Difference between revisions of "Matrashiteeya Adhyaya"

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==== Head massage ====
==== Head massage ====
Head massage increases scalp hair thickness. In a study standardized scalp massage for 24 weeks, increased hair thickness (0.085 ± 0.003 mm vs 0.092 ± 0.001 mm). Increased expression of hair cycle–related genes such as NOGGIN, BMP4, SMAD4, and IL6ST and decrease in hair loss–related genes such as IL6 was observed in RTPCR (Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). Stretching forces result in changes in gene expression in human dermal papilla cells. Standardized scalp massage produces mechanical stress to human dermal papilla cells present in subcutaneous tissue. Hence, increase in Hair thickness was observed when subjected to standardized scalp massage. <ref>Koyama T, Kobayashi K, Hama T, Murakami K, Ogawa R. Standardized Scalp Massage Results in Increased Hair Thickness by Inducing Stretching Forces to Dermal Papilla Cells in the Subcutaneous Tissue. Eplasty. 2016;16: e8.</ref>  
Head massage increases scalp hair thickness. In a study, standardized scalp massage for 24 weeks increased hair thickness (0.085 ± 0.003 mm vs 0.092 ± 0.001 mm). Increased expression of hair cycle–related genes such as NOGGIN, BMP4, SMAD4, and IL6ST and decrease in hair loss–related genes such as IL6 was observed in RTPCR (Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). Stretching forces result in changes in gene expression in human dermal papilla cells. Standardized scalp massage produces mechanical stress to human dermal papilla cells present in subcutaneous tissue. Hence, increase in Hair thickness was observed when subjected to standardized scalp massage. <ref>Koyama T, Kobayashi K, Hama T, Murakami K, Ogawa R. Standardized Scalp Massage Results in Increased Hair Thickness by Inducing Stretching Forces to Dermal Papilla Cells in the Subcutaneous Tissue. Eplasty. 2016;16: e8.</ref>  
Head massage treatment activates parasympathetic nerve activity. This leads to feeling of freshness and relief from anxiety. The results show that head massage treatment has a relaxing and refreshing effect. It  can be used to provide comfort in patients. <ref>Murota M, Iwawaki Y, Uebaba K, et al. Physical and Psychological Effects of Head Treatment in the Supine Position Using Specialized Ayurveda-Based Techniques. J Altern Complement Med. 2016;22(7):526-532.</ref>  
Head massage treatment activates parasympathetic nerve activity. This leads to feeling of freshness and relief from anxiety. The results show that head massage treatment has a relaxing and refreshing effect. It  can be used to provide comfort in patients. <ref>Murota M, Iwawaki Y, Uebaba K, et al. Physical and Psychological Effects of Head Treatment in the Supine Position Using Specialized Ayurveda-Based Techniques. J Altern Complement Med. 2016;22(7):526-532.</ref>  
The head massage also promotes hair growth and prevents hair loss. Self-Assessments of standardized scalp massages was done among subjects suffering from Androgenic Alopecia. The results showed that the massages by actions of pressing, pinching and stretching with the help of hands resulted in hair loss stabilization or regrowth among the subjects. But the improvements were less in condition of diffuse versus frontal/temporal or vertex thinning.<ref>Robert S English Jr,  James M Barazesh . Self-Assessments of Standardized Scalp Massages for Androgenic Alopecia: Survey Results. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 9, 167–178 (2019).</ref>
The head massage also promotes hair growth and prevents hair loss. Self-Assessments of standardized scalp massages was done among subjects suffering from Androgenic Alopecia. The results showed that the massages by actions of pressing, pinching and stretching with the help of hands resulted in hair loss stabilization or regrowth among the subjects. But the improvements were less in condition of diffuse versus frontal/temporal or vertex thinning.<ref>Robert S English Jr,  James M Barazesh . Self-Assessments of Standardized Scalp Massages for Androgenic Alopecia: Survey Results. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 9, 167–178 (2019).</ref>
==== Foot massage ====
==== Foot massage ====

Revision as of 07:17, 31 October 2020

Sutra Sthana Chapter 5. The proper quantity of food and daily regimen for preserving health

Matrashiteeya Adhyaya
Section/Chapter Sutra Sthana Chapter 5
Tetrad/Sub-section Swastha Chatushka
Preceding Chapter Shadvirechanashatashritiya Adhyaya
Succeeding Chapter Tasyashiteeya Adhyaya
Other Sections Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana
Translator and commentator Nair S.S.R., Deole Y. S.
Reviewer Reddy P.S.
Editors Reddy P.S., Deole Y.S., Basisht G.
Year of publication 2020
Publisher Charak Samhita Research, Training and Skill Development Centre
DOI 10.47468/CSNE.2020.e01.s01.007


Swastha chatushka, the tetrad of chapters on health, deals with the preservation of health and prevention of disease. The first chapter of this tetrad, entitled Matrashiteeya Adhyaya, covers two topics viz. various aspects of the proper quantity and quality of diet and various daily regimens that should be followed by a person for healthy living. The tenets of personal hygiene, oral hygiene and hygiene of sense organs are described in this chapter. The routine procedures to preserve health like abhyanga (massage), dhumapana (inhalation of smoke/vapors), nasya (nasal errhines), kavala and gandusha ( methods of gargling), karnapurana (applying oil in ears), anjana (collyrium) etc. are described in this chapter with their methods of administration and positive health benefits.

Keywords: Quantity of diet, Dinacharya, Abhyanga, Nasya, Kavala , Gandusha, Anu taila, Anjana, karnapurana, personal hygiene, oral health, gargling, nasal errhines, massage, collyrium, mouth wash, health of sense organs.


A wholesome diet is essential for good health and prevention of disease. Considering the importance of quantity of diet, this tetrad dealing with health commences with this chapter. Two topics are explained here: - the concept of proper quantity of diet and the details of daily regimen. Charak dedicated an entire tetrad (Annapana chatushkam) for explaining qualities and effects of dietetics later in this section of Sutra Sthana. Important aspects of food have also been dealt with in the first and the second chapters of Vimana Sthana. Diet is the only factor which is responsible for normal health as well as disease. How and what food should be taken is assessed by eight factors. These factors are collectively designated as ahara visheshayatana .

In relation to food, the present chapter explains the ideal quantity of food articles and determination of measurement of food articles with reference to their heaviness and lightness. Such food articles whose habitual use is recommended and/or prohibited include eye-salves, herbal cigar smoking, and three varieties of medicated cigars. The chapter also enumerates the advantages of herbal smoking, frequency and time of smoking, dosage, proper method, details about preparation of smoking pipe, complications, its remedies and contra-indications. The benefits of nasya (nasal drug administration), their procedures, types, time of administration, and methods are explained. The details of tooth-cleaning, the list of mouthwash liquids and their benefits, and advantages of oil gargling are mentioned for oral health. The benefits of applying oil on the head, applying oil into the ears, anointing the feet, body-massage, bath, wearing clean clothes, perfumes and jewel-ornaments, ablutions, clipping and trimming of hair, wearing footwear, and to carry umbrella and staff are described in this chapter.

Sanskrit text, Transliteration and English Translation

अथातो मात्राशितीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||

इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||

Athātō mātrāśitīyamadhyāyaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||

iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

athAto mAtrAshitIyamadhyAyaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||

iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

Now we shall expound the chapter “Matrashiteeya” (The proper quantity of food and daily regimen for preserving health). Thus said Lord Atreya. [1-2]

Diet for preservation of health and prevention of diseases

Quantity of diet and criteria

मात्राशी स्यात्|

आहारमात्रा पुनरग्निबलापेक्षिणी||३||

Mātrāśī syāt|

āhāramātrā punaragnibalāpēkṣiṇī||3||

mAtrAshI syAt|

AhAramAtrA punaragnibalApekShiNI||3||

One must take food in proper quantity, which depends on the strength of agni (digestive power). [3]

यावद्ध्यस्याशनमशितमनुपहत्य प्रकृतिं यथाकालं जरां गच्छति तावदस्य मात्राप्रमाणं वेदितव्यं भवति||४||

Yāvaddhyasyāśanamaśitamanupahatya prakr̥tiṁ yathākālaṁ jarāṁ gacchati tāvadasya mātrāpramāṇaṁvēditavyaṁ bhavati||4||

yAvaddhyasyAshanamashitamanupahatya prakRutiM yathAkAlaM jarAM gacchati tAvadasya mAtrApramANaM veditavyaM bhavati||4||

That shall be known as the proper quantity of food which is digested in due time without disturbing the normalcy. [4]

Inherently heavy and light to digest foods

तत्र शालिषष्टिकमुद्गलावकपिञ्जलैणशशशरभशम्बरादीन्याहारद्रव्याणि प्रकृतिलघून्यपि मात्रापेक्षीणि भवन्ति|

तथा पिष्टेक्षुक्षीरविकृतितिलमाषानूपौदकपिशितादीन्याहारद्रव्याणि प्रकृतिगुरूण्यपि मात्रामेवापेक्षन्ते||५||

Tatra śāliṣaṣṭikamudgalāvakapiñjalaiṇaśaśaśarabhaśambarādīnyāhāradravyāṇi prakr̥tilaghūnyapimātrāpēkṣīṇi bhavanti|

tathā piṣṭēkṣukṣīravikr̥titilamāṣānūpaudakapiśitādīnyāhāradravyāṇi prakr̥tigurūṇyapimātrāmēvāpēkṣantē||5||

tatra shAliShaShTikamudgalAvakapi~jjalaiNashashasharabhashambarAdInyAhAradravyANi prakRutilaghUnyapi mAtrApekShINi bhavanti|

tathA piShTekShukShIravikRutitilamAShAnUpaudakapishitAdInyAhAradravyANi prakRutigurUNyapi mAtrAmevApekShante||5||

Thus, shali rice (Oryza sativum), shashtika rice (variety of Oryza sativum), mudga (Vigna radiata green gram), common quail, gray partridge, antelope, rabbit, wapiti, Indian sambar deer, and such other food-articles, though light to digest by their inherent properties, depends on the proper quantity. Similarly, preparations of flour (pastry), sugar-cane juice and sugar preparations, milk and milk preparations, til (Sesamum indicum-sesame), masha (Vigna mungo-black gram), flesh of aquatic animals, marshy land animals are inherently heavy to digest foods. [5]

Basic composition of food

न चैवमुक्ते द्रव्ये गुरुलाघवमकारणं मन्येत, लघूनि हि द्रव्याणि वाय्वग्निगुणबहुलानि भवन्ति; पृथ्वीसोमगुणबहुलानीतराणि,तस्मात् स्वगुणादपि लघून्यग्निसन्धुक्षणस्वभावान्यल्पदोषाणि चोच्यन्तेऽपि सौहित्योपयुक्तानि, गुरूणिपुनर्नाग्निसन्धुक्षणस्वभावान्यसामान्यात्, अतश्चातिमात्रं दोषवन्ति सौहित्योपयुक्तान्यन्यत्र व्यायामाग्निबलात्; सैषाभवत्यग्निबलापेक्षिणी मात्रा||६||

Na caivamuktē dravyē gurulāghavamakāraṇaṁ manyēta, laghūni hi dravyāṇi vāyvagniguṇabahulānibhavanti; pr̥thvīsōmaguṇabahulānītarāṇi, tasmāt svaguṇādapilaghūnyagnisandhukṣaṇasvabhāvānyalpadōṣāṇi cōcyantē'pi sauhityōpayuktāni, gurūṇipunarnāgnisandhukṣaṇasvabhāvānyasāmānyāt, ataścātimātraṁ dōṣavanti sauhityōpayuktānyanyatravyāyāmāgnibalāt; saiṣā bhavatyagnibalāpēkṣiṇī mātrā||6||

na caivamukte dravye gurulAghavamakAraNaM manyeta, laghUni hi dravyANi vAyvagniguNabahulAni bhavanti; pRuthvIsomaguNabahulAnItarANi, tasmAtsvaguNAdapi laghUnyagnisandhukShaNasvabhAvAnyalpadoShANi cocyante~api sauhityopayuktAni, gurUNi punarnAgnisandhukShaNasvabhAvAnyasAmAnyAt,atashcAtimAtraM doShavanti sauhityopayuktAnyanyatra vyAyAmAgnibalAt; saiShA bhavatyagnibalApekShiNI mAtrA||6||

