||Pungent (katu)||Sour (amla)/ Salt (lavana)|
[Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 26/53-56]
These are rationally applied in treatment.
The potency of a substance depends on the property it possesses. All substances are divided into two main categories viz. hot (ushna) and cold (sheeta) based upon their potency. [A.H.Sutra Sthana 1/17]
Factors affecting degree of effect of properties
Seasons and predominance of properties
During hot season, the sharp (tikshna), hot (ushna) and dry (ruksha) properties are prevalent in environmental conditions. Cold (sheeta) and unctuous (snigdha) properties are predominantly present in cold season. [A.H.Sutra Sthana.3/5] These changes affect human biology and produces respective effects accordingly. The seasonal factor (kala) shall be considered in diagnosis and treatment.
Variations in properties
Some properties are influenced by effect of time, environmental factors etc. The substance may lose its properties due to influence of other factors. The freshly collected grains are heavy to digest (guru), but in due course of time, the grains become light to digest (laghu). [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.Vimana Sthana 1/22(2)]
Different interactions of properties
A substance may inherently possess opposite properties and show different actions accordingly. For example, Tinospora cordifolia shows properties of sweet (madhura) post digestion effect and hot potency (ushna veerya). These two are opposite in effect, however tinospora pacify pitta dosha due to its sweet effect and kapha dosha due to its hot potency. The effect of a substance is essentially observed after its interaction with human biological components. In case of interactions, the dominant property shows major impact, while the recessive property does not show any impact or shows mild effect. [A.H.Sutra Sthana 9/24]
Importance of knowledge of guna
Knowledge of guna is essential in every field to define standards. The actions or effects of each substance are caused due to its properties (guna) due to inseparable concomitance.[Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/50] The knowledge about property of an object is possible through analyzing its actions only.[Su.Sa.Sutra Sthana 46/514] Guna is the only principle which explains the drug activity. This is to be assessed objectively through action of that drug. The taste, potency and post digestion effect (vipaka) are the different expressions of guna only.
Importance in prevention
Heaviness and lightness in relation to digestibility of food items is considered to decide appropriate quantity of food and preserve the equilibrium state of digestion and metabolism (agni). [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 5/6]
In order to preserve health, one shall follow the diet and regimens opposite to the qualities of the habitat and causative factors of the diseases prevalent in that region. E.g. if the person belongs to marshy area, which is predominant in oiliness (sneha), heaviness (gaurava) etc. properties, then he shall follow the diet possessing the properties dryness, lightness etc. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/50]
Importance in diagnosis
Properties (guna) are fundamental part of all aspects of management. In diagnosis and treatment of disease, the body components are assessed in terms of its normal and abnormal properties. Thus, guna are tools for assessment.
Guna of a substance shall be understood properly to know cause, pathogenesis and treatment of a disease. Some examples are as given below:
Excess consumption of diet and lifestyle having similar properties to dosha and opposite to dhatu are causative factors for vitiation of channels of transport and transformation of body constituents (srotasa). [Cha.Sa. Vimana Sthana 5/23] [A.H.Sharira Sthana 3/44]
Excess use of substances having dry and cold property can cause vata dominant diseases[Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana28/15], exposure to hot substances causes hemorrhagic disorders (raktapitta) and consumption of unctuous substance can cause obstinate urinary diseases (prameha).
In pathogenesis of abdominal lumps and tumors (gulma), the body channels are hardened due to dryness (ruksha).[Cha.Sa. Nidana Sthana 3/7] Skin becomes excessively dry or excessively smooth in skin diseases due to increased dryness of vatadosha and unctuousness of kaphadosha respectively.[ Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 7/34-36]
Mobility (chalatva) is a property of vatadosha. If this property is lost in a subject, that can be inferred as an abnormal reduction in vatadosha. This type of properties can be assessed in patients in the form of signs and symptoms in order to estimate the amount of dosha.
Importance in treatment
In treatment, the depleted levels of body components are increased by administration of dietary and medicinal substances (dravya) having similar properties (guna) and effects (karma). Similarly, the increased levels are lessened by administration of those having opposite properties. Thus, the equilibrium is maintained. [Cha.Sa. Sharira Sthana 6/9]
Diseases are caused due to abnormality in dosha. The skillful use of medicines, diet and regimens having opposite qualities of causative or abnormal dosha helps to cure the disease. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/62] The diseases caused due to aggravated vatadosha can be treated with regimens having hot (ushna) and oily (snigdha)properties. Regimen with cold (sheeta), soft (mridu) and slimy (pichchila) properties pacifies pittadosha. Regimen with sharp (tikshna), dry (ruksha) and non-slimy (vishada)properties reduce kaphadosha.[Su.Sa.Sutra Sthana.41/11] The physician must know properties of the herbs. Usage of herbs without knowing its complete properties can cause harmful effects. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/125]
Herbs with specific properties are administered in therapeutic procedures. In therapeutic emesis (vamana),medicines with lightness property (laghuguna) are selected. This helps to expel dosha through the upward direction i.e. mouth. Similarly, medicines with heaviness (guru) property are selected for therapeutic purgation (virechana). This helps in downward movement of dosha to expel through anal route. [Su.Sa.Sutra Sthana 41/6]
Based upon the objective and subjective assessment, each guna can be viewed in following probable criteria:
|Sr No||Guna pair||Assessment parameter/Measurement|
|1||Heavy (guru)-Light(laghu)||Weight of solids/ volume of liquids and gaseous substances||Feeling of heaviness or lightness based on grading scores|
|2||Slow/dull (manda) and sharp (tikshna)||Speed of action, effect, release, slow response or fast response, fast acting, slow acting substances||Feeling of dullness or sharpness|
|3||Cold (sheeta)-hot (ushna)||Temperature and generation of heat, boiling point and freezing point||Feeling of warmth/burning sensation or dampness|
|4||Unctuous (snigdha)-dry (ruksha)||The amount of oiliness, fat content, absorption||Unctuousness on touch and visible signs of oiliness|
|5||Smooth (shlakshna) and coarse (khara)||Coarseness/roughness and smoothness parameters||Hardness/roughness and smoothness on touch|
|6||Solid (sandra) and liquid (drava)||Size of molecules, state of substance||-|
|7||Soft (mridu)and hard (kathina)||Softness and hardness parameters, malleability||-|
|8||Stable (sthira) and sara/chala (mobile)||Speed of movement of particles||Speed of movement|
|9||Subtle (sukshma) and sthula (gross)||Size of particles, fineness, molecular structure, penetrability||-|
|10||Vishada (non-slimy/clear) and slimy (pichchila)||Passage of particles or clarity in appearance||-|
The physical properties are measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system. These are listed as below. The probable correspondent guna is given as below. However, it shall be clear that the guna concept of Ayurveda shows some biological effect after interaction with human biology. Whereas the physical properties of a substance are observed in vitro and not necessarily show the same biological effect as of guna. More research is needed to study the degree of co-relation of the same.
