The word ‘basti’ denotes therapeutic procedure of enema. It is one of the five purification procedures (panchakarma). Basti also spelled as vasti, literally means bladder or an injection-syringe made of bladder or injection itself. In anatomical perspective, the urinary bladder is called as basti. In ancient times, the bladder of animals (mainly goat or buffalo) was used to administer enema therapy, hence the therapy is knows as ‘basti’. [A.S.Sutra Sthana 28/2] It is the best treatment for disorders of vata dosha. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 25/40]. Due to the primary importance of vata dosha in causing diseases, basti is considered as the chief treatment among panchakarma. [Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 35/3]
In therapeutic management, it denotes medicated enema with decoction, oils or any other fluid either in rectum or urethra or vagina. The term ‘uttara basti’ is used for enema given through anterior orifice like urethra or vagina. In unction therapy, local therapeutic procedures like keeping warm oils or medicated substance on affected body part are used. These procedures are termed after name of affected part as suffix to the word ‘basti’. E.g. ‘janu basti’ means keeping warm medicated substance on knee joint; ‘kati basti’ means keeping it on the lumbar region. Most commonly, the term ‘basti’ indicates per rectal enema. Hence this article focuses on therapeutic enema given per rectum.
|Section/Chapter/topic||Chikitsa / Panchakarma/ Basti|
|Authors||Aneesh E.G., Deole Y.S.|
|Reviewed by||Basisht G.|
|Affiliations||Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre, I.T.R.A., Jamnagar|
|Publisher||Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre, I.T.R.A., Jamnagar, India|
|Date of first publication:||December 12, 2020|
Etymology and derivation
The word ‘basti’ is derived from the root ‘vas’ with suffix ‘tich’. ‘Vas’ is having the following meanings
- to reside or to stay or to dwell
- to cover
- to move or motion
On the basis of procedure
- Enema with decoctions (Niruha basti)
- Enema with unctuous substances (Anuvasana basti)
- Enema through urethral or vaginal route (Uttarabasti)[Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 10/8]
On the basis of site of administration
The basti can be broadly classified into internal and external based on the site of administration
- Administered into colon through anal route (pakvashayagata basti)
- Administered into uterus through vagina (garbhashayagata basti)
- Administered into urinary bladder through urethra (mutrashayagata basti)
- Administered over wounds for cleaning purpose (vrana basti) [Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 35/11]
Medicated oils are retained over particular body part for a specific duration. E.g. Medicated oil retained over knee (janu basti), medicated oil retained over lumbar region (kati basti) etc.
On the basis of pharmaco-therapeutic action
The enema therapy is classified based onthe pharmaco-therapeutic activity of its ingredients.
- Dosha aggravating enema (utkleshana basti)
- Dosha purificatory enema (shodhana basti)
- Dosha pacifying enema (shamana basti)[Sha.Uttarardha.6/17-19]
On the basis of number of basti
The enema therapy is classified based on specific schedule and sequential sessions based on the severity of pathogens (dosha and dushya).
- Karma basti: Total 30 basti sessions with 12 decoction (niruha) and 18 unctuous (anuvasana basti)
- Kala basti: Total 16 basti sessions with 06 decoction (niruha) and 10 unctuous (anuvasana basti)
- Yoga basti: Total 8 basti sessions with 3 decoction (niruha) and 5 unctuous (anuvasana basti)[Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 1/47-49]
On the basis of total quantity
Some enemas are known by their total quantity of ingredients. The measurement ‘prasruta’ (one prasruta = 96 ml) is used to calculate proportion of ingredients and total quantity of enema. The maximum allowable dosage of decoction enema is 1152ml (12 prasruta). The dosage 1 prasruta is considered as 96 ml as per Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Posology varies from person to person according to Ayurveda. Here ‘prasruta’ is defined as the dosage of liquid in the patient's hollowed palm. [Gayadasa on Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 35/7] In a study conducted on 100 participants, one prasruta of Madhutailika basti (a type of decoction enema) is standardized as 26.4ml.
