Shyamatrivrita Kalpa Adhyaya
|Section/Chapter||Kalpa Sthana Chapter 7|
|Preceding Chapter||Kritavedhana Kalpa Adhyaya|
|Succeeding Chapter||Chaturangula Kalpa Adhyaya|
|Other Sections||Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana|
- 1 Kalpa Sthana Chapter 7, Chapter on Pharmaceutical preparations of Shyama Trivrita
- 1.1 Abstract
- 1.2 Introduction
- 1.3 Sanskrit Text, Transliteration with English Translation
- 1.3.1 Importance of Trivrita as a Purgative
- 1.3.2 Identity and Synonyms
- 1.3.3 Properties
- 1.3.4 Types of Trivrita
- 1.3.5 Utility of Pink Variety
- 1.3.6 Utility of Black variety
- 1.3.7 Method of collection
- 1.3.8 Preparatory measures
- 1.3.9 Preparations of Trivrita along with sour liquid etc.
- 1.3.10 Preparations of Trivrita in powder form
- 1.3.11 Preparations of Trivrita to be taken along with Cow Urine
- 1.3.12 Preparation of Trivrita along with Madhuka
- 1.3.13 Preparations of Trivrita along with Jivaka, etc.
- 1.3.14 Preparations of Trivrita, to be taken along with liquids
- 1.3.15 Preparation of Trivrita in the form of Linctus (No. 1)
- 1.3.16 Preparation of Trivrita in the form of linctus (No. 2)
- 1.3.17 Preparation of Trivrita in the form of linctus (No. 3)
- 1.3.18 Preparation of Trivrita in the form of linctus (No. 4)
- 1.3.19 Preparation of Trivrita in the form of Linctus (No. 5)
- 1.3.20 Preparations of Trivrita with Sugar
- 1.3.21 Preparations of Trivrita in the form of linctus (No. 6)
- 1.3.22 Preparation of Trivrita in the form of linctus (No. 7)
- 1.3.23 Preparations of Trivrita in the form of Syrup etc.
- 1.3.24 Preparations of Trivrita in the form of Tarpana (soothing drink)
- 1.3.25 Preparation of Trivrita in the form of Modaka
- 1.3.26 Preparation of Trivrita in the form of linctus (No. 8)
- 1.3.27 Preparation of Trivrita in the form of Modaka (No. 2)
- 1.3.28 Preparation of Trivrita in the form of Modaka ( bolus)(No. 3)
- 1.3.29 Preparation of Trivrita in the form of Modaka (bolus) (No. 4)
- 1.3.30 Preparation of Trivrita in the form of Modaka (bolus) (no.5)
- 1.3.31 Purgative preparation of Trivrita useful in Rainy season
- 1.3.32 Preparation of Trivrita useful in post-rainy season
- 1.3.33 Preparation of Trivrita useful in winter
- 1.3.34 Preparation of Trivrita useful in summer
- 1.3.35 Preparation of Trivrita suitable during any season
- 1.3.36 Preparation of Trivrita suitable during any season
- 1.3.37 Preparation of Trivrita in the form of powder
- 1.3.38 Preparation of Trivrita in the form of Tarpana (With nourishing drink)
- 1.3.39 Preparations of Trivrita in the form of medicated ghee and milk
- 1.3.40 Preparations of Trivrita in the form of alcoholic beverages
- 1.3.41 Preparations of Trivrita in the form of Kanjika (fermented gruels)
- 1.3.42 Preparations of Trivrita in the form of Badara etc.
- 1.3.43 Methods of making the drug more palatable
- 1.3.44 Summary of the chapter
- 1.4 Tattva Vimarsha / Fundamental Principles
- 1.5 Vidhi Vimarsha / Applied Inferences
- 1.5.1 Synonyms
- 1.5.2 Properties
- 1.5.3 Types
- 1.5.4 Indications
- 1.5.5 Method of collection
- 1.5.6 Various preparations
- 1.5.7 Twelve preparations
- 1.5.8 Eighteen formulations
- 1.5.9 Yashtimadhu combination
- 1.5.10 Fourteen preparations
- 1.5.11 Seven preparations
- 1.5.12 Avaleha (linctus)
- 1.5.13 Powder combinations
- 1.5.14 Proportion of trivrita
- 1.5.15 Kalyanaka guda
- 1.5.16 Importance of Trivrita
- 1.5.17 Contraindication of purgation therapy and seasons affecting its efficacy
- 1.5.18 Enhancing palatability of formulation
- 1.6 References
- 1.7 Glossary
Kalpa Sthana Chapter 7, Chapter on Pharmaceutical preparations of Shyama Trivrita
The seventh Chapter of Kalpa Sthana deals with the pharmaceutical preparations for virechana karma (purgative therapy) using Shyama and Trivrita. Trivrita, is considered best purgative because of its effectiveness and minimal side effects. The chapter describes synonyms of the plant, its morphology, pharmacological properties, the varieties of plant with their different indications and untoward effects, the method of collection of the plant part used i.e. the root and its storage are also described. Then, one hundred and ten preparations using Trivrita or Shyama or combination of these two drugs are enlisted. Proportions of different drugs that are to be used along with the main drug are discussed and the dosage to different individuals is also presented. Recipes made of Trivrita or Shyama are formulated in such a way to suit any individual depending upon the seasons and climatic conditions.
Keywords: Shyama, Trivrita, Virechana, Operculana turpenthum Linn., purgation.
The first six chapters of this section dealt with preparations used for Vamana Karma (therapeutic emesis). The preparations aimed at Virechana Karma (therapeutic purgation) begin with this chapter and are extended in five more chapters. Trivrita is considered the best as it causes very little side effects and less spasmodic pain during the process of purgation,, that is the reason many recipes of this drug are being described.
The action of Virechana drugs known as laxatives or purgatives or cathartics varies depending upon the drug used. The different varieties of drugs used in modern medicine act according to their structure and chemical composition. The latency and effect of all laxatives vary with dosage. In sufficiently high dosage, many laxatives promote catharsis, which implies purgation with more fluid evacuation. Generally many of the drugs used in Ayurveda for catharsis or laxative action are stimulant laxatives. These drugs stimulate accumulation of water and electrolytes in the colonic lumen and they also enhance intestinal motility. Anthraquinones that are present in many of the Ayurvedic drugs like Haritaki, Aragvadha or Trivrita exert their action similarly. They reduce net absorption of electrolytes and water and also increase the permeability of the mucosa, possibly by making tight junctions leaky. This persistent action allows fats to secrete through the intestinal mucosa there by reducing the overall levels of triglycerides in the body. Many of the laxatives of this type increase the synthesis of prostaglandins and this action may contribute to increased secretion of water and electrolytes and is a factor for the spasmodic pain during the process of catharsis. In the present chapter, purgative preparations of Trivrita are described.
Sanskrit Text, Transliteration with English Translation
अथातः श्यामात्रिवृत्कल्पं व्याख्यास्यामः ||१||
इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः ||२||
athatah shyamatrivrutkalpam vyakhyasyamah ||1||
iti ha smaha bhagavanatreyah ||2||
athatah shyamatrivrutkalpam vyakhyasyamah||1||
iti ha smaha bhagavanatreyah||2||
Now, the chapter on the Pharmaceutical preparations using the plant drugs Shyama Trivrita is being explained. Thus said Lord Atreya.[1-2]
Importance of Trivrita as a Purgative
विरेचने त्रिवृन्मूलं श्रेष्ठमाहुर्मनीषिणः |
तस्याः सञ्ज्ञा गुणाः कर्म भेदः कल्पश्च वक्ष्यते ||३||
virechane trivrunmulam shreshthamahurmanishinah |
tasyah saungya gunah karma bhedah kalpashcha vakshyate ||3||
virechane trivrunmulam shreshthamahurmanishinah |
tasyah saungya gunah karma bhedah kalpashcha vakshyate||3||
According to physicians who are knowledgeable and wise, the root of Trivrita is considered the best among the purgative drugs. Now, its identity in the form of Synonyms, Pharmacological properties, Therapeutic actions, varieties or types and recipes will be described (in the following verses). 
Identity and Synonyms
त्रिभण्डी त्रिवृता चैव श्यामा कूटरणा तथा |
सर्वानुभूतिः सुवहा शब्दैः पर्यायवाचकैः ||४||
tribhandi trivruta chaiva shyama kutarana tatha |
sarvanubhutih suvaha shabdaih paryayavachakaihi ||4||
tribhandi trivruta chaiva shyama kutarana tatha|
sarvanubhutih suvaha shabdaih paryayavachakaihi ||4||
Tribhandi, Trivrita, Shyama, Kutarana, Sarvanubhuti and Suvaha are the synonyms of the drug Trivrita. 
कषाया मधुरा रूक्षा विपाके कटुका च सा | कफपित्तप्रशमनी रौक्ष्याच्चानिलकोपनी ||५||
सेदानीमौषधैर्युक्ता वातपित्तकफापहैः | कल्पवैशेष्यमासाद्य सर्वरोगहरा भवेत् ||६||
kashaya madhura ruksha vipake katuka cha sa | kaphapittaprashamani raukshyacchaanilakopani ||5||
sedanimaushadhairyukta vatapittakaphapahaih | kalpavaisheshyamasadya sarvarogahara bhavet ||6||
kashaya madhura ruksha vipake katuka cha sa| kaphapittaprashamani raukshyacchaanilakopani||5||
sedanimaushadhairyukta vatapittakaphapahaih| kalpavaisheshyamasadya  sarvarogahara bhavet||6||
Trivrita is astringent and sweet in taste, dry (not oily or creamy) and pungent in vipaka (post digestive effect). Due to its dry property it pacifies kapha and pitta and aggravates vata. Even then, when utilized along with drugs which pacify vata, pitta and kapha and also depending upon the combinations used in various pharmaceutical preparations, this drug attains the capacity of curing all types of diseases. [5-6]
Types of Trivrita
मूलं तु द्विविधं तस्याः श्यामं चारुणमेव च |
तयोर्मुख्यतरं विद्धि मूलं यदरुणप्रभम् ||७||
mulam tu dvividham tasyah shyamam charunameva cha |
tayormukhyataram viddhi mulam yadarunaprabham ||7||
mulam tu dvividham tasyah shyamam charunameva cha|
tayormukhyataram viddhi mulam yadarunaprabham||7||
Roots of the plant Trivrita are of two types. The one that is black (shyama) is more beneficial than the other blackish red one. 