|Area, distribution, mass||Sthula|
|Boiling point, melting point, temperature, specific heat||Ushna and Sheeta|
|Color, radiance, refractive index, luster, albedo (whiteness)||Rupa|
|Concentration, fluidity, pressure, viscosity, volume||Sandra, Drava|
|Density, flow rate (mass), flow rate (volume)||Guru, Laghu|
|Solubility, opacity||Vishada, Picchila|
|Efficacy, intensity||Manda, tikshna|
|Elasticity, hardness, ductility, stiffness, strength, plasticity, malleability||Mrudu, Kathina|
|Spin, velocity, frequency, momentum||Sthira, chala, sara|
Some experimental research studies have been conducted to refine the objective parameters used for assessing unctuousness-dryness (snigdha-ruksha) and cold-hot (sheeta-ushna) properties by employing suitable pharmacological models. Absolute evaluation of one guna is not possible in a living body since there are infinite factors related to each and every biological event. Metabolic study (dipana pachana experiment), intestinal secretion and motility test, and swimming stress test (swimming induced hypothermia) have been employed to assess the effects of various drugs having unctuous-dry, cold-hot properties. Drugs with cold and unctuous properties have shown to increase in body weight in metabolic experiments compared to drugs with hot and dry properties. Drugs with unctuous property alleviated stress-induced hypothermia, drugs with dry property aggravated it. 
In another clinical research, the administration of drugs with dry property showed significant reduction in serum cholesterol levels in patients of hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemia is considered as elevated unctuousness in body.
A research on combination of drugs (samyoga) can enhance efficacy. The combination of Terminalia chebula (Haritaki) and rock salt (saindhava lavana) showed enhanced efficacy in patients of cough with expectoration(kaphajakasa) as compared to their effect as separate drugs.
List of theses done
- Rao T Srinivas (1970), Panchabhauticguna (A study w.s.r to guru and laghu) - Department of basic principles, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Supriya S Bhalerao (1998), A comprehensive study of gunas and evolution of some objective parameters in the context of snigdha and rukshaguna [PhD Thesis] - Department of basic principles, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Santosh Mane (2009), Evolution and evaluation of some objective parameters for ushna and it's gunas based on panchabhautik theory and experiments. [PhD Thesis] -Department of basic principles, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Anand Buchake (2002), An assessment of the activities of rooksha guns w.s.r to sthaulya. Department of Dravyaguna, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Nalage Dilip H (2004), A study of samskara and its role in alteration of pancha-bhautika composition of dravya, Department of basic principles, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Balaji Potbhare(2005), Concept of snigdaguna and applied study to evolve some objective parameters - Department of basic principles, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Rout Ajaya Kumar (2009), Conceptual and applied study of Paradiguna w.s.r to Samyoga guna – Department of basic principles, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Sunny C Patil (2014), Fundamental and applied aspect of yukti as pariksha and guna in Ayurveda, Department of basic principles, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
List of references
The list of references for Guna in Charak Samhita can be seen here
- Available from http://namstp.ayush.gov.in/#/sat accessed on 10/07/2020
- Monier-Williams, Monier-Williams Sanskrit- English Dictionary, 1st edition; Oxford University Press, guna, Page 357.
- P.V.Sharma, Dravyaguna-vijnana Vol 1. Varanasi: Chaukhambhabharati academy;2006. Section 2,chapter 1 Guna;p.153.
- P.V.Sharma, Dravyaguna-vijnana Vol 1. Varanasi: Chaukhambhabharati academy;2006. Section 2,chapter 1 Guna;p.152.
- Alter, Joseph S., Yoga in modern India, 2004 Princeton University Press, p 55Available from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gu%E1%B9%87aaccessed on 10/07/2020
- Feuerstein, Georg The Shambhala Encyclopedia of Yoga, Shambhala Publications, 1997 Available from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gu%E1%B9%87aaccessed on 10/07/2020
- Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Bhagavad-Gita As it is. Chapter 14.6. 2008. Bhaktivedanta book trust. Pg 607
- Nanal R.M. Sapta dhatu and sharira guna (Marathi). In MadhujivanaShariraGunaVisheshanka (1993). Nanal Publications.pg.88-91.
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