Kritavedhana Kalpa Adhyaya
Kalpa Sthana Chapter 6.Pharmaceutical preparations of Kritavedhana
Kritavedhana (Luffa acutangula Linn. Roxb) is used in treatment of deep seated diseases like kushtha (dermatosis), pandu (anemia), gulma (lump in abdomen), gara visha ( slow poisoning), etc. It belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. Total sixty preparations are made using different mediums like milk, alcohol, decoctions, meat, sugarcane juice, etc. It is very pungent, sharply acting and hot. Parts used are flowers and dried fruits for inducing emesis. It has emetic activity due to tikta rasa, tikshna guna, ushna veerya and most important its ubhaytobhagahara prabhava.
Keywords: Kritavedhana, Ubhaytobhagahara, decoctions. Luffa acutangula Linn. Roxb.
|Section/Chapter||Kalpa Sthana Chapter 6|
|Preceding Chapter||Vatsaka Kalpa Adhyaya|
|Succeeding Chapter||Shyamatrivrita Kalpa Adhyaya|
|Other Sections||Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana|
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Sanskrit Text, Transliteration with English Translation
- 3 Tattva Vimarsha (Fundamental Principles)
- 4 Vidhi Vimarsha (Applied Inferences )
Luffa acutangula Linn. Roxb. is used as a strong emetic drug. It is very pungent, sharp and hot so used in deep seated diseases for e.g. gulma, kushtha (leprosy), gara visha (poisoning), shotha (edema) and several other diseases. Its synonyms are kshveda, koshataki and mridangaphala.
Sushruta in Sutra Sthana states that it is used to treat krimi (worms), kushtha, prameha (diabetes mellitus) and shiroroga (brain diseases). 
Latin name: Luffa acutangula Linn. Roxb.
Sanskrit synonym: jalini, rajimatphala, ridangaphala. 
English name: Ribbed luffa, Ridged gourd.
Leaves smaller, at first whitish and softly villous, at length scabrid. Flowers smaller. Fruit obovoid, obtusely conical at both ends, 5-10 cm. long, by about 2.5-3.8 cm thick, 10- ribbed, bitter. Seeds smaller. The plant is slightly pungent, acrid, bitter; laxative; carminative digestible, a tonic to the intestines. 
Fig. Luffa acutangula plant with fruit and flower.
Distribution: It is found all over India. 
- Rasa: Tikta
- Guna: Laghu, Ruksha, Tikshna
- Veerya: Ushna
- Vipaka: Katu (Ati Katu) 
- Prabhav: Ubhaytobhagahara. 
Kritavedhana is vamaka (emetic) and virechaka (purgative), mutravirechaka (diuretic), vrana shodhaka (wound purifier) and vishaghna (anti-poisonous). In small amount it increases kshudha (appetite), removes vibandha (constipation). In high dose it is vamaka and virechaka. Jalodara (ascites) occurring due to hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, tincture (1:20) of its all five parts are used. The fruit destroys bad taste in mouth; Jwara (fever), shirashoola (headache). Fruit is violently vamaka (emetic). The entire plant is said to possess laxative and purgative properties and is also said to be useful in twaka vikara (skin diseases) and shwasa (asthma). It is said to be an antidote for snake poisoning. Cures vata, kapha, pandu (anemia), yakrata vikara (liver complaints), shwitra (leucoderma), arsha (piles), jalodara (ascites), kamala (jaundice). 
Chemical constituent: In seeds oil is found.
Sanskrit Text, Transliteration with English Translation
अथातः कृतवेधनकल्पं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||
इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||
athātaḥ kr̥tavēdhanakalpaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||
iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||
athAtaH kRutavedhanakalpaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||
iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||
Now we shall expound the chapter "Kritavedhana Kalpa" (Pharmaceutical preparations of kritavedhana). Thus said Lord Atreya.[1-2]
कृतवेधननामानि कल्पं चास्य निबोधत|
क्ष्वेडः कोशातकी चोक्तं मृदङ्गफलमेव च||३||
अत्यर्थकटुतीक्ष्णोष्णं गाढेष्विष्टं गदेषु च|
kr̥tavēdhananāmāni kalpaṁ cāsya nibōdhata|
kṣvēḍaḥ kōśātakī cōktaṁ mr̥daṅgaphalamēva ca||3||
atyarthakaṭutīkṣṇōṣṇaṁ gāḍhēṣviṣṭaṁ gadēṣu ca|
kRutavedhananAmAni kalpaM cAsya nibodhata|
kShveDaH koshAtakI coktaM mRuda~ggaphalameva ca||3||
atyarthakaTutIkShNoShNaM gADheShviShTaM gadeShu ca|
Now, listen about the synonyms and preparations of kritavedhana. Kshvetheda, koshataki and mridangaphala – these are the synonyms of kritavedhana.
