Adhyapana vidhi

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Ayurveda is a document based on the traditional learning methods of passing knowledge from teacher to students (guru shishya parampara). It ensured proper dissemination of knowledge through generations of teachers and disciples. The knowledge transfer is a continuous process. [Chakrapani on Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/3] The teaching and learning methodology in ancient India was based on oral communication (shruti parampara). The written communication or documentation through the means of alphabets began only after 1500 BC, which was preceded by contact through logography or imprints.[1] Thus the substantial knowledge of Ayurveda was transferred through the oral communication itself. [A. H. Sutra Sthana 1/3, Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/4,5] As a medical science, Ayurveda also includes the methods of clinical examination and ethical aspects in the teaching methods. This article deals with the teaching methodology or pedagogy mentioned in the Ayurveda texts and its contemporary practices.

Section/Chapter/topic Concepts/Adhyapana vidhi
Authors Bhojani M. K. 1,
Joglekar Aishwarya 2
Deole Y.S.3
Reviewer & Editor Basisht G.4
Affiliations 1 Department of Sharir Kriya, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Samhita Siddhanta, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Kayachikitsa, G. J. Patel Institute of Ayurvedic Studies and Research, New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India
4 Rheumatologist, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A.
Correspondence emails,
Publisher Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre, I.T.R.A., Jamnagar, India
Date of publication: September 16, 2023
DOI 10.47468/CSNE.2023.e01.s09.160

Etymology and definition of adhyapana

अधि + इड्+ णिच भावे ल्युट[2]

The word ‘Adhyapana’ in Sanskrit language is derived of the ‘Adhi’ Upasarga meaning to pledge or commence and ‘Lyuta’ pratyaya. Monnier Williams dictionary has referred to adhyapana as instruction or learning.[3] Shabdakalpadruma refers to it as pathana and vidyadana also termed as one of the six things to be regularly done by brahmina.[4]


Shiksha, Vidyapradan, Vidyadanam, Guru vachana, Pathanam

Teaching as a mean to acquire knowledge

Teaching methodology is elaborately explained and is one of the three methods for acquirement of knowledge regarding text or shastra. [Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 8/152] Other two means for enhancing depth of knowledge are self-study or self-learning (adhyayana) and discussion with authorities (tadvidya sambhasha). [Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 8/6] According to Harita and Apte Sanskrit- English dictionary Adhyapana is of three kinds:[5]

  1. Undertaken for charity
  2. For wages and
  3. In consideration of services rendered;

Qualities of a teacher (acharya pariksha)

Contemporary medical science has attempted to put forth the qualities of a good medical teacher. Student perception studies have also been undertaken to match the demands of students. Medical teachers' few desirable qualities are commitment to work, interaction and good communication with students, deep knowledge of the subject, leadership, good clinical skills, encouragement of creativity and skills in students, etc.[6]
A teacher or preceptor (acharya) shall have ideal qualities to guide those who make the learning understanding of the basics and complexities of science. The qualities of acharya are as follows:

  1. Clear and comprehensive knowledge of the subject (paryavadashrutam) coupled with the practical experience (drishta karmata)
  2. Diligent (daksha), devoid of confusions (avamabuddhi), dexterous (dakshina), virtuous and pure-hearted (shuchi) with skilled hand (jitahasta)
  3. He is equipped with instruments and means of teaching and learning (upakaranavanta). Chakrapani mentioned that if the teacher is not well equipped, he is unable to adequately demonstrate the treatment procedures to students [Chakrapani on Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 8/6]
  4. He possess all the senses in normal condition or having competent sensory perception. (sarva-indriya upapanna)
  5. He is acquainted with physical and psychological constitutions, and normalcy (prakritidnya), is well-versed in courses of emergency management, and is quick in taking actions and making decisions. (pratipattidnya)
  6. The teacher should be having uncensored and authentic knowledge (anupaskrita vidyam)
  7. The teacher should be free from ego (anahankrita), devoid of envy (anasuyaka), devoid of anger (akopana), forbearing or hard-working (kleshakshama)
  8. Caring and paternal to disciples (shishya vatsala)
  9. Having characteristics of a good teacher (adhyapaka) and fit to imbue understanding (dnyapana samartha ).
  10. The teacher holding such qualities quickly inculcates physician’s grades in his disciple as the seasonal cloud furnishes good crops in a suitable land.

