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Adharma means deviation or not following the righteousness (dharma). Dharma is one of the four inherent values of the universe (purushartha). It is a factor that controls and regulates the universe (loka). Thus making it a necessary entity for the proper functioning of universe. (Arundatta on A. H. Sutra sthana 1/2). Adharma is often linked with prajnaparadha or karma factor in causing disease. [Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 3/20] According to common belief, any act or conduct which was in disobedience to rules of dharma is termed as adharma. In socio-cultural practices, it was declared to be injurious to society and the individual.[1] The classical understanding of dharma- adharma is different from the religious practices and belief as it incorporates the multifaceted concepts like duty, morals , code and conduct , way of living , social behaviour and day to day habits.[2] It is thus an important factor in disease causation and should be addressed with the various measures mentioned in the Ayurveda Samhita. The contemporary sciences also consider the aspect of human morality and behaviour in causation of disease. A recent study has shown that the human morality has ability to link with the pathogens and cause infectious diseases.[3] WHO has stated that the lifestyle diseases or non-communicable dieases are results of rapid unplanned urbanization, globalization of unhealthy lifestyles, ageing population and unhealthy diets.[4] Many studies have shown that the recent times have witnessed the crisis of morality and moral values due to changing lifestyle and behaviour.[5] Thus the psychology of morality is an important aspect in maintaining the personal and social wellbeing of any individual in any healthcare system.[6] For instance, the Janapadodhvansa chapter [Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 3] focuses on the disease occurrence due to environmental and human factors as a result of human behaviour correlated with adharma.
The adharma practices can be related as a cause for higher incidences of genetic disorders, congenital diseases, auto-immune conditions and idiopathic disorders. The root cause of disease is very difficult to process. The gene expression may differ in different individuals depending on their psycho-physical makeup and epigenetic changes influenced by ones' behaviour. Thus gene attribution is affected by behaviour underlining the role of concepts like adharma in healthcare.
This article attempts to throw light upon a few of such aspects in purview of classical and contemporary literature.

Section/Chapter/topic Concepts/Adharma
Authors Bhojani M. K.1, Joglekar Aishwarya2
Reviewer Basisht G.3,
Editor Deole Y.S.4

1 Department of Sharir Kriya, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi, India 2 Department of Samhita Siddhant, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi, India 3 Rheumatologist, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A.

4 Department of Kayachikitsa, G. J. Patel Institute of Ayurvedic Studies and Research, New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India
Correspondence emails,
Publisher Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre, I.T.R.A., Jamnagar, India
Date of publication: August 25, 2023
DOI 10.47468/CSNE.2023.e01.s09.147

Etymology and definition

  • Monnier Williams dictionary defines the adharma as unrighteousness, injustice, irreligion, sin, immorality, wickedness; demerit etc.[7] It is also termed as one of the name of Daksha Prajapati, the son of Bramha.
  • Vachaspatyam[8] defines it as the actions contrary to dharma or all those actions done contrary to those mentioned in Veda etc.
  • Shabdakalpadruma also mentions it as sin (paapa), crime (aparadha), behaviour inconsistent with the vedic and authoritative texts (shruti shastra viruddha achara) etc.[9]
  • Tarkasangraha mentions that dharma and adharma amongst the 24 types of guna residing in atma, where dharma is resul of Vihita Karma i.e. actions to be properly followed while adharma as the Nishiddha Karma or the actions to be avoided as per the instructions of the Veda texts. (Tarkasangraha verse no. 3)
  • Dalhana has explained adharma as questionable character (dushcharita) or improper physical (kayika), verbal (vachika), mental (manasika) behaviour. [Dalhana on Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/19]
  • Arundatta mentions all the hinsadi karma or violence related activities under the umbrella of adharma [A.H. Nidana Sthana 6/8]. Ashtang Sangraha also considers bhootadaya (compassion towards all living beings including humans and animals) as greatest dharma contrary to which adharma indicates the violence towards the living beings. [A. S. Sutra Sthana 2/39]


