Matra basti is a type of unctuous enema (sneha basti), in which small amount of sneha (unctuous substance/ medicated fat) is administered through rectum. The name itself suggests that here the matra (dose) of sneha (fat) is less.[Cha.Sa. Siddhi Sthana 4/52-23], [A.Hri. Sutra Sthana 19/67] It is specially designed to avoid complications. It is suitable to all and at all times.
|Authors||Bhatted Santoshkumar 1, Shende Harshali 1|
1 Department of Panchakarma, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi, India
2 Rheumatologist, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A.3 Department of Kayachikitsa, G. J. Patel Institute of Ayurvedic Studies and Research, New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India
|Correspondence email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Publisher||Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre, I.T.R.A., Jamnagar, India|
|Date of publication:||September 30, 2023|
The dose of matra basti is half of dose of anuvasana basti i.e. one and half pala. (72 ml) [Su.Sa. 37/55-56] Charak and Vagbhata state that dose of matra basti is same as lowest dose of internal oleation (hrasva matra of snehapana). It is the dose which gets digested in 6 hrs duration. However, it depends on strength of digestion of person (agni bala) and it is individual specific. Hence, for general administration purpose, the standard dose of matra basti might have been fixed as 1 ½ pala [72 ml approximately] . In current practices, 60 to 70 ml oil is administered in matra basti.
Special attributes of matra Basti
It promotes strength. It leads to easy elimination of mala (stool) and mutra (urine), and it performs brimhana (nourishment) in the body. It cures diseases due to vata dosha. It can always be administered in all seasons and is devoid of adverse effects.
Diet & code of conduct
Vriddha Vagbhata has restricted day sleep after being treated with matra basti.
Benefits and types of sneha used in matra basti
The unctuous substances (sneha dravya) include ghrita (ghee), taila (oil), vasa (muscle fats) and majja (bone marrow). Each of these have specific properties, and accordingly it yields its beneficial effects. Sneha in general is vatahara (pacifying vata), mridukara (produces softness in the channels and tissues, in turn helps for easy elimination of waste substances) and removes the obstruction of channels produced by the mala (waste products). 
Diet regimen before administration of matra basti
Matra Basti should not be given after heavy food intake and snigdha ahara (unctuous food) because fat intake by both routes simultaneously gives rise to mada (stupor) and murchha (altered conscious state). Before matra basti, the patient should avoid intake of excessively dry food (ruksha ahara), because it causes depletion of bala (strength) and varna (colour).
Therefore, before matra basti, patients should be given a diet with less fats. . The patient should be given yusha (soup of vegetables and/or pulses), ksheera (milk), mamsrasa (soup prepared with meat) or any diet which is suitable to patient in less quantity i.e.3/4th of routine diet.
Matra basti is nurishing (brimhana) in nature. It is best in vata disorders. It is especially used for paediatric and geriatric age group, tender and delicate individuals etc. where other forms of basti is contraindicated.
Special indications of matra basti
- Vyayama karshita- those who have become weak due to excessive exercise.
- Karma karshita-people who are debilitated due to excessive work, strenuous work
- Bhara karshita- people who are debilitated due to excessive lifting of weights
- Adhwa karshita- people who are debilitated due to excessive walking
- Yana karshita-people who are debilitated due to excessive travelling
- Stree karshita-people who are debilitated due to excessive indulgence in sexual intercourse
- Durbala-excessive weakness
- Vatabhagneshu- people who are suffering from diseases caused due to vata vitiation
There are no specific contraindications mentioned for matra basti, but it has similar contraindications as that of anuvasana basti and ama induced conditions.
Probable mode of action
Matra basti normalizes vata leading to proper elimination of flatus, faeces, urine, etc. and causes better physiological functioning of vata dosha. Basti dravya spreads all over the body, pacifies the aggravated vata dosha. Basti works on the whole body after entering pakvashaya (large intestine) or guda (anus). Guda (anus) is said to be the root of body (sharira mula) having sira (veins) and dhamani (arteries), which spreads all over the body. It exerts local as well as systemic effects. Basti regulates vata and clears the bowel by eliminating accumulated faecal matter thus improving its physiological function.
The veerya (potency) of basti drug, first reaches the functional area of apana vayu and nourishes it. After that it acts on samana vayu and vyana vayu. It acts on udana vayu and prana vayu and nourishes them. All five of these, vata subtypes support health when they reach their typical condition. When pitta and kapha are brought into normalcy and are given sustenance, the veerya (potency) of basti medication causes changes in the body.
Thus, basti in general and matra basti in particular regulates vata dosha which in turn regulates body physiology thus helps restore the state of homeostasis.
Contemporary physiological effect of matra basti
- By absorption mechanism:
The rectum has rich blood and lymph supply and drugs can cross the rectal mucosa like other lipid membrane. Thus, unionized and lipid soluble substances are readily absorbed from the rectal mucosa. Small quantity of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as those from butterfat are absorbed directly into portal blood rather than being converted into triglycerides. This is because short chain fatty acids are more water soluble and allow direct diffusion from the epithelial cells into capillary blood of villi.