It is intensely pungent, sharply acting and hot and is beneficial in deep seated diseases like kushtha, pandu (anemia), plihavriddhi (splenomegaly), shotha (swelling), gulma, visha (poisoning), etc.
क्षीरादि कुसुमादीनां सुरा चैतेषु पूर्ववत्|
सुशुष्काणां तु जीर्णानामेकं द्वे वा यथाबलम्||५||
कषायैर्मधुकादीनां नवभिः फलवत् पिबेत्|
क्वाथयित्वा फलं तस्य पूत्वा लेहं निधापयेत्||६||
कृतवेधनकल्कांशं फलाद्यर्धांशसंयुतम् |
पृथक् चारग्वधादीनां त्रयोदशभिरासुतम्||७||
kṣīrādi kusumādīnāṁ surā caitēṣu pūrvavat
suśuṣkāṇāṁ tu jīrṇānāmēkaṁ dvē vā yathābalam||5||
kaṣāyairmadhukādīnāṁ navabhiḥ phalavat pibēt|
kvāthayitvā phalaṁ tasya pūtvā lēhaṁ nidhāpayēt||6||
kr̥tavēdhanakalkāṁśaṁ phalādyardhāṁśasaṁyutam |
pr̥thak cāragvadhādīnāṁ trayōdaśabhirāsutam||7||
kShIrAdi kusumAdInAM surA caiteShu pUrvavat
sushuShkANAM tu jIrNAnAmekaM dve vA yathAbalam||5||
kaShAyairmadhukAdInAM navabhiH phalavat pibet|
kvAthayitvA phalaM tasya pUtvA lehaM nidhApayet||6||
kRutavedhanakalkAMshaM phalAdyardhAMshasaMyutam |
pRuthak cAragvadhAdInAM trayodashabhirAsutam||7||
Preparations of flower etc. in milk etc. and alcoholic extract should be made as before. One or two old and well dried fruit should be taken, according to strength, with decoction of nine madhukadi drugs as in context of madanphala (Catunaregum spinosa (Thunb.) Tiruv.).[5-6]
The fruit after preparing its decoction should be strained and made into a linctus by adding paste of kritavedhana one part, phaladi drugs each one – half part and impregnated with decoction of thirteen aragvadhadi drugs separately.
वर्तिक्रियाः षट् फलवत्, फलादीनां घृतं तथा||८||
vartikriyāḥ ṣaṭ phalavat, phalādīnāṁ ghr̥taṁ tathā||8||
vartikriyAH ShaT phalavat, phalAdInAM ghRutaM tathA||8||
Ten preparations are made with the slimy product obtained from the powder of shalmali (Salmalia malabarica Schott & Endl.) etc. Six caplets and ghrita (Clarified butter) with decoction of phaladi drugs should be prepared as in context of madanaphala (Catunaregum spinosa (Thunb.) Tiruv.). 
कोशातकानि पञ्चाशत् कोविदाररसे पचेत्|
तं कषायं फलादीनां कल्कैर्लेहं पुनः पचेत्||९||
क्ष्वेडस्य तत्र भागः स्याच्छेषाण्यर्धांशिकानि तु|
कषायैः कोविदाराद्यैरेवं तत् कल्पयेत् पृथक्||१०||
kōśātakāni pañcāśat kōvidārarasē pacēt|
taṁ kaṣāyaṁ phalādīnāṁ kalkairlēhaṁ punaḥ pacēt||9||
kṣvēḍasya tatra bhāgaḥ syācchēṣāṇyardhāṁśikāni tu|
kaṣāyaiḥ kōvidārādyairēvaṁ tat kalpayēt pr̥thak||10||
koshAtakAni pa~jcAshat kovidArarase pacet|
taM kaShAyaM phalAdInAM kalkairlehaM punaH pacet||9||
kShveDasya tatra bhAgaH syAccheShANyardhAMshikAni tu|
kaShAyaiH kovidArAdyairevaM tat kalpayet pRuthak||10||
Fifty fruits of koshataki should be boiled in decoction of kovidara (Bauhinia purpurea Linn.). This decoction should be cooked again with the paste of phaladi drugs in order to make linctus. Koshataki one part and others each in one-half part should be there in.
