Tilvaka Kalpa Adhyaya
Kalpa Sthana Chapter 9.Pharmaceutical preparations of Tilvaka
This chapter deals with preparations of tilvaka for the purpose of virechana (Therapeutic purgation). Tilvaka is a mild purgative . Therapeutic utility of tilvaka, methods of processing of tilvaka bark, method of preparation and administration of tilvaka churna are detailed here. Other recipes of tilvaka viz., sauviraka, sura (alcoholic breverages) along with a total of sixteen different formulations of the same drug to suit different needs of the physician has been discussed in this chapter.
Keywords: Tilvaka, Lodhra, Viburnum nervosum, Bruhadpatra, Tiritaka.
|Section/Chapter||Kalpa Sthana Chapter 9|
|Preceding Chapter||Chaturangula Kalpa Adhyaya|
|Succeeding Chapter||Sudha Kalpa Adhyaya|
|Other Sections||Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana|
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Sanskrit Text, Transliteration with English Translation
- 3 Tattva Vimarsha / Fundamental Principles
- 4 Vidhi Vimarsha / Applied Inferences
- 5 References
- 6 Glossary
Among the drugs of which bark is utilized as medicine, tilvaka is the best virechaka dravya (purgative) (Su.Su.44/3). It has also been described in the context of sandhaaneeya (healing effect on wounds), pureeshasangrahaneeya (antidiarrheal), shonithasthaapana dashemaani ganas (hemostatic) and twagasava (fermented prepration from bark). Charaka mentions this in the context of vatavyadhi (Ca. Chi. 28/82). Tilvaka is also told in the context of kashaayaskandha. Tilvaka ghee has been advised in the context of vidradhi (abcess), gulma (abdominal lump) and pittavidagdha (acid dyspepsia) conditions. In hiccups, tilvaka ash is administered with honey (Su. Ut. 50/21). Some experts like Drudhbala mentioned lodhra as synonym of tilwaka. However, there is controversy about the action of this drug. Lodhra possess stambhaka (styptic) action, whereas tilwaka is considered as virechaka ( purgative) in the present chapter. According to Thakur Balavant Singh, Viburnum nervosum is the true botanical source of Classical tilvaka. In the present context of vidhi vimarsha, the probable solution for this controversy will be discussed.
Sanskrit Text, Transliteration with English Translation
इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||
iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||
iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||
We shall now elaborate/expand the chapter dealing with the “Pharmaceutics of tilvaka”, thus said Lord Atreya.[1-2]
तिल्वकस्तु मतो लोध्रो बृहत्पत्रस्तिरीटकः|
tilvakastu matō lōdhrō br̥hatpatrastirīṭakaḥ|
tilvakastu mato lodhro bRuhatpatrastirITakaH|
Lodhra (One which overcomes kaphapittadi diseases), brihatpatra (plant which has big leaves), tilvaka (which oleates the body) are the synonyms of tilwaka. [2½]
Processing of tilvaka twak
तस्य मूलत्वचं शुष्कामन्तर्वल्कलवर्जिताम्||३||
चूर्णयेत्तु त्रिधा कृत्वा द्वौ भागौ श्चोतयेत्ततः| लोध्रस्यैव कषायेण तृतीयं तेन भावयेत्||४||
भागं तं दशमूलस्य पुनः क्वाथेन भावयेत्| शुष्कं चूर्णं पुनः कृत्वा तत ऊर्ध्वं प्रयोजयेत्||५||
tasya mūlatvacaṁ śuṣkāmantarvalkalavarjitām||3||
cūrṇayēttu tridhā kr̥tvā dvau bhāgau ścōtayēttataḥ| lōdhrasyaiva kaṣāyēṇa tr̥tīyaṁ tēna bhāvayēt||4||
bhāgaṁ taṁ daśamūlasya punaḥ kvāthēna bhāvayēt| śuṣkaṁ cūrṇaṁ punaḥ kr̥tvā tata ūrdhvaṁ prayōjayēt||5||
tasya mUlatvacaM shuShkAmantarvalkalavarjitAm||3||
cUrNayettu tridhA kRutvA dvau bhAgau shcotayettataH| lodhrasyaiva kaShAyeNa tRutIyaM tena bhAvayet||4||
bhAgaM taM dashamUlasya punaH kvAthena bhAvayet| shuShkaM cUrNaM punaH kRutvA tata UrdhvaM prayojayet||5||
External layer of tilvaka root is taken and internal portion is discarded. Then, the collected tilvaka is dried and processed to make into powder. This powdered drug is then divided into three parts among which 2 parts are mixed with water and filtered. This filtered liquid is used for triturating remaining one part of powdered tilvaka. After completion of trituration with lodhra decoction it is further given trituration of dashamoola decoction.