Matra basti after reaching the rectum and colon causes secretion of bile from gall bladder which leads to the formation of conjugate micelles which is absorbed through passive diffusion. Especially short chain fatty acid present in unctuous substance (sneha of anuvasana basti) may absorb from colon and large intestine part of gastrointestinal tract and break the pathology of disease.
- By system biology concept:
The latest concept of system biology makes this clearer how basti can act on the various systems. This theory believes that all the organs are interconnected at molecular level. Any molecular incident is transformed at cellular level, then tissue level and ultimately at organ level. Each molecule of the body is in contact with another molecule of body directly or indirectly. If we alter the pathophysiology at one level then it results into changes in pathophysiology at another level. Thus, whatever the effects of basti are on gastro intestinal system, it will definitely affect another system and helps to achieve the bodily internal homeostasis.
- By neural stimulation mechanism:
The gastrointestinal system has a network of nerve fibers, which is known as ‘Enteric Nervous System (ENS). Similar to brain ENS sends and receives impulses, record experiences and responds to various stimuli. Its nerve cells are bathed and influenced by same neurotransmitters. Gut brain (ENS) is located in the sheaths of tissue lining the esophagus to colon. Considered a single entity, it is a network of neurons, possessing neurotransmitters and proteins that zap messages between neurons and regulates functioning of body like those found in brain proper and a complex circle that enables to act independently, learn, remember and produce gut feeling. The gut’s brain reportedly plays a major role in human happiness and misery. Many gastrointestinal disorders like colitis and irritable bowel syndrome originate from problems within gut’s brain. ENS is loosely connected with central nervous system (CNS) through vagus nerve and can mostly function alone, without instruction from top. Internal viscera are again highly supplied with nerve fiber of Autonomic Nervous System which in turn has connection with CNS. The gut contains 100 million neurons, more than that of in the spinal cord. Major neurotransmitters like serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, norepinephrine and nitric oxide are in the gut. Also, two dozen small brain proteins, called neuropeptides are there along with the major cells of immune system. ENS works in synergy with the CNS. Stimulation with basti (either by chemo or mechanoreceptors) may lead to activation of concerned part of CNS which precipitates result circle that enables to act independently, learn, remember and produce gut feeling. Again, it is not mandatory for a drug to stay in long time contact to the receptor e. g. like in proton pump inhibitor where drug interacts and gets flushed out from circulation, it is known as “HIT AND RUN MODULE” of pharmacodynamics.
Research works with their outcome on Matra Basti
|S.no.||Title||Authors||Research place||Method & Observation||Conclusion|
|1||A clinical study of Nirgundi Ghana Vati & matra basti in the management of Gridhrasi w.s.r. to Sciatica.||Mumtaz Ali, V D Shukla, A R Dave, N N Bhatt||Outpatients and inpatients of Kayachikitsa and Panchakarma Department, Institute of post graduate teaching and research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar||
||In this research, total 119 patients diagnosed with sciatica. Better results were obtained in patients who underwent matra basti rather than Nirgundi Ghan alone.|
|2||Clinical effect of Matra Basti and Vatari Guggulu in the management of Amavata (rheumatoid arthritis).||Rita Khagram Charmi S Mehta, V D Shukla, Alankruta R Dave||OPD and IPD Kayachikitsa and Panchakarma Department, Institute of post graduate teaching and research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar||In Matra Basti group, 52%; 26 patients showed marked improvement, while in the Vatari Guggulu group 54.72%; 29 patients showed mild improvement.||Total 103 patients completed the treatment for Amavata. Better results were obtained in patients who underwent Matra Basti rather than Vatari Guggulu alone.|
|3||A clinical evaluation of Kanchanar Guggulu and Bala Taila Matra Basti in the management of Mutraghata with special reference to benign prostatic hyperplasia.||Gajiram Dharamdas
Banothe , Vyasdeva Mahanta, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Tukaram S Dudhamal
|IPGT & RA department of Shalya tantra, Jamnagar.||Group A- Bala Taila Matra Basti,
Group B- Bala Taila Matra Basti, and Kanchanara Guggulu Vati administered for 21 days.
|Total 32 patients were participated in this study.