Utility of Pink Variety
सुकुमारे शिशौ वृद्धे मृदुकोष्ठे च तच्छुभम् |
sukumare shishau vruddhe mrudukoshthe cha tacchubham ||7½ |||
sukumare shishau vruddhe mrudukoshthe cha tacchubham |
The root of the Trivruta having blackish red color can be used as a purgative drug, for persons having delicate health, for children, for aged and for persons having laxed bowel (Mridu koshtha) [7½]
Utility of Black variety
मोहयेदाशुकारित्वाच्छ्यामा क्षिण्वीत मूर्च्छयेत् ||८||
तैक्ष्ण्यात् कर्षति हृत्कण्ठमाशु दोषं हरत्यपि |
शस्यते बहुदोषाणां क्रूरकोष्ठाश्च ये नराः ||९||
mohayedashukaritvacchyama kshinvita murcchayet ||8||
taikshnyat karshati hrutkanthamashu dosham haratyapi |
shasyate bahudoshanam krurakoshthashcha ye narah ||9||
mohayedashukaritvacchyama kshinvita murcchayet ||8||
taikshnyat karshati hrutkanthamashu dosham haratyapi|
shasyate bahudoshanam krurakoshthashcha ye narah||9||
The root of the Trivrita having black colour, when used for purgative action, due to its instantaneous action, leads to unconsciousness, loss (of tissue elements or in another sense, electrolytes) and fainting. Due to its rapid action, it causes spasmodic pain (torment) in the cardiac region and throat. It eliminates the morbid (accumulated) material instantaneously. Hence, this variety is highly useful in persons having excessively aggravated dosha and highly constipated bowel (Krura koshtha) [7 ½ -9]
Method of collection
गुणवत्यां तयोर्भूमौ जातं मूलं समुद्धरेत् |
उपोष्य प्रयतः शुक्ले शुक्लवासाः समाहितः ||१०||
गम्भीरानुगतं श्लक्ष्णमतिर्यग्विसृतं च यत् |
तद्विपाट्योद्धरेद्गर्भं त्वचं शुष्कां निधापयेत् ||११||
gunavatyam tayorbhumau jatam mulam samuddharet |
uposhya prayatah shukle shuklavasah samahitah ||10||
gambhiranugatam shlakshnamatiryagvisrutam cha yat |
tadvipatyoddharedgarbham tvacham shushkam nidhapayet ||11||
gunavatyam tayorbhumau jatam mulam samuddharet|
uposhya prayatah shukle shuklavasah samahitah||10||
gambhiranugatam shlakshnamatiryagvisrutam cha yat|
tadvipatyoddharedgarbham  tvacham shushkam nidhapayet||11||
Both the varieties of the Trivrita root, growing in good soil, should be uprooted from the ground by a person who has observed fast, in Shukla Paksha, who is wearing white colored formal clothing and who has got concentration of mind. The roots should have deeply penetrated, smooth (without nodes or side roots), and not spreading sideways. Then, these roots are to be split and the pith is to be removed. Then, the root bark is to be separated. When the bark of the root is completely dried, it is to be appropriately preserved. [10-11]
स्निग्धस्विन्नो विरेच्यस्तु पेयामात्रोषितः सुखम् |१२|
snigdhasvinno virechyastu peyamatroshitah sukham |12|
snigdhasvinno virechyastu peyamatroshitah sukham|12|
The person who has undergone oleation and fomentation therapies (who is ready to be given purgative drug the next day, is to be given peya (gruel made of cereals, which is thin) as food in the previous night so that, he purges with ease (in the next morning, after administration of the purgative drug). [11 ½]
Preparations of Trivrita along with sour liquid etc.
अक्षमात्रं तयोः पिण्डं विनीयाम्लेन ना पिबेत् ||१२||
प्रसन्नया त्रिफलया शृतया च पृथक् पिबेत् ||१३||
akshamatram tayoh pindam viniyamlena na pibet ||12||
prasannaya triphalaya shrutaya cha pruthak pibet ||13||
akshamatram tayoh pindam viniyamlena na pibet||12||
prasannaya triphalaya shrutaya cha pruthak pibet||13||
Grinded paste of, either of the roots of Trivrita or in combination, in a round bolus form (pinda), in a dose of around 12 Gms. (one aksha) should be mixed with sour drinks (kanjika), and can be taken in by a person (who is to be purgated).
Similarly, urine of cow, sheep, goat or she-buffalo, vinegar (sauviraka), a sour drink prepared of raw barley (tushodaka), a type of diluted wine (Prasanna) or the decoction of Triphala should be used separately to take this paste of Trivrita. [11 ½ - 13]
Preparations of Trivrita in powder form
एकैकं सैन्धवादीनां द्वादशानां सनागरम् | त्रिवृद्द्विगुणसंयुक्तं चूर्णमुष्णाम्बुना पिबेत् ||१४||
ekaikam saindhavadinam dvadashanam sanagaram | trivrddvigunasamyuktam churnamushnambuna pibet ||14||
ekaikam saindhavadinam dvadashanam sanagaram| trivruddvigunasamyuktam churnamushnambuna pibet||14||
Two parts of Trivrita root powder may be mixed with one part of salt out of its twelve types (Saindhava, Sauvarchala, Kala, Bida, Pakya, Anupa, Kupya, Valukaja, Maulaka, Samudra, Romaka, and Audbhida). These preparations should be taken in along with Nagara (dry ginger powder) and hot water. 
Preparations of Trivrita to be taken along with Cow Urine
पिप्पली पिप्पलीमूलं मरिचं गजपिप्पली | सरलः किलिमं हिङ्गु भार्गी तेजोवती तथा ||१५||
मुस्तं हैमवती पथ्या चित्रको रजनी वचा | स्वर्णक्षीर्यजमोदा च शृङ्गवेरं च तैः पृथक् ||१६||
एकैकार्धांशसंयुक्तं पिबेद्गोमूत्रसंयुतम् |१७|
pippali pippalimulam maricham gajapippali | saralah kilimam hingu bhargi tejovati tatha ||15||
mustam haimavati pathya chitrako rajani vacha | svarnakshiryajamoda cha shrungaveram cha taih pruthak ||16||
ekaikardhamshasamyuktam pibedgomutrasamyutam |17|
pippali pippalimulam maricham gajapippali| saralah kilimam hingu bhargi tejovati tatha||15||
mustam haimavati pathya chitrako rajani vacha| svarnakshiryajamoda cha shrungaveram cha taih pruthak||16||
One part of Trivrita root powdered should be added with half part of the powder of either Pippali, Pippalimula, Maricha, Gajapippali, Sarala, Kilima, Hingu, Bharngi, Tejovati, Musta, Haimavati, Pathya, Chitraka, Rajani (Haridra), Vacha, Svarna Kshiri, Ajamoda, or Shringavera. Any one of these may be taken in, along with cow urine for purgation. [15-16- 16 ½]
Preparation of Trivrita along with Madhuka
मधुकार्धांशसंयुक्तं शर्कराम्बुयुतं पिबेत् ||१७||
madhukardhamshasamyuktam sharkarambuyutam pibet ||17||
madhukardhamshasamyuktam sharkarambuyutam pibet||17||
Half part of Madhuka (Yashtimadhu) powder may be added with one part of Trivrita powder this mixture can be taken in along with sugar water for purgation. 
Preparations of Trivrita along with Jivaka, etc.
जीवकर्षभकौ मेदां श्रावणीं कर्काटाह्वयाम् | मुद्गमाषाख्यपर्ण्यौ च महतीं श्रावणीं तथा ||१८||
काकोलीं क्षीरकाकोलीमिन्द्रां छिन्नरुहां तथा | क्षीरशुक्लां पयस्यां च यष्ट्याह्वं विधिना पिबेत् ||१९||
वातपित्तहितान्येतान्यन्यानि तु कफानिले |२०|
jivakarhushabhakau medam shravanim karkatahvayam | mudgamashakhyaparnyau cha mahatim shravanim tatha ||18||
kakolim kshirakakolimindram chinnaruham tatha | kshirashuklam payasyam cha yashtyahvam vidhina pibet ||19||
vatapittahitanyetanyanyani tu kaphanile |20|
jivakarhushabhakau medam shravanim karkatahvayam| mudgamashakhyaparnyau cha mahatim shravanim tatha||18||
kakolim kshirakakolimindram  chinnaruham tatha| kshirashuklam payasyam cha yashtyahvam vidhina pibet||19||
vatapittahitanyetanyanyani tu kaphanile|20|
The powder of Trivrita can be taken along with the powder of either, Jivaka, Rhushbhaka, Meda, Shravani (Mundi), Karkatashringi, Mudgaparni, Mashaparni, Maha-shravani, Kakoli, Kshirakakoli, Indra (Indravaruni), Chinna riha (Guduchi), Kshirashukla (Kshiravidari) or Payasya (Arka-puspha) for purgation. Similarly, the powder of Trivrita root can be taken along with Yashtimadhu (Madhuka) for purgation. The above mentioned preparations are useful for diseases caused by vata and pitta. The preparations that will be useful for the diseases caused by vata and pitta will be described later. [18 –19½]
Preparations of Trivrita, to be taken along with liquids
क्षीरमांसेक्षुकाश्मर्यद्राक्षापीलुरसैः पृथक् ||२०||
सर्पिषा वा तयोश्चूर्णमभयार्धांशिकं पिबेत् |२१|
kshiramamsekshukashmaryadrakshapilurasaih pruthak ||20||
sarpisha va tayoshchurnamabhayardhamshikam pibet |21|
sarpisha va tayoshchurnamabhayardhamshikam pibet|21|
One part of the Trivrita root powdered mixed with half part of powdered haritaki may be taken in along with either, Milk, Meat-soup, Sugar cane juice, Fruit juice of Kashmarya (Gambhari), Fruit juice of Draksha (grapes), Fruit Juice of Pilu, or Ghee, for purgation. [19 ½ - 20½]
Preparation of Trivrita in the form of Linctus (No. 1)
लिह्याद्वा मधुसर्पिर्भ्यां संयुक्तं ससितोपलम् ||२१||
lihyadva madhusarpirbhyam samyuktam sasitopalam ||21||
lihyadva madhusarpirbhyam samyuktam sasitopalam||21||
(Powered root of Trivrita may be) added with honey and ghee (to form a linctus). Then, crudely powdered sugar candy is added to it (and taken in for purgation) 
Preparation of Trivrita in the form of linctus (No. 2)
अजगन्धा तुगाक्षीरी विदारी शर्करा त्रिवृत् | चूर्णितं क्षौद्रसर्पिर्भ्यां लीढ्वा साधु विरिच्यते ||२२||
सन्निपातज्वरस्तम्भदाहतृष्णार्दितो नरः |
ajagandha tugakshiri vidari sharkara trivrut | churnitam kshaudrasarpirbhyam lidhva sadhu virichyate ||22||
sannipatajvarastambhadahatrushnardito narah |
