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The word ‘Dosha’ literally means impurities or morbidities. In Ayurveda, dosha are the governing principles of physiology and psychology. They are the primary and essential constitutional factors of the human organism. They maintain the integrity of the human body. [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 21/23] The three dosha at physical level, vata, pitta, and kapha, vitiate different body tissues and can lead to diseases in disequilibrium state. [SAT-B.382]<ref>National AYUSH Morbidity and Standardized Terminologies Electronic Portal by Ministry of AYUSH Available on http://namstp.ayush.gov.in/#/sat</ref> They are the actual intrinsic factors which become excited and imbalanced, either conferring a predisposition to or actually causing morbidities disease (vyadhi).  Their state of equilibrium is one of the important pre-requisite for disease free state (arogya) [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 9/4] and health [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 15/48].  The dosha have been correlated with systems theory in the field of physics, providing a sound theoretical basis for this Ayurvedic concept, and research utilizing a biostatistical approach to quantify the dosha reveals a sound empirical basis as well.  Being the units of microcosm in body, the three dosha, kapha, pitta and vata, maintain integrity of the organism by creating, assimilating and diffusing strength in the same way as the Moon (soma), Sun(surya) and Air (anila), maintain integrity of the macrocosm respectively. [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 21/8]
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The word ‘Dosha’ literally means impurities or morbidities. In Ayurveda, dosha are the governing principles of physiology and psychology. They are the primary and essential constitutional factors of the human organism. They maintain the integrity of the human body. [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 21/23] The three dosha at physical level, vata, pitta, and kapha, vitiate different body tissues and can lead to diseases in disequilibrium state. [SAT-B.382]<ref>National AYUSH Morbidity and Standardized Terminologies Electronic Portal by Ministry of AYUSH Available on http://namstp.ayush.gov.in/#/sat</ref> They are the actual intrinsic factors which become excited and imbalanced, either conferring a predisposition to or actually causing morbidities disease (vyadhi).<ref>Dwarkanath C. Introduction to Kayachikitsa Pg. 20 </ref> Their state of equilibrium is one of the important pre-requisite for disease free state (arogya) [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 9/4] and health [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 15/48].  The dosha have been correlated with systems theory in the field of physics, providing a sound theoretical basis for this Ayurvedic concept, and research utilizing a biostatistical approach to quantify the dosha reveals a sound empirical basis as well.<ref>Sharma H., Chandola H.M., Singh G., Basisht G. Utilization of Ayurveda in health care: an approach for prevention, health promotion, and treatment of disease. Part 1 – Ayurveda in primary health care. J Altern Complement Med. 2007;13(9):1011–1019.</ref>   Being the units of microcosm in body, the three dosha, kapha, pitta and vata, maintain integrity of the organism by creating, assimilating and diffusing strength in the same way as the Moon (soma), Sun(surya) and Air (anila), maintain integrity of the macrocosm respectively. [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 21/8]
    
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==Etymology and derivation==
 
==Etymology and derivation==
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The word dosha is derived from Sanskrit root ‘dusha’ meaning causing abnormalities (vaikrutye).   
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The word dosha is derived from Sanskrit root ‘dusha’ meaning causing abnormalities (vaikrutye).<ref>Shabdakalpa druma. </ref>    
    
==Types and sub types of dosha ==
 
==Types and sub types of dosha ==
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===Body constitution or phenotype (dosha prakriti)===
 
===Body constitution or phenotype (dosha prakriti)===
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The body constitution (prakriti) of a person is based upon the relative proportions of the three dosha. The equilibrium or dominance of dosha at the time of formation of embryo determines the body constitution (deha prakriti). [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 7/40] This proportion is further modulated by the diet and lifestyle of mother, age, and the environment in which the person grows to generate the unique dosha-prakriti of the individual.  The individual shows characteristic features of respective dominant dosha in prakriti. It is very similar to the phenotype in modern biology. Thus, the current genetic paradigms believe that the phenotype of individual results from interaction between genotype (established at fertilization) and the environment, which includes epigenetic changes resulting from parental age, diet, lifestyle, and other environmental factors.  Genomic variations with the classification of prakriti are studied. It is observed that PGM1 correlates with phenotype of pitta prakriti. This suggests that the phenotypic classification has a genetic basis; and its prakriti-based practice resonates with personalized medicine.  The relation between clinical phenotype and predisposition of disease is studied. The study was carried out on the association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C with type 2 diabetes and prakriti. An extremely strong association between prakriti (kaphaja/kapha-pittaja) and type 2 diabetes (P < 0.00001) was detected in this study.  
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The body constitution (prakriti) of a person is based upon the relative proportions of the three dosha. The equilibrium or dominance of dosha at the time of formation of embryo determines the body constitution (deha prakriti). [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 7/40] This proportion is further modulated by the diet and lifestyle of mother, age, and the environment in which the person grows to generate the unique dosha-prakriti of the individual.  The individual shows characteristic features of respective dominant dosha in prakriti. It is very similar to the phenotype in modern biology. Thus, the current genetic paradigms believe that the phenotype of individual results from interaction between genotype (established at fertilization) and the environment, which includes epigenetic changes resulting from parental age, diet, lifestyle, and other environmental factors.<ref>Lakhotia S. C. (2014). Translating Ayurveda's Dosha-Prakriti into objective parameters. Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine, 5(3), 176.</ref> Genomic variations with the classification of prakriti are studied. It is observed that PGM1 correlates with phenotype of pitta prakriti. This suggests that the phenotypic classification has a genetic basis; and its prakriti-based practice resonates with personalized medicine.<ref>Govindaraj, P. et al. Genome-wide analysis correlates Ayurveda Prakriti. Sci. Rep. 5, 15786; doi: 10.1038/srep15786 (2015)</ref> The relation between clinical phenotype and predisposition of disease is studied. The study was carried out on the association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C with type 2 diabetes and prakriti. An extremely strong association between prakriti (kaphaja/kapha-pittaja) and type 2 diabetes (P < 0.00001) was detected in this study.<ref>Gupta A, Ali A, Tewari P, Agrawal NK, Patel R, Byadgi PS. Association of kaphaja and kapha-pittaja prakriti and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T allele with type 2 diabetes. AYU [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 Jan 5];39:146-50. Available from: http://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2018/39/3/146/255251</ref>
 
   
 
   
 
Studies have shown that Ayurvedic body type classification may be associated with genes of inflammation and oxidative stress factors, the rate of DNA methylation and development of cardiovascular diseases.   
 
Studies have shown that Ayurvedic body type classification may be associated with genes of inflammation and oxidative stress factors, the rate of DNA methylation and development of cardiovascular diseases.   
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