Matra basti along with Kanchanara Guggulu orally showed comparatively better symptomatic relief as compared to Matra Basti alone in cases of Mutraghata (BPH).
|4||Efficacy of Kanchanara Guggulu and Matra Basti of Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita in Mootraghata (benign prostatic hyperplasia).||Joyal Kumar K Patel , Tukaram S Dudhamal, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Vyasadeva Mahanta||OPD and IPD of Shalya Tantra, Jamnagar.||Group A- Kanchanara Guggulu (500 mg, 3 times a day orally),
Group B- Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti, Group C- Kanchanara Guggulu + Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti for 21 days.
|Total 30 diagnosed patients of BPH were selected. They underwent intervention and found maximum imrprovement with Matra Basti|
|5||Gokshuradi Vati and Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti in the management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.||Shreyas G Bhalodia, Chaturbhuj Bhuyan, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Tukaram S Dudhamal||OPD and IPD of Shalya Tantra, Jamnagar.||10 in each group, 21 days of treatment regimen
Group A-Gokshuradi compound Vati 500 mg three times a day with luke-warm water after food; Group B- Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita as Matra Basti of 60 ml, once in a day, and combined therapy of both formulations in Group C- Gokshuradi compound Vati + Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita as Matra Basti of 60 ml was administered. 45.67% improvement was seen in group A, 47.99% in group B, and 54.09% was seen in group C. The size of prostate gland was found reduced highly significant in group C.
|Maximum improvement was found in the Matra Basti group.|
|6||A comparative study of Dashamoola Taila Matra Basti and Tila Taila Matra Basti in Kashtartava (dysmenorrhea). ||Kaumadi Karunagoda , Kamayani Shukla Upadhyaya, Shilpa Donga, Chandrika Tanna, L P Dei||Department of Striroga and Prasuti Tantra, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar.||For the present study, only primary dysmenorrhea was considered under Kashtartava.||Tila taila matra basti and dashamoola taila matra basti are both highly effective in primary dysmenorrhea (kashtartava). Dashamoola Taila Matra Basti also helps to prevent recurrence of dysmenorrhea.|
|7||Role of Nasya and Matra Basti with Narayana Taila on anovulatory factor.||Krupa R Donga , Shilpa B Donga, Laxmi Priya Dei||OPD/IPD of S.R.P.T. Dept, I.P.G.T & R.A Jamnagar,2014.||22 patients were completed the study (11 in each group).||Matra Basti provides significant results over Nasya on anovulatory factor.|
|8||Effect of shatapushpa taila matra basti and pathadi kwatha on poly cystic ovarian disease.||Krupa D Patel , Laxmipriya Dei, Shilpa B Donga, Nalini Anand||OPD/IPD of S.R.P.T. Dept, I.P.G.T & R.A Jamnagar,2014.||Group 1- 14 patients (Pathadi Kwatha Churna)
Group 2- 12 patients shatapushpa taila matra basti (STMB) Group 2 provided statistically better results in regularizing menstruation, achieving considerable reduction in body weight, substantial growth of follicles, and thus ovulation.
|Treatment with the combination of both Pathadi Kwatha and Matra Basti has additional effect on the symptoms of PCOD.|
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- Ali M, Shukla VD, Dave AR, Bhatt NN. A clinical study of Nirgundi Ghana Vati and Matra Basti in the management of Gridhrasi with special reference to sciatica. Ayu. 2010 Oct;31(4):456-60. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.82042. PMID: 22048539; PMCID: PMC3202251.
- Khagram R, Mehta CS, Shukla VD, Dave AR. Clinical effect of Matra Basti and Vatari Guggulu in the management of Amavata (rheumatoid arthritis). Ayu. 2010 Jul;31(3):343-50. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.77167. PMID: 22131737; PMCID: PMC3221069.
- Banothe GD, Mahanta V, Gupta SK, Dudhamal TS. A clinical evaluation of Kanchanara Guggulu and Bala Taila Matra Basti in the management of Mutraghata with special reference to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Ayu. 2018 Apr-Jun;39(2):65-71. doi: 10.4103/ayu.AYU_117_15. PMID: 30783359; PMCID: PMC6369605.
- Patel JK, Dudhamal TS, Gupta SK, Mahanta V. Efficacy of Kanchanara Guggulu and Matra Basti of Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita in Mootraghata (benign prostatic hyperplasia). Ayu. 2015 Apr-Jun;36(2):138-44. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.175552. PMID: 27011713; PMCID: PMC4784122.
- Bhalodia SG, Bhuyan C, Gupta SK, Dudhamal TS. Gokshuradi Vati and Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti in the management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Ayu. 2012 Oct;33(4):547-51. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.110532. PMID: 23723674; PMCID: PMC3665207.
- Karunagoda K, Shukla Upadhyaya K, Donga S, Tanna C, Dei LP. A comparative study of Dashamoola Taila Matra Basti and Tila Taila Matra Basti in Kashtartava (dysmenorrhea). Ayu. 2010 Jul;31(3):305-10. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.77154. PMID: 22131731; PMCID: PMC3221063.
- Donga KR, Donga SB, Dei LP. Role of Nasya and Matra Basti with Narayana Taila on anovulatory factor. Ayu. 2013 Jan;34(1):81-5. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.115453. PMID: 24049410; PMCID: PMC3764886.
- Patel KD, Dei L, Donga SB, Anand N. Effect of shatapushpa taila matra basti and pathadi kwatha on poly cystic ovarian disease. Ayu. 2012 Apr;33(2):243-6. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.105245. PMID: 23559797; PMCID: PMC3611647.