Shadvirechanashatashritiya Adhyaya

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Sutra Sthana Chapter 4. The Resources of Six Hundred Evacuatives

Abstract

This chapter provides comprehensive information about herbs and their classification by their specific activity and utility, medicinal preparations for evacuation (or evacuatives), and specific therapeutic regimen such as cleansing regimen (samshodhana) and pacification regimen (samshamana). Ayurveda emphasizes upon removing body impurities, like metabolic waste products, toxins, and undigested foods from various tissues and organs before treating any disease or applying measures for preservation, protection, and rejuvenation of health. There are six hundred preparations used for cleansing the body by therapeutic emesis (vamana) and therapeutic purgation (virechana), five hundred herbs, and fifty groups of herbs with similar activity profile (mahakashaya) used in their preparations. A physician should have complete knowledge of special/selective actions of various preparations meant for removal of impurities from the body. Each of the fifty mahakashaya comprises ten herbs. This chapter also describes six types of plant-based evacuatives (virechana ashraya), their basic sources as per taste (five kashaya yoni), and five medicinal forms like juice, paste, decoction, cold effusion and hot effusion.

Keywords: a catalogue of herbs, selective activity profile, pharmaceutical forms of drugs, medicinal juice, paste, decoction, cold infusion, hot infusion.

Shadvirechanashatashritiya Adhyaya
Section/Chapter Sutra Sthana Chapter 4
Tetrad/Sub-section Bheshaja Chatushka
Preceding Chapter Aragvadhiya Adhyaya
Succeeding Chapter Matrashiteeya Adhyaya
Other Sections Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana

Introduction

This chapter is the last one among Bheshaja Chatushka (group of chapters on therapeutics). Previous second and third chapters dealt with the internal and external cleansing procedures respectively. Present chapter is in continuation of those topics and describes vamana (therapeutic emesis) and virechana (therapeutic purgation) based treatment procedures. These preparations - six hundred of them - are also described in the section of Kalpa Sthana that deals with specific preparations for body cleansing procedures. However, considering the importance of cleansing procedures, they are referred briefly in the present chapter. The main content of this chapter includes fifty classes of five hundred herbs, based upon their selective action on various diseases and biological systems. These classes are called mahakashaya (classes of drugs with similar activity profile) comprising ten herbs each. These fifty classes are again sub-divided into ten sub-classes starting with jeevaniya (vitalizers) and ending with vayasthapana (anti-aging herbs). These fifty mahakashaya refer to fifty therapeutic indications, for example, chhardi nigrahana (anti-emetic), mutra virechaniya (diuretic), kasahara (antitussive and expectorant), shoola prashamana (analgesic), etc. The potency of a single drug may vary per the preparation and the indication of preparation depends on the patient’s strength.

Thus, this chapter provides a comprehensive information about medicinal preparations, their original plant resources, and selective actions of each preparation with targeted activity profile.

Sanskrit text, transliteration, and English translation

अथातःषड्विरेचनशताश्रितीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||

इतिहस्माहभगवानात्रेयः||२||

athātaḥ ṣaḍvirēcanaśatāśritīyamadhyāyaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||

iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

athAtaH ShaDvirecanashatAshritIyamadhyAyaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||

iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

Now (I) shall expound the chapter on resources of six hundred evacuatives. Thus, said Lord Atreya. [1-2]

Brief numerical categories of medicine

इह खलु षड् विरेचनशतानि भवन्ति, षड् विरेचनाश्रयाः, पञ्च कषाययोनयः, पञ्चविधं कषायकल्पनं, पञ्चाशन्महाकषायाः, पञ्च कषायशतानि, इति सङ्ग्रहः||३||

iha khalu ṣaḍ virēcanaśatāni bhavanti, ṣaḍ virēcanāśrayāḥ, pañca kaṣāyayōnayaḥ, pañcavidhaṁkaṣāyakalpanaṁ, pañcāśanmahākaṣāyāḥ, pañca kaṣāyaśatāni, iti saṅgrahaḥ||3||

iha khalu ShaD virecanashatAni bhavanti, ShaD virecanAshrayAH, pa~jca kaShAyayonayaH, pa~jcavidhaM kaShAyakalpanaM, pa~jcAshanmahAkaShAyAH, pa~jcakaShAyashatAni, iti sa~ggrahaH||3||

Here are six hundred evacuatives, six classes of plant origin, five sources of medicines, five forms of medicine preparation, fifty classes of medicines and list of five hundred medicinal herbs, in brief. [3]

Six hundred formulations of medicinal plants

षड् विरेचनशतानि, इति यदुक्तं तदिह सङ्ग्रहेणोदाहृत्य विस्तरेण कल्पोपनिषदि व्याख्यास्यामः; (तत्र ) त्रयस्त्रिंशद्योगशतं प्रणीतं फलेषु, एकोनचत्वारिंशज्जीमूतकेषु योगाः, पञ्चचत्वारिंशदिक्ष्वाकुषु, धामार्गवः षष्टिधा भवति योगयुक्तः, कुटजस्त्वष्टादशधा योगमेति, कृतवेधनं षष्टिधा भवति योगयुक्तं, श्यामात्रिवृद्योगशतं प्रणीतं दशापरे चात्र भवन्ति योगाः, चतुरङ्गुलो द्वादशधा योगमेति, लोध्रं विधौ षोडशयोगयुक्तं, महावृक्षो भवति विंशतियोगयुक्तः, एकोनचत्वारिंशत्सप्तलाशङ्खिन्योर्योगाः,अष्टचत्वारिंशद्दन्तीद्रवन्त्योः, इति षड्विरेचनशतानि||४||

ṣaḍ virēcanaśatāni, iti yaduktaṁ tadiha saṅgrahēṇōdāhr̥tya vistarēṇa kalpōpaniṣadi vyākhyāsyāmaḥ; (tatra) trayastriṁśadyōgaśataṁ praṇītaṁ phalēṣu,ēkōnacatvāriṁśajjīmūtakēṣu yōgāḥ, pañcacatvāriṁśadikṣvākuṣu, dhāmārgavaḥ ṣaṣṭidhā bhavati yōgayuktaḥ,kuṭajastvaṣṭādaśadhā yōgamēti, kr̥tavēdhanaṁ ṣaṣṭidhā bhavati yōgayuktaṁ, śyāmātrivr̥dyōgaśataṁ praṇītaṁ daśāparē cātra bhavanti yōgāḥ, caturaṅgulō dvādaśadhā yōgamēti, lōdhraṁ vidhau ṣōḍaśayōgayuktaṁ, mahāvr̥kṣō bhavati viṁśatiyōgayuktaḥ, ēkōnacatvāriṁśat saptalāśaṅkhinyōryōgāḥ, aṣṭacatvāriṁśaddantīdravantyōḥ, iti ṣaḍvirēcanaśatāni||4||