From this, one should not conclude that heaviness or lightness in a food-article is mentioned without a reason. The light to digest substances have a predominance of the qualities of vayu and agni. The others have a predominance of the qualities of prithvi and jala. Therefore, the light food-articles are stimulants of agni owing to their innate quality, and are said to be less harmful even if they are eaten to a surfeit. On the other hand, heavy articles are non-stimulant of agni by nature, due to their dissimilarity of qualities. Thus, they cause harm if taken in excess quantity, unless there is strong agni achieved by physical exercise. Thus the right quantity of diet is determined by the strength of agni. [6]

Proportion of heavy and light to digest food

न च नापेक्षते द्रव्यं; द्रव्यापेक्षया च त्रिभागसौहित्यमर्धसौहित्यं वा गुरूणामुपदिश्यते, लघूनामपि चनातिसौहित्यमग्नेर्युक्त्यर्थम्||७||

Na ca nāpēkṣatē dravyaṁ; dravyāpēkṣayā ca tribhāgasauhityamardhasauhityaṁ vā gurūṇāmupadiśyatē,laghūnāmapi ca nātisauhityamagnēryuktyartham||7||

na ca nApekShate dravyaM; dravyApekShayA ca tribhAgasauhityamardhasauhityaM vA gurUNAmupadishyate, laghUnAmapi ca nAtisauhityamagneryuktyartham||7||

The right quantity always depends upon the substance itself. Based on the food-article itself, it is advised that heavy articles should be taken upto one third or one half of the saturation point (of capacity of stomach); even light ones should not be taken in surfeit in order to maintain the strength of agni.[7]

Benefits of proper quantity diet

मात्रावद्ध्यशनमशितमनुपहत्य प्रकृतिं बलवर्णसुखायुषा योजयत्युपयोक्तारमवश्यमिति||८||

Mātrāvaddhyaśanamaśitamanupahatya prakr̥tiṁ balavarṇasukhāyuṣāyōjayatyupayōktāramavaśyamiti||8||

mAtrAvaddhyashanamashitamanupahatya prakRutiM balavarNasukhAyuShA yojayatyupayoktAramavashyamiti||8||

The food taken in right quantity certainly provides strength, complexion, happiness and longevity to the person; without disturbing the normalcy. [8]

भवन्ति चात्र- गुरु पिष्टमयं तस्मात्तण्डुलान् पृथुकानपि| न जातु भुक्तवान् खादेन्मात्रां खादेद्बुभुक्षितः||९||

Bhavanti cātra- Guru piṣṭamayaṁ tasmāttaṇḍulān pr̥thukānapi| Na jātu bhuktavān khādēnmātrāṁ khādēdbubhukṣitaḥ||9||

bhavanti cAtra- guru piShTamayaM tasmAttaNDulAn pRuthukAnapi| na jAtu bhuktavAn khAdenmAtrAM khAdedbubhukShitaH||9||

Here are verses again-

Accordingly, one should never eat such heavy to digest articles as preparations of flour, rice, flattened rice etc., on top of a meal. Even while hungry one should take them in right quantity. [9]

Forbidden food articles for habitual consumption

वल्लूरं शुष्कशाकानि शालूकानि बिसानि च| नाभ्यसेद्गौरवान्मांसं कृशं नैवोपयोजयेत्||१०||

Vallūraṁ śuṣkaśākāni śālūkāni bisāni ca| nābhyasēdgauravānmāṁsaṁ kr̥śaṁ naivōpayōjayēt||10||

vallUraM shuShkashAkAni shAlUkAni bisAni ca| nAbhyasedgauravAnmAMsaM kRushaM naivopayojayet||10||

One should not be habitual to take dried meat, dried vegetables, shaluka (tuber of lotus-Nymphaea alba Linn.) and bisa (stalk of lotus-Nymphaea alba Linn.) as these are heavy to digest. One should never eat meat of emaciated animal. [10]

कूर्चिकांश्च किलाटांश्च शौकरं गव्यमाहिषे| मत्स्यान् दधि च माषांश्च यवकांश्च न शीलयेत्||११||

Kūrcikāṁśca kilāṭāṁśca śaukaraṁ gavyamāhiṣē| matsyān dadhi ca māṣāṁśca yavakāṁśca Na śīlayēt||11||

kUrcikAMshca kilATAMshca shaukaraM gavyamAhiShe| matsyAn dadhi ca mAShAMshca yavakAMshca na shIlayet||11||

One should not be habitual to take coagulated milk, cream-cheese, pork, meat of cow and buffalo, fish, curd, black-gram and wild-barley. [11]

Food articles for regular consumption and preservation of health

षष्टिकाञ्छालिमुद्गांश्च सैन्धवामलके यवान्| आन्तरीक्षं पयः सर्पिर्जाङ्गलं मधु चाभ्यसेत्||१२||

Ṣaṣṭikāñchālimudgāṁśca saindhavāmalakē yavān| āntarīkṣaṁ payaḥ sarpirjāṅgalaṁ madhu cābhyasēt||12||

ShaShTikA~jchAlimudgAMshca saindhavAmalake yavAn| AntarIkShaM payaH sarpirjA~ggalaM madhu cAbhyaset||12||

One should regularly consume shashtika rice (Oryza sativum), shali rice(varieties of Oryza sativum rice), mudga (Vigna radiata green gram), rock-salt, aamalaka (Phyllanthus emblica -Indian-gooseberry), yava (Hordeum vulgare-barley), rain-water, milk, ghee, flesh of jangala animals(arid habitat) and honey. [12]

तच्च नित्यं प्रयुञ्जीत स्वास्थ्यं येनानुवर्तते| अजातानां विकाराणामनुत्पत्तिकरं च यत्||१३||

Tacca nityaṁ prayuñjīta svāsthyaṁ yēnānuvartatē| ajātānāṁ vikārāṇāmanutpattikaraṁ ca yat||13||

tacca nityaM prayu~jjIta svAsthyaM yenAnuvartate| ajAtAnAM vikArANAmanutpattikaraM ca yat||13||

One should follow those in the daily regimen, which maintain health as well as prevent onset of diseases. [13]

Daily procedures for preservation of health

अत ऊर्ध्वं शरीरस्य कार्यमक्ष्यञ्जनादिकम्|

स्वस्थवृत्तिमभिप्रेत्य गुणतः सम्प्रवक्ष्यते||१४||

Ata ūrdhvaṁ śarīrasya kāryamakṣyañjanādikam|

svasthavr̥ttimabhiprētya guṇataḥ sampravakṣyatē||14||

ata UrdhvaM sharIrasya kAryamakShya~jjanAdikam|

svasthavRuttimabhipretya guNataH sampravakShyate||14||

From here onwards we shall explain the body regimen like collyrium etc. with reference to their role of maintaining health. [14]


Frequency of application and types of collyrium

सौवीरमञ्जनं नित्यं हितमक्ष्णोः प्रयोजयेत्|

पञ्चरात्रेऽष्टरात्रे वा स्रावणार्थे रसाञ्जनम्||१५||

Sauvīramañjanaṁ nityaṁ hitamakṣṇōḥ prayōjayēt|

pañcarātrē'ṣṭarātrē vā srāvaṇārthē rasāñjanam||15||

sauvIrama~jjanaM nityaM hitamakShNoH prayojayet|

pa~jcarAtre~aShTarAtre vA srAvaNArthe rasA~jjanam||15||

One should daily apply the collyrium of sauviranjana (antimony sulphide), which is beneficial to the eyes.; one should use rasanjana (aqueous extract of Berberis aristata) once in every fifth or eighth night for cleansing drainage of the eyes. [15]

Direction of use

चक्षुस्तेजोमयं तस्य विशेषाच्छ्लेष्मतो भयम्|

ततः श्लेष्महरं कर्म हितं दृष्टेः प्रसादनम्||१६||

दिवा तन्न प्रयोक्तव्यं नेत्रयोस्तीक्ष्णमञ्जनम्|

विरेकदुर्बला दृष्टिरादित्यं प्राप्य सीदति||१७||

तस्मात् स्राव्यं निशायां तु ध्रुवमञ्जनमिष्यते|१८|

Cakṣustējōmayaṁ tasya viśēṣācchlēṣmatō bhayam|

tataḥ ślēṣmaharaṁ karma hitaṁ dr̥ṣṭēḥ prasādanam||16||

divā tanna prayōktavyaṁ nētrayōstīkṣṇamañjanam|

virēkadurbalā dr̥ṣṭirādityaṁ prāpya sīdati||17||

tasmāt srāvyaṁ niśāyāṁ tu dhruvamañjanamiṣyatē|18|

cakShustejomayaM tasya visheShAcchleShmato bhayam|

tataH shleShmaharaM karma hitaM dRuShTeH prasAdanam||16||

divA tanna prayoktavyaM netrayostIkShNama~jjanam|

virekadurbalA dRuShTirAdityaM prApya sIdati||17||

tasmAt srAvyaM nishAyAM tu dhruvama~jjanamiShyate|18|

The eye is the element of agni. So, it is susceptible to vitiated kapha. Therefore, measures that pacify kapha are beneficial for keeping the vision clear. Strong collyrium shall not be applied to the eyes during daytime as the eyes already weakened by drainage will get impaired further on exposure to sunshine. Therefore, the collyrium meant for cleansing drainage is indicated exclusively at night. [16-17]

Importance and benefits of collyrium application

यथा हि कनकादीनां मलिनां विविधात्मनाम्||१८||

धौतानां निर्मला शुद्धिस्तैलचेलकचादिभिः| एवं नेत्रेषु मर्त्यानामञ्जनाश्च्योतनादिभिः||१९||

दृष्टिर्निराकुला भाति निर्मले नभसीन्दुवत्|२०|

Pathā hi kanakādīnāṁ malināṁ vividhātmanām||18||

dhautānāṁ nirmalā śuddhistailacēlakacādibhiḥ| ēvaṁ nētrēṣu martyānāmañjanāścyōtanādibhiḥ||19||

dr̥ṣṭirnirākulā bhāti nirmalē nabhasīnduvat|20|

yathA hi kanakAdInAM malinAMvividhAtmanAm||18||

dhautAnAM nirmalA shuddhistailacelakacAdibhiH| evaM netreShu martyAnAma~jjanAshcyotanAdibhiH||19||

dRuShTirnirAkulA bhAti nirmale nabhasInduvat|20|

Just as various kinds of tarnished gold-ornaments get cleansed by washing with oil, cloth and hair also, by the use of salves, aspersions in the eyes, the vision of a person shines brightly like moon in the clear sky. [18-19]

Dhumapana (Inhalation of smoke/vapors), its types, directions of use and indications

1. Prayogika dhumapana (therapeutic inhalation for prevention of disease)

हरेणुकां प्रियङ्गुं च पृथ्वीकां केशरं नखम्||२०|

ह्रीवेरं चन्दनं पत्रं त्वगेलोशीरपद्मकम्| ध्यामकं मधुकं मांसी गुग्गुल्वगुरुशर्करम्||२१||

न्यग्रोधोदुम्बराश्वत्थप्लक्षलोध्रत्वचः शुभाः| वन्यं सर्जरसं मुस्तं शैलेयं कमलोत्पले||२२||

श्रीवेष्टकं शल्लकीं च शुकबर्हमथापि च| पिष्ट्वा लिम्पेच्छरेषीकां तां वर्तिं यवसन्निभाम्||२३||

अङ्गुष्ठसम्मितां कुर्यादष्टाङ्गुलसमां भिषक्| शुष्कां निगर्भां तां वर्तिं धूमनेत्रार्पितां नरः||२४||

स्नेहाक्तामग्निसम्प्लुष्टां पिबेत् प्रायोगिकीं सुखाम्|२५|

Harēṇukāṁ priyaṅguṁ ca pr̥thvīkāṁ kēśaraṁ nakham||20||

hrīvēraṁ candanaṁ patraṁ tvagēlōśīrapadmakam| dhyāmakaṁ madhukaṁ māṁsī guggulvaguruśarkaram||21||

nyagrōdhōdumbarāśvatthaplakṣalōdhratvacaḥ śubhāḥ| vanyaṁ sarjarasaṁ mustaṁ śailēyaṁ kamalōtpalē||22||