ajagandha tugakshiri vidari sharkara trivrut| churnitam kshaudrasarpirbhyam lidhva sadhu virichyate||22||
The powders of Ajagandha, Tugakshiri, Vidari, Sarkara (sugar) and Trivrita may be mixed with honey and ghee. This linctus taken in, is useful as a mild purgative, for the patient suffering from Sannipata Jwara (fevers caused by aggravation of all the three doshas), Stambha (either retention of urine and faeces or generalized stiffness of the body), Daha (burning sensation in some parts or throughout the body) and Trishna (Thirst due to some underlying pathology). [22- 22 ½]
Preparation of Trivrita in the form of linctus (No. 3)
श्यामात्रिवृत्कषायेण कल्केन च सशर्करम् ||२३||
साधयेद्विधिवल्लेहं लिह्यात् पाणितलं ततः |
shyamatrivrutkashayena kalkena cha sasharkaram ||23||
sadhayedvidhivalleham lihyat panitalam tatah |
shyamatrivrutkashayena kalkena cha sasharkaram||23||
sadhayedvidhivalleham lihyat panitalam tatah|
With the decoction and paste (either dried powder or wet paste) of the black variety of Trivruta root, a linctus is to be prepared following the prescribed procedure) using sugar (as a solvent). In a dose of one panitala this linctus can be taken in (for purgation). [22 ½ - 23½]
Preparation of Trivrita in the form of linctus (No. 4)
सक्षौद्रां शर्करां पक्त्वा कुर्यान्मृद्भाजने नवे ||२४||
क्षिपेच्छीते त्रिवृच्चूर्णं त्वक्पत्रमरिचैः सह |
मात्रया लेहयेदेतदीश्वराणां विरेचनम् ||२५||
sakshaudram sharkaram paktva kuryanmrudbhajane nave ||24||
kshipecchite trivrucchurnam tvakpatramarichaih saha |
matraya lehayedetadishvaranam virechanam ||25||
sakshaudram sharkaram paktva kuryanmrudbhajane nave||24||
kshipecchite  trivruccurnam tvakpatramarichaih saha|
matraya  lehayedetadishvaranam virechanam||25||
Sugar and honey are mixed well and boiled (till the sugar is completely dissolved) in a new earthen vessel. When it is properly cooked and cooled, powdered Trivrita may be added to it, along with powders of Tvak (Cinnamon bark), Patra (Cinnamon leaves) and Maricha (black pepper) are added to it. This linctus can be taken in, in the prescribed and suitable dose. This is a useful purgative for persons belonging to the upper class. [2 ½ - 25]
Preparation of Trivrita in the form of Linctus (No. 5)
कुडवांशान् रसानिक्षुद्राक्षापीलुपरुषकात् | सितोपलापलं क्षौद्रात् कुडवार्धं च साधयेत् ||२६||
तं लेहं योजयेच्छीतं त्रिवृच्चूर्णेन शास्त्रवित् | एतदुत्सन्नपित्तानामीश्वराणां विरेचनम् ||२७||
kudavamshan rasanikshudrakshapiluparushakat | sitopalapalam kshaudrat kudavardham cha sadhayet ||26||
tam leham yojayecchitam trivrucchurnena shastravit | etadutsannapittanamishvaranam virechanam ||27||
kudavamshan  rasanikshudrakshapiluparushakat| sitopalapalam kshaudrat kudavardham cha sadhayet||26||
tam leham yojayecchitam trivrucchurnena shastravit| etadutsannapittanamishvaranam  virechanam||27||
Each one kudava (approx 200 ml) of the juices of Ikshu, Draksha, Pilu and Parushaka, one pala (approx.48g) of Sitopala (sugar candy) and half a kudava (approx 100 ml) of honey are to be boiled together. When it is cooled, powdered Trivrita is to be added to it by experts (in the field of such preparations) and made into linctus. This preparation is highly useful as a purgative for those persons, who are having excessively aggravated pitta dosha and who are from the upper classes of the society. [26-27]
Preparations of Trivrita with Sugar
शर्करामोदकान् वर्तीर्गुलिकामांसपूपकान् | अनेन विधिना कुर्यात् पैत्तिकानां विरेचनम् ||२८||
sharkaramodakan vartirgulikamamsapupakan | anena vidhina kuryat paittikanam virechanam ||28||
sharkaramodakan vartirgulikamamsapupakan| anena vidhina kuryat paittikanam virechanam||28||
Following the same method (as mentioned in the above verses) preparations may be done in the form of Sharkara modaka (round, ball like sweets made of sugar), Sharkara varti (rolls made of sugar), Sharkaragulika (Pills made with sugar) and Sharkara mamsapupaka (Cake prepared with sugar and meat). These preparations are useful as purgatives for those persons, suffering from diseases caused by pitta dosha 
Preparations of Trivrita in the form of linctus (No. 6)
पिप्पलीं नागरं क्षारं श्यामां त्रिवृतया सह | लेहयेन्मधुना सार्धं श्लेष्मलानां विरेचनम् ||२९||
pippalim nagaram ksharam shyamam trivrutaya saha | lehayenmadhuna sardham shleshmalanam virechanam ||29||
pippalim nagaram ksharam shyamam trivrutaya saha| lehayenmadhuna sardham shleshmalanam virechanam||29||
The powder of Trivrita (having pink roots) may be added with powders of Pippali, Nagara, Kshara (an alkali preparation) and Shyama (the variety having black roots).
To this mixed powder, honey may be added and can be taken in, in the form of linctus for purgation for those having kapha type of constitution or for those persons suffering from disease due to the aggravation of kapha.
Preparation of Trivrita in the form of linctus (No. 7)
मातुलुङ्गाभयाधात्रीश्रीपर्णीकोलदाडिमात् | सुभृष्टान् स्वरसांस्तैले साधयेत्तत्र चावपेत् ||३०||
सहकारात् कपित्थाच्च मध्यमम्लं च यत् फलम् | पूर्ववद्बहलीभूते त्रिवृच्चूर्णं समावपेत् ||३१||
त्वक्पत्रकेशरैलानां चूर्णं मधु च मात्रया | लेहोऽयं कफपूर्णानामीश्वराणां विरेचनम् ||३२||
matulungabhayadhatrishriparnikoladadimat | subhrushtan svarasamstaile sadhayettatra chavapet ||30||
sahakarat kapitthaccha madhyamamlam cha yat phalam | purvavadbahalibhute trivrucchurnam samavapet ||31||
tvakpatrakesharailanam curnam madhu cha matraya | lehoayam kaphapurnanamishvaranam virechanam ||32||
matulungabhayadhatrishriparnikoladadimat| subhrushtan svarasamstaile sadhayettatra chavapet||30||
sahakarat kapitthaccha madhyamamlam cha yat phalam| purvavadbahalibhute trivruccurnam samavapet||31||
tvakpatrakesharailanam curnam madhu cha matraya| lehoayam kaphapurnanamishvaranam virechanam||32||
The juice of Matulunga, Abhaya, Dhatri, Shriparni, Kola and Dadima are to be properly sizzled (fried till a hissing sound comes out) and cooked in oil by adding the pulp of Sahakara (mango), Kapittha (wood apple) and Matulunga (Sour fruit). When the preparation starts concentrating, the powder of Trivrita, root along with the powders of Tvak, Patra, Keshara and Ela are to be added. Finally honey is to be added to make linctus. Intake of this linctus in appropriate dose is useful as a purgative for those persons from upper classes.[30-32]
Preparations of Trivrita in the form of Syrup etc.
पानकानि रसान् यूषान्मोदकान् रागषाडवान् | अनेन विधिना कुर्याद्विरेकार्थं कफाधिके ||३३||
panakani rasan yushanmodakan ragashadavan | anena vidhina kuryadvirekartham kaphadhike ||33||
panakani rasan yushanmodakan ragashadavan| anena vidhina kuryadvirekartham kaphadhike||33||
Similar to the above mentioned procedure, the preparations (of Trivrita) are to be made in the forms of Panak (syrup), Rasa (meat soup), Yusha (pulse-soup), Modaka (sweet-meat), and Raga – shadava (sour drinks with and pungent taste). These preparations can be administered for purgation to persons having aggravated kapha. 
Preparations of Trivrita in the form of Tarpana (soothing drink)
भृङ्गैलाभ्यां समा नीली तैस्त्रिवृत्तैश्च शर्करा | चूर्णं फलरसक्षौद्रशक्तुभिस्तर्पणं पिबेत् ||३४||
वातपित्तकफोत्थेषु रोगेष्वल्पानलेषु च | नरेषु सुकुमारेषु निरपायं विरेचनम् ||३५||
bhrngailabhyam sama nili taistrivruttaishcha sharkara | churnam phalarasakshaudrashaktubhistarpanam pibet ||34||
vatapittakaphottheshu rogeshvalpanaleshu cha | nareshu sukumareshu nirapayam virechanam ||35||
bhrungailabhyam sama nili taistrivruttaishcha sharkara| churnam phalarasakshaudrashaktubhistarpanam pibet||34||
vatapittakaphottheshu rogeshvalpanaleshu cha| nareshu sukumareshu nirapayam virechanam||35||
A Tarpana or soothing drink should be prepared by adding the powder of one part of Bhringa, one part of Ela (Cinnamon bark), two parts of Nili, three parts of Trivrita and seven parts of sugar to the juice of Dadima, honey and powder of pop-rice or barley. This is a very safe purgative preparation for the patients suffering from diseases due to vata, pitta and kapha, for persons having low digestive fire and for persons who are very much tender or delicate. [34-35]
Preparation of Trivrita in the form of Modaka
शर्करात्रिफलाश्यामात्रिवृत्पिप्पलिमाक्षिकैः | मोदकः सन्निपातोर्ध्वरक्तपित्तज्वरापहः ||३६|| sharkaratriphalashyamatrivrutpippalimakshikaihi | modakah sannipatordhvaraktapittajvarapahah ||36||
sharkaratriphalashyamatrivrutpippalimakshikaihi | modakah sannipatordhvaraktapittajvarapahah||36||
A Modaka (large sized round sweet-meat) may be prepared using sugar, Haritaki, Vibhitaki, and Amalaki, black variety of Trivrita roots, Pippali and honey. Intake of this preparation cures Sannipata (simultaneous aggravation of all the three doshas and diseases caused there upon), Urdhva Raktapitta (bleeding from the opening of the upper parts of the body like mouth or nose) and fever. 