This is then dried and made into powder again and used as per need.[3-5]
Note: The inner portion of the lodhra is very hard and thus is not useful, so is not recommended for the usage. In the process of kashaya preparation, powder of lodhra should be added with six times of water mixed well and filtered. This process is repeated twenty one times as suggested in the context of madanaphala (Vide Ca.Ka 1/16).
Administration of tilvaka powder
दधितक्रसुरामण्डमूत्रैर्बदरसीधुना | रसेनामलकानां वा ततः पाणितलं पिबेत्||६||
dadhitakrasurāmaṇḍamūtrairbadarasīdhunā | rasēnāmalakānāṁ vā tataḥ pāṇitalaṁ pibēt||6||
dadhitakrasurAmaNDamUtrairbadarasIdhunA | rasenAmalakAnAM vA tataH pANitalaM pibet||6||
Recipes of Tilvaka Preparation and intake Powdered tilvaka/tilvaka churna One paanitala (12gms approximately) with -Dadhi takra(whey) -Sura manda(supernatent part of alcohol) -Cow’s urine -Badara seedhu (A type of drink prepared of Jujube fruit) -Juice of amalaki (Emblica officinalis) 
Recipe of tilvaka in the form of souviraka
मेषशृङ्ग्यभयाकृष्णाचित्रकैः सलिले शृते| मरुजान् सुनुयात्तच्च जातं सौवीरकं यदा||७||
भवेदञ्जलिना तस्य लोध्रकल्कं पिबेत् सदा|८|
mēṣaśr̥ṅgyabhayākr̥ṣṇācitrakaiḥ salilē śr̥tē| marujān sunuyāttacca jātaṁ sauvīrakaṁ yadā||7||
bhavēdañjalinā tasya lōdhrakalkaṁ pibēt sadā|8|
meShashRu~ggyabhayAkRuShNAcitrakaiH salile shRute| marujAn sunuyAttacca jAtaM sauvIrakaM yadA||7||
bhaveda~jjalinA tasya lodhrakalkaM pibet sadA|8|
Recipes of Tilvaka Preparation and intake Tilvaka souviraka Kashaya is made of meshashringi(Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.), abhaya (Terminalia chebula Retz.), krishna (Piper longum Linn), chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn).
Maruja (roasted barley) powder is added and fermented for one and half months in a mud pot which is previously oleated with ghee. Thus prepared sauveera is added with paste of lodhra churna in tola (12gms) pramana and given at dose of one anjali (Approximately 200gms) for virechana. [7-7½]
Recipe of tilvaka in the form of sura
सुरां लोध्रकषायेण जातां पक्षस्थितां पिबेत्||८||
दन्तीचित्रकयोर्द्रोणे सलिलस्याढकं पृथक्| समुत्क्वाथ्य गुडस्यैकां तुलां लोध्रस्य चाञ्जलिम्||९||
आवपेत्तत् परं पक्षान्मद्यपानां विरेचनम्|१०|
surāṁ lōdhrakaṣāyēṇa jātāṁ pakṣasthitāṁ pibēt||8||
dantīcitrakayōrdrōṇē salilasyāḍhakaṁ pr̥thak| samutkvāthya guḍasyaikāṁ tulāṁ lōdhrasya cāñjalim||9||
āvapēttat paraṁ pakṣānmadyapānāṁ virēcanam|10|
surAM lodhrakaShAyeNa jAtAM pakShasthitAM pibet||8||
dantIcitrakayordroNe salilasyADhakaM pRuthak| samutkvAthya guDasyaikAM tulAM lodhrasya cA~jjalim||9||
Avapettat paraM pakShAnmadyapAnAM virecanam|10|
Recipes of Tilvaka Preparation and intake Tilvaka sura (alcoholic drink) Decoction of lodhra kept for one paksha(fortnight) and made into sura (alcoholic drink)
Recipe of tilvaka in the form of arishta: Recipes of Tilvaka Preparation and intake
Tilvaka arishta(medicated wine) Kashaya made from one adaka(approximately 1.600 kg) dantimoola (Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell.-Arg) and chitraka(Plumbago zeylanica Linn) with one drona (approximately 12 litres ) water.