Paapa, Paapakarma, Aparadha, Durachara, Dushkarma, Dharma-Patana, Dharma-Abhasa, Dharma-Avarodha

Adharma and global health

Adharma is an eternal factor affecting the various aspects of environmental and human health. Human activity threatens the earth ecosystem causing the decrease in the non-human occupied area upto 10% by 2050. The land , water and other ecological resources are being exploited to a greater extent causing damage to the environment in general.[10] Human behaviour, growing urbanisation, deforestation, travel, trade and exponential rise in population has effect on the health of planet in general.[11] It is proven that the global warming, climate change , emergence of pandemics, negatively affects the human health highlighting the interlink between the environmental health and human health.[12] Environment is not only the origin of infectious and vector-borne diseases, but also the source of medicines, including many antibiotics. Human impact on the environment is increasing the risk of emerging infectious diseases in humans. Over 60% of these diseases originate from animals, mainly from wildlife. Reducing biodiversity may also cause an increased disease transmission. WHO thus launched the ‘Our planet Our health’ campaign as a part of World Health Day celebrations 2022 to promote the importance of conservation of planet for the wellbeing of mankind.[13]

Adharma as a cause of occurrence of different diseases

  • Ayurveda mentions three main causes of occurrence of any disease namely improper function of intellect and sense organs (asatmya-indriya-artha- samyoga), prajnaparadha or karma attributing to improper behaviour in present and past incarnation) and time/ seasonal variations (kaala) [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/54] [A.H. Sutra Sthana 1/19]. The adharma can be considered under the heading of prajnaparadha hence making it an important cause of all the diseases as per Ayurveda. [Cha. Sa. Sharira Sthana 1/102-108]
  • Commentator Bhattar Harichandra mentioned the adharma as a cause of occurrence of different diseases.[Madhukosha commentary on Madhav Nidana, Prathama Khanda, Pancharoga Nidana Adhyaya 1/5] The adharma can be understood as part of karmaja vyadhi or karma as part of disease causation. [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 37/334] The daiva karma or the deeds done in past life, especially the ill deeds can be responsible for the disease occurrence in present life. The pravritti (implication) of daiva karma is due to vaishamata which is considered as adharma as per the Chakrapani commentary (Cha. Sa. Shareera Sthana 2/44, Chakrapani on Cha. Sa. Shareera Sthana 2/44)
  • Paapa karma comparable with adharma is also mentioned as causative factor for the different diseases like udara (Cha. Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 13/15), kushtha (Cha. Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 7/8, Su. Sa. Nidana Sthana 5/30), shwitra (Cha. Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 7/177), unmada (Cha. Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 9/7, Chakrapani on Cha. Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 7/177) also includes the annihilation of dharma leading to causation of disease in a person. Adharma in form of infidelity on part of soma(moon) is also mentioned in the description of yakshma which can be considered as indirect cause of the same. (Cha. Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 8/3-8) luptadharma (loss of dharma), nashtadharma (absence of dharma) or adharma is also mentioned as a cause of bhootopasarga or affliction with the supernatural entities like bhoota (microbial, supernatural or psychological factors). (A. H. Uttar Tantra 4/3-5) Kashyapa Samhita mentions the adharma as only cause of revati graha affliction in pushpaghni jaatiharini disease (causing the abortions) (Kashyapa Samhita 6th chapter)

Adharma as an important cause of occurrence of janapadodhwansa (pandemic or epidemic) like conditions

The janapadodhwansa chapter clearly mentions the adharma as the main cause of vitiation of all the factors including air (vayu), water (udaka), soil( desha) and season or time (kaala) stating it as prime factor for the occurrence of janapadodhwansa. The root cause of this adharma is both the wrong deeds done in the past (poorvakrita asatkarma) and its origin lies in pragyaparadha which represents the lifestyle and diet related factors in present life. (Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 3/20, Chakrapani on Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 3/1-2)