Preparation of Trivrita in the form of linctus (No. 8)
त्रिवृच्छाणा मतास्तिस्रस्तिस्रश्च त्रिफलात्वचः | विडङ्गपिप्पलीक्षारशाणास्तिस्रश्च चूर्णिताः ||३७||
लिह्यात् सर्पिर्मधुभ्यां च मोदकं वा गुडेन तु | भक्षयेन्निष्परीहारमेतच्छोधनमुत्तमम् ||३८||
गुल्मं प्लीहोदरं श्वासं हलीमकमरोचकम् | कफवातकृतांश्चान्यान् व्याधीनेतह्यपोहति ||३९||
trivrcchana matastisrastisrashcha triphalatvachah | vidangapippaliksharashanastisrashcha churnitah ||37||
lihyat sarpirmadhubhyam cha modakam va gudena tu | bhakshayennishpariharametacchodhanamuttamam ||38||
gulmam plihodaram shvasam halimakamarochakam | kaphavatakrutamshchanyan vyadhinetahyapohati ||39||
trivrucchana matastisrastisrashcha triphalatvachah| vidangapippaliksharashanastisrashcha churnitah||37||
lihyAt sarpirmadhubhyam cha modakam va gudena tu| bhakshayennishpariharametacchodhanamuttamam ||38||
gulmam plihodaram shvasam halimakamarochakam| kaphavatakrutamshchanyan vyadhinetahyapohati||39||
Three shanas of Trivrita powder is to be added with one shana rind powders of Haritaki, Vibhitaki, Amalaki, Vidanga, Pippali and Kshara (an alkali preparation). This compounded powder may be mixed with ghee and honey and made to linctus or to an Modaka (round large sized sweet meat) using jaggery. This is considered as a good purgative and a person using it need not follow any dietary or any other restrictions. If this preparation is taken in, it can cure gulma (benign tumors of intestines), Plihodara (splenomegaly), Shvasa (broncho-spasm), Halimaka (chronic hepatitis), Arochaka (anorexia) and other such diseases caused by the aggravation of kapha and vata [37-39]
Preparation of Trivrita in the form of Modaka (No. 2)
विडङ्गपिप्पलीमूलत्रिफलाधान्यचित्रकान् | मरिचेन्द्रयवाजाजीपिप्पलीहस्तिपिप्पलीः ||४०||
लवणान्यजमोदां च चूर्णितं कार्षिकं पृथक् | तिलतैलत्रिवृच्चूर्णभागौ चाष्टपलोन्मितौ ||४१||
धात्रीफलरसप्रस्थांस्त्रीन् गुडार्धतुलां तथा | पक्त्वा मृद्वग्निना खादेद्बदरोदुम्बरोपमान् ||४२||
गुडान् कृत्वा न चात्र स्याद्विहाराहारयन्त्रणा | मन्दाग्नित्वं ज्वरं मूर्च्छां मूत्रकृच्छ्रमरोचकम् ||४३||
अस्वप्नं गात्रशूलं च कासं श्वासं भ्रमं क्षयम् | कुष्ठार्शःकामलामेहगुल्मोदरभगन्दरान् ||४४||
ग्रहणीपाण्डुरोगांश्च हन्युः पुंसवनाश्च ते | कल्याणका इति ख्याताः सर्वेष्वृतुषु यौगिकाः ||४५||
इति कल्याणकगुडः |४६|
vidangapippalimulatriphaladhanyacitrakan | marichendrayavajajipippalihastipippalih ||40||
lavananyajamodam cha churnitam karshikam pruthak | tilatailatrivrcchurnabhagau chashtapalonmitau ||41||
dhatriphalarasaprasthamstrin gudardhatulam tatha | paktva mrudvagnina khadedbadarodumbaropaman ||42||
gudan krutva na chatra syadviharaharayantrana | mandagnitvam jvaram murccham mutrakrucchramarochakam ||43||
asvapnam gatrashulam cha kasam shvasam bhramam kshayam | kushtharshahkamalamehagulmodarabhagandaran ||44||
grahanipandurogamshcha hanyuh pumsavanashcha te | kalyanaka iti khyatah sarveshvrtushu yaugikah ||45||
iti kalyanakagudah |46|
lavananyajamodam cha churnitam karshikam pruthak| tilatailatrivrucchurnabhagau chashtapalonmitau||41||
dhatriphalarasaprasthamstrin gudardhatulam tatha| paktva mrudvagnina khadedbadarodumbaropaman||42||
gudan krutva na chatra syadviharaharayantrana| mandagnitvam jvaram murccham mutrakrucchramarochakam||43||
asvapnam gatrashulam cha kasam shvasam bhramam kshayam| kushtharshahkamalamehagulmodarabhagandaran||44||
grahanipandurogamshcha hanyuh pumsavanashcha te| kalyanaka iti khyatah sarveshvrutushu yaugikah||45||
Each one karsha (around 12 grams) of Vidanga, Pippalimula, Triphala, Dhanyaka, Chitraka, Maricha, Indrayava, Ajaji Hasti pippali, Saindhava lavana, Samudra lavana, Vida lavana, Sauvarchala lavana, Audbhida lavana and Ajamoda are to be powdered separately and mixed together. Then, each eight pala (around 320 grams) of sesame oil and powdered root of Trivrita are added. Then, three prasthas (around 2.20 litres) juice of Amalaki and half a tula of jaggery are added to the entire material and cooked over mild fire. (When, it is completely cooked), round pills (Guda) of the size of Badara or Udumbara are made from the compound. While taking in these pills, there is no need of restrictions of food or any other regimen. Utilization of this purgative drug relieves loss of digestive power (Mandagni), fever (Jwara), fainting (Murchcha), dysuria (Mutrakrichchra), anorexia (Arochaka), insomnia (Asvapna), body pains (Gatrashula), cough (Kasa), bronchitis (Shvasa), vertigo (Bhrama), loss of tissues (Kshaya), skin diseases (Kushtha), haemorrhoids (Arshas), jaundice (Kamala), urinary tract diseases including diabetes (Meha), benign tumors of the intestines (Gulma), diseases of the visceral organs (Udara), fistula-in-ano (Bhagandara), dysentery (Grahani), and anaemia (Panduroga). This medicinal preparation also helps in conceiving a male progeny (pumsavana). The preparation, thus made and used is known as Kalyanaka guda and can be used in all seasons [40-45 ½]
Preparation of Trivrita in the form of Modaka ( bolus)(No. 3)
व्योषत्वक्पत्रमुस्तैलाविडङ्गामलकाभयाः | समभागा भिषग्दद्याद्द्विगुणं च मुकूलकम् ||४६||
त्रिवृतोऽष्टगुणं भागं शर्करायाश्च षड्गुणम् | चूर्णितं गुडिकाः कृत्वा क्षौद्रेण पलसम्मिताः ||४७||
भक्षयेत् कल्यमुत्थाय शीतं चानु पिबेज्जलम् | मूत्रकृच्छ्रे ज्वरे वम्यां कासे श्वासे भ्रमे क्षये ||४८||
तापे पाण्ड्वामयेऽल्पेऽग्नौ शस्ता निर्यन्त्रणाशिनः | योगः सर्वविषाणां च मतः श्रेष्ठो विरेचने ||४९||
मूत्रजानां च रोगाणां विधिज्ञेनावचारितः |५०|
vyoshatvakpatramustailavidangamalakabhayah | samabhaga bhishagdadyaddvigunam cha mukulakam ||46||
trivrutoashtagunam bhagam sharkarayashcha shadgunam | churnitam gudikah krutva kshaudrena palasammitah ||47||
bhakshayet kalyamutthaya shitam chanu pibejjalam | mutrakrucchre jvare vamyam kase shvase bhrame kshaye ||48||
tape pandvamayealpeagnau shasta niryantranashinah | yogah sarvavishanam cha matah shreshtho virechane ||49||
mutrajanam cha roganam vidhinyenavacharitah |50|
vyoshatvakpatramustailavidangamalakabhayah | samabhaga bhishagdadyaddvigunam cha mukulakam||46||
trivrutoashtagunam bhagam sharkarayashcha shadgunam| churnitam gudikah krutva kshaudrena palasammitah||47||
bhakshayet kalyamutthaya shitam chanu pibejjalam| mutrakrucchre jvare vamyam kase shvase bhrame kshaye||48||
tape pandvamayealpeagnau shasta niryantranashinah| yogah sarvavishanam cha matah shreshtho virechane||49||
mutrajanam cha roganam vidhinyenavacharitah|50|
Each one part of Shunthi, Pippali, Maricha, Tvak, Patra, Musta, Ela, Vidanga, Amalaki and Haritaki, two parts of Mukulaka (Danti), eight parts of Trivrita and six parts of sugar are to be made into powder. To this compound, honey is added and Gudika (round large pills), each weighing one pala (around 40 grams) are to be made. One such pill is to be consumed early in the morning after rising from the bed. Cool water can be taken in along with the pill. This is very much useful in dysuria (Mutrakrchchra), fever (Jwara), vomiting (Vami), cough (Kasa), bronchial spasm (Shwasa), vertigo (Bhrama), tissue loss (Kshaya) burning sensation (Tapa), anemia (Pandu) and loss of digestive fire (Alpagni). It can be used without following any restrictions regarding food or regimen. It can be used as an excellent purgative drug in all cases of poisoning and also in cases of diseases of urinary tract. [45 ½ - 49½]
Preparation of Trivrita in the form of Modaka (bolus) (No. 4)
पथ्याधात्र्युरुबूकाणां प्रसृतौ द्वौ त्रिवृत्पलम् ||५०||
दश तान्मोदकान् कुर्यादीश्वराणां विरेचनम् |५१|
pathyadhatryurubukanam prasrutau dvau trivrutpalam ||50||
dasha tanmodakan kuryadishvaranam virechanam |51|
pathyadhatryurubukanam prasrutau dvau trivrutpalam||50||
dasha tanmodakan kuryadishvaranam virechanam|51|
One pala (around 50 grams) of Trivrita powder may be added with two prasrita (around 180 grams) powder of Pathya, Dhatri and Urubuka (root bark powder of Castor plant). (After adding sufficient quantity of honey), ten large sized bolus like pills may be prepared. This is ideal for upper class persons and delicate persons for purgation. [49½ - 50½]
Preparation of Trivrita in the form of Modaka (bolus) (no.5)
त्रिवृद्धैमवती श्यामा नीलिनी हस्तिपिप्पली ||५१||
समूला पिप्पली मुस्तमजमोदा दुरालभा | कार्षिकं नागरपलं गुडस्य पलविंशतिम् ||५२||
चूर्णितं मोदकान् कुर्यादुदुम्बरफलोपमान् | हिङ्गुसौवर्चलव्योषयवानीबिडजीरकैः ||५३||
वचाजगन्धात्रिफलाचव्यचित्रकधान्यकैः | मोदकान् वेष्टयेच्चूर्णैस्तान् सतुम्बुरुदाडिमैः ||५४||
त्रिकवङ्क्षणहृद्बस्तिकोष्ठार्शःप्लीहशूलिनाम् | हिक्काकासारुचिश्वासकफोदावर्तिनां शुभाः ||५५||
trivruddhaimavati shyama nilini hastipippali ||51||
samula pippali mustamajamoda duralabha | karshikam nagarapalam gudasya palavimshatim ||52||
churnitam modakan kuryadudumbaraphalopaman | hingusauvarchalavyoshayavanibidajirakaih ||53||
vachajagandhatriphalachavyacitrakadhanyakaih | modakan veshtayecchurnaistan satumburudadimaihi ||54||
trikavankshanahrudbastikoshtharshahplihashulinam | hikkakasarucishvasakaphodavartinam shubhah ||55||
trivruddhaimavati shyama nilini hastipippali||51||
samula pippali mustamajamoda duralabha| karshikam nagarapalam gudasya palavimshatim||52||
churnitam modakan kuryadudumbaraphalopaman| hingusauvarchalavyoshayavanibidajirakaih||53||
vachajagandhatriphalachavyacitrakadhanyakaih| modakan veshtayecchurnaistan satumburudadimaihi ||54||
trikavakshanahrudbastikoshtharshahplihashulinam| hikkakasarucishvasakaphodavartinam shubhah ||55||
Each one karsha (around 12 grams) of the Trivrita powder (the variety having pink roots), Haimavati (rind of Haritaki). Shyama (the variety having black roots) Nilini, Hastipippali, Pippalimula, Musta, Ajamoda and Duralabha, one pala of Nagara and twenty pala of jaggery are mixed together. Modakas (large pills of the size of Udumbara fruit may be preferred using the above said paste like mixture. These modakas are to be rolled well in a compounded powder of Hingu, Sauvarchala lavana, Vyosha (Trikatu), Yavani, Bidalavana, Jiraka, Vacha, Ajagandha, Triphala, Chavya, Chitraka, Dhanyaka, Tumburu and Dadima (bark powder), till the modakas (bolus) are covered completely. These modakas are positively indicated in pain in the Lumbo-Sacral area (Trika), inguinal area (Vamkshana), Cardiac or epigastric region (Hridaya), pelvic area (Vasti) and umbilical area (Koshtha), hemorrhoids (Arshas), Splenic disorders (Plihashula), hiccup (Hikka), Cough (Kasa), anorexia (Aruchi), bronchial spasm (Shwasa) and reversed peristalsis due to the obstruction in the stomach due to aggravated kapha (kaphaja udavarta). [50½ -55]
Purgative preparation of Trivrita useful in Rainy season
त्रिवृतां कौटजं बीजं पिप्पलीं विश्वभेषजम् | क्षौद्रद्राक्षारसोपेतं वर्षास्वेतद्विरेचनम् ||५६||
trivrutam kautajam bijam pippalim vishvabheshajam | kshaudradraksharasopetam varshasvetadvirechanam ||56||
trivrutam kautajam bijam pippalim vishvabheshajam| kshaudradraksharasopetam varshasvetadvirechanam||56||
The powder of Trivrita, Kutajabija, Pippali and Vishvabheshaja (Shunthi) are to be mixed with honey and grape juice. This preparation is useful as a purgative in rainy reason. 