To this filtered decoction 1 tula (approximately 5 kg) of gud is added and 1 anjali(approximately 200gms) of lodhra kalka(paste) is added and mixed well.
This preparation is fermented for a paksha (15 days) in a mud pot oleated with ghee. This is then filtered and given for purgation to those who are addicted / habituated to madyapana (Intake of liquor).[8-9½]
कम्पिल्लककषायेण दशकृत्वः सुभाविताम्||१०||
मात्रां कम्पिल्लकस्यैव कषायेण पुनः पिबेत्|११|
kampillakakaṣāyēṇa daśakr̥tvaḥ subhāvitām||10||
mātrāṁ kampillakasyaiva kaṣāyēṇa punaḥ pibēt|11|
kampillakakaShAyeNa dashakRutvaH subhAvitAm||10||
mAtrAM kampillakasyaiva kaShAyeNa punaH pibet|11|
Recipe of Tilvaka prepared along with Kampillaka (Mallotus philiphensis Muell.): Recipes of Tilvaka Preparation and intake Tilvaka kampillaka Tilvaka churna is given bhavana (trituration) with kampillaka (Mallotus philliphensis Muell.) Kashaya
The process is repeated for 10 times.
This is taken with kampillaka kashaya.[10-10½]
Tilvaka avaleha (linctus)
चतुरङ्गुलकल्पेन लेहोऽन्यः कार्य एव च||११||
त्रिफलायाः कषायेण ससर्पिर्मधुफाणितः| लोध्रचूर्णयुतः सिद्धो लेहः श्रेष्ठो विरेचने||१२||
तिल्वकस्य कषायेण कल्केन च सशर्करः| सघृतः साधितो लेहः स च श्रेष्ठो विरेचने||१३||
caturaṅgulakalpēna lēhō'nyaḥ kārya ēva ca||11||
triphalāyāḥ kaṣāyēṇa sasarpirmadhuphāṇitaḥ| lōdhracūrṇayutaḥ siddhō lēhaḥ śrēṣṭhō virēcanē||12||
tilvakasya kaṣāyēṇa kalkēna ca saśarkaraḥ| saghr̥taḥ sādhitō lēhaḥ sa ca śrēṣṭhō virēcanē||13||
catura~ggulakalpena leho~anyaH kArya eva ca||11||
triphalAyAH kaShAyeNa sasarpirmadhuphANitaH| lodhracUrNayutaH siddho lehaH shreShTho virecane||12||
tilvakasya kaShAyeNa kalkena ca sasharkaraH| saghRutaH sAdhito lehaH sa ca shreShTho virecane||13||
Recipes of Tilvaka Preparation and intake
Tilvaka Avalehaas per the prescribed format that has been told for the preparation of chaturangula avaleha (which has been described in the previous chapter) kashaya (decoction) of tilvaka is prepared which is added with powder of trivrita (Operculina turpethum(L)Silva Manso.) and jaggery. This is cooked over the mild fire.
Avaleha / linctus prepared by adding lodhra powder, ghee, honey and phanita (penedium) to the decoction of triphala. or Avaleha / linctus prepared by adding lodhra paste, ghee and sugar to the lodhra decoction.[11-13]
अष्टाष्टौ त्रिवृतादीनां मुष्टींस्तु सनखान् पृथक्| द्रोणेऽपां साधयेत् पादशेषे प्रस्थं घृतात् पचेत्||१४||
पिष्टैस्तैरेव बिल्वांशैः समूत्रलवणैरथ| ततो मात्रां पिबेत् काले श्रेष्ठमेतद्विरेचनम्||१५||
लोध्रकल्केन मूत्राम्ललवणैश्च पचेद्घृतम्| चतुरङ्गुलकल्पेन सर्पिषी द्वे च साधयेत्||१६||
aṣṭāṣṭau trivr̥tādīnāṁ muṣṭīṁstu sanakhān pr̥thak| drōṇē'pāṁ sādhayēt pādaśēṣē prasthaṁ ghr̥tāt pacēt||14||
piṣṭaistairēva bilvāṁśaiḥ samūtralavaṇairatha| tatō mātrāṁ pibēt kālē śrēṣṭhamētadvirēcanam||15||
lōdhrakalkēna mūtrāmlalavaṇaiśca pacēdghr̥tam| caturaṅgulakalpēna sarpiṣī dvē ca sādhayēt||16||
aShTAShTau trivRutAdInAM muShTIMstu sanakhAn pRuthak| droNe~apAM sAdhayet pAdasheShe prasthaM ghRutAt pacet||14||
piShTaistaireva bilvAMshaiH samUtralavaNairatha| tato mAtrAM pibet kAle shreShThametadvirecanam||15||
lodhrakalkena mUtrAmlalavaNaishca pacedghRutam| catura~ggulakalpena sarpiShI dve ca sAdhayet||16||
Recipes of Tilvaka Preparation and intake
- Eight antarnakhamushti(fistful) each of eight drugs- trivrita (Operculina turpethum(L)Silva Manso), chaturangula(Cassia fistula Linn), mahavriksha (Euphorbia nerifolia) , saptala (Euphorbia pilosa), shankhini((Euphorbia dracanculoides), danti (Baliospermum montanum) and dravanti (Croton tiglium)) are taken with one drona (approximately 12.3 litres) of water separately and boiled till one fourth of liquid remains. Tilvaka is then taken in 16 antarnakhamushti pramana (96gms) with 1 drona water (12.3 litre) and reduced to one fourth quantity. Later these decotions are mixed together. To this one prastha (approximately 800gms) bilva, and paste of above said 9 drugs is added with one pala(50 ml) cows’s urine and salt.