A few examples are as follows:
- Twelve prasruta (1152 ml) termed as ‘Dwadasaprasrutika basti’
- Nine prasruta (864ml )termed as ‘Navaprasruta basti/padahina basti’
- Five prasruta (480 ml) termed as ‘Pachaprasrutika basti’
Based on the chief ingredient
Some enemas are known by their chief ingredient. A few examples are as follows:
- Enema with equal quantity of honey and oil is termed as ‘Madhutailika basti’
- Presence of alkali in enema is termed as ‘Kshara basti’
- Milk used as main ingredient in enema is termed as ‘Kshira basti’
Niruha basti (enema with decoction)
The medicated enema with decoction of herbs as main ingredient is called ‘niruha basti’. It is also known as ‘kashaya basti’. The word ‘niruha’ indicates its extensive therapeutic potency. As it stabilizes (sthapana) the dosha, it is also known as ‘asthapana basti’. [A.S.Sutra Sthana 28/6]
- Aggravated conditions of vata dosha
- Aggravation of vata associated with other dosha[A.H.Sutra Sthana 19/1]
- Conditions of accumulation of dosha in large intestine (pakwashaya) in a completely metabolized (pakwa) state [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 3/171-72]
Niruha basti is contraindicated in following conditions:
- Extremely weak and debilitated patients[Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 1/37]
- Immediately after any other purificatory procedure like therapeutic emesis or purgation [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 1/37]
- Breathing difficulty, cough, skin diseases (kushtha), diabetes (madhumeha) etc.[Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 2/14]
Ingredients of niruha basti formulation
The predominant content of niruha basti is a decoction of herbs. It also contains honey, rock salt, unctuous substance (usually oil or ghee) and medicinal paste (kalka). In some conditions, cow’s urine, fermented liquid preparation out of grains (dhanyamla), meat soup, milk etc. are used instead of decoction.
Quantity of ingredients
The general dosage of ingredients for 1152 ml (dvadasha prasruta) basti are as follows. While preparation, the ingredients are mixed in the specific sequence and quantity as given below:
- Honey: 192 ml (2 prasruta)
- Rock salt (saindhava): 12 gram (1 karsha)
- Oil/ghee/unctuous substance (sneha): 288 ml (3 prasruta)
- Medicinal paste (kalka): 96 gram (1 prasruta)
- Decoction (kwatha): 384 ml (4 prasruta) to 480 ml (5 prasruta)*
- Additives (aavapadravya): 192 ml (2 prasruta)
[Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 38/37-39] *[Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 3/30]
Proportion of unctuous substance and honey based on dosha predominance
The proportion of unctuous substance and honey changes based on the predominance of dosha in diseases. It is as shown below in table 1.
|Vata dosha||Pitta dosha||Kapha dosha|
|Honey||144 ml (3 pala)||192 ml (4 pala)||288 ml (6 pala)|
|Unctuous Substance||288 ml (6 pala)||192 ml (4 pala)||144 ml (3 pala)|
[Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 3/30]
Dose of niruha basti in different age groups
The dose of basti formulation changes as per the age. It is shown in table 2.
|Age||Dosage of basti|
|1 year||48 ml (½ prasruta)|
|Increase the dosage by 48 ml (½ prasruta) each year till 12 years|
|12 year||576 ml (6 prasruta)|
|Increase the dosage by 96 ml (1 prasruta) each year till 18 years|
|18 year and above until age 70||1152 ml (12 prasruta)|
|Above 70 year||960 ml (10 prasruta)|
[Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 3/31-32]
Method of preparation of niruha basti (decoction enema)
The decoction enema is a combination of many ingredients as mentioned above. These ingredients should be mixed in a specific sequence to formulate homogenous mixture and achieve maximum therapeutic efficacy. The sequence of mixing of decoction enema is as follows. Honey and rock salt should be mixed first. Then unctuous substance such as oil or ghee is added and mixed. Medicinal paste is added next to it and finally the decoction is added.[Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 3/23] This process acquires the state of emulsion. Honey is a natural emulsifying agent and is preferred for the preparation of basti because of its stability and therapeutic properties.