Preparation of Trivrita useful in post-rainy season
त्रिवृद्दुरालभामुस्तशर्करोदीच्यचन्दनम् | द्राक्षाम्बुना सयष्ट्याह्वसातलं जलदात्यये ||५७||
trivrdduralabhamustasharkarodicyachandanam | drakshambuna sayashtyahvasatalam jaladatyaye ||57||
trivrudduralabhamustasharkarodicyachandanam| drakshambuna sayashtyahvasatalam jaladatyaye||57||
The powder of Trivrita, Duralabha, Musta, Sugar, Udichya (Balaka), Chandana, Yashti and Satala (charmakasa) may be token in along with Drakshambu (grape water) for purgation. This preparation is useful in post-rainy season.
Preparation of Trivrita useful in winter
त्रिवृतां चित्रकं पाठामजाजीं सरलं वचाम् | स्वर्णक्षीरीं च हेमन्ते पिष्ट्वा तूष्णाम्बुना पिबेत् ||५८||
trivrutam citrakam pathamajajim saralam vacham | svarnakshirim cha hemante pishtva tushnambuna pibet ||58||
trivrutam citrakam pathamajajim saralam vacham| svarnakshirim cha hemante pishtva tushnambuna pibet||58||
The powder or paste of Trivrita, Chitraka, Patha, Ajaji, Sarala, Vacha and Svarnakshiri may be taken in, along with hot water. This preparation causes purgation in Hemanta i.e. winter season.
Preparation of Trivrita useful in summer
शर्करा त्रिवृता तुल्या ग्रीष्मकाले विरेचनम् | sharkara trivruta tulya grishmakale virechanam | 58 ½ |
sharkara trivruta tulya grishmakale virechanam|
The powder of Trivrita, mixed with equal quantity of sugar, can be taken in during summer, for purgation.[58½]
Preparation of Trivrita suitable during any season
त्रिवृत्त्रायन्तिहपुषाः सातलां कटुरोहिणीम् ||५९||
स्वर्णक्षीरीं च सञ्चूर्ण्य गोमूत्रे भावयेत्त्र्यहम् | एष सर्वर्तुको योगः स्निग्धानां मलदोषहृत् ||६०||
trivruttrayantihapushah satalam katurohinim ||59||
svarnakshirim cha sancurnya gomutre bhavayettryaham | esha sarvartuko yogah snigdhanam maladoshahrt ||60||
trivruttrayantihapushah satalam katurohinim ||59||
svarnakshirim cha sanchurnya gomutre bhavayettryaham| esha sarvartuko yogah snigdhanam maladoshahrut||60||
Trivrita, Trayanti, Hapusha, Satala, Katurohini and Svaranakshiri are to be powdered well and soaked in cows urine continuously for a period of three days. This preparation is ideal for purgation during all seasons. It can easily expel out the stagnated morbid material from the bodies of persons, who are Snigdha (persons who underwent oleation therapy or persons who are naturally having sufficient quantity of fatty tissues in their body stores).[58½ - 60]
Preparation of Trivrita suitable during any season
त्रिवृच्छ्यामा दुरालम्भा वत्सकं हस्तिपिप्पली | नीलिनी त्रिफला मुस्तं कटुका च सुचूर्णितम् ||६१||
सर्पिर्मांसरसोष्णाम्बुयुक्तं पाणितलं ततः | पिबेत् सुखतमं ह्येतद्रूक्षाणामपि शस्यते ||६२||
trivrcchyama duralambha vatsakam hastipippali | nilini triphala mustam katuka cha suchurnitam ||61||
sarpirmamsarasoshnambuyuktam panitalam tatah | pibet sukhatamam hyetadrukshanamapi shasyate ||62||
trivrucchyama duralambha vatsakam hastipippali| nilini triphala mustam katuka cha suchurnitam||61||
sarpirmamsarasoshnambuyuktam panitalam tatah| pibet sukhatamam hyetadrukshanamapi shasyate||62||
Trivrita (root having pink color), Shyama (root having black color), Duralambha, Vatsaka, Hastipippali, Nilini, Triphala, Musta and Katuka are to be finely powdered. This powder is to be taken in, along with ghee, meat-sour and hot water, in a dose of one Panitala (around 12 grams). This preparation causes purgation with ease and is indicated even to persons who are Ruksha (who didn’t undergo oleation therapy or who are Ruksha (who didn’t undergo oleation therapy or who do not possess sufficient quantity of fat stores in their body). [61-62]
Preparation of Trivrita in the form of powder
त्र्यूषणं त्रिफला हिङ्गु कार्षिकं त्रिवृतापलम् | सौवर्चलार्धकर्षं च पलार्धं चाम्लवेतसात् ||६३||
तच्चूर्णं शर्करातुल्यं मद्येनाम्लेन वा पिबेत् | गुल्मपार्श्वार्तिनुत्सिद्धं जीर्णे चाद्याद्रसौदनम् ||६४||
tryushanam triphala hingu karshikam trivrutapalam | sauvarchalardhakarsham cha palardham chamlavetasat ||63||
tacchurnam sharkaratulyam madyenamlena va pibet | gulmaparshvartinutsiddham jirne chadyadrasaudanam ||64||
tryushanam triphala hingu karshikam trivrutapalam| sauvarchalardhakarsham cha palardham chamlavetasat||63||
tacchurnam sharkaratulyam madyenamlena va pibet| gulmaparshvartinutsiddham jirne chadyadrasaudanam||64||
Each one karsha (around 12 grams) of Tryushana, Triphala and Hingu, one pala (around 48 grams) of Trivrita, half a karsha (around 6 grams) of sauvarchala salt and half a pala (around 24 grams) of Amlavetasa are to be powdered well and mixed with equal quantity of powdered sugar. This preparation, in the form of powder can be taken in along with alcohol or sour juices (of fruits). This preparation surely relieves pain originating from Gulma (a benign intestinal tumor) and Parshva (both the sides of the chest cavity). When the medicinal preparation is completely digested, the patient can be given a diet comprising of meat soup. [63-64]
Preparation of Trivrita in the form of Tarpana (With nourishing drink)
त्रिवृतां त्रिफलां दन्तीं सप्तलां व्योषसैन्धवम् | कृत्वा चूर्णं तु सप्ताहं भाव्यमामलकीरसे ||६५||
तद्योज्यं तर्पणे यूषे पिशिते रागयुक्तिषु |६६|
trivrutam triphalam dantim saptalam vyoshasaindhavam | krutva churnam tu saptaham bhavyamamalakirase ||65||
tadyojyam tarpane yushe pishite ragayuktishu |66|
trivrutam triphalam dantim saptalam vyoshasaindhavam| krutva churnam tu saptaham bhavyamamalakirase||65||
tadyojyam tarpane yushe pishite ragayuktishu|66|
Trivrita, Haritaki, Vibhitaki, Amalaki, Danti, Saptala, Shunthi, Pippali, Maricha and Saindhava are powdered well. This powder is to be soaked in the juice of Amalaki for seven days. This preparation can be used along with either Tarpana (nourishing) soothing drink or Yusha (pulse-soup) or pishita (meat or meat-soup) or any other drinks like raga (a drink mixed with sweet, sour and pungent tastes).[65- 65½]
Preparations of Trivrita in the form of medicated ghee and milk
तुल्याम्लं त्रिवृताकल्कसिद्धं गुल्महरं घृतम् ||६६||
श्यामात्रिवृतयोर्मूलं पचेदामलकैः सह | जले तेन कषायेण पक्त्वा सर्पिः पिबेन्नरः ||६७||
श्यामात्रिवृत्कषायेण सिद्धं सर्पिः पिबेत्तथा | साधितं वा पयस्ताभ्यां सुखं तेन विरिच्यते ||६८||
tulyamlam trivrutakalkasiddham gulmaharam ghrutam ||66||
shyamatrivrutayormulam pachedamalakaih saha | jale tena kashayena paktva sarpih pibennarah ||67||
shyamatrivrutkashayena siddham sarpih pibettatha | sadhitam va payastabhyam sukham tena virichyate ||68||
tulyamlam trivrutakalkasiddham gulmaharam ghrutam||66||
shyamatrivrutayormulam pachedamalakaih saha| jale tena kashayena paktva sarpih pibennarah||67||
shyamatrivrutkashayena siddham sarpih pibettatha| sadhitam va payastabhyam sukham tena virichyate||68||
Equal quantity of sour juice and ghee are to be boiled along with the paste of Trivrita. This medicated ghee relieves Gulma (abdominal lumps).
The root of Shyama (the variety of Trivrita having black root) and Trivrita (the variety having pinkish root) are to be boiled in water along with the paste of Amalaki. Using this decoction, medicated ghee is prepared and taken in (for purgation).
Using the decoctions of Shyama (the variety of Trivrita having black root) and Trivrita (the variety having pinkish root), medicated ghee can be prepared and taken in (for purgation).