Ancient methods of teaching

Following teaching methods were applied in ancient times. These methods are rarely used nowadays in the education system. The teacher should examine the student before commencing the task of teaching. Teaching should be with the following pre-requisites

  1. When the sun is in the northerly course or during the phase of uttarayana or aadana kala i.e. during winter (shishira), spring (vasanta), summer (greeshma) and during the full moon phase (Shukla paksha) i.e. lunar fortnight- waxing moon phase.
  2. The course work should only commence on an auspicious day (prashasta diwase), the moon having conjunction with one of the Tishya (pushya), Hasta, Shravana and Ashvayuja constellations in Kalyanekarana and Maitra muhurta.
  3. The student should have undergone the mundana sanskara (shaved head) after following fast (krita- upavasa), had bath (snata), wearing ochre-coloured or kashaya clothes and possessing sacred thread (samveeta) and wearing the fragrances.
  4. The student should be equipped with the ricinus leaves (gandha hasta), sacred fire wood, fire, ghee, means of besmearing (cow-dung etc.), water jars, garland, rope, lamp, vessels of gold, silver, jewels, pearls, etc. and food promoting memory power and paste of fragrant wood.” [Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 8/10]

Contemporary methods

The contemporary practices, however, have revolutionized over time, where the student's admission into the course is ensured through various national or international entrance tests, and an extensive course module comprising of 4 and half years involving the various subjects of medicine and surgery are taught to students. The teaching and learning involve classroom teaching, practical demonstrations and bedside clinics.[7] This also involves practical training in internships at various community health centers. The National Commission for Indian System of Medicine (NCISM) has also introduced a transitional curriculum for the newly admitted undergraduate and sanskara program for postgraduate scholars to orient the scholars with the upcoming course curriculum and prospects. The Shishyopanayan Sanskara, similar to that mentioned in the Ayurveda texts, is also performed in many Ayurveda institutions across the country.

Pre-commencement proceedings

Sacred proceedings are to be undertaken by the teacher and student before commencing with the course. Before commencing the study work, the students perform the homa and havana (sacred or fire rituals) in the presence of teachers, where the offerings of many holy and auspicious materials are offered. The enchanting of righteous prayers and sacred mantras is done paying homage to the holy fire. [Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 8/12]
According to Sushruta Samhita, the students were welcomed into the course through the Sanskara termed as “Shishyopanayana,” where rituals and sacred proceedings are done before enrolment. [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 2/3] Like Charak Samhita, the proper student selection was done before enrolment. Sushruta Samhita also mentions the teacher’s responsibility after the Shishyopanayana Sanskara to teach the students with interest, honesty and integrity. [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 2/7]

Code of conduct for students

The teachers should advise the students to follow the rules above and regulations while undergoing the coursework:

  1. One should follow abstinence and keep a beard and mustache (bramhachari, smashru dharina). (Note: This is not advised nowadays)
  2. One should speak the truth only (satyavadi)
  3. One should not eat meat (amansaada) (Note: This is not advised nowadays)
  4. One should follow pure and intellectual functions (medhyasevi)
  5. One should perform deed devoid of jealousy (nirmatsarena) and avoid using weapons (ashastra-dhari)
  6. Students should always follow the teacher’s instructions.
  7. Students should always entrust the teacher and consider the teachers recommendations in the matter of study
  8. Students should live with teacher behaving as sons, servants, and suppliant. (Note: This is not advised nowadays as the educational campus is separate from students' houses.)
  9. Students should possess modesty, alertness, a focused mind, humility, and vigilantness about work, without seeing defects in others' qualities, and not leave without the teacher's permission.
  10. Students should first make an effort as far as possible to accomplish things or tasks as assigned by the teacher.
  11. The student should always pray for the welfare of cow, brahmana, and all the living creatures. (Note: This is rarely practiced nowadays)
  12. Scholars should try to impart health to the patients and all creatures by all means possible.
  13. Scholars should not showcase hatred toward patients
  14. Scholars should be moral and righteous in their conduct
  15. The scholar's attire and accessories should be modest.
  16. Scholars should not be addicted to alcohol, indulge in sins, and be accompanied by sinners.
  17. The scholar should be soft-spoken, possess flawless communication, be righteous, blissful, thankful, truthful, and productive, and make measured statements keeping place and season or time in mind.
  18. The scholar should be present with a good memory, constantly striving for knowledge, progress, and excellence in equipment (medicines, diagnostic instruments etc.).
  19. The scholar should not treat the persons having troublesome conduct, those who have never counteracted their censors, and one nearing death
  20. One should not treat women without their husbands or guardians and should deny meat provided by the women without permission from their husbands or guardians. Nowadays, it is ethically practiced to check female patients only in the presence of a female attendant.
  21. During the home visit, the student should take along a known individual whose entrance is allowed in the house while entering the patient's house. The patient's information should be kept confidential and should never be revealed. Nowadays, written informed consent and declaration is signed by patients before clinical procedures to allow physicians to treat.
  22. Even though the scholar has learned enough, they should not boast too much because it may lead to anxiety among peers and listeners. [Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 8/13]

Importance of keen interest and queries by students

'Na Prushta Guravo Vadanti Nyaya' is an important teaching method. It means the students shall ask queries. Teacher will not tell anything without queries raised by students. The Charak Samhita is the result of the teachings given by the teacher Punarvasu Atreya often involving the resolution of the queries put forth by the disciples at different instances in the text. Thus, the teaching methodology in the ancient period was based on the curiosity of the students and the guidance provided by the teachers. Most of the chapters in Charak Samhita, thus open with questions put forth by Agnivesha to Punarvasu Atreya E.g. Sneha Adhyaya [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 13], Kiyanta Shiraseeya Adhyaya [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 17], Katidhapurusha Sharira Adhyaya [Cha. Sa. Sharira Sthana 1] etc. Thus the “Na Prushtva Guravo Vadanti Nyaya” meaning that the Guru won't explain or mention any subject without being asked by the students i.e. students should take initiative in knowing anything. [Chakrapani commentary in Charak Samhita Kasa Chikitsa [Chikitsa Sthana 18/3-4] and Udara Roga Chikitsa [Chikitsa Sthana 13/3]]