  • Contemporary forms of adharma-
  1. Irresponsible behaviour of authorities , lack of proper political administration and governance.
  2. Irresponsible individual behaviour- generalised lack of morality and appropriate behaviour by the residents of community.
  3. Result of decrease in adharma behavior amongst the people in community
  4. Seasonal variations: Untimely or lack of rainfall, abnormal wind and air movement; the affliction of land, the drying up of water reservoirs and deterioration herbs. As a result, there is occurrence of infectious contact or ingestion of polluted food and water. (Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 3/20)

The adharma results in riots/war (shastraprabhava), rakshogana (infliction with infection or foreign attacks), abhishapa (misconduct towards deities, respected personnel etc.) (Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 3/21-23). These are also considered to be the subtypes of adharma as per chakrapani commentary (Chakrapani on Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 3/21-23) This also focuses on the social and community behaviour affecting the harmony and health of the society.

Adharma as prime cause of calamities since times immemorial (Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 3/24)

Charak Samhita mentions that the calamities never resulted from any factor other than adharma (unrighteousness). In the first era (kritayuga or satyayuga), people were gifted with liveliness. Their bodies were firm, compact and stable like that of the mountains, they had clear senses and complexions. They had movement, strength and valour. They were truthful, honest, compassionate, chivalrous, self-restraint, disciplined, spiritual, had tendency to fast, and religious deeds. They were devoid of negative emotions like fear, desire, aversion, infatuation, greed, anger, etc. The flora and fauna was well flourished and of high quality , promoting the health of the individuals.


Towards the end of the satyayuga, due to the rise in adharma people started to get heavy (shareera gaurava) due to over-indulgence in food. They started suffering from fatigue (shrama) as a result of this. Fatigue gave rise to laziness (alasya), and laziness made them to accumulate things (sanchaya) which led to the attachment (parigraha) for these things and attachment resulted in greed (lobha). (Figure 1: resultant of adharma in satyayuga)


After the onset of the Tretayuga, greed gave rise to malice (abhidroha), malice led to many unfavourable psychological attributes like falsehood (anritavachana), and falsehood led to passion (kaama), anger (krodha), vanity (maana), hatred (dwesha), cruelty (parushya), aggression (abhighata), fear (bhaya), grief (shoka), anxiety (taapa), distress (chinta) etc. Thus during the Tretayuga, one-fourth (1 paada) of dharma (religious duties) depleted resulting in reduction of the life-span of human beings by a quarter. (Figure 2: Resultant of adharma during tretayuga)
Similarly, there was reduction in the attributes of environment as well. Due to above phenomena there was diminution by one quarter of the unctuousness, purity, taste (rasa), potency (veerya), post digestive effect (vipaka), specific effect (prabhava) and qualities of grains. There was an unusual change in the maintenance of equilibrium of tissue elements and there was vitiation of agni (pitta) and maruta (vata) by which bodies of living beings got afflicted with diseases viz. jwara (fever) etc. Therefore, the life-span of living beings gradually diminished.
Those who follow the path of adharma are also considered to be unsuitable for the treatment of janapadodhwansa vyadhi including the purification therapies (doshavasechana or shodhana). (Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 3/45, Chakrapani on Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 3/45), (Cha. Sa. Siddhi Sthana 2/4-5)

Detrition of paada of dharma with each passing yuga and prominence of adharma during every yuga [Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 3/25-27]

With the passage of each yuga, righteousness or dharma depletes by a quarter, with similar reduction in the qualities of living beings, finally leading to dissolution of the universe. After completion of one hundred years in each Yuga there is loss of one year in life span of living beings in respective age.