Using both of the varieties of Trivrita milk is boiled, filtered and used for purgation with ease. [65½ - 68]
Preparations of Trivrita in the form of alcoholic beverages
त्रिवृन्मुष्टींस्तु सनखानष्टौ द्रोणेऽम्भसः पचेत् | पादशेषं कषायं तं पूतं गुडतुलायुतम् ||६९||
स्निग्धे स्थाप्यं घटे क्षौद्रपिप्पलीफलचित्रकैः | प्रलिप्ते मधुना मासं जातं तन्मात्रया पिबेत् ||७०||
ग्रहणीपाण्डुरोगघ्नं गुल्मश्वयथुनाशनम् | सुरां वा त्रिवृतायोगकिण्वां तत्क्वाथसंयुताम् ||७१||
trivrnmushtimstu sanakhanashtau droneambhasah pachet | padashesham kashayam tam putam gudatulayutam ||69||
snigdhe sthapyam ghate kshaudrapippaliphalacitrakaihi | pralipte madhuna masam jatam tanmatraya pibet ||70||
grahanipandurogaghnam gulmashvayathunashanam | suram va trivrutayogakinvam tatkvathasamyutam ||71||
trivrunmushtimstu sanakhanashtau droneambhasah pachet | padashesham kashayam tam putam gudatulayutam ||69||
snigdhe sthapyam ghate kshaudrapippaliphalacitrakaihi | pralipte madhuna masam jatam tanmatraya pibet ||70||
grahanipandurogaghnam gulmashvayathunashanam | suram va trivrutayogakinvam tatkvathasamyutam ||71||
Eight fist-full of Trivrita root is to be boiled in one drona of water till one fourth of the water remains. Then the decoction is filtered out and mixed with one tula of jaggery, honey and powders of Pippali seeds of / Madana phala and Chitraka. Then the entire liquid is poured into an earthen vessel, whose inner side is thoroughly coated with ghee initially followed by a second coat with the powders of Pippali, Madana bija and Chitraka, grinded with honey. The vessel is to be covered and left over for one month. When fermented well, this can be taken in, in appropriate dosage, which cures dysentery (Grahani), anaemia (Pandu), abdominal lumps (Gulma), and edema (Shvayathu).
Similarly, the fermented liquid prepared using the decoction of Trivrita and Kinva (sediment left behind after the fermentation process is over) of the above preparation may also be used (for purgation).[69-71]
Preparations of Trivrita in the form of Kanjika (fermented gruels)
यवैः श्यामात्रिवृत्क्वाथस्विन्नैः कुल्माषमम्भसा | आसुतं षडहं पल्ले जातं सौवीरकं पिबेत् ||७२||
भृष्टान् वा सतुषाञ्छुद्धान् यवांस्तच्चूर्णसंयुतान् | आसुतानम्भसा तद्वत् पिबेज्जातं तुषोदकम् ||७३||
yavaihi shyamatrivrutkvathasvinnaihi kulmashamambhasa | asutam shadaham palle jatam sauvirakam pibet ||72||
bhrushtan va satushanchuddhan yavamstacchurnasamyutan | asutanambhasa tadvat pibejjatam tushodakam ||73||
yavaihi shyamatrivrutkvathasvinnaihi kulmashamambhasa| Asutam shadaham palle jatam sauvirakam pibet||72||
bhrushtan va satushaachuddhan yavamstacchurnasamyutan| asutanambhasa tadvat pibejjatam tushodakam||73||
Dehusked barley is to be steam boiled with the decoction of Shyama (the variety of Trivrita having black roots) and Trivrita (the variety of Trivrita having pink roots). This steam boiled barley (Kulmasha) is to be mixed with water, (kept in a pot) and allowed to ferment for six days covered by a heap of grains (Palla). The Sauviraka (fermented liquid) prepared can be taken in (for the purpose of purgation).
Alternatively, unhusked barley is to be fried well and powdered. This powder, along with the powdered root of Trivrita can be mixed with water and stored for six days till fermentation, following the procedure of the previous preparation. This Tushodaka (Fermented liquid) can be utilized for the purpose of purgation. [72-73]
Preparations of Trivrita in the form of Badara etc.
तथा मदनकल्पोक्तान् षाडवादीन् पृथग्दश | त्रिवृच्चूर्णेन संयोज्य विरेकार्थं प्रयोजयेत् ||७४||
tatha madanakalpoktan shadavadin prthagdasha | trivrcchurnena samyojya virekartham prayojayet ||74||
tatha madanakalpoktan shadavadin pruthagdasha| trivrucchurnena samyojya virekartham prayojayet||74||
As described in Madanakalpa Adhyaya verse 26, ten such preparations in different forms like Shadava etc. using the powder of Trivrita can be made and used for purgation.
Methods of making the drug more palatable
त्वक्केशराम्रातकदाडिमैलासितोपलामाक्षिकमातुलुङ्गैः | मद्यैस्तथाऽम्लैश्च मनोनुकूलैर्युक्तानि देयानि विरेचनानि ||७५||
शीताम्बुना पीतवतश्च तस्य सिञ्चेन्मुखं छर्दिविघातहेतोः | हृद्यांश्च मृत्पुष्पफलप्रवालानम्लं च दद्यादुपजिघ्रणार्थम् ||७६||
tvakkesharamratakadadimailasitopalamakshikamatulungaihi | madyaistathaamlaishcha manonukulairyuktani deyani virechanani ||75||
shitambuna pitavatashcha tasya sinchenmukham chardivighatahetoh | hrudyamshcha mrutpushpaphalapravalanamlam cha dadyadupajighranartham ||76||
tvakkesharamratakadadimailasitopalamakshikamatulungaihi | madyaistathaamlaishcha manonukulairyuktani deyani virechanani ||75||
shitambuna pitavatashcha tasya sinchenmukham chardivighatahetoh | hrudyamshcha mrutpushpaphalapravalanamlam cha dadyadupajighranartham ||76||
Thus, it is said,
A purgative drug may be administered along with, Twak (cinnamon bark), Kesara (saffron), Amrataka, Dadima, Ela, Sitopala (sugar candy), honey, Matulunga, alcohol or fermented liquid and sour drinks, to make them more palatable or cordial.
If a person develops vomiting sensation after consuming a purgative drug, cool water may be sprinkled over his face. He can be advised to inhale pleasing aromas or fragrances originating from earth, flowers, fruits, tender leaves and sour substances, which control the same.[75-76]
Summary of the chapter
एकोऽम्लादिभिरष्टौ च दश द्वौ सैन्धवादिभिः | मूत्रेऽष्टादश यष्ट्यां द्वौ जीवकादौ चतुर्दश ||७७||
क्षीरादौ सप्त लेहेऽष्टौ चत्वारः सितयाऽपि च | पानकादिषु पञ्चैव षडृतौ पञ्च मोदकाः ||७८||
चत्वारश्च घृते क्षीरे द्वौ चूर्णे तर्पणे तथा |थ द्वौ मद्ये काञ्जिके द्वौ च दशान्ये षाडवादिषु ||७९||
श्यामायास्त्रिवृतायाश्च कल्पेऽस्मिन् समुदाहृतम् | शतं दशोत्तरं सिद्धं योगानां परमर्षिणा ||८०||
ekoamladibhirashtau cha dasha dvau saindhavadibhih | mutreashtadasha yashtyam dvau jivakadau chaturdasha ||77||
kshiradau sapta leheashtau chatvarah sitayaapi cha | panakadishu panchaiva shadrutau pancha modakah ||78||
chatvarashcha ghrte kshire dvau curne tarpane tatha | dvau madye kanjike dvau cha dashanye shadavadishu ||79||
shyamayastrivrutayashcha kalpeasmin samudahrutam | shatam dashottaram siddham yoganam paramarshina ||80||
ekoamladibhirashtau cha dasha dvau saindhavadibhih| mutreashtadasha yashtyam dvau jivakadau chaturdasha||77||
kshiradau sapta leheashtau chatvarah sitayaapi cha| panakadishu panchaiva shadrutau panjcha modakah||78||
chatvarashcha ghrute kshire dvau curne tarpane tatha| dvau madye kanjike dvau cha dashanye shadavadishu||79||
shyamayastrivrutayashcha kalpeasmin samudahrutam| shatam dashottaram siddham yoganam paramarshina||80||
To sum up,
The chapter on the pharmaceutical preparations of Shyama Trivrita, the great seer (Charaka) has prescribed one hundred and ten formulations to be used as purgatives. They are summarized here, as follows:
- Nine preparations with sour juice etc.;
- Twelve preparations with rock salt etc.;
- Eighteen preparations with cow’s urine
- Two preparations with Yashtimadhu
- Fourteen preparations with Jivaka, etc;
- Seven preparations with milk etc.
- Eight preparations in the form of linctus.
- Four preparations with sugar
- Five preparations in the form of syrup etc.
- Six preparations for different seasons.
- Five preparations in the form of Modaka (large pills).
- Four preparations in the form of medicated ghee or medicated milk.
- Two preparations, one, in the form of powder and another in the form of soothing drink.
- Two preparations in the form of medicated alcohol
- Two preparations in the form of Kanji (fermented beverage)
- Ten preparations in the form of Shadava, Badara, etc.; [77-80]
इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृतेऽप्राप्ते दृढबलसम्पूरिते कल्पस्थाने श्यामात्रिवृत्कल्पो नाम सप्तमोऽध्यायः ||७||
ityagniveshakrte tantre charakapratisamskruteaprapte drudhabalasampurite kalpasthane shyamatrivrutkalpo nama saptamoadhyayah ||7||
Thus ends the seventh chapter titled “The pharmaceutical preparations of Shyama Trivrita” in the section named Kalpa Sthana of the work of Agnivesha, as redacted by Charaka and supplemented by Dridhabala.
Tattva Vimarsha / Fundamental Principles
- Trivrita is kashaya(astringent), madhura(sweet) rasa, katu(pungent), vipaka(product after digestion), and ruksha(dry) properties. These properties do not support the purgative action, in spite of this Trivrita is best among purgative drug.
- It pacifies kapha and pitta and aggravates vata due to its ruksha(dry) property.
- Roots of Trivrita are used in pharmaceutical processing. These are of two types: black (Shyama) and the other having Blackish red. The latter are more useful between them.
- The blackish red root of Trivrita can be safely used as mild purgative in tender persons, children, old aged people and those with laxed bowel. The blackish variety is strong purgative and can cause untoward effects. It is used in more aggravation of dosha and hard bowel persons.
- After combining with respective dosha pacifying drugs, Trivrita can be used in treatment of all diseases due to any dosha vitiation. It can also be used in all seasons in combination with various drugs.
Vidhi Vimarsha / Applied Inferences
The first two synonyms Tribhandi and Trivrita are indicative of the nature of its stem. It is a stout, twining and three winged stem. Tribhandi specifically denotes its wavy looking stem in three angles. Trivrita points at its nature of growth of the stem in three directions.
Shyama is indicative of the color of its root. The fourth word Kutarana is probably a misspelt synonym. It will be very much ideal, if we read it as Kotarana which directs us towards its flower. Flowers are generally white in colour, funnel shaped and arranged in few flowered cymes. The meaning of Kotara is hollow and the petals of the flower form a hollow and funnel like tubular structure and are an identification point to many of the flowers of the Ipomoea genera. When a Pratyaya (suffix) is added to the word Kotara, the final word Kotarana is formed. The last two synonyms, Sarvanubhuti and Suvaha open us a clue regarding its wide acceptability and suitability to all individuals, causing no spasmodic pain and any other such type of undesired actions. Sarvanubhuti means suitability to all and Suvaha means tolerated by all. (Verse 4)
Some drugs have got inborn tendency to act in some pathological conditions. Similarly, Trivrita has the natural property to aggravate vata and pacify pitta and kapha. But when prepared with vata pacifying drugs, it cures diseases caused by vata. Similarly, when prepared with pitta and kapha pacifying drugs, it can be capable of curing diseases caused by pitta, and kapha respectively. This property of modulating the pharmacological action depending upon the preparation is known as Samskarabhivartana; Ghuta or clarified butter is also said to possess the similar property.