ShaD virecanashatAni, iti yaduktaM tadiha sa~ggraheNodAhRutya vistareNa kalpopaniShadi vyAkhyAsyAmaH; (tatra [1] ) trayastriMshadyogashataM praNItaMphaleShu, ekonacatvAriMshajjImUtakeShu yogAH, pa~jcacatvAriMshadikShvAkuShu, dhAmArgavaH ShaShTidhA bhavati yogayuktaH, kuTajastvaShTAdashadhAyogameti, kRutavedhanaM ShaShTidhA bhavati yogayuktaM, shyAmAtrivRudyogashataM praNItaM dashApare cAtra bhavanti yogAH, catura~ggulo dvAdashadhAyogameti, lodhraM vidhau ShoDashayogayuktaM, mahAvRukSho bhavati viMshatiyogayuktaH, ekonacatvAriMshat saptalAsha~gkhinyoryogAH,aShTacatvAriMshaddantIdravantyoH, iti ShaDvirecanashatAni||4||

Six hundred evacuatives, as said above, will be mentioned here in brief and will be described in detail in Kalpa Sthana. There are 133 formulations of madana phala, 39 of devadali, 45 of katutumbi, 60 of dhamargava, 18 of kutaja, 60 of koshataki, 110 of shyama and trivrut, 12 aragvadha, 16 of lodhra, 20 of sunhí, 39 of saptalá and shankhini, and 48 of dantí and dravantí. These are six hundred evacuatives. [4]

Six parts of plants used in formulation

षड् विरेचनाश्रया इति क्षीरमूलत्वक्पत्रपुष्पफलानीति||५||

ṣaḍ virēcanāśrayā iti kṣīramūlatvakpatrapuṣpaphalānīti||5||

ShaD virecanAshrayA iti kShIramUlatvakpatrapuShpaphalAnIti||5||

The six parts of plants that serve as sources of evacuatives are: latex, root, bark, leaf, flower and fruit. [5]

Basic tastes for medicinal preparations

पञ्चकषाययोनयइतिमधुरकषायोऽम्लकषायःकटुकषायस्तिक्तकषायः कषायकषायश्चेति तन्त्रे सञ्ज्ञा||६|

pañca kaṣāyayōnaya iti madhurakaṣāyō'mlakaṣāyaḥ kaṭukaṣāyastiktakaṣāyaḥ kaṣāyakaṣāyaścēti tantrē sañjñā||6||

pa~jca kaShAyayonaya iti madhurakaShAyo~amlakaShAyaH kaTukaShAyastiktakaShAyaH kaShAyakaShAyashceti tantre sa~jj~jA||6||

The five basic tastes associated with medicinal preparations mentioned in this compendium are: sweet, sour, pungent, bitter and astringent. [6]

Five types of medicinal forms

पञ्चविधंकषायकल्पनमिति तद्यथा- स्वरसः, कल्कः, शृतः, शीतः,फाण्टः, कषाय इति| (यन्त्रनिष्पीडिताद्द्रव्याद्रसः स्वरस उच्यते | यः पिण्डो रसपिष्टानां स कल्कः परिकीर्तितः || वह्नौ तु क्वथितं द्रव्यं शृतमाहुश्चिकित्सकाः | द्रव्यादापोत्थितात्तोये प्रतप्ते निशि संस्थितात् || कषायो योऽभिनिर्याति स शीतः समुदाहृतः | क्षिप्त्वोष्णतोये मृदितं तत् फाण्टं परिकीर्तितम् ||) तेषां यथापूर्वं बलाधिक्यम्; अतः कषायकल्पना व्याध्यातुरबलापेक्षिणी; न त्वेवं खलु सर्वाणि सर्वत्रोपयोगीनि भवन्ति||७||

pañcavidhaṁ kaṣāyakalpanamiti tadyathā- svarasaḥ, kalkaḥ, śr̥taḥ, śītaḥ, phāṇṭaḥ, kaṣāya iti| (yantraniṣpīḍitāddravyādrasaḥ svarasa ucyatē | yaḥ piṇḍō rasapiṣṭānāṁ sa kalkaḥ parikīrtitaḥ || vahnau tu kvathitaṁ dravyaṁ śr̥tamāhuścikitsakāḥ | dravyādāpōtthitāttōyē prataptē niśi saṁsthitāt || kaṣāyō yō'bhiniryāti sa śītaḥ samudāhr̥taḥ | kṣiptvōṣṇatōyē mr̥ditaṁ tat phāṇṭaṁ parikīrtitam ||) tēṣāṁ yathāpūrvaṁ balādhikyam; ataḥ kaṣāyakalpanā vyādhyāturabalāpēkṣiṇī; na tvēvaṁ khalu sarvāṇi sarvatrōpayōgīni bhavanti||7||

pa~jcavidhaM kaShAyakalpanamiti tadyathA- svarasaH, kalkaH, shRutaH, shItaH, phANTaH, kaShAya iti| (yantraniShpIDitAddravyAdrasaH [1] svarasa ucyate | yaH piNDo rasapiShTAnAM sa kalkaH parikIrtitaH || vahnau tu kvathitaM dravyaM shRutamAhushcikitsakAH | dravyAdApotthitAttoye pratapte nishi saMsthitAt || kaShAyo yo~abhiniryAti sa shItaH samudAhRutaH | kShiptvoShNatoye mRuditaM tat phANTaM parikIrtitam ||) teShAM yathApUrvaM balAdhikyam; ataH kaShAyakalpanA vyAdhyAturabalApekShiNI; na tvevaM khalu sarvANi sarvatropayogIni bhavanti||7||

The five forms of medicinal preparations are: juices, pastes, decoctions (i.e., herbs boiled with water), cold infusions (herbs soaked overnight in hot water), and hot infusions (herbs mixed with hot water). A drug, in the juice form, extracted out of a preparation by applying mechanical pressure, is called swarasa. Kalka is a drug grinded with some liquid into a lump or paste form. Physicians say that shruta (kwatha) is a decoction prepared by boiling a drug on fire. When a drug is kept in hot water for the whole night, the cold infusion thus obtained is known as sheeta. Finally, phanta (hot infusion) is a preparation in which a drug is put in hot water for a while, gently mixed and administered.

The potency of these drugs is (increasing) in preceding order (hot infusion to juice), but the administration of medicine forms depend on severity of disease and strength of the patient and, therefore, are not all useful everywhere (indiscriminately). [7]

Fifty classes of medicines per their activity profile

पञ्चाशन्महाकषाया’ इति यदुक्तं तदनुव्याख्यास्यामः;तद्यथा- जीवनीयो बृंहणीयो लेखनीयो भेदनीयः सन्धानीयो दीपनीय इति षट्कः कषायवर्गः; बल्यो वर्ण्यः कण्ठ्यो हृद्य इति चतुष्कः कषायवर्गः; तृप्तिघ्नोऽर्शोघ्नः कुष्ठघ्नः कण्डूघ्नः क्रिमिघ्नो विषघ्न इति षट्कः कषायवर्गः; स्तन्यजननः स्तन्यशोधनः शुक्रजननः शुक्रशोधन इति चतुष्कः कषायवर्गः; स्नेहोपगः स्वेदोपगो वमनोपगो विरेचनोपग आस्थापनोपगोऽनुवासनोपगः शिरोविरेचनोपग इति सप्तकः कषायवर्गः; छर्दिनिग्रहणस्तृष्णानिग्रहणो हिक्कानिग्रहण इति त्रिकः कषायवर्गः; पुरीषसङ्ग्रहणीयः पुरीषविरजनीयो मूत्रसङ्ग्रहणीयो मूत्रविरजनीयो मूत्रविरेचनीय इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः; कासहरः श्वासहरः शोथहरो ज्वरहरः श्रमहर इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः; दाहप्रशमनः शीतप्रशमन उदर्दप्रशमनोऽङ्गमर्दप्रशमनः शूलप्रशमन इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः; शोणितस्थापनो वेदनास्थापनः सञ्ज्ञास्थापनः प्रजास्थापनो वयःस्थापन इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः; इति पञ्चाशन्महाकषाया महतां च कषायाणां लक्षणोदाहरणार्थं व्याख्याता भवन्ति| तेषामेकैकस्मिन् महाकषाये दश दशावयविकान् कषायाननुव्याख्यास्यामः; तान्येव पञ्च कषायशतानि भवन्ति||८||