Teaching methodology in Ayurveda

  1. Intellectual types of students (trividha shishya buddhi hitam)
    The explanation of the concepts in Ayurveda should be such that they are well received by the students of all types of intellect i.e. students with low intelligence, moderate intelligence and high intelligence (manda, Madhyama and uttam buddhi). The knowledge of any verse should cater to the intellectual needs of all students. [Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 8/3] Thus the overtly brief explanation (atisankshepa) and overtly extensive explanation (ativistara) should be avoided. [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 4/26-29] The description of 50 types of group of herbs for decoction (panchashata kashaya) is an exaKashaya the same. [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 4/25] In the current education system, the teachers recognize fast learners and slow learners to teach them and develop an understanding of the subject.
  2. Reading and understanding methods of text (vakyashah- vakyarthashah- arthavayavashah)
    The teachers shall read quotations (vakyashah), then interpret its meaning (vakyarthashah). Then it shall be explained to understand the intended meaning and analyze based on grammatical, linguistic, and stylistic aspects (artha-avayavashaha). Deep understanding of concepts and other complexities in the text is possible through this method. These are the three crucial steps in understanding the nuances of the text. (Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 30/16-19) In present system, a good teacher explains the text by reading between the lines and illustrating with suitable examples.
  3. Prashnashtaka (eight questions) [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 30/30]
    This methodology is also necessary to understand the contents of the text, briefly describing the subjects described in different parts and subparts of the text. These include text (tantra), main subject of text (tantartha), sections of text (sthana), (content of sections of text (sthanartha), chapters in texts (adhyaya), content of chapters in text (adhyayartha), topic in the text (prashna), intended meaning of topic in the text (prashnartha). The hierarchy is followed to narrate the topic as per subject syllabus precisely.
  4. Vaadamarga
    Vaadamarga is also an essential concept needed to completely understand the text. These included 40 concepts which can be explained in detail to highlight the discussion. [Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 8/27] A proficient teachers applies this in teaching methods.
  5. Pramana
    The pramana are tools for analysis and examination of any phenomena mentioned in the text. These include the pratyaksha pramana (direct observation or practical demonstration), anumana pramana especially the parartha anumana (inference done for the purpose of explanation to others), upamana pramana (analogically explaining the facts in the texts), yukti pramana (logical understanding of concepts in the text), aptopadesha pramana (literary or theoretically understanding the matter explained in the text). [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 11] A clinical examination and demonstration can not be completed without explaining pramana and evidence to the students. A good teacher produces experience-based and research-based evidence to guide students.
  6. Smriti karana – ways to enhance the smriti
    The ways to enhance the memory (smriti karana) are important in teaching methodology. These methods can be adopted by the teachers to promote better understanding of concepts. The smriti can be acquired by understanding the cause of any phenomena (nimmita), direct or inferential perception (roopagrahanat), based on the inference of similar things (sadrishyat), based on the inference of contrasting things (viparyayat), through the concentration of mind (sattvanubandhat), constantly practicing the learnings(abhyasat), attainment of knowledge (dnyanayogat), subsequent repeated visualization and hearing of a thing or an event (drishta , shrita , anubhoota puna shrutat). [Cha. Sa. Sharira Sthana 1/148-149] The mnemonics is used to remember various descriptions, classifications and disease protocols.
  7. Tantrayukti
    Tantrayukti is, again, an important tool for understanding textual references. It is also necessary for the literary review of various concepts mentioned in the text. Thus, the teacher can explain the various aspects of any principle and its application in practice. [Cha. Sa. Siddhi Sthana 12] A teacher applies tantrayukti to understand and teach the correct meaning of text.
  8. Pada- paada- shloka methodology (term, sentence, and complete verse)
    The pada – paada and shloka methodology mentioned by Sushruta throws light upon understanding the meaning of different individual terms and group of terms mentioned in the verses. The pada refers to mention of meaning of single word, paada to the meaning of half part of verse and shloka to get the meaning of the concept. This also aids in better recitation and memorization of the verses in Samhita. Every pada- paada and entire shloka should be repeated several times to acquire the intended fruit of learning the text and science. [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 3/54]
  9. Paatha- avabodha- anushthana methodology
    Acharya Vagbhata adopts this method as an effort to learn the entire text. The patha refers to reading and remembering the text in its entirety. Avabodha refers to deep understanding of the concepts mentioned in the text. Anushthana refers to the practical application of the learned concepts. Again, these three kinder the cognitive, behavioral, and psychomotor domains, enhancing the learning experience. (A.H. Uttar Tantra 40/82)
  10. Yogya vidhi
    The yogya vidhi focuses on the practical training of the students based on different simulation or dummy model like techniques. Different surgical techniques are taught hands on the students using different models like fruits, vegetables etc. This can be used to practically train the students for different surgeries and panchakarma procedures. This is helpful for developing the psychomotor skills and practical approach of students. Similarly, different concepts like Tacchilya (literary tool denoting similarity or being accustomed to something), Vyakhya (literary tool providing indepth explanation regarding any topic), Arthashraya (literary tool to understand the meaning of any sutra or term), Kalpana (literary tools to understand the text) mentioned by Acharya Vagbhata [Arundatta on A. H. Uttar Tantra 40] are also important in further elaborating the concepts to the students.