Pharmacological Properties of a drug are described in any context to gain full length knowledge about its therapeutic actions. But at times, there may not be exact concordance between these two. The Ayurvedic parameters like rasa, guna, etc.; generally show or exhibit the same therapeutic actions, attributed to them. But some drugs that are strong emetics, purgatives and antitoxic, do not imbibe themselves to the theoretical parameters and exert their individualized action. So, Trivrita also can be considered as a drug with individualized action. (Verse 5-6)
The commentators like Chakrapani opined that Charaka preferred the blackish red variety because of its good or sustained purgative action along with less or little undesired actions, causing no vyapatti (complications).
Actually, there is no confusion regarding the source of Trivrita, which is the root of Operculum turpethum (Linn) Silva Manso, Syn. Ipomoea turpethum R. Br. (Fam. Convolvulaceae). Then, how it happens to procure two types of roots having different colors and different pharmacological actions with difference in the intensity of the action of purgation. Either they should be from different genera or different species or should be from an entirely different plant. The confusion originated at this juncture, complicated by commentators, traders and less knowledgeable physicians. Adding to the existing confusion, we can find two more words in Sushruta Samhita and they are Maha Trivrita (or major trivrita) and Maha Shyama (majorshyama). They probably are the roots of a fully grown/mature plant, where the roots tend to grow large because of the perennial nature of the twining plant. At the same time, traders, who market the drug started selling some different roots or stem pieces with the name of trivrita or shyama, knowingly or unknowingly for hundreds of years. But in the market, stem pieces or rarely root pieces of Marsdenia tenacissima W. & A are sold under the name of trivrita or shyama which are neither black nor white, but when sold as they are, they look black and when decorticated, they appear white or pinkish white. In the markets of Kanpur in India, the roots of Operculina turpethnum are sold with the name of vidhara or vriddhadaru, which is not mentioned by either Charaka or Sushruta. Recently, as reported by Dr K. Nishteswar, roots of Ipomoea triloba are also sold with the name of trivrita in the markets of Gujarat.
It is well reported and also observed by the author personally that, the root bark of Operculina turpethum (Linn) Silva Manso, when dried under the sun becomes white and when shade dried, turns black. This point is to be observed very carefully because, in the original text, Charaka nowhere mentioned two plant species but mentioned two varieties of roots, which is supported by the word Tasyah Mulam Dvividham i.e., its root is of two types using singular form for the plant. Hence, the concept of sun-dried and shade-dried roots, stands good and it is a known fact that factors like storage, preservation, exposure to heat or sunlight bring many changes in the chemical constituents of plant parts but, till date no research work has been conducted in differentiating the constituents of differently dried root parts, which may bring some light into the subject.
But, with lapse of time, by the time of lexicographers like Sodhala, Dhanvantari and Bhavamishra, the other variety of Shyama intruded the market or trade and new plant species having better or equivalent laxative or purgative action attracted the authors. Some new synonyms like Palindi, Kali, Masuravidala and Kalameshika are attributed to the black variety of Trivrita i.e. Shyama and this variety is distinctly separated as a new variety, while disregarding the opinion of Charaka or Sushruta who never considered two plant species but explored only two varieties of roots. Then, some species of Ipomoea which resembles the morphological synonyms is to be searched for. In this prolonged process, many modern authors suggested different species, depending upon the traditional utility and morphological similarities. One of such plants Ipomoea petaloidea can be equated with Shyama, basing on the synonyms. The word Palindi indicates the flowers; The upper part of the sepals is divided and resembles pali, i.e., ear lobe. Kali and Kalameshika denote the color of the flowers as bluish black where as that of Shveta Trivrita (Operculina sp) appear pure white. Masuravidala means the two separated parts of the lens shaped lentil seed and the leaves of Ipomoea pes-caprae (Linn.) Sweet, exactly resemble them. Hence, some authors considered this species also as Shyama.
Then, coming to the opinions of different modern day authors, Bapalal has suggested using jalapa i.e. Exogoneum purge, Benth. As the white variety of Trivrita, well developed Trivrita as Maha Shyama and O. turpethum as Shyama. Sharma, P.V accepted O. Turpethum as Trivrita and Ipomoea petaloidea Chois as Shyama. Regarding Maha Shyama, he has suggested two possibilities. It is either some Ipomoea or Euphorbia species.
But according to the opinion of the author, if, we wish to follow the instructions of Charaka as they are, Trivrita is only one plant i.e. Operculina turpethum (Linn.) Silva Manso and we have to use the roots of the same plant. If we need to procure pinkish roots, we have to dry them in sunlight and for black roots they may be dried in shade. This practice can be continued till a final conclusion, basing on the phyto-chemical, pharmacological and therapeutic works and till that time, it is better not to confuse with the names and traditional practice of using different plant species for purgation can be continued. (Verse 7)
According to the indications, persons having delicate health and children are not advised purgative therapy. Even then, it may be necessary sometimes to utilize purgatives for such persons also. Then, Trivrita, having blackish red root can be administered safely. Generally, there will be exceptions for any prescribed rule and the same thing is applicable in case of purgatives also. Though, they are not indicated for all, in case of emergency situations, because of the high safety margin, Trivrita roots of blackish red variety may be used.
The first blackish red variety acts as a mild purgative but black variety acts as a cathartic. It can cause many undesired actions also due to its potent activity. It mainly creates spasm in the alimentary tract. So, the person experiences pain in the throat and cardiac regions immediately after consuming the drug. When, excessive purgation occurs naturally, there is tissue loss, electrolyte imbalance and dehydration and as a result, the patient may undergo stupor and unconsciousness. Even then, it is highly praised for its prompt action and potent evacuative capacity of bowels.
Method of collection
The method of collecting emetic and purgative drugs is well described in Madanakalpa Adhyaya. The same method may be followed in case of trivrita also. Additionally, some specific measures that are to be followed while collecting trivrita roots are mentioned here. The root of trivrita that is penetrated deep into the earth is to be collected. A Synonym, Sarala which denotes the deeply and straightly penetrating nature of the root is mentioned in Dhanvantari Nighantu and Bhavaprakasha. The roots that spread sideways are not stout and are not supplied with sufficient nutrition. Hence, they may not contain the needed chemical constituents and are to be avoided. Usually, the pith inside a root acts for stability and never contains any type of active principles. Without removing the pith, the bark cannot be dried quickly. Anyhow, the methods of storage, as suggested in the first chapter can be followed.
Administration of thin gruel, in the previous night is an exception to the general rule to the purgation process, as stated in Sutra 13:18. There, it is said that the person who is to be purgated is to be given a liquid diet along with meat-soup which is unctuous (Snehavat) and hot, continuously for three days. But when, purgation with trivrita is being done, this rule need not be followed and a single semi liquid diet in the previous night is sufficient. Anyhow, it is to be given when hot and is prepared with meat soup, adding ghee. The reason for this exception is that, trivrita is such a drug which can cause purgation with ease, causing less or little complications.
In total, 110 preparations of trivrita are described in this chapter, utilizing different vehicles and different forms that are suitable for each individual. Out of them nine preparations are counted here. Fermented liquids or urine of different animals are used. Though, the secondary purpose of liquid is to swallow the drug easily, the main purpose is to facilitate the action of the drug.i.e trivrita. In general, the fermented liquids can expel out the hard feces (bhedi), palatable and control reversed peristalsis there by reducing the spasm generated during the administration of purgatives. The person suffers from less colicky pain by using them. The use of urine of different animals helps to pacify kapha and alleviate colicky pain. Thus, the use of vehicles, enhance the desired action of the main drug and reduce the undesired actions.
Another twelve preparations of trivrita, along with twelve different types of salts are described. Anyone of them should be mixed with the powdered root of trivrita and powdered ginger and taken in with hot water. The list of the salts is not mentioned here but as per the suggestion of Chakrapani, the commentator, they are enlisted here from the eighth chapter of Vimana Sthana of Charaka Samhita. There, total number of fifteen salts is mentioned and Charaka advised here, to consider the first twelve salts. The other three types of salts that are left over are ushara, pateyaka and pamshya. The main purpose of mixing any of the salts in the process of purgation is to prevent dehydration and electrolyte loss. Addition of dry ginger (shunthi) also serves the purpose of breaking the hard feces and reducing spasmodic pain.
Eighteen formulations, using eighteen drugs along with the powdered root of trivrita which can be used along with cow’s urine as a liquid vehicle are mentioned. All the plant drugs that are used here are appetizers, stimulants and they relieve spasm as well. The role of cow’s urine in this context is quite reasonable in the sense that, it acts as a stimulant and is capable of modulating the action of any drug taken along with it positively. That itself is capable of doing mild laxation and acts as an anti-toxic drug.
One preparation, along with yashtimadhu is described. In the index at the end of this chapter, two preparations, using the same drug are enlisted. The other one is narrated in the verse no. 19. This preparation is very much palatable and is specifically useful for those persons having pitta type of constitution who are suffering from symptoms like throat burn.
Fourteen preparations using trivrita along with fourteen different drugs like jivaka are narrated. Additionally, one more preparation, using yashtimadhu is also described. These preparations are very much palatable as most of the drugs are sweet in taste. Though, some of them are bitter, their vipaka or post digestive effect is sweet. So, apart from causing purgation, they relieve many diseases caused by vata and pitta and act as rejuvenatives (rasayana) as well.
Total number of seven preparations, of trivrita are prescribed, using seven different ingredients. Many of them are having sweet taste and are able to control vata potentially. Milk and meat soup are highly palatable and can be given to individuals with their choice. The third one is sugar cane juice, accepted by all and is an addition to the laxative action. The next three recipes are fruit juices and have got pure sweet taste with mild laxative action. The seventh one is ghee which alleviates vata and reduces the drastic action of any purgative drug. Haritaki is added half the quantity to the main drug to enhance the purgative action of trivrita very safely and in a sustained manner.
This is the first one of the eight preparations in the form of linctus. Avaleha or linctus is such a preparation which provides additional palatability to any of the drug mixed with it. Persons, who feel aversion to medicinal preparations that too emetics or purgatives due to their bitter taste or disagreeable aroma, can easily consume such preparations.
The powders of three more drugs along with powdered sugar are advised to be taken along with trivrita in the powder form. They are thoroughly mixed with honey and ghee to make it linctus. But, nowhere, the proportion of the drugs used is mentioned either by Charaka or the commentators. Ashtanga Hridaya also followed the same verse but didn’t mention either the proportion or the dosage. Because, this preparation is used in conditions like fever and thirst, it will be better to use the ingredients in equal proportions and limit the dose for laxation but not for purgation.
Proportion of trivrita
In this preparation, the proportions of individual ingredients are mentioned by Chakrapani. One part of the powder or paste of trivrita, One part of sugar and one-fourth part of the decoction of trivrita may be used to make an agreeable form of preparation. This is highly palatable as this contains only the black variety of trivrita as its ingredient, it can be used with caution but more precisely.