- Paste of lodhra, cow’s urine, sour liquid and salt are used to prepare ghee.
- In Kalpa 8:13/14, two recipes of medicated ghee prepared with chaturangula have been told. Same are prepared by using tilvaka in place of chaturangula i.e., paste of tilvaka is boiled with the milk. The cream thus obtained is then used to make ghee, by adding tilvaka paste and the juice of amalaki in proportion mentioned in Chaturangula Kalpa, Verse 13.
- To the ghee prepared above dashamoola, kulattha and yava are added along with shyamadi nine kalka dravyas mentioned in Chaturangula Kalpa, verse 14, and ghee is prepared.
In total four recipes of lodhra in the form of medicated ghee are elaborated here.[14-16]
पञ्च दध्यादिभिस्त्वेका सुरा सौवीरकेण च| एकोऽरिष्टस्तथा योग एकः कम्पिल्लकेन च||१७||
लेहास्त्रयो घृतेनापि चत्वारः सम्प्रकीर्तिताः| योगास्ते लोध्रमूलानां कल्पे षोडश दर्शिताः||१८||
pañca dadhyādibhistvēkā surā sauvīrakēṇa ca| ēkō'riṣṭastathā yōga ēkaḥ kampillakēna ca||17||
lēhāstrayō ghr̥tēnāpi catvāraḥ samprakīrtitāḥ| yōgāstē lōdhramūlānāṁ kalpē ṣōḍaśa darśitāḥ||18||
pa~jca dadhyAdibhistvekA surA sauvIrakeNa ca| eko~ariShTastathA yoga ekaH kampillakena ca||17||
lehAstrayo ghRutenApi catvAraH samprakIrtitAH| yogAste lodhramUlAnAM kalpe ShoDasha darshitAH||18||
To sum up:
In this chapter, Sixteen recipes of root of lodhra has been described which are as follows:
- Five recipes
- with dadhi takra,
- with suramanda,
- with mutra,
- with badaraseedhu
- and with amalaki swarasa
- in the form of sura
- in the form of sauveeraka
- in the form of arishta
- which should be taken with kampillaka
- 3 preparations in the form of avaleha(linctus)
- 4 preparations in the form of medicated ghee
इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृतेऽप्राप्ते दृढबलसम्पूरिते कल्पस्थाने तिल्वककल्पो नाम नवमोऽध्यायः||९||
Thus, ends the ninth chapter of Kalpa Sthana which deals with “Pharmaceutics of tilvaka” in Agnivesha’s work which is redacted by Charaka, supplemented by Dridabala due to non availability of further contents.
Tattva Vimarsha / Fundamental Principles
Tilvaka is a mild purgative drug.