Importance of adhyapan according to Ayurveda

Every chapter of Charak Samhita opens with a verse dedicated to the introduction of teacher or Guru i.e. Punarvasu Atreya as it is necessary to acquire authentic and full-fledged knowledge regarding any subject. Chakrapani mentions it as a means to understand the concepts clearly mentioned in the text and those whose meaning is yet to be derived (ashesha vishesha dnyanartha). [Chakrapani on Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/2] Similarly, to highlight this relationship, the two types of verses, i.e., Guru Sutra (verses mentioned by the teachers) and Shishya Sutra (verses uttered by students themselves). [Chakrapani on Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/12, Dalhana on Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/3] It is mentioned that the Atreya Punarvasu imparted knowledge to his 6 pupils, who wrote their texts on different subjects. [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/31-32] Similarly, teacher respect has also been given utmost importance as a part of various sadvritta-related activities in Charak Samhita. [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 8/19, 20,23] The supreme quality of vaidya or physician i.e. Shrutam Paryadatatva i.e. efficiency in textual knowledge obtained from the proximity to Guru) [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 9/6] is also related to the adhyapan vidhi. The defaming or disrespecting of the teacher i.e. guru ninda is also mentioned as an etiological factor of disease like kushtha [Cha. Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 7/122]
The concepts like guru vyadhita (persons suffering from severe disease) and laghu vyadhita (persons suffering from mild disease) are mentioned in the Vyadhitaroopiya Adhyaya. [Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 7/32] These are mentioned to train the students (shishya sambodhanartha), highlighting the adhyapan vidhi. Sushruta Samhita mentions the gurupara i.e. attentiveness towards the teachings and instructions of tutor is an important quality of student who has completed the coursework. [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 3/55] According to the commentator Dalhana, the word gurupara refers to guru- karyarat, which implies being involved in the duties towards guru. [Dalhana on Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 3/55]
Sushrut Samhita also states that the vaidya who have not received the proper training directly from the teachers are taskara or quacks. [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 4/7] Buddhimedhakara gana mentioned by Sushruta [Su. Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 28/27] are the aspects promoting the development of buddhi (intellect) and medha (cognition) also includes ‘Tadvidya Acharya Seva’ or proper training and learning from trainers.

Contemporary approach

Pedagogy (adhyapan) is the science of teaching.[8] It is the backbone of education especially in demanding fields of medicine. Pedagogy, derived from the Greek words paidos (child) and agogos (leader), originally described the task of leading children to school. These days the term is generally referred to teachers.[9] The pedagogy guides the students to develop and refine their knowledge, stimulating their analytical thinking and discussion-based learning for better cognition and application of knowledge. In the medical sciences, different pedagogical techniques like questions and answers, lecturing, piloting, prompting, supplementing, demonstrating, and intervening in the clinical setting.[10]
Bloom's taxonomy is another important technique mentioned in modern literature for enhancing cognitive, behavioral/affective, and psychomotor learning.[11] Bloom’s taxonomy originally published in 1956 was specific to the cognitive domain and presented a hierarchical structure with six levels of learning: knowledge (lowest level), comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (highest level). Bloom’s taxonomy was revised in 2001 by Lorin Anderson and David Krathwohl, where the knowledge dimension consisted of factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge subtypes.[12] Interestingly, all these principles resemble samhita texts, where the Bloom's taxonomy reiterates the concept of pramana in Ayurveda.[13] Considering the shortcomings in the present Ayurveda educational system, NCISM (National Commission For Indian System Of Medicine) has taken revolutionary steps to reform education and impart quality knowledge to the students.[14] The new syllabus is developed per the new educational policy focusing on practical, clinical, competency-based, evidence-based, and student-oriented learning.[15] Thus, the teaching methodology or adhyapan vidhi is vastly evolving in the field of Ayurveda in the current scenario.