As a principle, honey is not heated or boiled, which makes it poisonous, according to the Ayurvedic texts. But in this preparation, exceptionally, it is advised by Charaka himself to boil honey and melt sugar. It is true that, honey bees collect honey from many poisonous flowers also. This toxicity may enhance, when the honey is heated or boiled. But, when given along with as a purgative drug, there is less chance of honey being absorbed into the system. Apart from this, it enhances the palatability of the preparation and intestinal motility is increased due to the ushna viryata. The proportions of ingredients in this preparation are, powdered trivrita in one-fourth quantity to the syrup and the other drugs like cinnamon bark in the required quantity. Their purpose is to enhance the flavor of the preparation, to make it acceptable.
This preparation (Verse 23 ½ - 25) is intended for rich people and whose physique is tender. As they usually consume high fat diet regularly, they need not undergo oleation therapy as a prerequisite to purgation. This linctus can cause purgation even in them, with ease.
Though, the quantity of trivrita to be added is not mentioned here, as a common rule, one-fourth quantity to the liquids may be added. The fruit juices in general and juices of grapes and pilu specifically cause mild laxation and expel out the stagnated pitta dosha from the body effectively. The honey that is heated also can act as a pitta aggravating factor to mobilize it from the existing place and move it out. Similar preparation is found also in Sushruta Samhita and Ashtanga Hridaya. (Verse 26-27)
These preparations (Verse 28) are made in the similar process as that of linctus. For making these preparations, sugarcane juice etc; as described in the verses 26-27 are to be utilized accordingly.
In this preparation (Verse 29), both the varieties of trivrita roots are used for their synergistic action. Though, the propositions are not mentioned, they can be taken in equal quantity. The other drugs are also able to check the status of kapha and help to expel out the stagnated kapha from the body. Kshara mentioned here is an alkali preparation that is prepared synthetically, using grasses and herbs.
This preparation (Verse 30-32) can be made as per the method mentioned in verses 26-27. Quantity of the ingredients individually is not mentioned here. But for all practical purposes, the juice of Matulunga, etc; are to be taken in the quantity of one kudava each. This is as per the suggestions made by Chakrapani.
In Verse 33, five types of preparations are mentioned for better palatability. These preparations also help in averting any type of undesired action. Moreover, these due to their liquid nature, pass on to the large intestines very easily so that the drug action starts early.
This type of smoothening drink (Verse 34-35) is one of the two, prescribed in the same chapter. This is very much pleasing, tasty, aromatic and strength giving while causing purgation. The recipient never feels tired even after purgation as the complications are little.
This (Verse 36) is one of the five preparations of trivrita in the form of modaka. The taste of this is good and causes less hazardous effects on the body while curing the disease proper.
This (Verse 37-39) is the eighth and the last one of the preparations in the form of linctus. Measurement of modaka used here is one shana which measures approximately 3.0 grams. Because this contains many drugs which pacify kapha, the preparation is indicated in upper abdominal diseases including bronchitis. Though it is said that no restrictions of any type are required here, they are to be followed cautiously and judiciously so that unexpected complications do not arise.
This preparation, known as kalyanaka guda is the second one in the form of modaka. The quantity of trivrita in this multi drug preparation is proportionately low; so, even though, this is consumed in different seasons without following any restrictions, there may not be any undesired effects. Moreover, an additional advantage of this preparation, which usual purgative does not possess is that it can help in promoting male progeny.
This is the third preparation (Verse 45 ½ - 49½) in the form of modaka. This is also known as abhayadi modaka, according to Chakrapani. The quantity of honey is not prescribed here and can be used as per the need to prepare the modaka. He further says that danti and trivrita are to be used two times and eight times to the total ingredients of shunthi etc; or can be used two parts and eight parts respectively. He did not clarify the proportions but put forth the opinions of others. This is a special preparation in the sense that, he added one more purgative drug i.e. danti. There seems to be similar preparation mentioned in the Ashtanga Hridaya, known by the name of Avipattiyoga. In that formulation, danti is not added and the proportion of trivrita is suggested as nine parts, as the other ingredients are nine in number and each one part of them are taken for the preparation. This opinion is further supported by both of the commentators Hemadri and Arunadatta and we can follow the same opinion for all practical purposes.
This (Verse 49½ - 50½) is the fourth formulation of trivrita in the form of modaka. Here, Charaka has used the word urubuka (castor plant) but did not mention the part of the plant to be used. Ancient commentators on any of the verse too did not give their opinion. Some modern commentators advised to take powdered seed which does not appear to be correct since the powder is highly toxic and can kill a person in that dose. Hence, it is ideal to use the root bark of castor plant which is not toxic but causes purgation without causing intestinal spasm.
The fifth type of trivrita formulation (Verse 50½ -55) in the form of modaka is prepared by dividing it into two parts - while the first one is preparation of large sized pills, the second part consists of application of medicated powders over it to make it more effective and palatable. There is a debate regarding the part of dadima to be used for preparations. In the similar compound, as mentioned in Ashtanga Hridaya, the preparation of modaka and its ingredients are to certain extent similar but the rolling (veshtana) process is not present. The seed powder of dadima is not effective therapeutically when dried and hence, the powder of the stem bark, which has got many potent actions against the diseases of colon that, can be used. Due to the addition of drugs like vacha, chitraka and tumburu, diseases due to kapha are definitely alleviated.
Importance of Trivrita
Trivrita is undoubtedly considered the best of all the drugs used for purgation due to its potent activity with very little undesired actions. Even then, the climatic conditions and impact of different seasons on our bodily functions cannot be neglected.
To make this drug more safe and more effective surpassing these climatic changes, Charaka has given four different preparations, useful for four seasons - summer, rainy/monsoon, autumn and winter. Apart from these four, he has also formulated two preparations that are useful for all seasons. Though it is stated that, for a healthy person, purgation therapy is to be employed in post rainy season, it has to be administered as and when an emergency state occurs in any season. There, this preparation helps a physician and the patient to cope up with the situation safely. In rainy season, there is a dominance of vata and the addition of shunthi, honey and grape juice help to overcome this problem.
In this purgative preparation (Verse 57) that is useful in post rainy season, two drugs of plant origin appear to be confusing. They are duralabha and udichya. Duralabha can be better equated with Fagonia cretica Linn. As some sweet resionous substance is prepared from this plant and marketed which pacifies Pitta. So the other plant udichya can be equated with some Valeriana sp. which acts against pitta.
The word drakshambu is different from the juice of grapes. Grape juice is a direct extraction of the fruits through compression. But for grape water, dry grapes are to be soaked in water over night, thoroughly squeezed and filtered. The difference between them is that the first one is more concentrated and the latter is more diluted.
Contraindication of purgation therapy and seasons affecting its efficacy
Purgation therapy is not indicated during winter season due to the likely development of intestinal spasm because of the cold wave. Even then, in case of emergency or in a particular disease where kapha is causing problem or obstructing the lower parts of the colon, this purgation therapy is indicated. The powders mixed together can be ground well with hot water, so that the actual compound acts upon the system with ease.
During hot summer, purgation therapy is not at all advised due to the fear of developing dehydration or electrolyte imbalance. Even during that season, if need arises, trivrita can be utilized without any complication. To avoid any unexpected problem Charaka suggested using it with sugar which can prevent gastritis due to pitta.
This formula (Verse 58½ - 60 )contains good number of purgative drugs apart from trivrita, such as satala and svaranakshiri. Katurohini is famous for its action of breaking and expelling out hard fecal matter. Moreover, all the drugs are allowed to soak in cow’s urine for three days. This entire process makes the compound more sharp and potent. So, this drug is said to cause proper purgation in patients who are overweight or who have undergone comprehensive oleation therapy. This can be used in all seasons irrespective of the climatic conditions because all the ingredients used are safe and never cause drastic purgation. This also means that, it should never be used in patients who have not undergone oleation.
This preparation (Verse 61-62) contains both of the Trivruta roots (Pink and black) along with Nilini, a purgative drug. Even then, as it is advised to consume this preparation along with ghee and meat soup, it can be given even to persons who have less storage of fats in their body and who didn’t undergo oleation therapy. Thus, a total number of six preparations are prescribed in concordance with the seasons of varying climatic conditions.
Verse 63-64: Though Chakrapani confused a little bit in numbering this preparation as the first one in the powder form, the preparation vide verse Nos. 34-35, in the form of Tarpana can be taken as the first one and the preparations of verse nos. 63-64 and 65 – ½ 66 can be considered as the second preparation. Then, the total number of one hundred and ten comes to a factual conclusion.
In Verse 65- 65½, is the second one of the two preparations with trivrita used in the form of nourishing drink. This is highly palatable, nutritious and purgative and never causes any type of complications.
Total four preparations (Verse 65½-68 )are described using ghee or milk as base. Both of the varieties of trivrita are utilized here as the main drugs of the compound. As milk or ghee are used along with, the harmful side effects of shyama never crop up.
Two preparations (Verse 69-71) in the form of fermented beverages are mentioned. The main purpose is to store the preparation for a longer period of time. Additionally, the palatability becomes an advantage. This can also be used in persons habituated to alcohol for a longer period.
These two preparations (Verse 72-73) are also fermented liquids like the preparations mentioned in verses 69-71. They are easily absorbable, palatable, fast acting and can be stored for a longer period of time. The first one is sauviraka which is prepared with dehusked barley and boiled. The second one is prepared with unhusked barley in the powder form and not boiled. These two preparations are equally effective and are suggested for those patients who are habituated to alcoholic beverages.
Enhancing palatability of formulation
Here, ten preparations, utilizing the powdered root of trivrita are suggested. Their names and method of preparations are described in Kalpa 1:26.
- Badara – badava – Sour liquid made of jujube fruit
- Raga – A liquid with, sour and pungent tastes.
- Leha – A linctus
- Modaka – A type of Indian sweet
- Utkarika – A cake like preparation
- Tarpana – Soothening drink
- Panaka – Syrup
- Mamsarasa – meat soup
- Yusha – Pulse Soup and (or)
- Madya – Alcoholic beverages.
These preparations using Trivrita as the base drug enhance the pharmacological activity, palatability and acceptability.
A common phenomenon that occurs after administration of purgative drugs is that, quite often, the patient develops nausea or vomiting sensation. If he vomits, the drug consumed becomes useless and can’t be given once again the same day. The reason is that many of such drugs are either bitter or aversive. So, the palatability of the preparation is to be maintained inspite of all the precautions, if he develops nausea, it is to be averted following certain methods which are pleasing to the mind.
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- Sukumara - A person who belongs to an aristocratic family and who is tired easily on physical exercises and can not tolerate if the potency of the administered drug is high.
- Ksinva - Loss of tissues and water along with electrolytes.
- Vipatana - cutting a certain thing into its middle part.
- Visrta - spreading in large area
- Utsannadosa - Excessively aggravated dosa.
- Pumsavana - A drug or procedure using certain drugs to impart a male progeny.
- Musti – A measurement denoting a fist-full.
- Upajighrana - Inhalation of certain medicataments at a slower rate.