Vidhi Vimarsha / Applied Inferences
Controversy of Lodhra and Tilvaka
Charaka considers Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa) as stambhaka dravya. But, Dradhabala in this chapter considers lodhra as synonym of tilvaka leading to controversies. These two shall be different drugs, because, tilvaka has mild purgative effect and lodhra has stambhaka (Styptic, astringent) effect. Sushurta mentions lodhra in shyaamaadi (group of shyama etc.), nyagrodaadi (group of nyagrodha etc.) and rodhraadi gana (group of rodhra etc.). He considers rodhra and shaabara rodhra in rodhraadi gana, where these drugs are said to be stambhaka (styptic). In ambashtaadi gana too, shabara lodhra has been told which is stambhaka. In nyagrodaadi gana, both varieties of rodhra has been discussed, where it has been considered as stambhaka. Thus, it will be apt to consider tilvaka and lodhra as two separate drugs. Lodhra’s botanical source is said to be Symplocos racemosa. According to Balwant Singh, Viburnum stebulatum Wall (Caprifoliaceae/ Adoxaceae) may be considered as tilvaka which needs to be substantiated with proper scientific evidences. Viburnum species available in United States of America is used therapeutically. It will be better to analyze the viburnum species available in India for the therapeutic benefits, which may be used in place of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. In today’s clinical practice, tilwaka (Viburnum nervosum) is not used widely. However, as lodhra (Symplocos racemosa Roxb) is used widely in practice for various disease conditions, it is eloaborated here for the reference of readers. Description of lodhra: This tree, in Sanskrit, was called lodhra, rodhra or srimata meaning "propitious". A decoction of the bark is used for gargling when the gums are spongy and bleeding (Susruta). Roxburgh remarks that the bark was popular among the dyes of red in Calcutta and seemed to be used as a mordant only. In Europe it was formerly looked upon as a cinchona bark and had been known at various times as "Ecorce de lautour", "China nova", "China calafornica", "China Brasilarsis", and "China paraquatan". It was also known as "Lotus Bark". Lodhra is botanically named as Symplocos racemosa Roxb, it belongs to the genus Symplocos and family Symplocaceae. Symplocos racemosa Roxb is an evergreen tree or shrub. Principal Constituents are three alkaloids, viz. loturine, loturidine and colloturine. The astringent bark is given for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and liver complaints. It is recommended in the treatment of menorrhagia and other uterine disordersThe drug is useful in digestive disorders, eye diseases and ulcers. It is used in plasters and applied to wound for promoting maturation of wounds. It is astringent and is used in excessive bleeding during menstruation, other uterine disorders. The astringent properties are used in diarrhoea, dysentery, liver complaints and dropsy; also used in opthalmia and conjunctivitis. It possesses cardiotonic, antipyretic, antihelminthic and laxative properties. It is beneficial in blood disorders, burning sensations, leucoderma, and jaundice In classical texts the bark is said to be useful in bowel complaints such as diarrhoea, dysentery, liver complaints, fever, ulcer etc . The bark of this plant also possesses anticancer activity. A study has been also carried out to evaluate the antitumor activity of the ethanol extract of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. against Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma (EAC) in mice. Treatment with ethanolic extract decreased the tumor volume and viable cell count thereby increasing the lifespan of EAC bearing mice. The study indicates that the ethanol extract of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. exhibited antitumor effect by modulating lipid peroxidation and augmenting anti-oxidant defense system in EAC bearing mice. In addition, researchers have evaluated the antibacterial effect of Symplocos racemosa Roxb extracts against acne inducing bacteria. Symplocos racemosa is used in Indian System of Medicine for various female disorders. In vivo effect of aqueous extracts of Symplocos racemosa on serum FSH and LH levels in immature female Sprague–Dawley rats under basal conditions has been observed. There are also lots of scientific literature data proving the different pharmacological activity of Symplocos racemosa Roxb extract, e.g. gonadotropin releasing, antioxidant, antiarthritic and antibacterial. It is also useful in abortions and miscarriages and for ulcers of vagina. Traditionally bark is given in menorrhagia and other uterine disorders. In Unani medicine it is used as emmenogogue and aphrodisiac. It is also a potent remedy for inflammation and cleaning uterus. It contains salireposide and benzoyl salireposide which are inhibitors of phosphodiesterase I and have showed its depressant action on blood pressure and instestinal movements. Symplocos racemosa Roxb also works as a natural antipyretic agent with reduced or no toxicity.