pañcāśanmahākaṣāyā’ iti yaduktaṁ tadanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ; tadyathā- jīvanīyō br̥ṁhaṇīyō lēkhanīyō bhēdanīyaḥ sandhānīyō dīpanīya iti ṣaṭkaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; balyō varṇyaḥ kaṇṭhyō hr̥dya iti catuṣkaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; tr̥ptighnō'rśōghnaḥ kuṣṭhaghnaḥ kaṇḍūghnaḥ krimighnō viṣaghna iti ṣaṭkaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; stanyajananaḥ stanyaśōdhanaḥ śukrajananaḥ śukraśōdhana iti catuṣkaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; snēhōpagaḥ svēdōpagō vamanōpagō virēcanōpaga āsthāpanōpagō'nuvāsanōpagaḥ śirōvirēcanōpaga iti saptakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; chardinigrahaṇastr̥ṣṇānigrahaṇō hikkānigrahaṇa iti trikaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; purīṣasaṅgrahaṇīyaḥ purīṣavirajanīyō mūtrasaṅgrahaṇīyō mūtravirajanīyō mūtravirēcanīya iti pañcakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; kāsaharaḥ śvāsaharaḥ śōthaharō jvaraharaḥ śramahara iti pañcakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; dāhapraśamanaḥ śītapraśamana udardapraśamanō'ṅgamardapraśamanaḥ śūlapraśamana iti pañcakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; śōṇitasthāpanō vēdanāsthāpanaḥ sañjñāsthāpanaḥ prajāsthāpanō vayaḥsthāpana iti pañcakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; iti pañcāśanmahākaṣāyā mahatāṁ ca kaṣāyāṇāṁ lakṣaṇōdāharaṇārthaṁ vyākhyātā bhavanti| tēṣāmēkaikasmin mahākaṣāyē daśa daśāvayavikān kaṣāyānanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ; tānyēva pañca kaṣāyaśatāni bhavanti||8||

‘pa~jcAshanmahAkaShAyA’ iti yaduktaM tadanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH; tadyathA- jIvanIyo bRuMhaNIyo lekhanIyo bhedanIyaH sandhAnIyo dIpanIya iti ShaTkaHkaShAyavargaH; balyo varNyaH kaNThyo hRudya iti catuShkaH kaShAyavargaH; tRuptighno~arshoghnaH kuShThaghnaH kaNDUghnaH krimighno viShaghna itiShaTkaH kaShAyavargaH; stanyajananaH stanyashodhanaH shukrajananaH shukrashodhana iti catuShkaH kaShAyavargaH; snehopagaH svedopago vamanopagovirecanopaga AsthApanopago~anuvAsanopagaH shirovirecanopaga iti saptakaH kaShAyavargaH; chardinigrahaNastRuShNAnigrahaNo hikkAnigrahaNa iti trikaHkaShAyavargaH; purIShasa~ggrahaNIyaH purIShavirajanIyo mUtrasa~ggrahaNIyo mUtravirajanIyo mUtravirecanIya iti pa~jcakaH kaShAyavargaH; kAsaharaHshvAsaharaH shothaharo jvaraharaH shramahara iti pa~jcakaH kaShAyavargaH; dAhaprashamanaH shItaprashamanaudardaprashamano~a~ggamardaprashamanaH shUlaprashamana iti pa~jcakaH kaShAyavargaH; shoNitasthApano vedanAsthApanaH sa~jj~jAsthApanaHprajAsthApano vayaHsthApana iti pa~jcakaH kaShAyavargaH; iti pa~jcAshanmahAkaShAyA mahatAM ca kaShAyANAM lakShaNodAharaNArthaM vyAkhyAtAbhavanti| teShAmekaikasmin mahAkaShAye dasha dashAvayavikAn kaShAyAnanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH; tAnyeva pa~jca kaShAyashatAni bhavanti||8||


Group I Consisting of six subgroups of medicines:jeevaniya(vitaliser), brimhaniya(bulk-promoting), lekhaniya (emaciating), bhedaniya(mass-breaking), sandhaniya(union-promoting), and deepaniya(appetizer).
Group II Consisting of four subgroups of medicines:balya (tonic), varnya (complexion-promoting),kanthya (beneficial for throat), and hridya (cordial).
Group III Comprising of six subgroups of medicines:truptighna (anti-satiety), arshoghna (anti-haemorrhoidal), kushthghna(anti-dermatosis), kandughna (anti-pruritic), krumighna (anthelmintic), and vishaghna (anti-toxic).
Group IV Having four subgroups of medicines: stanyajanana(galactogogue), stanyashodhana (galactodepurant), shukrajanana (semen-promoting), and shukrashodhana (semen-depurant).
Group V Consisting of seven subgroups of medicines: snehopaga (sub-oleative), swedopaga (sub-diaphoretic), vamanopaga(sub-emetic), virechanopaga (sub-purgative), aasthapanopaga(sub-corrective enemata), anuvasanopaga (sub-unctuous enema), and shirovirechanopaga (sub-errhines).
Group VI Comprising of three subgroups of medicines: chhardi nigrahana(anti- emetic), trushna nigrahana(thirst-quenching or thirst-alleviating), and hikka nigrahana(reducing hiccups).
Group VII Consisting of five subgroups of medicines: purisha samgrahaniyafaecal astringent), purisha virajaniya (faecal de-pigmenter), mutra samgrahaniya(anti-diuretic), mutra virajaniya(urinary depigmenter), and mutra virechaniya(diuretic).
Group VIII Consisting of five subgroups of medicines: kasahara (anti-cough), shwasahara (anti-dyspneic), shothahara(anti-oedema), jwarahara(antipyretic), and shramahara(anti-fatigue).
Group IX Consisting of five subgroups of medicines: dahaprashamana (pacifying burning sensation), sheetaprashamana(pacifying cold sensation), udardaprashamana(pacifyingallergies), angamardhaprashamana(pacifying bodyache), and shulaprashamana(pacifying pain).
Group X Comprising of five subgroups of medicines:shonitasthapana (haemostatic), sanjnasthapana(regaining consciousness), prajasthapana(promoting conception and implantation of embryo), and vayasthapana(anti-ageing)

Thus, fifty classes of medicines have been mentioned for definition and example. Among them, in every class, the ten constituent medicinal herbs will be described further, which will complete the list of five hundred medicinal herbs. [8]

