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'Pancha' means five and 'Panchaka' means a group of five. The concept includes details of indriya with its five aspects is described in Indriyopakramaniya Adhyaya chapter.

Origin and relation of Indriya with macrocosm

This pancha-panchaka system [table 1] reveals that senses are the instruments for knowledge of material in external world. All things are constituted by pancha mahabhuta (five elements). Specific sense can perceive the object related to its own basic constituent due to tulyayonitva (similarity in origin and action). E.g. The eyes can see external tejas mahabhuta and perceive the visual sensation only. The continuous interaction is carried out between external materialistic world and internal world (within body) comprising sense perceptions, mind, intellect and soul. The details about sense organs and their interaction with mind are described further in first chapter of Sharira Sthana (section of anatomy and physiology).

Table 1: Systematic presentation of pancha-panchaka

Indriya (Sense Organ) Indriya Dravya Indriya Adhishthan (Site of Sensation) Indriya Artha (Sense Object) Indriya Buddhi (Sensory Perception)
Chakshu (Visual) TejasJyoti Eyes Rupa (Vision) Visual Perception
Shrotra (Auditory) KhaAkasha Ear Shabda (Sound) Auditory Perception
Ghrana (Olfactory) BhuPrithvi Nose Gandha (Smell) Olfactory Perception
Rasanam (Gustatory) ApaJala Tongue Rasa (Taste) Gustatory Perception
Sparshanam (Tactile) Vayu Skin Sparsha (Touch) Tactile Perception

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