Therapeutic procedure of administration
The procedure of niruha basti is done as a daily session of administration of enema. Procedure of a single session is described as below:
- Pre therapeutic procedure (purva karma)
- Therapeutic procedure (pradhana karma)
- Post therapeutic procedure (pashchat karma)
Pre therapeutic procedure (purva karma)
On the day of administration, patient is advised to pass natural urges and should not be hungry. [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 3/17] Local massage with oil and sudation is done over abdomen, low back, gluteal region and thighs of the patient. The enema mixture is prepared and filled into the basti apparatus (basti yantra). In current clinical practices, two types of basti apparatus are used to administer decoction enema.
- A basti bag attached with basti nozzle
- Transparent plastic enema pot with an attached tube and catheter
The enema formulation is filled in the basti bag or enema pot. Then the medicine is passed through catheter to remove air bubbles.
Therapeutic procedure (pradhana karma)
Patient is advised to lie in left lateral position with left leg extended and flex the right leg at knee and hip. The anal orifice and the basti nozzle or catheter are lubricated with oil. Then the basti nozzle or catheter is inserted slowly and gently through the anal canal.
The basti bag is squeezed in uniform pressure to pass the basti medicine in rectum. It is not emptied totally in order to avoid passage of air through basti apparatus. Then the nozzle is removed slowly. [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 3/18-20]
In the enema pot method, the filled enema pot is kept at a certain height to allow passage of enema medicine. The flow and pressure can be regulated with a knob on the tube.
After all enema medicine is in the rectum, the patient is advised to lie in supine position till he feels the urge for defecation. When the patient feels the urge, it shall pass. The time duration the administration of medicine and its evacuation is called as retention enema. The decoction enema is expected to come out within 48 minutes after administration. In a study, the retention time of enema with alkali (kshara basti) in maximum number of participants (60%) is reported to be 5 minutes.
Post therapeutic procedure (pashchat karma)
After the evacuation of bowels patient is advised to take hot water bath and light to digest diet based on dominance of dosha as shown below. [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 3/27]
|Vata||Meat soup or green gram soup|
|Kapha||Soup prepared with cereals (yusha)|
[Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 3/34]
Assessment of purification
The assessment of therapeutic effect is based on observation of clinical features.
Clinical features of optimal niruha basti
Sequential elimination of stool, pitta, kapha and vata, increased appetite, lightness in body, increase of strength and attainment of normalcy, passage of frothy and whitish mucous in stool are considered as features of optimal administration of niruha basti. [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 1/41] [Ka.Sa.Khila Sthana 8/75-77]
Clinical features of inadequately administered niruha basti
Headache, pain in cardiac region, anus, urinary bladder and genital organs; edema, coryza, griping pain and nausea; retention of flatus and urine and dyspnea are features of inadequate administration of niruha basti. [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 1/42-43]
Clinical features of excessively administered niruha basti
Aggravation of vata dosha due to diminution of kapha and pitta dosha, numbness, bodyache, mental fatigue, tremor, insomnia, debility, black outs, insanity and hiccups are features of excess administration of niruha basti. [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 1/19-20]
The features of inadequate and excess administration of niruha basti are treated with specific protocols.