Group I: Six subgroups of medicines

तद्यथा- जीवकर्षभकौमेदामहामेदाकाकोलीक्षीरकाकोलीमुद्गपर्णीमाषपर्ण्यौ जीवन्ती मधुकमिति दशेमानि जीवनीयानि भवन्ति (१),

क्षीरिणीराजक्षवकाश्वगन्धाकाकोलीक्षीरकाकोलीवाट्यायनीभद्रौदनीभारद्वाजीपयस्यर्ष्यगन्धा इति दशेमानि बृंहणीयानि भवन्ति (२),

मुस्तकुष्ठहरिद्रादारुहरिद्रावचातिविषाकटुरोहिणीचित्रकचिरबिल्वहैमवत्य इति दशेमानि लेखनीयानि भवन्ति (३),

सुवहार्कोरुबुकाग्निमुखीचित्राचित्रकचिरबिल्वशङ्खिनीशकुलादनीस्वर्णक्षीरिण्य इति दशेमानि भेदनीयानि भवन्ति (४),

मधुकमधुपर्णीपृश्निपर्ण्यम्बष्ठकीसमङ्गामोचरसधातकीलोध्रप्रियङ्गुकट्फलानीति दशेमानि सन्धानीयानि भवन्ति (५),

पिप्पलीपिप्पलीमूलचव्यचित्रकशृङ्गवेराम्लवेतसमरिचाजमोदाभल्लातकास्थिहिङ्गुनिर्यासा इति दशेमानि दीपनीयानि भवन्ति (६),

इति षट्कः कषायवर्गः||९||

tadyathā- jīvakarṣabhakau mēdā mahāmēdā kākōlī kṣīrakākōlī mudgaparṇīmāṣaparṇyaujīvantī madhukamiti daśēmāni jīvanīyāni bhavanti (1),

kṣīriṇīrājakṣavakāśvagandhākākōlīkṣīrakākōlīvāṭyāyanībhadraudanībhāradvājīpayasyarṣyagandhā iti daśēmāni br̥ṁhaṇīyānibhavanti (2),

mustakuṣṭhaharidrādāruharidrāvacātiviṣākaṭurōhiṇīcitrakacirabilvahaimavatya iti daśēmāni lēkhanīyāni bhavanti (3),

suvahārkōrubukāgnimukhīcitrācitrakacirabilvaśaṅkhinīśakulādanīsvarṇakṣīriṇya iti daśēmāni bhēdanīyāni bhavanti (4),

madhukamadhuparṇīpr̥śniparṇyambaṣṭhakīsamaṅgāmōcarasadhātakīlōdhrapriyaṅgukaṭphalānīti daśēmāni sandhānīyāni bhavanti (5),

pippalīpippalīmūlacavyacitrakaśr̥ṅgavērāmlavētasamaricājamōdābhallātakāsthihiṅguniryāsā iti daśēmāni dīpanīyāni bhavanti (6),

iti ṣaṭkaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||9||

tadyathA- jIvakarShabhakau medA mahAmedA kAkolI kShIrakAkolI mudgaparNImAShaparNyau [1] jIvantI madhukamiti dashemAni jIvanIyAni bhavanti (1),

kShIriNIrAjakShavakAshvagandhAkAkolIkShIrakAkolIvATyAyanIbhadraudanIbhAradvAjIpayasyarShyagandhA [2] iti dashemAni bRuMhaNIyAni bhavanti (2),

mustakuShThaharidrAdAruharidrAvacAtiviShAkaTurohiNIcitrakacirabilvahaimavatya iti dashemAni lekhanIyAni bhavanti (3),

suvahArkorubukAgnimukhIcitrAcitrakacirabilvasha~gkhinIshakulAdanIsvarNakShIriNya [3] iti dashemAni bhedanIyAni bhavanti (4),

madhukamadhuparNIpRushniparNyambaShThakIsama~ggAmocarasadhAtakIlodhrapriya~ggukaTphalAnIti dashemAni sandhAnIyAni bhavanti (5),

pippalIpippalImUlacavyacitrakashRu~ggaverAmlavetasamaricAjamodAbhallAtakAsthihi~gguniryAsA iti dashemAni dIpanIyAni bhavanti (6),

iti ShaTkaHkaShAyavargaH||9||


Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Jeevaniya(Vitalisers) jívaka, rishabhaka, meda, mahameda, kakoli, kshirakakoli, mudgaparni, mashaparni, jivanti and madhuka
Brimhaniya(Strength/bulk promoting) kshirini, rajakshavaka, ashwagandha, kakoli, kshirakakoli, vatyayani,bhadraudani, bhardwaji, payasya and rishyagandha
Lekhaniya(emaciating) musta, kushtha, haridra, daruharidra, vacha, ativisha, katurohini, chitraka, chirabilwa, andhaimavati
Bhedaniya(breaking mass/solid lesions) suvaha, arka, urubuka, agnimukhi, chitra, chitraka, chirabilwa, shankhini, shakuladani and swarnakshirini
Sandhaniya(promoting union/binding) madhuka, madhuparni, prushniparni, ambashthaki, samanga, mocharasa, dhataki, lodhra, priyangu and katphala
Deepaniya(Appetisers) pippali, pippalimula, chavya, chitraka, shringavera, amlavetasa, maricha, ajamoda, bhallatakasthi and higuniryasa
Group II: Four subgroups of medicines

ऐन्द्र्यृषभ्यतिरसर्ष्यप्रोक्तापयस्याश्वगन्धास्थिरारोहिणीबलातिबला इति दशेमानि बल्यानि भवन्ति (७),

चन्दनतुङ्गपद्मकोशीरमधुकमञ्जिष्ठासारिवापयस्यासितालता इति दशेमानि वर्ण्यानि भवन्ति (८),

सारिवेक्षुमूलमधुकपिप्पलीद्राक्षाविदारीकैटर्यहंसपादीबृहतीकण्टकारिका इति दशेमानि कण्ठ्यानि भवन्ति (९),

आम्राम्रातकलिकुचकरमर्दवृक्षाम्लाम्लवेतसकुवलबदरदाडिममातुलुङ्गानीति दशेमानि हृद्यानि भवन्ति (१०),

इति चतुष्कः कषायवर्गः||१०||

aindryr̥ṣabhyatirasarṣyaprōktāpayasyāśvagandhāsthirārōhiṇībalātibalā iti daśēmāni balyāni bhavanti (7),

candanatuṅgapadmakōśīramadhukamañjiṣṭhāsārivāpayasyāsitālatā iti daśēmāni varṇyāni bhavanti (8),

sārivēkṣumūlamadhukapippalīdrākṣāvidārīkaiṭaryahaṁsapādībr̥hatīkaṇṭakārikā iti daśēmāni kaṇṭhyāni bhavanti (9),

āmrāmrātakalikucakaramardavr̥kṣāmlāmlavētasakuvalabadaradāḍimamātuluṅgānīti daśēmāni hr̥dyāni bhavanti (10),

iti catuṣkaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||10||

aindryRuShabhyatirasarShyaproktApayasyAshvagandhAsthirArohiNIbalAtibalA iti dashemAni balyAni bhavanti (7),

candanatu~ggapadmakoshIramadhukama~jjiShThAsArivApayasyAsitAlatA iti dashemAni varNyAni bhavanti (8),

sArivekShumUlamadhukapippalIdrAkShAvidArIkaiTaryahaMsapAdIbRuhatIkaNTakArikA iti dashemAni kaNThyAni bhavanti (9),