śrīvēṣṭakaṁ śallakīṁ ca śukabarhamathāpi ca| piṣṭvā limpēccharēṣīkāṁ tāṁ vartiṁ yavasannibhām||23||

aṅguṣṭhasammitāṁ kuryādaṣṭāṅgulasamāṁ bhiṣak| śuṣkāṁ nigarbhāṁ tāṁ vartiṁ dhūmanētrārpitāṁ naraḥ||24||

snēhāktāmagnisampluṣṭāṁ pibēt prāyōgikīṁ sukhām|25|

hareNukAM priya~gguM ca pRuthvIkAM kesharaM nakham||20||

hrIveraM candanaM patraM tvageloshIrapadmakam| dhyAmakaM madhukaM mAMsI guggulvagurusharkaram||21||

nyagrodhodumbarAshvatthaplakShalodhratvacaH shubhAH| vanyaM sarjarasaM mustaM shaileyaM kamalotpale||22||

shrIveShTakaM shallakIM ca shukabarhamathApi ca| piShTvA limpecchareShIkAM tAM vartiM yavasannibhAm||23||

a~gguShThasammitAM kuryAdaShTA~ggulasamAM bhiShak| shuShkAM nigarbhAM tAM vartiM dhUmanetrArpitAM naraH||24||

snehAktAmagnisampluShTAM pibet prAyogikIM sukhAm|25|

Harenuka (Pisum sativum L. ), priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl ),prithvika ( Amomum subulatum Roxb.), kesara(Crocus Sativus L.),nakha( Ipomoea Pes-tigridis L.), hribera (Plectranthus vettiveroides(Jacob)),chandana ( Santaum albus L.),patra (Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham)),tvak (Cinnamomum verum J.Presl),ela (Ellatoria cardamomum(L.) Maton), ushira (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty),padmaka (Prunus cerasoides Buch.-Ham.),dhyamaka (Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng.), madhuka ( Glycyrrhiza glabra L.), mansi ( Nardostachys jatamansi (D.Don.) DC.),guggulu (Commiphora mukul(Hook.ex Stocks), aguru( Aquilaria malaccensis Lam.), sharkara( Dodecacarbon monodecahydrate ), good bark of nyagrodha(Ficus benghalensis L.), ashvattha (Ficus religiosa L.),plaksha (Ficus virens Aiton),lodhra (Symplocos racemose Roxb.),vanya (Boswellia serrata Roxb.ex Colebr), sarjarasa (Vateria indica L.),musta (Cyperus rotundus L.),shaileya (Parmotrema perlatum (Huds.)M.Choisy ),kamala (Mallotus philippensis (Lam.)),utpala(Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f.),sriveshtaka (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.),shallaki (Boswellia serrata Roxb.ex Colebr),Sukabarha – all these are macerated, made as paste and applied on a hollow reed of sara plant, to the thickness of yava, on the reed of the size of the thumb and of eight angula (approximate 16 cm) in length. After the paste dries, the physician should remove the reed of sara plant, smear the wick with ghee and introduce it into the nozzle of the smoking apparatus, and light its front tip with fire and ask the person to inhale its smoke. This is prayogiki dhuma (daily inhalation for the healthy person) and it bestows comfort. [20-24]

2. Snaihika dhumapana (inhalation of smoke with unctuous substances for reducing dryness)


वर्तिं मधुरकैः कृत्वा स्नैहिकीं धूममाचरेत्|२६|


vartiṁ madhurakaiḥ kr̥tvā snaihikīṁ dhūmamācarēt|26|


vartiM madhurakaiH kRutvA snaihikIM dhUmamAcaret|26|

One should use a herbal cigar, prepared from animal fat, ghee and bee wax and should combine skillfully with the best of drugs belonging to the category of sweet taste, for unctuous smoke. [25-26]

3. Vairechanika dhumapana (inhalation of smoke with purgative substances for cleansing)

श्वेता ज्योतिष्मती चैव हरितालं मनःशिला||२६||

गन्धाश्चागुरुपत्राद्या धूमं मूर्धविरेचने |२७|

Śvētā jyōtiṣmatī caiva haritālaṁ manaḥśilā||26||

gandhāścāgurupatrādyā dhūmaṁ mūrdhavirēcanē |27|

shvetA jyotiShmatI caiva haritAlaM manaHshilA||26||

gandhAshcAgurupatrAdyA dhUmaM mUrdhavirecane |27|

One should smoke a cigar made of Shweta (Clitoria ternatea Linn.-white mussel shell creeper), Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus Willd-staff plant), Haritala (orpiment-yellow arsenic), Manashila (realger) and other aromatic ones like Aguru (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.), Patra (Cinnamomum tamala Ness & Eberum.-cinnamom-leaf) etc. for elimination of dosha from head region.[26-27]

Indications of dhumapana

गौरवं शिरसः शूलं पीनसार्धावभेदकौ||२७||

कर्णाक्षिशूलं कासश्च हिक्काश्वासौ गलग्रहः| दन्तदौर्बल्यमास्रावः श्रोत्रघ्राणाक्षिदोषजः||२८||

पूतिर्घ्राणास्यगन्धश्च दन्तशूलमरोचकः| हनुमन्याग्रहः कण्डूः क्रिमयः पाण्डुता मुखे||२९||

श्लेष्मप्रसेको वैस्वर्यं गलशुण्ड्युपजिह्विका| खालित्यं पिञ्जरत्वं च केशानां पतनं तथा||३०||

क्षवथुश्चातितन्द्रा च बुद्धेर्मोहोऽतिनिद्रता| धूमपानात् प्रशाम्यन्ति बलं भवति चाधिकम्||३१||

शिरोरुहकपालानामिन्द्रियाणां स्वरस्य च| न च वातकफात्मानो बलिनोऽप्यूर्ध्वजत्रुजाः||३२||

धूमवक्त्रकपानस्य व्याधयः स्युः शिरोगताः|३३|

Gauravaṁ śirasaḥ śūlaṁ pīnasārdhāvabhēdakau||27||

karṇākṣiśūlaṁ kāsaśca hikkāśvāsau galagrahaḥ| dantadaurbalyamāsrāvaḥ śrōtraghrāṇākṣidōṣajaḥ||28||

pūtirghrāṇāsyagandhaśca dantaśūlamarōcakaḥ| hanumanyāgrahaḥ kaṇḍūḥ krimayaḥ pāṇḍutā mukhē||29||

ślēṣmaprasēkō vaisvaryaṁ galaśuṇḍyupajihvikā| khālityaṁ piñjaratvaṁ ca kēśānāṁ patanaṁ tathā||30|| Kṣavathuścātitandrā ca buddhērmōhō'tinidratā| dhūmapānāt praśāmyanti balaṁ bhavati cādhikam||31||

śirōruhakapālānāmindriyāṇāṁ svarasya ca| na ca vātakaphātmānō balinō'pyūrdhvajatrujāḥ||32||

dhūmavaktrakapānasya vyādhayaḥ syuḥ śirōgatāḥ|33|

gauravaM shirasaH shUlaM pInasArdhAvabhedakau||27||

karNAkShishUlaM kAsashca hikkAshvAsau galagrahaH| dantadaurbalyamAsrAvaH shrotraghrANAkShidoShajaH||28||

pUtirghrANAsyagandhashca dantashUlamarocakaH| hanumanyAgrahaH kaNDUH krimayaH pANDutA mukhe||29||

shleShmapraseko vaisvaryaM galashuNDyupajihvikA| khAlityaM pi~jjaratvaM ca keshAnAM patanaM tathA||30||

kShavathushcAtitandrA ca buddhermoho~atinidratA| dhUmapAnAt prashAmyanti balaM bhavati cAdhikam||31||

shiroruhakapAlAnAmindriyANAM svarasya ca| na ca vAtakaphAtmAno balino~apyUrdhvajatrujAH||32||

dhUmavaktrakapAnasya [4] vyAdhayaH syuH shirogatAH|33|

It is indicated in complaints of heaviness in the head, headache, rhinitis, migraine, ear-ache, pain in eyes, cough, hiccup, dyspnea, obstruction of the throat, weakness of the teeth, discharge from the ear, nose and eyes due to morbid condition, nasal fetor, halitosis, odontalgia, anorexia, lock-jaw, torticollis, pruritis, worms, pallor of the face, mucoid discharge from the mouth, impaired voice, galashundi (uvulitis), upajihvika (ranula), alopecia, graying of hair, and falling of hair. Medicated smoke inhalation alleviates sneezing, excessive drowsiness, loss of consciousness and hypersomnia. It augments the strength of the scalp hair roots, the senses and voice. Moreover, those who resort to smoke inhalation by oral route are not afflicted by vata and kapha dosha affecting the upper part of the body or head, howsoever strong the disease may be.[27-33]

Proper times of administration of dhumapana

प्रयोगपाने तस्याष्टौ कालाः सम्परिकीर्तिताः||३३|| वातश्लेष्मसमुत्क्लेशः कालेष्वेषु हि लक्ष्यते|

स्नात्वा भुक्त्वा समुल्लिख्य क्षुत्वा दन्तान्निघृष्य च| नावनाञ्जननिद्रान्ते चात्मवान् धूमपो भवेत्|

तथा वातकफात्मानो न भवन्त्यूर्ध्वजत्रुजाः||३५|| रोगास्तस्य तु पेयाः स्युरापानास्त्रिस्त्रयस्त्रयः|३६|

परं द्विकाल पायी स्यादह्नः कालेषु बुद्धिमान्||३६|| प्रयोगे, स्नैहिके त्वेकं, वैरेच्यं त्रिचतुः पिबेत्|

Prayōgapānē tasyāṣṭau kālāḥ samparikīrtitāḥ||33||

vātaślēṣmasamutklēśaḥ kālēṣvēṣu hi lakṣyatē| snātvā bhuktvā samullikhya kṣutvā dantānnighr̥ṣya ca|

nāvanāñjananidrāntē cātmavān dhūmapō bhavēt| tathā vātakaphātmānō na bhavantyūrdhvajatrujāḥ||35||

rōgāstasya tu pēyāḥ syurāpānāstristrayastrayaḥ|36|

Paraṁ dvikālapāyī syādahnaḥ kālēṣu buddhimān||36|| prayōgē, snaihikē tvēkaṁ, vairēcyaṁ tricatuḥ pibēt|

prayogapAne tasyAShTau kAlAH samparikIrtitAH||33||

vAtashleShmasamutkleshaH kAleShveShu hi lakShyate| snAtvA bhuktvA samullikhya kShutvA dantAnnighRuShya ca|

nAvanA~jjananidrAnte cAtmavAn dhUmapo bhavet| tathA vAtakaphAtmAno na bhavantyUrdhvajatrujAH||35||

rogAstasya tu peyAH syurApAnAstristrayastrayaH|36|

paraM dvikAlapAyI syAdahnaH kAleShu buddhimAn||36|| prayoge, snaihike tvekaM, vairecyaM tricatuH pibet|

Considering the time of aggravation of Vata and Kapha dosha in body, eight specific times of administration of medicated smoke have been prescribed for daily use. The self controlled man should resort to inhalation of smoke after taking bath, after scraping the tongue, after sneezing, after brushing the teeth, after nasya, after the use of eye-salve/collyrium and at the end of sleep. Thereby, vata and kapha borne diseases affecting the body parts above the clavicle do not afflict him. In these conditions, inhalation should be done thrice, in three puffs each time. A wise man should practice habitual smoking twice a day only, the unctuous smoking once a day and the purgative smoking three or four times a day. [33-36]

Signs of proper dhumapana

हृत्कण्ठेन्द्रियसंशुद्धिर्लघुत्वं शिरसः शमः||३७||

यथेरितानां दोषाणां सम्यक्पीतस्य लक्षणम्|३८|

hr̥tkaṇṭhēndriyasaṁśuddhirlaghutvaṁ śirasaḥ śamaḥ||37||

yathēritānāṁ dōṣāṇāṁ samyakpītasya lakṣaṇam|38|

hRutkaNThendriyasaMshuddhirlaghutvaM shirasaH shamaH||37||

yatheritAnAM doShANAM samyakpItasya lakShaNam|38|

Feeling of well-being and clarity in hridaya (cardiac region), throat and senses, lightness of the head and pacification of the vitiated dosha are the signs of proper dhumapana. [36-38]

Complications due to excess dhumapana and their management

बाधिर्यमान्ध्यमूकत्वं रक्तपित्तं शिरोभ्रमम्||३८||

अकाले चातिपीतश्च धूमः कुर्यादुपद्रवान्| तत्रेष्टं सर्पिषः पानं नावनाञ्जनतर्पणम्||३९||

स्नैहिकं धूमजे दोषे वायुः पित्तानुगो यदि| शीतं तु रक्तपित्ते स्याच्छ्लेष्मपित्ते विरूक्षणम्||४०||