This should be prepared separately with decoction of other kovidaradi drugs. [9-10]
कषायेषु फलादीनामानूपं पिशितं पृथक्|
कोशातक्या समं पक्त्वा रसं सलवणं पिबेत्||११||
फलादिपिप्पलीतुल्यं तद्वत् क्ष्वेडरसं पिबेत्|१२|
क्ष्वेडं कासी पिबेत् सिद्धं मिश्रमिक्षुरसेन च||१२||
kaṣāyēṣu phalādīnāmānūpaṁ piśitaṁ pr̥thak|
kōśātakyā samaṁ paktvā rasaṁ salavaṇaṁ pibēt||11||
phalādipippalītulyaṁ tadvat kṣvēḍarasaṁ pibēt |
kṣvēḍaṁ kāsī pibēt siddhaṁ miśramikṣurasēna ca||12||
kaShAyeShu phalAdInAmAnUpaM pishitaM pRuthak|
koshAtakyA samaM paktvA rasaM salavaNaM pibet||11||
phalAdipippalItulyaM tadvat kShveDarasaM pibet|12|
kShveDaM kAsI pibet siddhaM mishramikShurasena ca||12||
In the decoction of phaladi drugs separately, meat of marshy animals should be cooked along with koshataki. This meat soup added with salt should be taken. 
Similarly meat – soup prepared with koshataki and added with seeds of phaladi drugs may be taken. One suffering from cough should take koshataki mixed and cooked with sugarcane.
क्षीरे द्वौ द्वौ सुरा चैका क्वाथा द्वाविंशतिस्तथा|
दश पिच्छा घृतं चैकं षट् च वर्तिक्रियाः शुभाः||१३||
लेहेऽष्टौ सप्त मांसे च योग इक्षुरसेऽपरः|
कृतवेधनकल्पेऽस्मिन् षष्टिर्योगाः प्रकीर्तिताः||१४||
kṣīrē dvau dvau surā caikā kvāthā dvāviṁśatistathā|
daśa picchā ghr̥taṁ caikaṁ ṣaṭ ca vartikriyāḥ śubhāḥ||13||
lēhē'ṣṭau sapta māṁsē ca yōga ikṣurasē'paraḥ|
kr̥tavēdhanakalpē'smin ṣaṣṭiryōgāḥ prakīrtitāḥ||14||
kShIre dvau dvau surA caikA kvAthA dvAviMshatistathA|
dasha picchA ghRutaM caikaM ShaT ca vartikriyAH shubhAH||13||
lehe~aShTau sapta mAMse ca yoga ikShurase~aparaH|
kRutavedhanakalpe~asmin ShaShTiryogAH prakIrtitAH||14||
Now the summing up verses –
Four preparations in milk, one in alcohol, twenty decoctions, ten slimy ones, one ghrita, six caplets, eight in linctus, seven in meat and one in sugarcane juice – thus total sixty formulations have been said in this chapter on pharmaceutical preparations of Kritavedhana.[13-14]
Tattva Vimarsha (Fundamental Principles)
Kritavedhana (Luffa acutangula Linn. Roxb) is used as emetic in treatment of deep seated diseases like kushtha (dermatosis), pandu (anemia), gulma (lump in abdomen), gara visha ( slow poisoning).
Vidhi Vimarsha (Applied Inferences )
Glycogenesis in muscle and liver is mainly regulated by serum insulin level. The decrease in hepatic glycogen may be due to low level of serum insulin in NIDDM rats, which could have inactivated the glycogen synthesis system. Treatment with Luffa acutangula (L.A.) extracts for 21 days to NIDDM rats has resulted in increase in liver glycogen levels. This highlights the one possible way of antidiabetogenic action of LA extract. 