Adharma as a negative attribute

Dharma is considered one amongst the 4 most important factors in affecting the health and life of humans. The deviation from this dharma is termed as adharma which can be attributable to disease and death. (Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/15) Charak Samhita mentions that one who is devoid of dharma, has surrendered to sinful acts (paapa karma), is considered as king of hell and deserves to suffer or be killed. (Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/130) Such individuals are termed as sinful person (paapi) and should always be ignored in the society. (Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 7/57)
Similarly, while explaining the natural urges to be controlled (dharaniya vega), one who righteously follows the path of dharma is considered to be happy (sukhi) in life. (Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 7/30)
The concept of sadvritta also exclusively focuses on the aspect of dharma and adharma. (Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 8) Dharmatma is advised to avoid the company of adharmika (Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 8/18-19, A.S. Uttar Tantra 40/87) The concept of adharma is also closely related with that of the karma theory, where the adharma can manifest implications in daiva (past life deeds or destiny) and paurusha karma (deeds in present). One of the three eshana (necessary attributes or desires of life) i.e. dharma-eshana is directed towards the attribute of dharma. (Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 11/3, Chakrapani on Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 11/40). Acharya Sushrut also mentions adharma as important cause in occurrence of janapadodhwansa vyadhi. (Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/19, Dalhana on Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/16)
The seasonal variations (ritukopa) are considered to be result of adharma. (Dalhana on Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/20) The study of dharma shastra is thus advised in the management of janapadodhwansa vyadhi. (Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 3/17)
It is also mentioned that the unrightful acts (adharmya kriya) is a cause of grief (shoka) and can lead to disease affliction in the body and congenital abnormalities. The opposite happens after rightful acts (dharmya kriya). (Cha. Sa. Shareera Sthana 2/41). The main aim of ayurveda is to safeguard the dharma aspect of society. The decrease in adharma may not sufficiently fulfil the main aim of ayurveda. (Cha. Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 1/4/57)
Ayurveda also accepts the birth or the reincarnation of any being based in manushya (human birth)or tiryakayoni (birth as organism other than human) based on the factor of dharma and adharma. The dharma is responsible for the birth in manushya yoni (humans), while adharma for the birth in tiryaka yoni (as other creatures). (Su. Sa. Shareera Sthana 1/16) Similarly, Acharya Chakrapani considers birth as other organism except human being (anishta yonigamana) as a cause and the result of adharma. (Chakrapani on Cha. Sa. Shareera Sthana 1/77) The organogenesis (anga-pratyanga utpatti) according to Sushrut Samhita is also considered to be dependent on the factor of adharma, where the pathological manifestation can lead to organ defects. (Su. Sa. Shareera Sthana 3/23)
Being devoid of the proper compliance to dharma (dharma bahyata) is also defined as an attribute of rajasa and tamas dominant mental constitution (manas prakriti). (Su. Sa. Shareera Sthana 4/91-97) The habit of adharma (adharmasheelatva) or adharma dominant character (sheela /charitra) is an attribute of tamas guna or the tamasika bhava. (Dalhana on Su. Sa. Shareera Sthana 1/18, Chakrapani on Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/48) Acharya Chakrapani also considers the rajasika and tamasika psychological phenotypes (manas prakriti) or attributes unfavourable due to the involvement of adharma in manifestation of same. (Chakrapani on Cha. Sa. Shareera Sthana 4/36)
Dalhana has also mentioned adharma as a cause of infectious or communicable ( aupasargika) or sansargaja vyadhi (communicable diseases) like Chickenpox or skin eruptions (masurika) etc. (Dalhana on Su. Sa. Nidana Sthana 5/33-34)
The adharma is also mentioned as one of the four etiological factors (hetu) in disease causation including sannikrishta, viprakrishta, adharma and pragutpatti. (Dalhana on Su. Sa. Shareera Sthana 1/3) Adharma erupted as cause of disease especially during the tretayuga. Adharma is also stated as the cause of short life span (alpa- ayushya) based on the deeds done in previous incarnation (praktana karma). (Dalhana on Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/6)
Niyati (factor of destiny or fate) is also explained as one of the 6 factors necessary for shrishti- utpatti according to Ayurveda is also dependant on dharma and adharma done in previous incarnation (poorvajanma). (Dalhana on Su. Sa. Shareera Sthana 1/11) Adharma is also considered as a factor in the twin pregnancy or twin births. (Su. Sa. Shareera Sthana 2/37). The inappropriate sexual behaviour can also lead to the increase adharma. (A. S. Sutra Sthana 9/59)
Acharya Chakrapani also mentions that the physiological processes like agni, digestion of food, food products also variate on the basis of the factor of adharma which can cause unwanted effects of the same. (Chakrapani on Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 28/3)
Ashtang Hridaya also rightly depicts that all the living beings are directed towards achieving happiness, which can only be achieved through following the path of dharma i.e. righteousness. Any deviation from this can lead to sadness for the human race. (A.H. Sutra Sthana 2/20)
In an opinion by Indu, adharma of rich reduces by the deed of charity. (Indu commentary A. S. Chikitsa Sthana 14/20)