Bādhiryamāndhyamūkatvaṁ raktapittaṁ śirōbhramam||38||

akālē cātipītaśca dhūmaḥ kuryādupadravān| tatrēṣṭaṁ sarpiṣaḥ pānaṁ nāvanāñjanatarpaṇam||39||

snaihikaṁ dhūmajē dōṣē vāyuḥ pittānugō yadi| śītaṁ tu raktapittē syācchlēṣmapittē virūkṣaṇam||40||

bAdhiryamAndhyamUkatvaM raktapittaM shirobhramam||38||

akAle cAtipItashca dhUmaH kuryAdupadravAn| tatreShTaM sarpiShaH pAnaM nAvanA~jjanatarpaNam||39||

snaihikaM dhUmaje doShe vAyuH pittAnugo yadi| shItaM tu raktapitte syAcchleShmapitte virUkShaNam||40||

Untimely or excessive smoking causes complications like deafness, blindness, dumbness, raktapitta (hemorrhagic disorder – bleeding from nose), and giddiness. In such conditions intake of ghee is desirable. In the event of complications arising due to vata following pitta, one shall apply nasal drops, collyrium and tarpana (keeping medicated ghee in the eye) prepared using unctuous articles. In case of raktapitta, these shall be prepared with cooling drugs and in the case of complications arising out of an aggravated kapha, they shall be prepared with ruksha drugs (causing dryness).[38-40]

Contraindications of dhumapana

परं त्वतः प्रवक्ष्यामि धूमो येषां विगर्हितः| न विरिक्तः पिबेद्धूमं न कृते बस्तिकर्मणि||४१||

न रक्ती न विषेणार्तो न शोचन्न च गर्भिणी| न श्रमे न मदे नामे न पित्ते न प्रजागरे||४२||

न मूर्च्छाभ्रमतृष्णासु न क्षीणे नापि च क्षते| न मद्यदुग्धे पीत्वा च न स्नेहं न च माक्षिकम्||४३||

धूमं न भुक्त्वा दध्ना च न रूक्षः क्रुद्ध एव च| न तालुशोषे तिमिरे शिरस्यभिहिते न च||४४||

न शङ्खके न रोहिण्यां न मेहे न मदात्यये| एषु धूममकालेषु मोहात् पिबति यो नरः||४५||

रोगास्तस्य प्रवर्धन्ते दारुणा धूमविभ्रमात्|४६|

Paraṁ tvataḥ pravakṣyāmi dhūmō yēṣāṁ vigarhitaḥ| na viriktaḥ pibēddhūmaṁ na kr̥tē bastikarmaṇi||41||

na raktī na viṣēṇārtō na śōcanna ca garbhiṇī| na śramē na madē nāmē na pittē na prajāgarē||42||

na mūrcchābhramatr̥ṣṇāsu na kṣīṇē nāpi ca kṣatē| na madyadugdhē pītvā ca na snēhaṁ na ca mākṣikam||43||

dhūmaṁ na bhuktvā dadhnā ca na rūkṣaḥ kruddha ēva ca| na tāluśōṣē timirē śirasyabhihitē na ca||44||

na śaṅkhakē na rōhiṇyāṁ na mēhē na madātyayē| ēṣu dhūmamakālēṣu mōhāt pibati yō naraḥ||45||

rōgāstasya pravardhantē dāruṇā dhūmavibhramāt|46|

paraM tvataH pravakShyAmi dhUmo yeShAM vigarhitaH| na viriktaH pibeddhUmaM na kRute bastikarmaNi||41||

na raktI na viSheNArto na shocanna ca garbhiNI| na shrame na made nAme na pitte na prajAgare||42||

na mUrcchAbhramatRuShNAsu na kShINe nApi ca kShate| na madyadugdhe pItvA ca na snehaM na ca mAkShikam||43||

dhUmaM na bhuktvA dadhnA ca na rUkShaH kruddha eva ca| na tAlushoShe timire shirasyabhihite na ca||44||

na sha~gkhake na rohiNyAM na mehe na madAtyaye| eShu dhUmamakAleShu mohAt pibati yo naraH||45||

rogAstasya pravardhante dAruNA dhUmavibhramAt|46|

Now I will explain the persons in whom smoking is contra-indicated: One who has followed virechana (therapeutic purgation), basti (therapeutic enema), a person who has disorders of rakta, who is afflicted with poison, one who is in grief, during pregnancy, one who is fatigued, one who is intoxicated, one suffering from disorders of ama or pitta, one who has had a sleepless night, one suffering from fainting, giddiness, thirst, emaciation or trauma, one who has just taken wine, milk, unctuous beverage or honey, one who has taken food along with curd, one who is afflicted with dryness, anger, dryness of the palate, timira, head-injury, shankhaka, rohini, meha(obstinate urinary disorders) or alcoholism. If a person, out of ignorance, smokes in these instances or in an untimely condition, his disorders will aggravate dreadfully due to complications of dhumapana. [41-46]

Method of dhumapana (smoke inhalation)

धूमयोग्यः पिबेद्दोषे शिरोघ्राणाक्षिसंश्रये||४६||

घ्राणेनास्येन कण्ठस्थे मुखेन घ्राणपो वमेत्| आस्येन धूमकवलान् पिबन् घ्राणेन नोद्वमेत्||४७||

प्रतिलोमं गतो ह्याशु धूमो हिंस्याद्धि चक्षुषी|४८|

ऋज्वङ्गचक्षुस्तच्चेताः सूपविष्टस्त्रिपर्ययम्||४८||

पिबेच्छिद्रं पिधायैकं नासया धूममात्मवान्|४९|

Dhūmayōgyaḥ pibēddōṣē śirōghrāṇākṣisaṁśrayē||46||

ghrāṇēnāsyēna kaṇṭhasthē mukhēna ghrāṇapō vamēt| āsyēna dhūmakavalān piban ghrāṇēna nōdvamēt||47||

pratilōmaṁ gatō hyāśu dhūmō hiṁsyāddhi cakṣuṣī|48|

r̥jvaṅgacakṣustaccētāḥ sūpaviṣṭastriparyayam||48||

Pibēcchidraṁ pidhāyaikaṁ nāsayā dhūmamātmavān|49|

dhUmayogyaH pibeddoShe shiroghrANAkShisaMshraye||46||

ghrANenAsyena kaNThasthe mukhena ghrANapo vamet| Asyena dhUmakavalAn piban ghrANena nodvamet||47||

pratilomaM gato hyAshu dhUmo hiMsyAddhi cakShuShI|48|

Rujva~ggacakShustaccetAH sUpaviShTastriparyayam||48||

pibecchidraM pidhAyaikaM nAsayA dhUmamAtmavAn|49|

The person eligible for dhumapana should inhale the smoke through nose in case of diseases of the head, nose and eye. Dhumapana is advised through mouth in case of diseases of throat. The person who has inhaled smoke through the nose shall exhale it by the mouth, but should not exhale it through nose, because the smoke traversing in the reverse direction injures the eyes quickly. One should cautiously inhale smoke through one nostril after closing the other nostril, thrice in each round, thus for three rounds, in comfortable sitting position with straight body and eyes with concentration of mind. [46-49]

Dhuma netra (nozzle of smoking pipe)

चतुर्विंशतिकं नेत्रं स्वाङ्गुलीभिर्विरेचने||४९||

द्वात्रिंशदङ्गुलं स्नेहे प्रयोगेऽध्यर्धमिष्यते| ऋजु त्रिकोषाफलितं कोलास्थ्यग्रप्रमाणितम्||५०||

बस्तिनेत्रसमद्रव्यं धूमनेत्रं प्रशस्यते|५१|

Caturviṁśatikaṁ nētraṁ svāṅgulībhirvirēcanē||49||

dvātriṁśadaṅgulaṁ snēhē prayōgē'dhyardhamiṣyatē| r̥ju trikōṣāphalitaṁ kōlāsthyagrapramāṇitam||50||

bastinētrasamadravyaṁ dhūmanētraṁ praśasyatē|51|

caturviMshatikaM netraM svA~ggulIbhirvirecane||49||

dvAtriMshada~ggulaM snehe prayoge~adhyardhamiShyate| Ruju trikoShAphalitaM kolAsthyagrapramANitam||50||

bastinetrasamadravyaM dhUmanetraM prashasyate|51|

For the smoke inhalation for errhine purpose, the smoking pipe should be of the length twenty-four fingers breadth, measuring with one’s own finger; For unctuous smoke, it should be of thirty-two fingers; and for daily smoke it should be longer by a half than the first.

The smoking pipe recommended the most is a straight one having three knots/bulges, having the proximal caliber of the size of a ziziphus-stone and is made of the same materials as those of the basti nozzle. [49-51]

दूराद्विनिर्गतः पर्वच्छिन्नो नाडीतनूकृतः||५१||

नेन्द्रियं बाधते धूमो मात्राकालनिषेवितः|५२|

Dūrādvinirgataḥ parvacchinnō nāḍītanūkr̥taḥ||51||

nēndriyaṁ bādhatē dhūmō mātrākālaniṣēvitaḥ|52|

dUrAdvinirgataH parvacchinno nADItanUkRutaH||51||

nendriyaM bAdhate dhUmo mAtrAkAlaniShevitaH|52|

The smoke which comes from a distance, intercepted by the knots/bulges and attenuated by passing through the tapering pipe, taken with due consideration of dose and time does not impair the senses. [51-52]

Effects of less, proper & excess dhumapana (smoke inhalation)

यदा चोरश्च कण्ठश्च शिरश्च लघुतां व्रजेत्||५२|| कफश्च तनुतां प्राप्तः सुपीतं धूममादिशेत्|

अविशुद्धः स्वरो यस्य कण्ठश्च सकफो भवेत्||५३|| स्तिमितो मस्तकश्चैवमपीतं धूममादिशेत्|

तालु मूर्धा च कण्ठश्च शुष्यते परितप्यते||५४|| तृष्यते मुह्यते जन्तू रक्तं च स्रवतेऽधिकम्| शिरश्च भ्रमतेऽत्यर्थं मूर्च्छा चास्योपजायते||५५|| इन्द्रियाण्युपतप्यन्ते धूमेऽत्यर्थं निषेविते|५६|

Yadā cōraśca kaṇṭhaśca śiraśca laghutāṁ vrajēt||52|| kaphaśca tanutāṁ prāptaḥ supītaṁ dhūmamādiśēt|

aviśuddhaḥ svarō yasya kaṇṭhaśca sakaphō bhavēt||53|| stimitō mastakaścaivamapītaṁ dhūmamādiśēt|

tālu mūrdhā ca kaṇṭhaśca śuṣyatē paritapyatē||54|| tr̥ṣyatē muhyatē jantū raktaṁ ca sravatē'dhikam|

śiraśca bhramatē'tyarthaṁ mūrcchā cāsyōpajāyatē||55|| indriyāṇyupatapyantē dhūmē'tyarthaṁ niṣēvitē|56|

yadA corashca kaNThashca shirashca laghutAM vrajet||52|| kaphashca tanutAM prAptaH supItaM dhUmamAdishet|

avishuddhaH svaro yasya kaNThashca sakapho bhavet||53|| stimito mastakashcaivamapItaM dhUmamAdishet| tAlu mUrdhA ca kaNThashca shuShyate paritapyate||54||

When the chest, throat and head feel light and the kapha is liquefied, it is said to be a correct smoking. If the voice is not clear, the throat is filled with kapha and the head feels heavy, it is said to be an insufficient smoking. If the palate, head and throat feel parched and become hot and the person feels thirsty, stupefied and unconscious, or if the person bleeds profusely and the head feels light and dizzy or if the person becomes unconscious or his senses feel agitated, it should be known that the smoking has been done in excess. [52-56]

Nasya therapy (nasal errhines), indications and benefits

वर्षे वर्षेऽणुतैलं च कालेषु त्रिषु ना चरेत्||५६||

प्रावृट्शरद्वसन्तेषु गतमेघे नभस्तले| नस्यकर्म यथाकालं यो यथोक्तं निषेवते||५७||

न तस्य चक्षुर्न घ्राणं न श्रोत्रमुपहन्यते| न स्युः श्वेता न कपिलाः केशाः श्मश्रूणि वा पुनः||५८||

न च केशाः प्रमुच्यन्ते वर्धन्ते च विशेषतः| मन्यास्तम्भः शिरःशूलमर्दितं हनुसङ्ग्रहः||५९||

पीनसार्धावभेदौ च शिरःकम्पश्च शाम्यति| सिराः शिरःकपालानां सन्धयः स्नायुकण्डराः||६०||

नावनप्रीणिताश्चास्य लभन्तेऽभ्यधिकं बलम्| मुखं प्रसन्नोपचितं स्वरः स्निग्धः स्थिरो महान्||६१||