Types & synonyms of lodhra:
Lodhra is said to be of two types: Pattika (pathani) lodhra and shavara lodhra Pattika lodhra is virechaka (purgative) where as shavara lodhra is grahi (styptic). Lodhra mentioned in this chapter refers to pattika lodhra – Pattika Rodro Brihatpatra Tiritakaha Few other names for this plant are galava, shavara and rodhra which is said to be for shweta vareity (white variant of lodhra- kshiraswami)(Nighantu Adarsha). According to Kaiyedava Nighantu some other names of the drug are ghanastwak, akshibheshaja and brihatvalkala which are suggestive of morphology of the plant.  Raja Nighantukara is of opinion that lodhra are of 2 types: shabara and valkarodhra. Some of the synonyms are hastirodhra, kandahina, hemapushpaka, bhilli. Valkalodhra is said to best in treating eye disordes and poisoning conditions.  Lakshaprasadna- Which is useful in cleansing laksha. Kramukha – One which has kashaya (astringent) rasa as dominant. Are two more synonymns for lodhra. Both these are two different variants of lodhra kramukha being white in color and lakshaprasadana being red variety. Both are said to posses opposite action, where in white variety is said to be astringent in taste and red variety is said to possess purgative action. Kramukha is said to best in treating eyediseases and is also known as valkala and sthoolavalkala In Shodhala Nighantu two varities told are shabara (Symplocos racemosa Roxb) and pattika (Symplocos crataegoides Buch.-Ham. Ex D.Don. few more synonymns are discussed here among them shushkavalkala and maarjana are told for the first time.  Inner portion of the drug here is discarded as it is too hard and has less therapeutic value. Apart from this, here decoction does not mean boiling of the drug. Mix the drug with 6 times water filter it. The process is repeated for 21 times to potentiate the drug. [4-5] In Charaka Chikitsa 4th chapter it has been said that lodhra twak powder with chandana (sandal wood) along with tandulodaka and sugarcandy is useful in raktapitta(A Bleeding disorder)(Ca. Chi. 7/129) Lodhra churna dusting on wound hastens the wound healing(Ca. Chi. 13) In Kushta lodhra churna lepa is beneficial(Ca. Chi. 7) In Leucorrohea (shweta pradara) lodhra churna is administered with vata (Ficus bengalensis) bark powder. In case fear of abortion or pre term delivery in 7th or 8th month lodhra churna is administered with pippali and honey.  Here abhaya and krishna in this formulation helps to improve the absorption of the drug. Maruja added helps for quicker fermentation.Thus prepared sauviraka is administered to induce purgation in patients. Tilvaka in the form of sauviraka may help to bring about increase the intensity of drug action. [7-8½] Those who are addicted to alcohol may not prefer drug in the form of churna(powder) or linctus form. For the benefit of these individuals and for preserving the drug for the longer duration drug in the form of arishta has been told here. [8½-10½] This formulation can be more preferred in the persons who are infested with krimi (worm infestation) as kampillaka is one of the best krimighna dravya(wormicidal). [10½-11½] Intensity of the drug here may vary. Like the first yoga is stronger as it has trivrit which is sukha virechaka (pugative), second being slightly less stronger as it has triphala in it which is anulomaka (mild purgative), where as third preparation is more mild as tilvaka alone is the ingredient over here. [11½-13]
1. Vd Bapalal, Nighantu Adarsha, Vol 1, Chaukhabha Bharati Academy, Varanasi,II Edition,1999, p.no 823 2. http://www.himalayahealthcare.com/herbalmonograph/lodh-tree.htm 3. Khalid S., C.H Gopalakrishna, Kature D.V., Shaikh K. B., Suresh D.K., Loya P. Gastroprotective and antiulcer activity of mixture of Symplocos racemosa bark and Asarum europaeum root Journal of Pharmacy Research 2010, 3(7):1502-1505 4. M. Vijayabaskaran, Amol K. B., G. Babu, P. Sivakumar, P. Perumal1, T. Sivakumar R. Sampathkumar and B. Jayakar. Antitumor Activity and Antioxidant Status of Symplocos racemosa Roxb Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 2010 1(3):306-314 5. Raval p. B., patel d. J., patel a. B., ganure l. A. Potent in vitro anticancer activity of symplocos racemosa bark rom. J. Biol. – plant biol., 2009 54(2):135–140 6. http://www.konarkindex.com/index.php/lodhra 7. Vd Bapalal, Nighantu Adarsha, Vol 1, Chaukhabha Bharati Academy, Varanasi,II Edition,1999, p.no 821 8. P V Sharma, Guruprasad Sharma, Kaiyadeva Nighantu,Chaukhmbha Orientalia, II Edition, 2006,p.no 208 9. Indradev Tripathi, Rajanighantu of Pt Narahari, Chaukhmbha Orientalia 4th Edition,2006,p.no 177 10. Gyanendra Pandey, Sodala Nighantu, Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy, First Edition, p.no 476-77
Lodhra (lōdhrā )– One which overcomes Kaphapittadi diseases. Brihatpatra (br̥hatpatrastirīṭakaḥ) – Plant which has big leaves Tilvaka (Tilvaka)– Which oleates the body.