AmrAmrAtakalikucakaramardavRukShAmlAmlavetasakuvalabadaradADimamAtulu~ggAnIti dashemAni hRudyAni bhavanti (10),

iti catuShkaH kaShAyavargaH||10||

Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Balya (tonics) aindri, rishabhi, atirasa, rishyaprokta, payasya, ashwagandha, sthira, rohini, bala and aatibala
Varnya (promoting complexion) chandana, tunga, padmaka, ushira, madhuka, manjishtha, sariva, payasya, sita, lata
Kanthya (beneficial for throat & voice) sariva, ikshu (root), madhuka, pippala, Draksha, vidari, kaidarya, hansapadi, bruhati and kantakarika
Hridya (liked by mind) amra, Aamrataka, likucha, karamarda, vrukshamla, amlavetasa, kuvala, badara, dadima, and matulunga
Group III: Six subgroups of medicines

नागरचव्यचित्रकविडङ्गमूर्वागुडूचीवचामुस्तपिप्पलीपटोलानीति दशेमानि तृप्तिघ्नानि भवन्ति (११),

कुटजबिल्वचित्रकनागरातिविषाभयाधन्वयासकदारुहरिद्रावचाचव्यानीति दशेमान्यर्शोघ्नानि भवन्ति (१२),

खदिराभयामलकहरिद्रारुष्करसप्तपर्णारग्वधकरवीरविडङ्गजातीप्रवाला इति दशेमानि कुष्ठघ्नानि भवन्ति (१३),

चन्दननलदकृतमालनक्तमालनिम्बकुटजसर्षपमधुकदारुहरिद्रामुस्तानीति दशेमानि कण्डूघ्नानि भवन्ति (१४),

अक्षीवमरिचगण्डीरकेबुकविडङ्गनिर्गुण्डीकिणिहीश्वदंष्ट्रावृषपर्णिकाखुपर्णिका इति दशेमानि क्रिमिघ्नानि भवन्ति (१५),

हरिद्रामञ्जिष्ठासुवहासूक्ष्मैलापालिन्दीचन्दनकतकशिरीषसिन्धुवारश्लेष्मातका इति दशेमानि विषघ्नानि भवन्ति (१६),

इति षट्कः कषायवर्गः||११||

nāgaracavyacitrakaviḍaṅgamūrvāguḍūcīvacāmustapippalīpaṭōlānīti daśēmāni tr̥ptighnāni bhavanti (11),

kuṭajabilvacitrakanāgarātiviṣābhayādhanvayāsakadāruharidrāvacācavyānītidaśēmānyarśōghnāni bhavanti (12),

khadirābhayāmalakaharidrāruṣkarasaptaparṇāragvadhakaravīraviḍaṅgajātīpravālā iti daśēmāni kuṣṭhaghnāni bhavanti (13),

candananaladakr̥tamālanaktamālanimbakuṭajasarṣapamadhukadāruharidrāmustānīti daśēmāni kaṇḍūghnāni bhavanti (14),

akṣīvamaricagaṇḍīrakēbukaviḍaṅganirguṇḍīkiṇihīśvadaṁṣṭrāvr̥ṣaparṇikākhuparṇikā iti daśēmāni krimighnāni bhavanti (15),

haridrāmañjiṣṭhāsuvahāsūkṣmailāpālindīcandanakatakaśirīṣasindhuvāraślēṣmātakā iti daśēmāni viṣaghnāni bhavanti (16),

iti ṣaṭkaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||11||

nAgaracavyacitrakaviDa~ggamUrvAguDUcIvacAmustapippalIpaTolAnIti dashemAni tRuptighnAni bhavanti (11),

kuTajabilvacitrakanAgarAtiviShAbhayAdhanvayAsakadAruharidrAvacAcavyAnIti dashemAnyarshoghnAni bhavanti (12),

khadirAbhayAmalakaharidrAruShkarasaptaparNAragvadhakaravIraviDa~ggajAtIpravAlA iti dashemAni kuShThaghnAni bhavanti (13),

candananaladakRutamAlanaktamAlanimbakuTajasarShapamadhukadAruharidrAmustAnIti dashemAni kaNDUghnAni bhavanti (14),

akShIvamaricagaNDIrakebukaviDa~gganirguNDIkiNihIshvadaMShTrAvRuShaparNikAkhuparNikA iti dashemAni krimighnAni bhavanti (15),

haridrAma~jjiShThAsuvahAsUkShmailApAlindIcandanakatakashirIShasindhuvArashleShmAtakA iti dashemAni viShaghnAni bhavanti (16),

iti ShaTkaHkaShAyavargaH||11||


Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Truptighna (anti-satiety) nagara, chavya, chitraka, vidanga, murva, guduchi, musta, pippali patola
Arshoghna (anti-hemorrhoids) kutaja, bilva, chitraka, nagara, ativisha, abhaya, dhanvayasa, daruharidra, vacha and chavya
Kushthaghna (anti-dermatosis) khadira, abhaya, amalaka, haridra, arushkara, saptaparna, aragvadha, karavira, vidanga, tender leaves of jati
Kandughna (anti-pruritic/itching) chandana, nalada, kritamala, naktamala, nimba, kutaja, sarshapa, madhuka, daruharidra and musta
Krumighna (anti-helmintics) akshiva, maricha, gandira, kebuka, vidanga, nirgundi, kinihi, shwadanshtra, vrishaparnika and akhuparnika
Vishaghna (anti-poisons/anti-dotes) haridra, manjishtha, suvaha, sukshma ela, palindi, chandana, kataka, shirisha, sindhuvara and shleshmantaka
Group IV: Four subgroups of medicines

वीरणशालिषष्टिकेक्षुवालिकादर्भकुशकाशगुन्द्रेत्कटकत्तृणमूलानीति दशेमानि स्तन्यजननानि भवन्ति (१७),

पाठामहौषधसुरदारुमुस्तमूर्वागुडूचीवत्सकफलकिराततिक्तककटुरोहिणीसारिवा इति दशेमानि स्तन्यशोधनानि भवन्ति (१८),

जीवकर्षभककाकोलीक्षीरकाकोलीमुद्गपर्णीमाषपर्णीमेदावृद्धरुहाजटिलाकुलिङ्गा इति दशेमानि शुक्रजननानि भवन्ति (१९),

कुष्ठैलवालुककट्फलसमुद्रफेनकदम्बनिर्यासेक्षुकाण्डेक्ष्विक्षुरकवसुकोशीराणीति दशेमानि शुक्रशोधनानि भवन्ति (२०),