सर्वेन्द्रियाणां वैमल्यं बलं भवति चाधिकम्| न चास्य रोगाः सहसा प्रभवन्त्यूर्ध्वजत्रुजाः||६२||

जीर्यतश्चोत्तमाङ्गेषु जरा न लभते बलम्|६३|

Varṣē varṣē'ṇutailaṁ ca kālēṣu triṣu nā carēt||56||

prāvr̥ṭśaradvasantēṣu gatamēghē nabhastalē| nasyakarma yathākālaṁ yō yathōktaṁ niṣēvatē||57||

na tasya cakṣurna ghrāṇaṁ na śrōtramupahanyatē| na syuḥ śvētā na kapilāḥ kēśāḥ śmaśrūṇi vā punaḥ||58||

na ca kēśāḥ pramucyantē vardhantē ca viśēṣataḥ| manyāstambhaḥ śiraḥśūlamarditaṁ hanusaṅgrahaḥ||59||

pīnasārdhāvabhēdau ca śiraḥkampaśca śāmyati| sirāḥ śiraḥkapālānāṁ sandhayaḥ snāyukaṇḍarāḥ||60||

nāvanaprīṇitāścāsya labhantē'bhyadhikaṁ balam| mukhaṁ prasannōpacitaṁ svaraḥ snigdhaḥ sthirō mahān||61||

sarvēndriyāṇāṁ vaimalyaṁ balaṁ bhavati cādhikam| na cāsya rōgāḥ sahasā prabhavantyūrdhvajatrujāḥ||62||

jīryataścōttamāṅgēṣu jarā na labhatē balam|63|

tRuShyate muhyate jantU raktaM ca sravate~adhikam| shirashca bhramate~atyarthaM mUrcchA cAsyopajAyate||55||

indriyANyupatapyante dhUme~atyarthaM niShevite|56|

varShe varShe~aNutailaM ca kAleShu triShu nA caret||56||

prAvRuTsharadvasanteShu gatameghe nabhastale| nasyakarma yathAkAlaM yo yathoktaM niShevate||57||

na tasya cakShurna ghrANaM na shrotramupahanyate| na syuH shvetA na kapilAH keshAH shmashrUNi vA punaH||58||

na ca keshAH pramucyante vardhante ca visheShataH| manyAstambhaH shiraHshUlamarditaM hanusa~ggrahaH||59||

pInasArdhAvabhedau ca shiraHkampashca shAmyati| sirAH shiraHkapAlAnAM sandhayaH snAyukaNDarAH||60||

nAvanaprINitAshcAsya labhante~abhyadhikaM balam| mukhaM prasannopacitaM svaraH snigdhaH sthiro mahAn||61||

sarvendriyANAM vaimalyaM balaM bhavati cAdhikam| na cAsya rogAH sahasA prabhavantyUrdhvajatrujAH||62||

jIryatashcottamA~ggeShu jarA na labhate balam|63|

One should take a course of anu taila every year, during three seasons, of the pre-rainy season, the autumn and the spring, when the sky is free from clouds. One, who practices nasya, per the prescribed method, at the proper time, will keep his sight, smell and hearing unimpaired. His hair and beard will never become white or grey; his hair will not fall off, rather will grow in abundance. Torticollis, head-ache, facial paralysis, lock-jaw, rhinitis, hemicrania and tremors of the head will be alleviated thereby. The nasya will nourish the blood vessels, joints, ligaments and tendons of cranium, giving them greater strength. The face will become cheerful and plump, the voice will become mellow, firm and stentorian, and all the senses will become clearer and strengthened considerably. Diseases related to head and neck would not attack him all of a sudden even though he might be aging. The effects of senility would not affect the head. [56-63]

Anu taila (Preparation of Anu oil), its dose and method of administration

चन्दनागुरुणी पत्रं दार्वीत्वङ्मधुकं बलाम्||६३||

प्रपौण्डरीकं सूक्ष्मैलां विडङ्गं बिल्वमुत्पलम्| ह्रीबेरमभयं वन्यं त्वङ्मुस्तं सारिवां स्थिराम्||६४||

जीवन्तीं पृश्निपर्णीं च सुरदारु शतावरीम्| हरेणुं बृहतीं व्याघ्रीं सुरभीं पद्मकेशरम्||६५||

विपाचयेच्छतगुणे माहेन्द्रे विमलेऽम्भसि| तैलाद्दशगुणं शेषं कषायमवतारयेत्||६६||

तेन तैलं कषायेण दशकृत्वो विपाचयेत्| अथास्य दशमे पाके समांशं छागलं पयः||६७||

दद्यादेषोऽणुतैलस्य नावनीयस्य संविधिः| अस्य मात्रां प्रयुञ्जीत तैलस्यार्धपलोन्मिताम्||६८||

स्निग्धस्विन्नोत्तमाङ्गस्य पिचुना नावनैस्त्रिभिः| त्र्यहात्त्र्यहाच्च सप्ताहमेतत् कर्म समाचरेत्||६९||

निवातोष्णसमाचारी हिताशी नियतेन्द्रियः| तैलमेतत्त्रिदोषघ्नमिन्द्रियाणां बलप्रदम्||७०||

प्रयुञ्जानो यथाकालं यथोक्तानश्नुते गुणान्|७१|

Candanāguruṇī patraṁ dārvītvaṅmadhukaṁ balām||63||

prapauṇḍarīkaṁ sūkṣmailāṁ viḍaṅgaṁ bilvamutpalam| hrībēramabhayaṁ vanyaṁ tvaṅmustaṁ sārivāṁ sthirām||64||

jīvantīṁ pr̥śniparṇīṁ ca suradāru śatāvarīm| harēṇuṁ br̥hatīṁ vyāghrīṁ surabhīṁ padmakēśaram||65||

vipācayēcchataguṇē māhēndrē vimalē'mbhasi| tailāddaśaguṇaṁ śēṣaṁ kaṣāyamavatārayēt||66||

tēna tailaṁ kaṣāyēṇa daśakr̥tvō vipācayēt| athāsya daśamē pākē samāṁśaṁ chāgalaṁ payaḥ||67||

dadyādēṣō'ṇutailasya nāvanīyasya saṁvidhiḥ| asya mātrāṁ prayuñjīta tailasyārdhapalōnmitām||68||

snigdhasvinnōttamāṅgasya picunā nāvanaistribhiḥ| tryahāttryahācca saptāhamētat karma samācarēt||69||

nivātōṣṇasamācārī hitāśī niyatēndriyaḥ| tailamētattridōṣaghnamindriyāṇāṁ balapradam||70||

prayuñjānō yathākālaṁ yathōktānaśnutē guṇān|71|

candanAguruNI patraM dArvItva~gmadhukaM balAm||63||

prapauNDarIkaM sUkShmailAM viDa~ggaM bilvamutpalam| hrIberamabhayaM vanyaM tva~gmustaM sArivAM sthirAm||64||

jIvantIM pRushniparNIM ca suradAru shatAvarIm| hareNuM bRuhatIM vyAghrIM surabhIM padmakesharam||65||

vipAcayecchataguNe mAhendre vimale~ambhasi| tailAddashaguNaM sheShaM kaShAyamavatArayet||66||

tena tailaM kaShAyeNa dashakRutvo vipAcayet| athAsya dashame pAke samAMshaM chAgalaM payaH||67||

dadyAdeSho~aNutailasya nAvanIyasya saMvidhiH| asya mAtrAM prayu~jjIta tailasyArdhapalonmitAm||68||

snigdhasvinnottamA~ggasya picunA nAvanaistribhiH| tryahAttryahAcca saptAhametat karma samAcaret||69||

nivAtoShNasamAcArI hitAshI niyatendriyaH| tailametattridoShaghnamindriyANAM balapradam||70||

prayu~jjAno yathAkAlaM yathoktAnashnute guNAn|71|

Ingredients of Anu taila: Chanadana (Santalum album Linn.-Indian sandal wood), aguru (Aquilaria agalocha Rox.-eagle wood), patra (Cinnamomum tamala Nees.-cinnamom leaf), darvi(Berberis aristata DC-Indian barberry), madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.-liquorice), bala (Sida cordifolia Linn.-country mallow), prapaundarika (Nymphaea lotus Linn.-lotus rhizomes), sukshma ela (Elattaria cardamomum Maton -small cardamom), vidanga (Embelia ribes Burm.f.-false black pepper), bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr.-wood apple), utpala (Nymphaea caerulea Sav.-sacred blue lily), hribera(Coleus zeylanicus Benth.), abhayam(Vetiveria zizanioides), vanya(Cyperus tenniflorus-rush nut), twak (Cinnamomum tamala Nees.-cinnamom bark),musta (Cyperus rotendus Linn.- nut grass), sariva (Hemidesmus indicus R.B.-Indian sarsaparilla), sthira (Desmodium gangeticum DC-ticktrefoil), jivanti(Leptadenia reticulate W& A-cork swallow wart), prushniparni (Uraria picta Desv.-painted leaved uraria), deodar (cedrus deodara Loud.), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus Willd.-climbing asparagus), harenu (Pisum sativaum Linn.-fragrant piper), bruhati (Solanum indicum Linn.-Indian night shade), vyaghri (Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad-yellow berried night shade), surabhi (Pluchea lancolata Oliver & Hiern-Indian groundsel), padmakeshara (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.-lotus filaments)

Process of preparation: All the above herbs should be boiled with hundred times in volume of pure rain water. When the decoction is boiled down to ten-times the quantity of oil to be prepared, take it off from the fire. Take one-tenth of this decoction and mix it with equal quantity of oil, boil till only the oil remains. Repeat this process for ten times. At the tenth boiling add an equal quantity of goat’s milk. This is the prescribed method of preparing anu taila for the purpose of nasya.

Dose: Half pala (approximate 20 ml) of this oil should be administered.

Method of administration: After oleation and sudation of the head and face parts, one should drop the oil into the nostrils with a cotton swab, thrice every alternate day and for seven such days.

Precautions: The person shall reside in a place which is warm and free from draughts, taking wholesome food and observing self control. [63-71]

Oral hygiene: Method of cleaning teeth, tongue and directions for tooth brush use

आपोथिताग्रं द्वौ कालौ कषायकटुतिक्तकम्||७१||

भक्षयेद्दन्तपवनं दन्तमांसान्यबाधयन्| निहन्ति गन्धं वैरस्यं जिह्वादन्तास्यजं मलम्||७२||

निष्कृष्य रुचिमाधत्ते सद्यो दन्तविशोधनम्| करञ्जकरवीरार्कमालतीककुभासनाः||७३||

शस्यन्ते दन्तपवने ये चाप्येवंविधा द्रुमाः| सुवर्णरूप्यताम्राणि त्रपुरीतिमयानि च||७४||

जिह्वानिर्लेखनानि स्युरतीक्ष्णान्यनृजूनि च| जिह्वामूलगतं यच्च मलमुच्छ्वासरोधि च||७५||

दौर्गन्ध्यं भजते तेन तस्माज्जिह्वां विनिर्लिखेत्|७६|

Āpōthitāgraṁ dvau kālau kaṣāyakaṭutiktakam||71||

bhakṣayēddantapavanaṁ dantamāṁsānyabādhayan| nihanti gandhaṁ vairasyaṁ jihvādantāsyajaṁ malam||72||

niṣkr̥ṣya rucimādhattē sadyō dantaviśōdhanam| karañjakaravīrārkamālatīkakubhāsanāḥ||73||

śasyantē dantapavanē yē cāpyēvaṁvidhā drumāḥ| suvarṇarūpyatāmrāṇi trapurītimayāni ca||74||

jihvānirlēkhanāni syuratīkṣṇānyanr̥jūni ca| jihvāmūlagataṁ yacca malamucchvāsarōdhi ca||75||

daurgandhyaṁ bhajatē tēna tasmājjihvāṁ vinirlikhēt|76|

ApothitAgraM dvau kAlau kaShAyakaTutiktakam||71||

bhakShayeddantapavanaM dantamAMsAnyabAdhayan| nihanti gandhaM vairasyaM jihvAdantAsyajaM malam||72||

niShkRuShya rucimAdhatte sadyo dantavishodhanam| kara~jjakaravIrArkamAlatIkakubhAsanAH||73||

shasyante dantapavane ye cApyevaMvidhA drumAH| suvarNarUpyatAmrANi trapurItimayAni ca||74||

jihvAnirlekhanAni syuratIkShNAnyanRujUni ca| jihvAmUlagataM yacca malamucchvAsarodhi ca||75||

daurgandhyaM bhajate tena tasmAjjihvAM vinirlikhet|76|

One should clean the teeth with a green twig having a crushed end and of astringent, pungent or bitter taste, twice a day without injuring the gums. This removes halitosis, dysgeusia, induces taste for food by removing the impurities from the tongue, the mouth and the teeth, and cleans the teeth instantaneously. Karanja (Pongamia pinnata Pierre-Indian beech), karavira (Nerium indicum Mill-Indian oleander), arka (Calotropis gigantean Linn -madar), malati (Aganosma dichotoma Roth-Arabian jasmine), arjuna (Terminalia arjuna Roxb), asana (Terminalia tomentosa W&A-spinout kini-tree) and such other trees are recommended for use in teeth-cleansing. Currently, for dental hygiene tooth brush, flossing and dental brushing is being used effectively.