Means to overcome adharma

As mentioned earlier, the adharma is a significant part of pragyaparadh and karmaja vyadhi (daiva, adrishta and paurusha karma). The means to curb such aetiology leading to pathology in the body are also mentioned in the Ayurveda text as below:

  • Psycho-spiritual therapy (daivya-vyapashraya chikitsa) (Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 11/54)
  • Ideal code of conduct (sadvritta) (Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 8)
  • Behaviour therapy for rejuvenation (achara rasayana) (Cha. Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 1/4/30-35)
  • Psychological therapies to conquer mind (sattvavajaya or manas vyadhi chikitsa) (Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/58, Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 11/54)
  • Restraining negative mental factors (vega dharana) (Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 7/26-27) especially manas vega like lobha (greed), shoka (despair), bhaya (fair), maana (ego), vachika vega (verbal abuse), kayika vega (behavioural or physical misbehaviour)

Adharma in philosophical texts and allied texts

  • The concept like adharma has received immense importance in the philosophical texts especially the vaisheshika and sankhya philosophy. Almost all the ancient Indian philosophies and schools of thought focus on the upliftment of dharma and demolition of adharma to promote the peace and happiness in society. Indian epics like Mahabharata, Ramayana focus on the concept of adharma. The various instances of adharma in few important philosophical, historical and religious texts are mentioned as follows-
  • The Sankhya philosophy[14] considers the adharma as one of the 8 entities (vikara or roopa) involved in the creation of universe (srishti Utpatti). (Su. Sa. Shareera Sthana 1/3). Here the meaning of vikara indicates factors that disturb the harmony of nature. Adharma is included under the 4 abnormal (vaikrita bhava or vikara) also termed as naimittika or asansiddhika bhava. These are said to be result of violence (himsa). (43rd Sankyakarika) Sankhya further elaborates that adharma is cause of destruction or nuisance thus obstructing the means to achieve salvation. (44th Sankhyakarika)
  • The main subject of vaisheshika darshana also revolves around the concept of dharma. The means of acquiring happiness in present life (abhyudaya) and salvation (nishreyasa or moksha) is termed as dharma according to vaisheshika darshana. Adharma is termed as spiritual factor (atma guna) and leads to the causation of sorrow (dukkha) in the beings. It is antagonist to the dharma involving the affliction of atma with deeds like violence (himsa), telling lies (anrita), theft or robbery (asteya).[15]
  • The Tarkasangraha, philosophical text based on the principles of nyaya and vaisheshika also mentions the dharma and adharma amongst the 24 guna. (Tarkasangraha Verse no. 7) The Tarkamimansa commentary on the Tarkasangraha mentions that the effect of adharma pacifies through the means of suffering or experiencing the ill deeds (phalabhoga), compensation (prayashchitta) and philosophy (tattvadnyana).
  • Shrimad Bhagwadgeeta elaborates the concept of adharma in detail. The adharma is referred to as sinful activities leading to misery, greediness, anxiety, aggressiveness and materialistic nature. This leads to unhappiness and indulgence into the cycle of birth and rebirth.[16] The incarnation of Lord Krishna in the kaliyuga was to destroy the adharma and reinstate the dharma in the society. This was to promote social and moral behaviour in the community as a whole.
  • Bhagwad Purana has mentioned the 5 types of adharma as follows[17] -
    1. Vidharma- the acts obscuring true dharma
    2. Para- dharma – following the dharma that is not true to one’s self
    3. Dharma-abhasa: pretentious behaviour
    4. Upadharma- following the newly coined principles
    5. Chala dharma- misinterpretation of dharma.
  • The texts like yagyavalka smriti exclusively focuses on the concept of dharma and adharma. The Yagyavalkasmrit mentions shruti (listening vedic texts), smriti ( memorizing smriti grantha like Manusmriti), sadachara (noble behaviour), the ambition that fulfils the desire of self and of the society as well as the means to acquire or follow the path of dharma.[18] The deviation from same can lead to adharma. The dharma can be acquired through the means of sacred offerings (ijya), moral behaviour (achara), non-violence (ahimsa), charity (daana), study, self-learning (swadhyaya) etc.
  • Manusmriti elaborates non-violence (ahimsa), truthfulness (satya), not coveting the property of others (asteya), purity (shaucha) and control of senses (indriyanigraha) are in the common dharma.[19]