इति चतुष्कः कषायवर्गः||१२||

vīraṇaśāliṣaṣṭikēkṣuvālikādarbhakuśakāśagundrētkaṭakattr̥ṇamūlānīti daśēmāni stanyajananāni bhavanti (17),

pāṭhāmahauṣadhasuradārumustamūrvāguḍūcīvatsakaphalakirātatiktakakaṭurōhiṇīsārivā iti daśēmāni stanyaśōdhanāni bhavanti (18),

jīvakarṣabhakakākōlīkṣīrakākōlīmudgaparṇīmāṣaparṇīmēdāvr̥ddharuhājaṭilākuliṅgā iti daśēmāni śukrajananāni bhavanti (19),

kuṣṭhailavālukakaṭphalasamudraphēnakadambaniryāsēkṣukāṇḍēkṣvikṣurakavasukōśīrāṇīti daśēmāni śukraśōdhanāni bhavanti (20),

iti catuṣkaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||12||

vIraNashAliShaShTikekShuvAlikAdarbhakushakAshagundretkaTakattRuNamUlAnIti dashemAni stanyajananAni bhavanti (17),

pAThAmahauShadhasuradArumustamUrvAguDUcIvatsakaphalakirAtatiktakakaTurohiNIsArivA iti dashemAni stanyashodhanAni bhavanti (18),

jIvakarShabhakakAkolIkShIrakAkolImudgaparNImAShaparNImedAvRuddharuhAjaTilAkuli~ggA iti dashemAni shukrajananAni bhavanti (19),

kuShThailavAlukakaTphalasamudraphenakadambaniryAsekShukANDekShvikShurakavasukoshIrANIti dashemAni shukrashodhanAni bhavanti (20),

iti catuShkaH kaShAyavargaH||12||

Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Stanyajanana(galactogogues) Roots of the following: virana, shali, shashtik shali, ikshuvalika, darbha, kusha, kash, gundra itkata, katruna
Stanyashodhana(galacto-purifiers) patha, mahaushadha, suradaru, musta, murva, guduchi, vatsaka phala, kiratatikta, katukrohini and sariva
Shukra janana(semen promoting) jívaka, rishabhaka, kakoií, kshirakakoli, mudgaparni, mashaparni, meda, vriddharuha, jatila, kulinga
Shukra shodhana(semen purifiers) kushtha, elavaluka, katphala, samudraphena, kadambaniryasa, ikshu, kandekshu, ikshuraka,vasuka and ushira
Group V: Seven subgroups of medicines

मृद्वीकामधुकमधुपर्णीमेदाविदारीकाकोलीक्षीरकालोलीजीवकजीवन्तीशालपर्ण्य इति दशेमानि स्नेहोपगानि भवन्ति (२१),

शोभाञ्जनकैरण्डार्कवृश्चीरपुनर्नवायवतिलकुलत्थमाषबदराणीति दशेमानि स्वेदोपगानि भवन्ति (२२),

मधुमधुककोविदारकर्बुदारनीपविदुलबिम्बीशणपुष्पीसदापुष्पाप्रत्यक्पुष्पा इति दशेमानि वमनोपगानि भवन्ति (२३),

द्राक्षाकाश्मर्यपरूषकाभयामलकबिभीतककुवलबदरकर्कन्धुपीलूनीति दशेमानि विरेचनोपगानि भवन्ति (२४),

त्रिवृद्बिल्वपिप्पलीकुष्ठसर्षपवचावत्सकफलशतपुष्पामधुकमदनफलानीति दशेमान्यास्थापनोपगानि भवन्ति (२५),

रास्नासुरदारुबिल्वमदनशतपुष्पावृश्चीरपुनर्नवाश्वदंष्ट्राग्निमन्थश्योनाका इति दशेमान्यनुवासनोपगानि भवन्ति (२६),

ज्योतिष्मतीक्षवकमरिचपिप्पलीविडङ्गशिग्रुसर्षपापामार्गतण्डुलश्वेतामहाश्वेता इति दशेमानि शिरोविरेचनोपगानि भवन्ति (२७),

इति सप्तकः कषायवर्गः||१३||

mr̥dvīkāmadhukamadhuparṇīmēdāvidārīkākōlīkṣīrakālōlījīvakajīvantīśālaparṇya iti daśēmāni snēhōpagāni bhavanti (21),

śōbhāñjanakairaṇḍārkavr̥ścīrapunarnavāyavatilakulatthamāṣabadarāṇīti daśēmāni svēdōpagāni bhavanti (22),

madhumadhukakōvidārakarbudāranīpavidulabimbīśaṇapuṣpīsadāpuṣpāpratyakpuṣpā iti daśēmāni vamanōpagāni bhavanti (23),

drākṣākāśmaryaparūṣakābhayāmalakabibhītakakuvalabadarakarkandhupīlūnīti daśēmāni virēcanōpagāni bhavanti (24),

trivr̥dbilvapippalīkuṣṭhasarṣapavacāvatsakaphalaśatapuṣpāmadhukamadanaphalānīti daśēmānyāsthāpanōpagāni bhavanti (25),

rāsnāsuradārubilvamadanaśatapuṣpāvr̥ścīrapunarnavāśvadaṁṣṭrāgnimanthaśyōnākā iti daśēmānyanuvāsanōpagāni bhavanti (26),

jyōtiṣmatīkṣavakamaricapippalīviḍaṅgaśigrusarṣapāpāmārgataṇḍulaśvētāmahāśvētā iti daśēmāni śirōvirēcanōpagāni bhavanti (27),

iti saptakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||13||

mRudvIkAmadhukamadhuparNImedAvidArIkAkolIkShIrakAlolIjIvakajIvantIshAlaparNya iti dashemAni snehopagAni bhavanti (21),

shobhA~jjanakairaNDArkavRushcIrapunarnavAyavatilakulatthamAShabadarANIti dashemAni svedopagAni bhavanti (22),

madhumadhukakovidArakarbudAranIpavidulabimbIshaNapuShpIsadApuShpApratyakpuShpA iti dashemAni vamanopagAni bhavanti (23),

drAkShAkAshmaryaparUShakAbhayAmalakabibhItakakuvalabadarakarkandhupIlUnIti dashemAni virecanopagAni bhavanti (24),

trivRudbilvapippalIkuShThasarShapavacAvatsakaphalashatapuShpAmadhukamadanaphalAnIti dashemAnyAsthApanopagAni bhavanti (25),

rAsnAsuradArubilvamadanashatapuShpAvRushcIrapunarnavAshvadaMShTrAgnimanthashyonAkA iti dashemAnyanuvAsanopagAni bhavanti (26),

jyotiShmatIkShavakamaricapippalIviDa~ggashigrusarShapApAmArgataNDulashvetAmahAshvetA iti dashemAni shirovirecanopagAni bhavanti (27),

iti saptakaHkaShAyavargaH||13||

Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Snehopaga(helping oleation) mrudwika, madhuka, madhuparni, meda, vidari, kakoli, kshirakakoli, jivaka, jivanti and shalparni
Swedopaga(helping dia-phoresis/sudation) shobhanjana, eranda, arka, vruschira, punaranva, yava, tila, kulattha, masha and badara
Vamanopaga(helping emesis) madhu, madhuka, kovidara, karbudara, nipa, vidula, bimbi, shanapushpi, sadapushpi, and apamarga
Virechanopaga(helping purgation) draksha, kashmarya, parushaka, abhaya, amalaka, bibhitaka, kuvala, badara, karkandhu and pilu
Asthapanopaga(helping corrective enema) trivrut, bilwa, pippali, kushtha, sarshapa, vacha, vatsakaphala, shatapushpa, madhuka, madanaphala
Anuvasanopaga(unctuous enema) rasna, surdaru, bilwa, madana, shatapushpa, vrishchira, punarnava, gokshura, agnimantha, and shyonaka
Shirovirechanopaga( helping nasal errhine therapy) jyotishmatí, kshavaka, maricha, pippali, vidanga, shigru, sarshapa, apamarga (seeds), shweta and mahashweta
Group VI: Three subgroups of medicines