The tongue-scraper should be curved without a sharp edge and be made of gold, silver, copper, tin or brass. The impurities, deposited at the root of the tongue obstruct inhalation, causing halitosis. The tongue, therefore, should be scraped properly. [71-76]

Mouth fresheners

धार्याण्यास्येन वैशद्यरुचिसौगन्ध्यमिच्छता||७६||

जातीकटुकपूगानां लवङ्गस्य फलानि च| कक्कोलस्य फलं पत्रं ताम्बूलस्य शुभं तथा| तथा कर्पूरनिर्यासः सूक्ष्मैलायाः फलानि च||७७||

Dhāryāṇyāsyēna vaiśadyarucisaugandhyamicchatā||76||

jātīkaṭukapūgānāṁ lavaṅgasya phalāni ca| kakkōlasya phalaṁ patraṁ tāmbūlasya śubhaṁ tathā| tathā karpūraniryāsaḥ sūkṣmailāyāḥ phalāni ca||77||

dhAryANyAsyena vaishadyarucisaugandhyamicchatA||76||

jAtIkaTukapUgAnAM lava~ggasya phalAni ca| kakkolasya phalaM patraM tAmbUlasya shubhaM tathA| tathA karpUraniryAsaH sUkShmailAyAH phalAni ca||77||

One, desirous of securing cleanliness, taste and fragrance should keep jati (Myristica fragrans Hoult.-nutmeg), katuka (Hibiscuss abelmoschus Linn.-musk-mellow), puga (Areca catechu Linn.-betel-nut), lavanga (Syzygium aromaticum Merrill & Perry-cloves), kankola (Piper cubeba Linn.-cubeb-pepper seed), tambula (betel-leaves), karpura (Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm.-camphor), and sukshma ela (small cardamom) in the mouth. [76-77]

Directions of Gandusha (Oil gargling) and its benefits

हन्वोर्बलं स्वरबलं वदनोपचयः परः| स्यात् परं च रसज्ञानमन्ने च रुचिरुत्तमा||७८||

न चास्य कण्ठशोषः स्यान्नौष्ठयोः स्फुटनाद्भयम्| न च दन्ताः क्षयं यान्ति दृढमूला भवन्ति च||७९||

न शूल्यन्ते न चाम्लेन हृष्यन्ते भक्षयन्ति च| परानपि खरान् भक्ष्यांस्तैलगण्डूषधारणात्||८०||

Hanvōrbalaṁ svarabalaṁ vadanōpacayaḥ paraḥ| syāt paraṁ ca rasajñānamannē ca ruciruttamā||78||

na cāsya kaṇṭhaśōṣaḥ syānnauṣṭhayōḥ sphuṭanādbhayam| na ca dantāḥ kṣayaṁ yānti dr̥ḍhamūlā bhavanti ca||79||

na śūlyantē na cāmlēna hr̥ṣyantē bhakṣayanti ca| parānapi kharān bhakṣyāṁstailagaṇḍūṣadhāraṇāt||80||

hanvorbalaM svarabalaM vadanopacayaH paraH| syAt paraM ca rasaj~jAnamanne ca ruciruttamA||78||

na cAsya kaNThashoShaH syAnnauShThayoH sphuTanAdbhayam| na ca dantAH kShayaM yAnti dRuDhamUlA bhavanti ca||79||

na shUlyante na cAmlena hRuShyante bhakShayanti ca| parAnapi kharAn bhakShyAMstailagaNDUShadhAraNAt||80||

Oil-gargling imparts strength to the jaws, strength to the voice and excellent plumpness/flabbiness to the face, excellent gustatory sensation and good taste for food. One does not suffer from the dryness of the throat, or from the fear of the lips getting chafed. One’s teeth do not become carious, instead become firmly rooted and do not ache nor are they set on edge by sour intake but become strong enough to chew even the hardest eatables. [78-80]

Abhyanga (therapeutic massage)

Directions, indications and benefits of abhyanga (head massage and body massage)

नित्यं स्नेहार्द्रशिरसः शिरःशूलं न जायते| न खालित्यं न पालित्यं न केशाः प्रपतन्ति च||८१||

बलं शिरःकपालानां विशेषेणाभिवर्धते| दृढमूलाश्च दीर्घाश्च कृष्णाः केशा भवन्ति च||८२||

इन्द्रियाणि प्रसीदन्ति सुत्वग्भवति चाननम् | निद्रालाभः सुखं च स्यान्मूर्ध्नि तैलनिषेवणात्||८३||

न कर्णरोगा वातोत्था न मन्याहनुसङ्ग्रहः| नोच्चैः श्रुतिर्न बाधिर्यं स्यान्नित्यं कर्णतर्पणात्||८४||

स्नेहाभ्यङ्गाद्यथा कुम्भश्चर्म स्नेहविमर्दनात्| भवत्युपाङ्गादक्षश्च दृढः क्लेशसहो यथा||८५||

तथा शरीरमभ्यङ्गाद्दृढं सुत्वक् च जायते| प्रशान्तमारुताबाधं क्लेशव्यायामसंसहम्||८६||

स्पर्शनेऽभ्यधिको वायुः स्पर्शनं च त्वगाश्रितम्| त्वच्यश्च परमभ्यङ्गस्तस्मात्तं शीलयेन्नरः||८७||

न चाभिघाताभिहतं गात्रमभ्यङ्गसेविनः| विकारं भजतेऽत्यर्थं बलकर्मणि वा क्वचित्||८८||

सुस्पर्शोपचिताङ्गश्च बलवान् प्रियदर्शनः| भवत्यभ्यङ्गनित्यत्वान्नरोऽल्पजर एव च||८९||

Nityaṁ snēhārdraśirasaḥ śiraḥśūlaṁ na jāyatē| na khālityaṁ na pālityaṁ na kēśāḥ prapatanti ca||81||

balaṁ śiraḥkapālānāṁ viśēṣēṇābhivardhatē| dr̥ḍhamūlāśca dīrghāśca kr̥ṣṇāḥ kēśā bhavanti ca||82||

indriyāṇi prasīdanti sutvagbhavati cānanam | nidrālābhaḥ sukhaṁ ca syānmūrdhni tailaniṣēvaṇāt||83||

na karṇarōgā vātōtthā na manyāhanusaṅgrahaḥ| nōccaiḥ śrutirna bādhiryaṁ syānnityaṁ karṇatarpaṇāt||84||

snēhābhyaṅgādyathā kumbhaścarma snēhavimardanāt| bhavatyupāṅgādakṣaśca dr̥ḍhaḥ klēśasahō yathā||85||

tathā śarīramabhyaṅgāddr̥ḍhaṁ sutvak ca jāyatē| praśāntamārutābādhaṁ klēśavyāyāmasaṁsaham||86||

sparśanē'bhyadhikō vāyuḥ sparśanaṁ ca tvagāśritam| tvacyaśca paramabhyaṅgastasmāttaṁ śīlayēnnaraḥ||87||

na cābhighātābhihataṁ gātramabhyaṅgasēvinaḥ| vikāraṁ bhajatē'tyarthaṁ balakarmaṇi vā kvacit||88||

susparśōpacitāṅgaśca balavān priyadarśanaḥ| bhavatyabhyaṅganityatvānnarō'lpajara ēva ca||89||

nityaM snehArdrashirasaH shiraHshUlaM na jAyate| na khAlityaM na pAlityaM na keshAH prapatanti ca||81||

balaM shiraHkapAlAnAM visheSheNAbhivardhate| dRuDhamUlAshca dIrghAshca kRuShNAH keshA bhavanti ca||82||

indriyANi prasIdanti sutvagbhavati cAnanam | nidrAlAbhaH sukhaM ca syAnmUrdhni tailaniShevaNAt||83||

na karNarogA vAtotthA na manyAhanusa~ggrahaH| noccaiH shrutirna bAdhiryaM syAnnityaM karNatarpaNAt||84||

snehAbhya~ggAdyathA kumbhashcarma snehavimardanAt| bhavatyupA~ggAdakShashca dRuDhaH kleshasaho yathA||85||

tathA sharIramabhya~ggAddRuDhaM sutvak ca jAyate| prashAntamArutAbAdhaM kleshavyAyAmasaMsaham||86||

sparshane~abhyadhiko vAyuH sparshanaM ca tvagAshritam| tvacyashca paramabhya~ggastasmAttaM shIlayennaraH||87||

na cAbhighAtAbhihataM gAtramabhya~ggasevinaH| vikAraM bhajate~atyarthaM balakarmaNi vA kvacit||88||

susparshopacitA~ggashca balavAn priyadarshanaH| bhavatyabhya~gganityatvAnnaro~alpajara eva ca||89||

One who has got his head daily well oleated alleviates head-ache, premature graying, and alopecia, while strengthening the cranial bones significantly. Hair roots become stronger, senses become clearer, the facial skin becomes smoother and the person gets sound sleep and happiness.

By filling the ears with oil daily, there will be no ear diseases of the vata type, no stiffness of the neck or jaws, no difficulty in hearing and reduced chances of deafness.

Just as a pitcher by smearing with oil, a hide by soaking in oil or an axle by lubricating with oil become firm, so does the human body when oleated with oil. The skin becomes beautiful, vata disorders are relieved, and tolerance to hardship and physical strain is enhanced. vayu predominates in the tactile sense faculty and the tactile sense faculty resides in the skin. Massage is exceedingly beneficial to the skin. Therefore, a person should practice it regularly. A person’s body accustomed to oil massage is not liable to be afflicted with injury due to external trauma or strenuous physical exertion. A person, by applying daily oil massage, becomes smooth and plump, strong and good looking, while slowing his aging process. [81-89]

Directions and benefits of foot massage

खरत्वं स्तब्धता रौक्ष्यं श्रमः सुप्तिश्च पादयोः| सद्य एवोपशाम्यन्ति पादाभ्यङ्गनिषेवणात्||९०||

जायते सौकुमार्यं च बलं स्थैर्यं च पादयोः| दृष्टिः प्रसादं लभते मारुतश्चोपशाम्यति||९१||

न च स्याद्गृध्रसीवातः पादयोः स्फुटनं न च| न सिरास्नायुसङ्कोचः पादाभ्यङ्गेन पादयोः||९२||

Kharatvaṁ stabdhatā raukṣyaṁ śramaḥ suptiśca pādayōḥ| sadya ēvōpaśāmyanti pādābhyaṅganiṣēvaṇāt||90||

jāyatē saukumāryaṁ ca balaṁ sthairyaṁ ca pādayōḥ| dr̥ṣṭiḥ prasādaṁ labhatē mārutaścōpaśāmyati||91||

Na ca syādgr̥dhrasīvātaḥ pādayōḥ sphuṭanaṁ na ca| na sirāsnāyusaṅkōcaḥ pādābhyaṅgēna pādayōḥ||92||

kharatvaM stabdhatA raukShyaM shramaH suptishca pAdayoH| sadya evopashAmyanti pAdAbhya~gganiShevaNAt||90||

jAyate saukumAryaM ca balaM sthairyaM ca pAdayoH| dRuShTiH prasAdaM labhate mArutashcopashAmyati||91||

na ca syAdgRudhrasIvAtaH pAdayoH sphuTanaM na ca| na sirAsnAyusa~gkocaH pAdAbhya~ggena pAdayoH||92||

The roughness, stiffness, dryness, fatigue and numbness of feet are alleviated by massaging the legs. The legs attain gentleness, strength, firmness, the eyes attain brightness, and the vata is pacified. Foot massage also prevents grudhrasi (sciatica), fissures in the feet, contraction of the muscles, and blood vessels of legs. [90-92]

Snana (bath) and its benefits

दौर्गन्ध्यं गौरवं तन्द्रां कण्डूं मलमरोचकम्| स्वेदबीभत्सतां हन्ति शरीरपरिमार्जनम्||९३||