Anuvasana basti (enema with unctuous substance)
Anuvasana basti is a type of medicated enema with unctuous substances like oils, ghee etc. It is also called as ‘sneha basti’. The term ‘anuvasana’ means that can be followed daily. Hence the unctuous enema can be administered daily (anu divasa) without any complications. [Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 35/18] Unlike niruha basti, this enema formulation contains unctuous substances only. Medicated oils are widely used in this therapy to produce unctuousness in the body. [A.S. Sutra Sthana 28/7]
Types (based on the dose)
- Sneha basti: Dose of oil is ¼th of the total dose of niruha basti i.e. maximum upto 288ml.[Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 37/4]
- Anuvasana basti: Dose of oil is ½ of snehabasti i.e. 144ml. [Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 35/18]
- Matra basti: Dose of oil is ¼th of sneha basti i.e. 72ml
Anuvasana basti is indicated in following conditions:
- In cases of depletion of kapha and pitta dosha [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 3/172]
- Conditions due to aggravation of vata dosha [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 2/19]
- If there is excess dryness and obstruction in the bowel due to feces [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 3/173]
- In case of the increased power of digestion or hypermetabolism [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 3/172]
Unctuous enema is contraindicated in diseases where purification is indicated like skin diseases (kushtha), obstinate urinary diseases including diabetes (prameha), obesity (sthaulya)[Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 1/36]; the diseases with ama (undigested state) like acute fever, anemia, rhinitis etc. It shall not be given to patients on empty stomach and those who have low digestive capacity. [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 2/18]
- Maximum dose:288ml (6 pala)
- Medium dose :144ml (3 pala)
- Minimum dose :72ml (1 ½ pala) [Ka.Sa.Khila Sthana 8/109]
Procedure of administration
Pre therapeutic procedure (purva karma)
Unctuous enema is administered immediately after meals. [Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 37/54] On the day of enema, the patient should take little quantity of food, ¼ part less than his regular diet quantity. The patient is advised to walk for few steps and to pass the natural urges if any. [Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 37/57-58] The lukewarm medicated oil or ghee is filled in the enema syringe attached with catheter. In some conditions, fine powders of Anethum sowa (shatapushpa) and rock salt are added to oil. [Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 37/63]
Therapeutic procedure (pradhana karma)
The procedure of administration of enema in anuvasana basti is same as mentioned above in context of of niruha basti. Enema syringe is used instead of enema pot.
Post therapeutic procedure (pashchat karma)
After administration of enema, patient is advised to lie down with well stretched body parts for 1-2 minutes(100 matra). Mild strokes over the gluteal region are given. Then both lower limbs are lifted slowly for three times to prevent the immediate evacuation of the medicine. [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 3/28] [Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 37/60-62] Patting is done over palms and soles followed by gentle massage over calf and painful body parts in upward direction for 1 – 2minutes (100 matra).[A.S.Sutra Sthana 28/31] The maximum retention time of medicine is about 9 hours. [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 1/46] In a study, the retention time for anuvasana basti is reported as 3 to 6 hours in maximum (62.22%) participants.
Assessment of therapeutic efficacy
The assessment of therapeutic efficacy is done on the basis of clinical features observed in patient.
Clinical features of optimal administration of anuvasana basti (unctuous enema)
Unobstructed expulsion of fecal matter mixed with oil, feeling of lightness in the abdomen, clarity in sense organs, improved quality of body tissues like blood etc., sleep and proper manifestation of natural urges are observed after optimal administration of basti. [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 1/44] The features are similar to that of oral intake of unctuous substances (snehapana). [A.H. Sutra Sthana 19/53] Proper movement/functioning of vata dosha and improved digestion are also observed in optimal anuvasana basti.
Inadequate administration of anuvasana basti
Obstruction in the functioning of vata dosha like obstruction in passage of stool, urine and flatus; pain in lower parts of body, abdomen, arms, back and sides of chest; dryness and roughness of body are observed due to inadequate administration of anuvasana basti. [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 1/45]
Excessive administration of anuvasana basti
Excessively administration of anuvasana basti causes nausea, unconsciousness, mental fatigue, exhaustion, fainting and griping pain. [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 1/46] Anemia and discharge through nose, mouth and anus are also observed. [A.H. Sutra Sthana 19/53]
Number of anuvasana basti based on dosha vitiation
General indications for administration of anuvasana basti based on dosha vitiation is as below.
|Dosha involved||Number of anuvasana basti sessions|
|Vata vitiation||9 -11|
|Pitta vitiation||5 -7|
|Kapha vitiation||1 -3|
[A.H. Sutra Sthana 19/54]
Complications may occur during basti procedure due to a variety of reasons like improper administration of basti, improper selection of patient or drug, defects in basti apparatus etc.