जम्ब्वाम्रपल्लवमातुलुङ्गाम्लबदरदाडिमयवयष्टिकोशीरमृल्लाजा इति दशेमानि छर्दिनिग्रहणानि भवन्ति (२८),

नागरधन्वयवासकमुस्तपर्पटकचन्दनकिराततिक्तकगुडूचीह्रीवेरधान्यकपटोलानीति दशेमानि तृष्णानिग्रहणानि भवन्ति (२९),

शटीपुष्करमूलबदरबीजकण्टकारिकाबृहतीवृक्षरुहाभयापिप्पलीदुरालभाकुलीरशृङ्ग्य इति दशेमानि हिक्कानिग्रहणानि भवन्ति (३०), इति त्रिकः कषायवर्गः||१४||

jambvāmrapallavamātuluṅgāmlabadaradāḍimayavayaṣṭikōśīramr̥llājā iti daśēmāni chardinigrahaṇāni bhavanti (28),

nāgaradhanvayavāsakamustaparpaṭakacandanakirātatiktakaguḍūcīhrīvēradhānyakapaṭōlānīti daśēmāni tr̥ṣṇānigrahaṇāni bhavanti(29),

śaṭīpuṣkaramūlabadarabījakaṇṭakārikābr̥hatīvr̥kṣaruhābhayāpippalīdurālabhākulīraśr̥ṅgya iti daśēmāni hikkānigrahaṇāni bhavanti (30),

iti trikaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||14||

jambvAmrapallavamAtulu~ggAmlabadaradADimayavayaShTikoshIramRullAjA iti dashemAni chardinigrahaNAni bhavanti (28),

nAgaradhanvayavAsakamustaparpaTakacandanakirAtatiktakaguDUcIhrIveradhAnyakapaTolAnIti dashemAni tRuShNAnigrahaNAni bhavanti (29),

shaTIpuShkaramUlabadarabIjakaNTakArikAbRuhatIvRukSharuhAbhayApippalIdurAlabhAkulIrashRu~ggya iti dashemAni hikkAnigrahaNAni bhavanti (30),

iti trikaHkaShAyavargaH||14||


Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Chhardi nigrahana(reducing vomiting) jambu, amra pallava (tender leaves), matulunaga, amla badara, dadima, yava, yashtika, ushira, mrut (earth) and laja (fired paddy)
Trishna nigrahana(reducing thirst) nagara, dhanvayavasaka, musta, parpataka, chandana, kiratatiktaka, guduchi, hribera, dhanyaka and patola
Hikka nigrahana (reducing hiccups) shati, pushkaramula, badara beeja (seeds), kantakarika, bruhati, vruksharuha, abhaya, pippali, duralabha and kulira-shrunga
Group VII: Five subgroups

प्रियङ्ग्वनन्ताम्रास्थिकट्वङ्गलोध्रमोचरससमङ्गाधातकीपुष्पपद्मापद्मकेशराणीति दशेमानि पुरीषसङ्ग्रहणीयानि भवन्ति (३१),

जम्बुशल्लकीत्वक्कच्छुरामधूकशाल्मलीश्रीवेष्टकभृष्टमृत्पयस्योत्पलतिलकणा इति दशेमानि पुरीषविरजनीयानि भवन्ति (३२),

जम्ब्वाम्रप्लक्षवटकपीतनोडुम्बराश्वत्थभल्लातकाश्मन्तकसोमवल्का इति दशेमानि मूत्रसङ्ग्रहणीयानि भवन्ति (३३),

पद्मोत्पलनलिनकुमुदसौगन्धिकपुण्डरीकशतपत्रमधुकप्रियङ्गुधातकीपुष्पाणीति दशेमानि मूत्रविरजनीयानि भवन्ति (३४),

वृक्षादनीश्वदंष्ट्रावसुकवशिरपाषाणभेददर्भकुशकाशगुन्द्रेत्कटमूलानीति दशेमानि मूत्रविरेचनीयानि भवन्ति (३५),

इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः||१५||

priyaṅgvanantāmrāsthikaṭvaṅgalōdhramōcarasasamaṅgādhātakīpuṣpapadmāpadmakēśarāṇīti daśēmāni purīṣasaṅgrahaṇīyānibhavanti (31),

jambuśallakītvakkacchurāmadhūkaśālmalīśrīvēṣṭakabhr̥ṣṭamr̥tpayasyōtpalatilakaṇā iti daśēmāni purīṣavirajanīyāni bhavanti (32),

jambvāmraplakṣavaṭakapītanōḍumbarāśvatthabhallātakāśmantakasōmavalkā iti daśēmāni mūtrasaṅgrahaṇīyāni bhavanti (33),

padmōtpalanalinakumudasaugandhikapuṇḍarīkaśatapatramadhukapriyaṅgudhātakīpuṣpāṇīti daśēmāni mūtravirajanīyāni bhavanti (34),

vr̥kṣādanīśvadaṁṣṭrāvasukavaśirapāṣāṇabhēdadarbhakuśakāśagundrētkaṭamūlānīti daśēmāni mūtravirēcanīyāni bhavanti (35),

iti pañcakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||15||

priya~ggvanantAmrAsthikaTva~ggalodhramocarasasama~ggAdhAtakIpuShpapadmApadmakesharANIti dashemAni purIShasa~ggrahaNIyAni bhavanti (31),

jambushallakItvakkacchurAmadhUkashAlmalIshrIveShTakabhRuShTamRutpayasyotpalatilakaNA iti dashemAni purIShavirajanIyAni bhavanti (32),

jambvAmraplakShavaTakapItanoDumbarAshvatthabhallAtakAshmantakasomavalkA iti dashemAni mUtrasa~ggrahaNIyAni bhavanti (33),

padmotpalanalinakumudasaugandhikapuNDarIkashatapatramadhukapriya~ggudhAtakIpuShpANIti dashemAni mUtravirajanIyAni bhavanti (34),

vRukShAdanIshvadaMShTrAvasukavashirapAShANabhedadarbhakushakAshagundretkaTamUlAnIti dashemAni mUtravirecanIyAni bhavanti (35),

iti pa~jcakaHkaShAyavargaH||15||


Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Purisha samgrahaniya(faecal astringents) priyangu, ananta, amrasthi, katvanga, lodhra, mocharasa, samanga, dhatakipushpa (flowers), padma and padmakeshara
Purisha virajaniya(faecal depigmentors) jambu, shallakítwak (bark), kacchura, madhooka, shalmali, shriveshtaka, bhrist mruda (fried earth), payasya, utpala and tila kana grains
Mutra samgrahaniya(anti-diuretics) jambu, amra, plaksha, vata, kapitana, udumbara, ashwattha, bhallataka, ashmantaka, somavalka
Mutra virajaniya(urinary depigmenters) padma, utpala, nalina, kumuda, saugandhika, pundaríka, shatapatra, madhuka, priyangu and dhataki (flowers)
Mutrala(diuretics) vrukshadani, shwadanshtra, vasuka, vashira, pashanabheda, darbha, kusha, kasha, gundra, itkatamoola (roots)
Group VIII: Five subgroups of medicines