Current researches

  1. In the article entitled “Teaching and learning methods in Ayurveda and its current perspectives”, Kolarkar Rajesh have mentioned the different teaching and learning methodologies according to Ayurveda sciences where the Gurukul system of education is described in detail.[16] They have also explained the measurable outcomes of the student learning based on the Blooms taxonomy
  2. In the article entitled “Ancient Teaching Learning Method- Guru Shishya Parampara” the researchers randomly enrolled 17 students of final B.A.M.S. to enhance the self-directed learning resembling the Gurukula system among the students for the improvement the academic performance. Encouraging results were obtained in the group that followed the Gurukula study system.[17]
  3. In the article entitled “Reforms in Ayurveda education; the challenges ahead” author has discussed the post-independence reforms in the field of Ayurveda education at par with allopathy science.[18] However,, shortcomings like improper teaching of Sanskrit language and lack of infrastructure for clinical settings should also be addressed.
  4. In the article entitled “A Controlled Trial On Effective Introduction Learning in Ayurveda Curriculum,” author mentioned application-oriented teaching methodology like ‘case stimulated learning’ where different IQ-based tests were administered for assessing the effect of problem-based learning on the performance of students as compared to lecturing method.[19]
  5. In the article entitled “Transformation Needs In Ayurveda Education: Where & How” the importance of incorporating IT-based and interactive methods for better understanding science.[20]
  6. In the article titled “Perceptions of Dravyaguna Students About Small Group Teaching and Classroom Teaching” where the 50 students were randomly divided into two groups where in small group discussion was administered in one group and classroom teaching in other group where the Small Group teaching was found to be more effective.[21]
  7. The article “Co-relation between tadvidhsambhasha and cooperative learning – a teaching methodology” deals with the similarity between the two methods where the discussion on a particular topic is included for better understanding.[22]
  8. The article “Ayurveda education in India: Addressing the Human Resource Barriers to optimize the delivery” deals with the problems and challenges faced by teachers for proper disseminating the knowledge of Ayurveda for the motivation of students.[23]
  9. In the book entitled “Roadmap for Ayurveda Education in Modern India”, the topic in the book focuses on the educational process in Ayurveda and its ontological, epistemological, and pedagogy related aspects.[24]
  10. In the article, “KLE Initiatives Towards Quality Education In Ayurveda” the author focuses on the continuous reforms put forth by KLE University in imparting quality education to Ayurveda graduates by introducing interactive methods like e-dissection, the establishment of a department of Ayurveda Medical Education etc.[25]
  11. In the article “Adhyayan and Adhyapan Skill in Ayurveda on Modern Perspectives” authors throw light on the existing method of teaching and learning in Ayurveda and possible reforms considering the principles of modern tools.[26]
  12. “Teaching learning process in the ancient ayurvedic text - Charak Samhita” deals with the analysis of the techniques explained in the Charak Samhita in relation with modern teaching and learning tools like brainstorming, discussions, asking questions, preparation of handouts etc.[27]
  13. The article “Concept of Cognitive Theory In Ancient Wisdom And Its Relevant Application In Current Education Curriculum Of Ayurveda” elaborates the importance of cognitive aspects or basis of theory of cognition in learning Ayurveda.[28]
  14. In the article “Possible Reformations in Ayurveda Education System to Suite the Current Need” the authors have mentioned the reforms like introducing credit system for the assessment of students, preparing standard textbooks and enhancing the exposure to clinical knowledge for the betterment of education system.[29]
  15. In the article “Scope of educational reforms in Ayurveda” the various reforms in syllabus , undergraduate teaching and post graduate teaching reforms in Ayurveda including the different teaching methods and learning fields like music therapy , colour therapy etc. for enhancing the knowledge of Ayurveda.[30]