The major complications during decoction enema are as follows
- Inadequate expulsion
- Excessive expulsion
- Abdominal distention
- Chest congestion
- Strenuous defecation
- Tearing pain in anus
- Rectal discharge [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 7/5]
The major complications during unctuous enema are caused due to obstruction of unctuous medication by vata, pitta, kapha or fecal matter. The obstruction may also happen due to excessive food intake prior to unctuous enema. If unctuous enema is performed in empty stomach it may also lead to complications.[Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 4/25]
Precautions at the time of selection of patient and drug/medication
An improper selection of drug or patient may lead to complications. The highly potent drug to a delicate person or a less potent drug to a strong person will lead to complications. A proper knowledge about the patient’s nature of gut and digestive capacity is necessary. Educate the patient properly about the whole procedure, so that complete co-operation from patient’s side can be assured.
Precautions at the time of administration
Practically most complications are observed by the improper administration of enema. Enema must be administered by a well trained physician. The patient should not be too much hungry at the time of administration of decoction enema. At the same time proper digestion is also required. Special care must be taken if the patient is having associated complaints like diabetes. After basti administration never allow the patient to withhold the urge. It is better to advice the patient not to close the toilet door from inside as fainting might happen during defecation. Advice the patient to take hot water bath followed by intake of moderate amount of food immediately after passing the bowels.
Importance in preservation of health and prevention
Basti provides nourishment and strength to the body. It helps to protect the health and improves longevity. [Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana35/4] For the protection of vital structures in the body (marma), basti is considered as the best treatment. [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 9/7] The eighteen schedules of unctuous enema involving 18 sessions in each schedule gives maximum strength like an elephant and increases the longevity. [Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 37/76] Basti is administered in healthy individuals during pre-rainy and rainy season for management of naturally aggravated vata dosha and prevent its disorders to preserve health. [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 7]
Importance in management of disease
Basti is the best treatment for aggravated vata dosha. [Cah.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 1/39] It can effectively manage the diseases due to associated doshas like pitta and kapha.[Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 35/6] It is considered as the major treatment in gouty arthritis (vatarakta), [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 29/88, abdominal lumps (gulma)[Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 5/100] etc. diseases. Basti shows its generalized action on all body parts.[Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 7/64] The advantage of therapeutic enema over other purification procedures is that it can be administered in the most vulnerable age groups like old aged persons and young children.[Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana11/36] Basti is considered as half of the entire treatment or as the complete treatment itself in a given treatment protocol.[Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 1/38-39]
Mode of action
The medicines administered through rectal route act on the morbidities and appropriately eliminates them with ease. [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 1/40]
The rectal route of drug administration is an alternate route of drug delivery. Certain studies suggest that rectal route is more efficient than the intravenous route as it partially bypasses the first pass metabolism of liver.
A study showed that basti medicine reaches up to ileo-caecal junction however the active principles of formulation may extend their action to systemic levels. In an experimental study, the presence of active principle of a drug used in medicated enema is found in the systemic circulation. Gallic acid, a marker compound of Triphala (a compound containing Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis), is observed in serum after administration of basti with triphala. Moreover, the concentration of gallic acid in serum is more, when the basti is added with catalytic adjuvant (prakshepakadravya). The concentration and rate of absorption depends on property of constituents in basti. The adjuvants might have irritant property, which cause mild inflammation in the colon. This inflammation alters the capillary permeability, which may enhance drug absorption.
The efficacy of a treatment procedure highly depends upon the standard operative method. The method of administration of basti is very important. Basti administered through enema instrument (basti yantra) by exerting uniform manual pressure shows that the contents reach upto ileo-caecal junction and more concentration of contents seen in the proximal colon. On the other hand, basti administered using enema-can which uses atmospheric pressure, also shows the same extent of reaching ileo-cecal junction, however the concentration of contents is less in proximal colon. Proximal colon has significant role in colonic motility and absorption. The interstitial cells of Cajal in sub-mucosal surface (ICC) of the circular muscle, are present only in the proximal colon. Loss of ICC correlates with loss of pace maker activity, defects in propagation, reduction in neurotransmission etc. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) which play a major role in maintaining the colonic health are chiefly synthesized in proximal colon. Butyrate, one of the SCFA, promotes the absorption of water and electrolytes from the proximal colon. More concentration of basti medicine at proximal colon may stimulate the ICC thereby stimulating the propagation, neurotransmission etc. It may also facilitate greater absorption of water and electrolytes along with other active principles.