पवित्रं वृष्यमायुष्यं श्रमस्वेदमलापहम् | शरीरबलसन्धानं स्नानमोजस्करं परम्||९४||

Daurgandhyaṁ gauravaṁ tandrāṁ kaṇḍūṁ malamarōcakam| svēdabībhatsatāṁ hanti śarīraparimārjanam||93||

pavitraṁ vr̥ṣyamāyuṣyaṁ śramasvēdamalāpaham | śarīrabalasandhānaṁ snānamōjaskaraṁ param||94||

daurgandhyaM gauravaM tandrAM kaNDUM malamarocakam| svedabIbhatsatAM hanti sharIraparimArjanam||93||

pavitraM vRuShyamAyuShyaM shramasvedamalApaham | sharIrabalasandhAnaM snAnamojaskaraM param||94||

Wiping of body removes body fetor, heaviness, fatigue, itching, dirt, anorexia and loathsomeness due to sweating. Bathing is purifying, promotive of virility and longevity, remover of fatigue, sweat and dirt, brings about physical strength and enhances ojas to the highest degree. [93-94]

Virtues of proper attire

काम्यं यशस्यमायुष्यमलक्ष्मीघ्नं प्रहर्षणम्| श्रीमत् पारिषदं शस्तं निर्मलाम्बरधारणम्||९५||

वृष्यं सौगन्ध्यमायुष्यं काम्यं पुष्टिबलप्रदम्| सौमनस्यमलक्ष्मीघ्नं गन्धमाल्यनिषेवणम्||९६||

धन्यं मङ्गल्यमायुष्यं श्रीमद्व्यसनसूदनम्| हर्षणं काम्यमोजस्यं रत्नाभरणधारणम्||९७||

मेध्यं पवित्रमायुष्यमलक्ष्मीकलिनाशनम्| पादयोर्मलमार्गाणां शौचाधानमभीक्ष्णशः||९८||

पौष्टिकं वृष्यमायुष्यं शुचि रूपविराजनम्| केशश्मश्रुनखादीनां कल्पनं सम्प्रसाधनम्||९९||

चक्षुष्यं स्पर्शनहितं पादयोर्व्यसनापहम्| बल्यं पराक्रमसुखं वृष्यं पादत्रधारणम्||१००||

ईतेः प्रशमनं बल्यं गुप्त्यावरणशङ्करम्| घर्मानिलरजोम्बुघ्नं छत्रधारणमुच्यते||१०१||

स्खलतः सम्प्रतिष्ठानं शत्रूणां च निषूदनम्| अवष्टम्भनमायुष्यं भयघ्नं दण्डधारणम्||१०२||

Kāmyaṁ yaśasyamāyuṣyamalakṣmīghnaṁ praharṣaṇam| śrīmat pāriṣadaṁ śastaṁ nirmalāmbaradhāraṇam||95||

vr̥ṣyaṁ saugandhyamāyuṣyaṁ kāmyaṁ puṣṭibalapradam| saumanasyamalakṣmīghnaṁ gandhamālyaniṣēvaṇam||96||

dhanyaṁ maṅgalyamāyuṣyaṁ śrīmadvyasanasūdanam| harṣaṇaṁ kāmyamōjasyaṁ ratnābharaṇadhāraṇam||97||

mēdhyaṁ pavitramāyuṣyamalakṣmīkalināśanam| pādayōrmalamārgāṇāṁ śaucādhānamabhīkṣṇaśaḥ||98||

pauṣṭikaṁ vr̥ṣyamāyuṣyaṁ śuci rūpavirājanam| kēśaśmaśrunakhādīnāṁ kalpanaṁ samprasādhanam||99||

cakṣuṣyaṁ sparśanahitaṁ pādayōrvyasanāpaham| balyaṁ parākramasukhaṁ vr̥ṣyaṁ pādatradhāraṇam||100||

ītēḥ praśamanaṁ balyaṁ guptyāvaraṇaśaṅkaram| gharmānilarajōmbughnaṁ chatradhāraṇamucyatē||101||

skhalataḥ sampratiṣṭhānaṁ śatrūṇāṁ ca niṣūdanam| avaṣṭambhanamāyuṣyaṁ bhayaghnaṁ daṇḍadhāraṇam||102|

kAmyaM yashasyamAyuShyamalakShmIghnaM praharShaNam| shrImat pAriShadaM shastaM nirmalAmbaradhAraNam||95||

vRuShyaM saugandhyamAyuShyaM kAmyaM puShTibalapradam| saumanasyamalakShmIghnaM gandhamAlyaniShevaNam||96||

dhanyaM ma~ggalyamAyuShyaM shrImadvyasanasUdanam| harShaNaM kAmyamojasyaM ratnAbharaNadhAraNam||97||

medhyaM pavitramAyuShyamalakShmIkalinAshanam| pAdayormalamArgANAM shaucAdhAnamabhIkShNashaH||98||

pauShTikaM vRuShyamAyuShyaM shuci rUpavirAjanam| keshashmashrunakhAdInAM kalpanaM samprasAdhanam||99||

cakShuShyaM sparshanahitaM pAdayorvyasanApaham| balyaM parAkramasukhaM vRuShyaM pAdatradhAraNam||100||

IteH prashamanaM balyaM guptyAvaraNasha~gkaram| gharmAnilarajombughnaM chatradhAraNamucyate||101||

skhalataH sampratiShThAnaM shatrUNAM ca niShUdanam| avaShTambhanamAyuShyaM bhayaghnaM daNDadhAraNam||102||

The wearing of clean apparel enhances charm and personality of an individual, promotes longevity, prevents bad-luck/inauspiciousness, brings about pleasure, is decorative, makes competent to participate in conferences and is commendable. The use of fragrant articles and garlands enhances virility, promotes longevity, charm, plumpness and strength, is pleasing to the mind, and averts poverty.

The wearing of jewel-ornaments brings prosperity, is auspicious, promotes longevity, is decorative, is dispersive of worries, is exhilarative, is attractive and is enhancing of ojas.

The frequent ablution of feet and excretory orifices is promotive of intelligence, is purifying, promotes longevity, and dispels misfortunes and sin.

The trimming and grooming of body hair and nails (manicure and pedicure) is promotive of plumpness, virility, longevity, cleanliness and beauty.

The donning of footwear is pleasing to the eyes, conducive to the skin of the sole, mitigative of foot-discomfort, promotive of strength, facilitative of easy gait and promotive of virility.

The carrying of umbrella is averts calamities, promotes strength, affords protection, cover and comfort, and serves as a shield against sun, wind, dust and rain. The carrying of the staff serves as a prop against stumbling, is dispersive of enemies, serves as a support, promotes longevity, and dispels fear. [95-102]

Importance of vigilance in self care

नगरी नगरस्येव रथस्येव रथी यथा| स्वशरीरस्य मेधावी कृत्येष्ववहितो भवेत्||१०३||

Nagarī nagarasyēva rathasyēva rathī yathā| svaśarīrasya mēdhāvī kr̥tyēṣvavahitō bhavēt||103||

nagarI nagarasyeva rathasyeva rathI yathA| svasharIrasya medhAvI kRutyeShvavahito bhavet||103||

Like the lord of a city in the affairs of his city, and a charioteer in the management of his chariot, so should a wise man be ever vigilant in the caring of his own body. [103]


भवति चात्र- वृत्त्युपायान्निषेवेत ये स्युर्धर्माविरोधिनः| शममध्ययनं चैव सुखमेवं समश्नुते||१०४||

Bhavati cātra- vr̥ttyupāyānniṣēvēta yē syurdharmāvirōdhinaḥ| śamamadhyayanaṁ caiva sukhamēvaṁ samaśnutē||104||

bhavati cAtra- vRuttyupAyAnniSheveta ye syurdharmAvirodhinaH| shamamadhyayanaM caiva sukhamevaM samashnute||104||

Here is a verse again- One should have recourse to such means of livelihood as are not contrary to the dictates of religion, and should be devoted to peace and studies. Living thus, one attains happiness. [104]

तत्र श्लोकाः- मात्रा द्रव्याणि मात्रां च संश्रित्य गुरुलाघवम्| द्रव्याणां गर्हितोऽभ्यासो येषां, येषां च शस्यते||१०५||

अञ्जनं धूमवर्तिश्च त्रिविधा वर्तिकल्पना| धूमपानगुणाः कालाः पानमानं च यस्य यत्||१०६||

व्यापत्तिचिह्नं भैषज्यं धूमो येषां विगर्हितः| पेयो यथा यन्मयं च नेत्रं यस्य च यद्विधम्||१०७||

नस्यकर्मगुणा नस्तःकार्यं यच्च यथा यदा| भक्षयेद्दन्तपवनं यथा यद्यद्गुणं च यत्||१०८||

यदर्थं यानि चास्येन धार्याणि कवलग्रहे| तैलस्य ये गुणा दिष्टाः शिरस्तैलगुणाश्च ये||१०९||

कर्णतैले तथाऽभ्यङ्गे पादाभ्यङ्गेऽङ्गमार्जने| स्नाने वाससि शुद्धे च सौगन्ध्ये रत्नधारणे||११०||

शौचे संहरणे लोम्नां पादत्रच्छत्रधारणे| गुणा मात्राशितीयेऽस्मिंस्तथोक्ता दण्डधारणे||१११||

Tatra ślōkāḥ- mātrā dravyāṇi mātrāṁ ca saṁśritya gurulāghavam| dravyāṇāṁ garhitō'bhyāsō yēṣāṁ, yēṣāṁ ca śasyatē||105||

añjanaṁ dhūmavartiśca trividhā vartikalpanā| dhūmapānaguṇāḥ kālāḥ pānamānaṁ ca yasya yat||106||

vyāpatticihnaṁ bhaiṣajyaṁ dhūmō yēṣāṁ vigarhitaḥ| pēyō yathā yanmayaṁ ca nētraṁ yasya ca yadvidham||107||

nasyakarmaguṇā nastaḥkāryaṁ yacca yathā yadā| bhakṣayēddantapavanaṁ yathā yadyadguṇaṁ ca yat||108||

yadarthaṁ yāni cāsyēna dhāryāṇi kavalagrahē| tailasya yē guṇā diṣṭāḥ śirastailaguṇāśca yē||109||

karṇatailē tathā'bhyaṅgē pādābhyaṅgē'ṅgamārjanē| snānē vāsasi śuddhē ca saugandhyē ratnadhāraṇē||110||

śaucē saṁharaṇē lōmnāṁ pādatracchatradhāraṇē| guṇā mātrāśitīyē'smiṁstathōktā daṇḍadhāraṇē||111||

tatra shlokAH- mAtrA dravyANi mAtrAM ca saMshritya gurulAghavam| dravyANAM garhito~abhyAso yeShAM, yeShAM ca shasyate||105||

a~jjanaM dhUmavartishca trividhA vartikalpanA| dhUmapAnaguNAH kAlAH pAnamAnaM ca yasya yat||106||

vyApatticihnaM bhaiShajyaM dhUmo yeShAM vigarhitaH| peyo yathA yanmayaM ca netraM yasya ca yadvidham||107||

nasyakarmaguNA nastaHkAryaM yacca yathA yadA| bhakShayeddantapavanaM yathA yadyadguNaM ca yat||108||

yadarthaM yAni cAsyena dhAryANi kavalagrahe| tailasya ye guNA diShTAH shirastailaguNAshca ye||109||

karNataile tathA~abhya~gge pAdAbhya~gge~a~ggamArjane| snAne vAsasi shuddhe ca saugandhye ratnadhAraNe||110||

shauce saMharaNe lomnAM pAdatracchatradhAraNe| guNA mAtrAshitIye~asmiMstathoktA [2] daNDadhAraNe||111||

Here are the verses:

The ideal quantity of food, the articles of food, determination of quantity with reference to their heaviness and lightness; such of the food articles whose habitual use is recommended and is prohibited; eye-salves; cigars; the three varieties of cigar; the advantages of dhumapana (inhalation of smoke), its times, its dose, frequency; manifestation of complications, and its remedies; contraindications; the method of administration; the material for making the smoking pipe; its size and shape in different categories; the benefits of nasya, their procedures, which type of nasya should be done, how and when; how the tooth-cleaning twig should be used; the different virtues of various kinds of twigs; which articles should be kept in the mouth and why; what are the advantages of oil-gargling; and what are the advantages of applying oil on the head, dropping oil into the ears, anointing the feet, body-massage, bath, wearing clean clothes, perfumes and jewel-ornaments; of ablutions, clipping and trimming of hair, wearing footwear, and to carrying umbrella and staff. All these are described in this chapter on Matrashiteeya. [105-111]

इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृते श्लोकस्थाने मात्राशितीयो नाम पञ्चमोऽध्यायः समाप्तः||५||

Ityagnivēśakr̥tē tantrē carakapratisaṁskr̥tē ślōkasthānē mātrāśitīyō nāma pañcamō'dhyāyaḥsamāptaḥ||5||

Tattva vimarsha (Fundamental Principles)

  • One should eat proper quantity of food according to strength of agni. [verse 3]
  • The ideal quantity of food is which gets digested in due time without disturbing the normalcy. [verse 4]
  • The food items that are predominant in vayu and agni mahabhuta are naturally light for digestion and can be taken regularly to maintain health. Those predominantly of prithvi and jala mahabhuta are naturally heavy to digest and shall be taken in smaller quantity. If the heavy to digest items are taken, then strong physical exercise shall be followed to help agni to digest this heavy food. [Verse 6]
  • There should be a right combination of light and heavy food articles in one’s diet regimen. The heavy-to-digest food articles can be one third or one half of total food consumed, while the remaining should be light-to-digest food. In every composition, the digestive capacity of agni is to be followed. [verse 7]
  • If the food is taken in proper quantity, it provides strength, complexion, happiness and longevity to the person. [verse 8]
  • The food articles like shashtika rice, shali rice, green-gram, rock-salt, Indian-gooseberry, barley, rain-water, milk, ghee, meat of animals living in arid areas and honey can be regularly consumed for preservation of health. One should take those food articles daily, which maintain good health as well as prevent the onset of diseases. [Verse 13]
  • The health of all supraclavicular body parts and sense organs can be maintained by following procedures given in daily regimen. [Verse 14]
  • The eyes should be protected from kapha. Therefore the kapha-pacifying measures should always be followed for maintaining the eyesight. The measures like collyrium should be followed regularly for drainage of eyes. [Verse 15-17]
  • Among the three types of dhumapana (inhalation of smoke), prayogika can be followed daily, vairechanika (purgative) is to cleanse the channels in diseases with obstructive pathology and snehika (unctuous) to provide unctuousness to air passages in diseases with degenerative pathology. This is indicated mainly in supraclavicular diseases including diseases of ear, nose and throat, head, scalp and hair. [verse 20-55]
  • The nasya (nasal errhines) is advantageous to prevent above diseases as well as disease of head and neck region. [verse 56-70]
  • The oral health should be preserved by following appropriate tooth twigs, using herbal mouth wash liquids, oil gargles. [verse 71-80]
  • Oil should be applied on head regularly to prevent diseases like graying of hairs, alopecia, headaches and improve strength of scalp and head region. It also improves quality of sleep. [verse 81-83]
  • Applying oil in ears regularly prevents ear diseases, stiffness of neck and jaw, improves hearing and prevents deafness. [verse 84]
  • Abhyanga (therapeutic massage) should be regularly followed to improve physical strength, prevents vata disorders and delays ageing process. It also improves skin texture and prevents indirect physical injuries due to exertion and strains.[verse 85-89]
  • Padabhyanga (foot massage) should be regularly followed to prevent disease of lumbo-sacral region like sciatica, leg, foot, heel, plantar fascia, improve strength of legs and eyesight. [verse 90-92]
  • Good bath should be regularly followed to prevent skin diseases, improve strength and immunity through improving ojas. [verse 93-94]
  • One should follow certain practices to maintain personal hygiene and look good in the society. This is required for a positive and productive image building in the society. [verse 95-102]
  • One should follow all the daily regimens to attain a happy and healthy life and ultimately fulfill purpose of life. [verse 104]

Vidhi vimarsha (Applied Inferences)

Diet and its quantity

The proper quantity and quality of diet is not uniform for all the individuals. It varies from person to person, because, it depends primarily on the digestive power of an individual which in turn is influenced by the strength of agni. The strength of agni varies according to age, sex, season etc. In the same person diurnal and seasonal variations occur. The diurnal variations are minimal, but seasonal variations are significant. So, it is described as seasonal diets and regimen in the next chapter Tasyashiteeya Adhyaya). One can prevent diseases due to seasonal variations by adhering to the instructions given in this chapter.

Daily Regimen

In the morning, after evacuation of the bowels and cleaning, start with eye salve, nasya(oil or medicated drops instillation in nose), teeth cleaning, tongue scraping, mouth fresheners such as clove, betel, jaiphala, cardamom etc., keeping oil in mouth for few minutes, shaving, massaging head, body and feet with oil, oil in ears, rubbing medicated powder on body before bathing, wearing clean clothes and ornaments (jewelry, etc.), shoes and using cane or umbrella before going out are recommended.

It is concluded by saying that sukhayu (happy and healthy life) is achieved by taking care of the body just as a competent town administrator would take care of his city.

Oral hygiene

Tooth brushing (Danta dhavana)

Comparative analysis between patients using branded tooth paste and UDM herbal tooth powder showed equal efficacy with respect to scores of plaque index and gingival index (recorded on day 1 and day 15 of treatment). [1]

Tongue cleaning (Jihva nirlekhana)

Reduction in amount of bacteria in tongue coating was observed in subjects cleaning Tongue regularly. But there was no effect on dental plaque formation. Hence both tooth brushing and tongue cleaning should be performed for oral health promotion.[2]

Mouth wash (Kavala)

Mouth wash (kavala) with various medicated liquids is advised for strengthening of various sturctures in oral cavity. Practicing of mouth wash (Kavala) with cold affusion of latex of plants (Kshiri Vriksha Hima) as a daily regimen measure for oral hygiene. Because it was effective strength to the gingiva, teeth and other structures in the oral cavity.[3] Mouth wash also provides relief from bad breath. In a study on patients of dental caries, it was observed that Triphaladi gandusha provided better results in discharge, bad breath, pH of saliva and buffering capacity of salivary sample. There was no improvement in cavity formation, discoloration and mobility . [4]

Pratimarsha nasya (daily nasal errhine)

Daily nasal administration (Pratimarsha nasya) of Anu taila, Yogic practices and Diet as daily regimen are effective in prevention of frequent attacks of Pratishyaya. [5]

Abhyanga (therapeutic massage)

Abhyanga (therapeutic massage) provides reduction of pain, increased sense of relaxation, emotional well-being, and better sleep. A study was conducted on use of massage therapy on pain levels of patients admitted in medical, surgical, and obstetrics units at an acute care setting. Massage therapy sessions averaging 30 minutes improved pain scores and reduced the dose of pain medication and increased relaxation, emotional well-being, ability to sleep among patients.[6] Massage therapy also provides benefits in depression, pains, asthma, multiple sclerosis, dementia. A review study on effect of massage therapy showed beneficial effects in variety of conditions like prenatal depression, autism, skin diseases, painful conditions like arthritis and fibromyalgia, autoimmune disorders like asthma and multiple sclerosis, along with diseases like AIDS, HIV and breast cancer and age related issues like Parkinson's disease and dementia.[7]

Head massage

Head massage increases scalp hair thickness. In a study, standardized scalp massage for 24 weeks increased hair thickness (0.085 ± 0.003 mm vs 0.092 ± 0.001 mm). Increased expression of hair cycle–related genes such as NOGGIN, BMP4, SMAD4, and IL6ST and decrease in hair loss–related genes such as IL6 was observed in RTPCR (Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). Stretching forces result in changes in gene expression in human dermal papilla cells. Standardized scalp massage produces mechanical stress to human dermal papilla cells present in subcutaneous tissue. Hence, increase in Hair thickness was observed when subjected to standardized scalp massage. [8]

Head massage treatment activates parasympathetic nerve activity. This leads to feeling of freshness and relief from anxiety. The results show that head massage treatment has a relaxing and refreshing effect. It can be used to provide comfort in patients. [9]

The head massage also promotes hair growth and prevents hair loss. Self-Assessments of standardized scalp massages was done among subjects suffering from Androgenic Alopecia. The results showed that the massages by actions of pressing, pinching and stretching with the help of hands resulted in hair loss stabilization or regrowth among the subjects. But the improvements were less in condition of diffuse versus frontal/temporal or vertex thinning.[10]

Foot massage

Foot massage provides improvement in fatigue, sleep and pain and quality of life. The improvement in quality of life scale and psychiatric symptoms were observed (with p<0.05) among subjects after foot bath and massage. [11] A meta-analysis based review study indicates that foot reflexology is a useful nursing intervention to relieve fatigue and to promote sleep. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of foot reflexology on outcome variables other than fatigue, sleep and pain. [12] Using foot massage, by both nurses and family members can reduce the pain of patients in intensive care unit. This intervention may improve the nursing care quality with the least cost and complications.[13] Foot and hand massage proved useful as an effective nursing intervention in controlling postoperative pain.[14]

Powder massage (Udvartana)

A comparative study between usage of tummy trimmer and Kolakulatthadi churna Udvartana for 30 days, showed better result in Udvartana group.[15] A case study showed intake of gruel preparation made from buttermilk (Takra-Siddha Yavagu ) and powder massage (Udvartana) is effective in the management of dyslipidemia for normalization of blood lipids. The effect is observed due to drying (shoshana) and alleviation of vitiated Kapha and Meda dhatu properties. [16]

Bath (snana)

Bath provides cleanliness of body and mind, relief from fatigue. In a study, significant improvement in SCORAD score, itching, and insomnia was observed (with p < 0.001) in children using weakly acidic syndets for daily bath during the summer season. [17] Mist sauna bathing in morning results in improvement of work efficiency when compared to other bathing methods. [18]

Important Cross references about diet and daily regimen (Dinacharya)

  • Regarding quantity of food: The classification of amount of food in bolus irrespective of food article (Sarvagraha) and amount of each food item like rice, soup, meat soup etc. (Parigraha) is mentioned. [Cha.Sa. Vimana Sthana 1/21 (4)]
  • The features of intake of food in proper quantity are mentioned. [Cha.Sa. Vimana Sthana 2/6]
  • Improper quantity of food is classified into less (heena) and excessive (adhika), along with symptoms and diseases of depletion and aggravation of concerned dosha and dhatu [Cha.Sa. Vimana Sthana 2/7].
  • The eight factors to be considered during the food intake (Ashta Vidha Ahara Ayatana) [Cha.Sa. Vimana Sthana 1/21-26] and four types of food based on consistency are mentioned. [Cha.Sa. Vimana Sthana 2/15]
  • The best and inferior quality food article based on property in different food groups are mentioned. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana25/37-38]
  • Properties of different food articles have been elaborated. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana25/37-38] 27].

Research works

  1. Ashok Patil (2015): A Study on Dinacharya in maintenance of health (PhD thesis), , Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore.
  2. Rekha B.V. (2015): Role of Padabyanga in shishira ritu w.s.r to Padasphutana (PhD thesis).Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore.
  3. Ankush Jagota (2015): Evaluation of Khadiradi Kavala graham in promoting oral health among secondary and higher secondary school children. Govt.Ayurveda College, Tripunithura, Kerala.
  4. Shukla Rakesh Rajendraprasad (2014): Efficacy of Malati Kastha Churna (Jasminum Officinale Linn.) for Dantadhavana. Bharati vidyapeeth, Pune.
  5. Anonymous(2012): A Study on the effect of Anutaila Pratimarsha nasya along with Haritaki sirolepa in management of Darunaka. Kerala University of Health Sciences , Kerala
  6. Anonymous(2012): A Study on the effect of Vapyadi churna as tooth paste on Oral hygiene. Kerala University of Health Sciences, Kerala
  7. Mangalagowri V Rao (2013): Evaluation of Pratimarsha nasya, Yogic practices and selected diet in prevention of Pratishyaya (Allergic Rhinitis)(Ph.D Thesis).Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
  8. Vineeta Singh (2019): Effect of Specific Diet, Yogic Practices and Ruksha Udvartana in Management of Obesity (Sthaulya).(MD Thesis).Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
  9. Trupti (?): Study to evaluate the effect of Anjana (In Myopia and healthy).(MD Thesis).Kerala University, Kerala.

Ayurvedic lifestyle package

  1. Ayurvedic lifestyle package for prevention of diseases is designed by expert committee of All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi in 2017. The guidelines can be found on the link of institute.

Related chapters

Tasyashiteeya Adhyaya, Annapanavidhi Adhyaya, Rasa Vimana Adhyaya, Trividhakukshiya Vimana Adhyaya


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