  16. In the article “Teaching reforms required for Ayurveda” states the present day status of the educational system in Ayurveda and amendments in syllabus and lecture delivery system in Ayurveda.[31]
  17. “Importance of Questions asked by Agnivesha in Charak Samhita in teaching learning skill – A Literature Review” deals with the different questions asked by the Agnivesha to Punarvasu Atreya in due course of text at different sthana and chapters underlying the unique methodology of teaching and learning according to Ayurveda.[32]
  18. The article “National Education Policy 2020 and preparedness of Ayurveda Universities” states the importance of standardization of ayurveda education and promotion of skill based learning in the Ayurveda universities.[33]
  19. In the article “Competency Based Medical Education and Ayurveda” the authors focus on developing the clinical skills of the students through the competency based education for the promotion of better physicians and health care professions in the society.[34]
  20. A unique methodology of Jigsaw teaching or co-operative teaching is explained in the article entitled “Jigsaw Cooperative Learning: A Viable Teaching Learning Strategy In Ayurveda” showing encouraging results as compared to classical method of learning and teaching.[35]
  21. In the article entitled “Introducing Hybrid Problem-Based Learning Modules in Ayurveda Education: Results of an Exploratory Study” where an exploratory trial was undertaken to implement HPBL (Hybrid Problem based learning) method in a large classroom in the context of Ayurveda education. The findings indicated HPBL as an acceptable teaching method.[36]
  22. The Ayurveda Education In India: How Well Are The Graduates Exposed To Basic Clinical Skills? The article explores the exposure of the graduates to clinical knowledge during the undergraduate training and course.
  23. In the article “Online Teaching in Ayurveda Medical Education during COVID 19 Pandemic – A Descriptive Survey Study” the authors have discussed the pros and cons of online teaching for the Ayurveda undergraduates during the COVID-19 and its effect on learning outcomes.[37]
  24. In the article “Inquisition Technique of Ayurveda Schooling – An Ancient Art” the different teaching methodologies like Tantrayukti, Pancha-Avayavi Vakya are explained in context to modern teaching and learning methodology.[38]
  25. In the research work entitled “Ayurveda education: Evaluating the integrative approaches of teaching Kriya Sharira (Ayurveda physiology)” the authors have made an effort to compare the effect of two teaching modules conventional method of teaching and Integrative modules like case-stimulated learning (CSL) and classroom small group discussion (CSGD) on the group of undergraduate students.[39]
  26. The article “Inclusion of communication skill module in undergraduate Ayurveda curriculum: Need of the hour” mentions the importance of inclusion of communication skill training for proper guidance of students in understanding concepts like Agni , Koshtha.[40]
  27. In the article “The Ayurveda Education in India: How Well Are the Graduates Exposed to Basic Clinical Skills?” the author focuses on shortcomings of the present ayurveda teaching process in imparting the proper clinical knowledge to the students, an observational study was carried out to assess the same.[41]
  28. In the research work entitled “Ayurveda education & research in India–present scenario, challenges & solutions,” the opinions of the Ayurveda teachers, physicians, students, and stakeholders were recorded using an online questionnaire regarding the status of Ayurveda education in present scenario.[42]
  29. In the article “Ayurveda students’ perception towards online learning during the COVID‑19 pandemic” the student’s response to the online learning during the COVID-19 period was assessed using a standardized questionnaire.[43]
  30. In the article “Ayurvedic college education, Reifying Biomedicine and the need for reflexivity” the importance of techniques mentioned in Ayurveda for the better understanding of the biomedical sciences is underlined.[44]

Related chapters

  • Adhyayana
  • Rogabhishagjitiya Vimana Adhyaya [Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 8]
  • Shishyopanayaniya Adhyaya [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 2]
  • Adhyayan Sampradaniya Adhyaya [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 3]
  • Prabhashaniya Adhayaya [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 4]
  • Vajikarana Chikitsa Adhyaya [A.H. Uttar Tantra 40]

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