Therapeutic efficacy of basti
Enema intended for removal of morbidity (lekhana basti) is found effective in hyperlipidemia by reducing the serum cholesterol, serum LDL, serum apolipoprotein B. Significant reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage and skin fold thickness were also reported. The hypersensitivity or hyper responsiveness of hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is the main reason for endocrine malfunction in human obesity. Serum cortisol levels are found to be decreased in obese patients after basti treatment. This suggests normalizing of HPA axis through basti. Medicated enema shows immuno-modulatory effect by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulins and functional properties of T-cells.
A study reported that low dose medicated oil enema (matra basti) is effective in reducing the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis. There was significant reduction in pain and swelling in joints and reduction in pain during joint movements. Erandamuladi yapana basti is found effective in reducing the pain, stiffness and tenderness related with lumbar spondylosis and improving the quality of life.
Panchamooladikaala basti is reported to be effective in reducing the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (amavata) especially pain, stiffness, swelling and tenderness in the joints. It is also found effective in reducing the generalized symptoms like heaviness of body, fatigue, feverishness and anorexia. Basti acts over the prime seat of vata dosha i.e. large intestine (pakvashaya) and controls it. The alkali present in the kshara basti improves digestion and removes the accumulated toxins (ama).
Unctuous enema in minimum dose (matra basti) is found effective in 12 cases of anovulation. Ovulation occurred in the maximum number of participants (63.64%) and increased follicular size is also reported after matra basti. Basti shows its action on Enteric Nervous System (ENS). The endogenous opioids especially beta endorphins may get stimulated. This may affect the GnRH secretion and there by regularize hypothalamo pituitary ovarian (HPO) axis. HPO axis regulates the ovarian cycle and ovulation. By the action over ENS, basti may also stimulate CNS and thereby stimulates pituitary. This results in the secretion of FSH and LH which plays an important role in ovulation. More studies are needed to study the effect of basti on specific pathways.
List of theses done
- Savjani Rekha T (2001): A clinical study on the management of sthaulya by panchatikta and lekhana basti, Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Bhatted Santosh (2002): A comparative study of the role of vajeekarana drugs administered orally and by basti in the management of klaibya with reference to erectile dysfunction. Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Mangalasseri Prakash (2002): A clinical study of shukragatavata w.s.r to premature ejaculation & its management with Akarakarbhati yoga yapana basti, Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Varma S P (2002): Study of Vaitarana-Basti in the management of Kati-shoola. Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Pawar Anand M (2003): A comparative study on the role of basti therapy and pramehaghna drugs in the management of madhumeha (Diabetes mellitus). Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Chitte Srilekha (2004): A comparative study of Matra Basti and some indigenous compound drugs on Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis). Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Khagram Rita V (2004): Comparative study of Kati Basti and Matra-Basti in the management of Gridhrasi (sciatica). Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Bhatkoti Mayank (2005): A comparative clinical study of vaitaranabasti and virechana karma in the management of amavata. Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Tejal Khunt (2005) :Comparitive study on the Virechana Karma and Lekhana Basti in the management of Sthaulya. Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Anamika Kumari (2006): A comparative study on the effect of some indigenous compound drug and matra basti in the management of Gridhrasi (Sciatica). Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Mayuri Shah (2006): A comparative study of matra basti and some indigenous compound drug in the management of sandhigatavata (osteoarthritis). Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Sanjay Gupta (2006): A clinical effect of Baladiyapana basti and vajikarana yoga in the management of sukradushti w.s.r to oligoasthenozoospermia. Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Gajanan Kulkarni (2007): A comparative study of role of yapana basti and karma basti in the management of Pakshagata (CVA). Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Vinay Chaudary (2007): A clinical study of standardization of Yapana basti in the management of Kampavata. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Jayadip Kumar P Shah (2008): Effect of Tiktakshira basti and patrapind sweda in the management of cervical spondylosis (Asthigatavata). Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Vimal M Vekaria (2008): Comparative study of Virechana karma and kala basti in the management of Pakshaghata. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Geeta Jatav (2008): A Comparative Study on the effect Of VidarikandadiVati and KshirabalaTaila Basti in the management of Karshya in Children. Department of Kaumarabrithya, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Juneja Yaswant M (2009): Standardization of procedure of administration of basti w.s.r to Kshinashukra (oligozoospermia). Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Gohil Jalpa H (2009): A comparative clinical study of Virechana karma and kala basti in management of Amavata. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Ajay K Gupta (2010): Effect of Majja basti and AsthiShrinkhala in the management of osteoporosis w.s.r to Asti Majjakshaya A clinical study. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Gyanendra D Shukla (2010): A Comparative Study of efficacy of Virechana and Basti Karma with Shamana therapy in the management of Essential Hypertension. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Damayanthie Fernando (2011): Assessment of Clinical Efficacy of ErandamuladiYapana Basti and ErandaBijaKshiraPaka in the management of Kati Graha w.s.r. to Lumbar Spondylosis. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Swapnil S Auti (2011): Assessment of Lekhana Basti in management of Hyperlipidaemia (A Randomised Controlled Clinico-Experimental Study). Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Nikunj M (2012): A comparative study of vrishya basti and kulinga (Blepharis edulis) after virechana karma in the management of kshinashukra w.s.r to oligozoospermia. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Saurabh R Bhuva (2012): A comparative study of matra basti and brimhanasnehana by asthishrinkhalaghrita in the management of asthi-majjakshaya w.s.r to osteopenia/osteoporosis. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Siddharth Kumar J (2012): Role of matra basti as chemoprotective adjuvant in the management of cancer. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Hemal Kumar V Dodiya (2013): A comparative clinical study on the effect of Guduchi-Bhadramustadi yoga administered orally and by basti in the management of sthaulya w.s.r to obesity. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Chughdeepa surrender pal (2014): A comparative study of shwadanshtradi basti and chitrakadighrita management of sandhivata with special reference to osteoarthritis. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Jadav Hasmukh Bhavanbhai (2014): Management of premature ejaculation (shukragatavata) with erandamool basti and vanarikalpa- A clinical study. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Paikrao Sumedh Narayanrao (2014): A clinical study on siravedha and vaitarana basti in the management of gridhrasi with special reference to sciatica. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Rani Sangeeta Ishwar Singh (2017): A randomized clinical trial on brihatyadiyapana basti and patrapinda sweda with aadityapakaguggulu in the management of cervical spondylosis w.s.r to asthigatavata. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Kumar Surendra Ganesh Ram (2017): Comparative efficacy of vajigandhaditailapana and basti in the management of gridhrasi (sciatica) – A randomized clinical trial. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Ram Poojan Verma (2018): Efficacy of erandamooladiniruha basti and shunthikwatha with erandataila in the management of katishoola (lumbar spondylosis): A open labeled, Randomised, comparative clinical trial. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
- Shiho Oikawa (2018): Virechana karma along with vaitarana basti followed by mahabhallatakaavaleha in the management of amavata wsr to rheumatoid arthritis-A compararive randomized controlled study. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
Bastisutriyam Siddhi, Panchakarmiya Siddhi, Kalpana Siddhi, Snehavyapat Siddhi, Netrabastivyapat Siddhi, Bastivyapat Siddhi, Prasrita Yogiyam Siddhi, Phalamatra Siddhi, Uttar Basti Siddhi, Basti Siddhi
Cha. = Charak, Su. = Sushruta, A. = Ashtanga, S. = Sangraha, Hr. = Hridayam, Sa. = Samhita, Sha. = Sharangadara, Ka. = Kashyapa
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- ↑ Monier-Williams, Monier-Williams Sanskrit- English Dictionary, 1st edition; Oxford University Press, Vasti, Page 933
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Vridha Vagbhata, Ashtanga Sangraha. Edited by Shivaprasad Sharma. 3rd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba sanskrit series office;2012.