Contemporary views

Adharma is thus the negative mirror of persons, behaviour, actions and character resulting in the disequilibrium of community and environmental health. It is interlinked with morals, conducts, values, emotions, behaviour and genetics as well. The code of conduct is very important for the proper functioning of the healthcare system and in maintainence of the sanctity of the profession. The lifestyle disorders are also considered to be the result of unbalanced and unhealthy lifestyle. Quackery, corruption , immoral behaviour are often condemned by the healthcare professions and may lead to banning of the health professionals from their job. Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932 to 1972), Nazi medical experimentation (1930 and 1940), and research conducted at the Willowbrook State School (1950 and 1960) are evident of adharma as a result of inethical and inhuman experimentation on subjects.
Medical ethics is one such branch that focuses on rendering justice, non-maleficience, beneficiance, autonomy to all the individuals who seek medical care or are directly or indirectly connected with the healthcare research to avoid harm in any capacity.[20] The animal ethics are also established to safeguard the wellbeing of the animals undergoing trials and experimentation. The cyber security and confidentiality issues are also important considerations for safeguarding the personal data of patients and healthcare organisations.[21] The environmental and ecological disruption also results in direct, ecosystem mediated and indirect impact on health resulting in range of health issues further underlining the impact of human behaviour on health.

Related research articles

Adharma is a very vast yet unexplored concept in Ayurveda, very few references concerning the subject are available online presently. Some of the references are as given below.

  1. The adharma as a main cause of janapadodhwansa or annihilation is mentioned in the article entitled “A Review on Janpadodhwansa-Concept of annihilation in Ayurveda”.[22]
  2. In the article entitled “Ayurveda and Modern Medicine”, the author beautifully explains the basic principles of ayurveda in purview of modern medicine describing the adharma as immoral acts in detail.[23]
  3. In the article “Ayurveda approach to combat Epidemic Diseases” authors have explained adharma as etiological factor of epidemic diseases mentioning it as a spiritual basis for understanding of epidemics.[24]
  4. In the article “Janapadodhwansa and Soil Pollution”, authors have focused on the adharma as a cause of soil pollution and environment possibly resulting in janapadodhwansa.[25]
  5. The write up “Environmental Activism in Ayurveda” also focuses on the concept of adharma and its impact on environmental laws, environmental protection and social health.[26]
  6. The article “A conceptual study on role of Ayurveda in communicable diseases” shows that the adharma can also be a potential factor in the causation of various communicable diseases in the society.[27]
  7. In the article “Conceptual study on Janapadodhvansa Roga and its treatment” the adharma as an important cause of Janapadodhvansa vyadhi is mentioned in detail.[28]
  8. The article “Review of Ayurveda samhitas on microbial diseases W.S.R. to Janpadodhwansa” focuses on the microbial diseases and contagious diseases comparable to the concept of adharma.[29]

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  16. Prabhupada, S. B. (2006). Bhagavad Gita as it is. Intermex Publishing. Available from:
  17. Ganesh Vasudeo Tagare, The Bhagavata Purana (Part III), Ancient Indian Tradition & Mythology (Volume 9), Edited by J. L. Shastri, New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass,
  18. Maharshi Yagyavalkya, Yagyavalkyasmriti with Mitakshara commentary by Vignyaneshvara and hindi commentary by Dr. Umeshchandra Pandey and Shri Narayan Mishra, Aachara-Adhyaya 1/ 2-4, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi, Page No. 4-5
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