Antioxidant activity/free radical scavenging activity
A comparative study of extracts, prepared both by cold maceration and also by boiling the plant in the solvent under reflux, of vegetables traditionally consumed like angular loofah (Luffa acutangula), charungli (Caralluma edulis), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) was made for free radical scavenging activity (antioxidant property).The IC 50 value of L. acutangula was determined and was found to be 0.33μg/mg19. A significant difference in the antioxidant activity was observed between the extract obtained by both methods, in case of L.acutangula, indicating the change in chemical composition of the plant during the heating process and increase in the amount of antioxidant components. 
Protective effect of Luffa acutangula extracts (methanolic and aqueous, LAM, LAW) on gastric ulceration in NIDDM rats was studied by inducing diabetes with Streptozotocin (65mg/kg, i.p.) along with nicotinamide (120 mg/kg, i.p.) and gastric ulceration to diabetic rats was induced by aspirin. LAM significantly (P<0.01) increased mucosal glycoprotein and antioxidant enzyme level in gastric mucosa of diabetic rats than LAW (P <0.05). LAM was efficient in reversing the delayed healing of gastric ulcer in diabetic rats close to the normal level. LAM exhibited better ulcer healing effect than glibenclamide and LAW, because of its both anti-hyperglycemic and mucosal defensive actions. Thus, LAM is proved to be a better alternative for treating gastric ulcers co-occurring with diabetes. 
Fruit extract of Luffa acutangula (L) Roxb. was found more potent antibacterial and anti-fungal activity than leaf extract. Among the bacteria, E. coli showed high sensitivity than Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeroginosa species to leaf and fruit extract of Luffa. The anti-fungal property was evaluated on various species and Curvularia lunata was found highly sensitive to leaf and fruit extract of Luffa while to same extract Phomasorghina showed poor sensitivity. Thus, it was concluded that plant possess significant antibacterial and antifungal properties. 
Phaladi drugs taken as pippali phala, jimutaka, ikshvaku, dhamargava, kutaja and kritavedhana. [Verse 7]
- Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka samhita, Sutra sthana, Dirghanajivatiya Adhyaya 1/82, Hindi Commentary by Pandit Kashi Nath Shastri, Dr. Gorakhanath Chaturvedi, , Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, Varanasi, Reprint 2005, 43.
- Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka samhita, Vimana sthana, Rogabhishagajitiya Adhyaya 8/143, Hindi Commentary by Pandit Kashi Nath Shastri, Dr. Gorakhanath Chaturvedi, , Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, Varanasi, Reprint 2005,789.
- Kaviraja Ambika Dutta Shastri, Susruta Samhita, Chap 45, shlok no.115, Reprint 2013, Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, Varanasi, pp 230.
- Dravyaguna- Vigyana, Vol.II, written by Prof. P.V. Sharma, Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, Varanasi, Reprint 1998, 383.
- Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol.II by Kirtikar and Basu, second edition 1998, pp1123-1124.
- Ibidem Dravyaguna Vigyana Vol.II,(4) 383.
- Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka samhita, Kalpa sthana, Kritavedhana Kalpa Adhyaya 6/4, Hindi Commentary by Pandit Kashi Nath Shastri, Dr. Gorakhanath Chaturvedi, , Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, Varanasi, Reprint 2012, 914.
- Ibidem Dravyaguna Vigyana Vol.II,(4) 383.
- Bhava Prakash Nighantu by Prof. K.C. Chunekar, Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, Varanasi, Reprint 2013, 672.
- Shekhawat N, Soam P S, Singh T and Vijayvergia R, Antioxidant activity of 5 vegetables traditionally consumed by South Asian migrants. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical sciences,5(4): 298-301, (2010).
- Ansari N M, Houlihan L, Pierni A, Antioxidant activity of 5 vegetables traditionally consumed by South Asian migrants in Bradford, Yorkshire UK.Phytotherapy. Research, 19: 907-911, (2005).
- Pimple B P,Kadam P V and Patil M J, Protective effect of Luffa acutangula extracts on gastric ulceration in NIDDM rats: Role of gastric mucosal glycoproteins and antioxidants.Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 610- 615, (2012).
- Dandge V S,Rothe SP and Pethe A S,Antimicrobial activity and Pharmacognostic study of Luffa acutangularoxb var amara on some deuteromycetes fungi. International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, 2 (1): 191-196, (2010).
- Charaka Samhita, Kalpa sthana, Madana Kalpa Adhayaya, 1/18, commentary by Yadav ji trikamaji Acarya, Chaukhambha Sura Bharati Prakashan, 2011, 655.