- ↑ 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 Sushruta. Sushruta Samhita. Edited by Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya. 8th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia;2005.
- ↑ Sharangadhara. Sharangadhara Samhita. Translated from Sanskrit by K.R. Srikantha Murthy. Reprint ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha orientalia;2016.
- ↑ Singh Nita S. An open clinical trial to assess samyak nirooha lakshana of maadhutailika vasti administered with standardized aaturahastapramaana in kat’eegraha [MD Dissertation]. Kottakkkal: Kerala University of Health Sciences; 2015.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Vagbhata. Ashtanga Hridayam. Edited by Harishastri Paradkar Vaidya. 1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy;2000.
- ↑ Savrikar SS, Lagad CE. Study of Preparation and Standardization of 'Maadhutailika Basti' with special reference to Emulsion Stability. Ayu. 2010 Jan;31(1):1-6. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.68190. PMID: 22131675; PMCID: PMC3215309.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Thanki K, Bhatt N, Shukla VD. Effect of kshara basti and nirgundi ghana vati on amavata (rheumatoid arthritis). Ayu. 2012 Jan;33(1):50-3. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.100310. PMID: 23049184; PMCID: PMC3456864.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Vrddhajivaka, Kasyapa Samhita. Edited by Tewari P V, Reprint edition. Varanasi: Chaukhambha visvabharati; 2008
- ↑ Kadus PA, Vedpathak SM. Anuvasana Basti in escalating dose is an alternative for Snehapana before Vamana and Virechana: Trends from a pilot study. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2014;5:246-50.
- ↑ Juneja Yashwant M, Thakar A. B. Standardization of procedure of administration of Basti w.s.r to Kshinashukra (oligozoospermia), MD Dissertation, IPGT& RA. Jamnagar: Gujarat Ayurved University; 2010
- ↑ Swapnil SA, BK Ashok, Anup B Thakar et al. An experimental study to evaluate the pharmacokinetic aspect of Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema). Anc Sci Life. 2011 Oct;31(2):38-43.
- ↑ Manohar SG, Ashwinikumar AR, Nitin MK. Basti: Does the equipment and method of administration matter? J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2013 Jan;4(1):9-12. doi: 10.4103/0975-9476.109543.
- ↑ Swapnil SA, Anup B Thakar et al. Assessment of Lekhana Basti in the management of hyperlipidemia. Ayu. 2013 Oct;34(4):339-45. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.127683.
- ↑ Urmila T, Shubhada C et al. Immunological & metabolic responses to a therapeutic course of Basti in obesity. Indian J Med Res. 2015 Jul;142(1):53-62. doi: 10.4103/0971-5916.162099.
- ↑ Mayuri RS, Charmi SM et al. A Clinical study of Matra Vasti and an ayurvedic indigenous compound drug in the management of Sandhigatavata (Osteoarthritis). Ayu. 2010 Apr;31(2):210-7. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.72399.
- ↑ Damayanthie Fernando, Anup B Thakar, VD Shukla. Clinical efficacy of Eranda Muladi Yapana Basti in the management of Kati Graha (Lumbar spondylosis). Ayu. 2013 Jan;34(1):36-41. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.115444.
- ↑ Baria R, Joshi N, Pandya D. Clinical efficacy of Panchamuladi Kaala Basti (enema) in the management of Amavata (Rheumatoid Arthritis). Ayu. 2011 Jan;32(1):90-4. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.85737. PMID: 22131764; PMCID: PMC3215425.
- ↑ Donga KR, Donga SB, Dei LP. Role of Nasya and Matra Basti with Narayana Taila on anovulatory factor. Ayu. 2013 Jan;34(1):81-5. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.115453. PMID: 24049410; PMCID: PMC3764886.