द्राक्षाभयामलकपिप्पलीदुरालभाशृङ्गीकण्टकारिकावृश्चीरपुनर्नवातामलक्य इति दशेमानि कासहराणि भवन्ति (३६),

शटीपुष्करमूलाम्लवेतसैलाहिङ्ग्वगुरुसुरसातामलकीजीवन्तीचण्डा इति दशेमानि श्वासहराणि भवन्ति (३७),

पाटलाग्निमन्थश्योनाकबिल्वकाश्मर्यकण्टकारिकाबृहतीशालपर्णीपृश्निपर्णीगोक्षुरका इति दशेमानि श्वयथुहराणि भवन्ति (३८),

सारिवाशर्करापाठामञ्जिष्ठाद्राक्षापीलुपरूषकाभयामलकबिभीतकानीति दशेमानि ज्वरहराणि भवन्ति (३९),

द्राक्षाखर्जूरप्रियालबदरदाडिमफल्गुपरूषकेक्षुयवषष्टिका इति दशेमानि श्रमहराणि भवन्ति (४०),

इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः||१६||

drākṣābhayāmalakapippalīdurālabhāśr̥ṅgīkaṇṭakārikāvr̥ścīrapunarnavātāmalakya iti daśēmāni kāsaharāṇi bhavanti (36),

śaṭīpuṣkaramūlāmlavētasailāhiṅgvagurusurasātāmalakījīvantīcaṇḍā iti daśēmāni śvāsaharāṇi bhavanti (37),

pāṭalāgnimanthaśyōnākabilvakāśmaryakaṇṭakārikābr̥hatīśālaparṇīpr̥śniparṇīgōkṣurakā iti daśēmāni śvayathuharāṇi bhavanti (38),

sārivāśarkarāpāṭhāmañjiṣṭhādrākṣāpīluparūṣakābhayāmalakabibhītakānīti daśēmāni jvaraharāṇi bhavanti (39),

drākṣākharjūrapriyālabadaradāḍimaphalguparūṣakēkṣuyavaṣaṣṭikā iti daśēmāni śramaharāṇi bhavanti (40),

iti pañcakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||16||

drAkShAbhayAmalakapippalIdurAlabhAshRu~ggIkaNTakArikAvRushcIrapunarnavAtAmalakya iti dashemAni kAsaharANi bhavanti (36),

shaTIpuShkaramUlAmlavetasailAhi~ggvagurusurasAtAmalakIjIvantIcaNDA iti dashemAni shvAsaharANi bhavanti (37),

pATalAgnimanthashyonAkabilvakAshmaryakaNTakArikAbRuhatIshAlaparNIpRushniparNIgokShurakA iti dashemAni shvayathuharANi bhavanti (38),

sArivAsharkarApAThAma~jjiShThAdrAkShApIluparUShakAbhayAmalakabibhItakAnIti dashemAni jvaraharANi bhavanti (39),

drAkShAkharjUrapriyAlabadaradADimaphalguparUShakekShuyavaShaShTikA iti dashemAni shramaharANi bhavanti (40),

iti pa~jcakaH kaShAyavargaH||16||


Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Kasahara(relieving cough) draksha, abhaya , amalaka , pippali , duralabha , shringi , kantakari, vrushchir , punarnava , tamalaki
Shwasahara(relieving respiratory distress) shati, pushkaramula, amlavetasa, ela, hingu, aguru, surasa, Tamalaki, jivanti, chanda
Shothahara(relieving oedema) patola, angimantha, shyonaka, bilwa, kashamarya, kantakarika, bruhatí, shalaparní, prushniparni and gokshura
Jwarahara(relieving fever) sariva, sharkara, patha, manjishtha, draksha, pilu, parushaka, abhaya, amalaka and bibhitaka
Shramahara(relieving fatigue) draksha, kharjura, priyala, badara, dadima, phalgu, parushaka, ikshu, yava and shashtika
Group IX: Five subgroups of medicines

लाजाचन्दनकाश्मर्यफलमधूकशर्करानीलोत्पलोशीरसारिवागुडूचीह्रीबेराणीति दशेमानि दाहप्रशमनानि भवन्ति (४१),

तगरागुरुधान्यकशृङ्गवेरभूतीकवचाकण्टकार्यग्निमन्थश्योनाकपिप्पल्य इति दशेमानि शीतप्रशमनानि भवन्ति (४२),

तिन्दुकप्रियालबदरखदिरकदरसप्तपर्णाश्वकर्णार्जुनासनारिमेदा इति दशेमान्युदर्दप्रशमनानि भवन्ति (४३),

विदारीगन्धापृश्निपर्णीबृहतीकण्टकारिकैरण्डकाकोलीचन्दनोशीरैलामधुकानीति दशेमान्यङ्गमर्दप्रशमनानि भवन्ति (४४),

पिप्पलीपिप्पलीमूलचव्यचित्रकशृङ्गवेरमरिचाजमोदाजगन्धाजाजीगण्डीराणीति दशेमानि शूलप्रशमनानि भवन्ति (४५), इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः||१७||

lājācandanakāśmaryaphalamadhūkaśarkarānīlōtpalōśīrasārivāguḍūcīhrībērāṇīti daśēmāni dāhapraśamanāni bhavanti (41),

tagarāgurudhānyakaśr̥ṅgavērabhūtīkavacākaṇṭakāryagnimanthaśyōnākapippalya iti daśēmāni śītapraśamanāni bhavanti (42),

tindukapriyālabadarakhadirakadarasaptaparṇāśvakarṇārjunāsanārimēdā iti daśēmānyudardapraśamanāni bhavanti (43),

vidārīgandhāpr̥śniparṇībr̥hatīkaṇṭakārikairaṇḍakākōlīcandanōśīrailāmadhukānīti daśēmānyaṅgamardapraśamanāni bhavanti (44),

pippalīpippalīmūlacavyacitrakaśr̥ṅgavēramaricājamōdājagandhājājīgaṇḍīrāṇīti daśēmāni śūlapraśamanāni bhavanti (45),

iti pañcakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||17||

lAjAcandanakAshmaryaphalamadhUkasharkarAnIlotpaloshIrasArivAguDUcIhrIberANIti dashemAni dAhaprashamanAni bhavanti (41),

tagarAgurudhAnyakashRu~ggaverabhUtIkavacAkaNTakAryagnimanthashyonAkapippalya iti dashemAni shItaprashamanAni bhavanti (42),

tindukapriyAlabadarakhadirakadarasaptaparNAshvakarNArjunAsanArimedA iti dashemAnyudardaprashamanAni bhavanti (43),

vidArIgandhApRushniparNIbRuhatIkaNTakArikairaNDakAkolIcandanoshIrailAmadhukAnIti dashemAnya~ggamardaprashamanAni bhavanti (44),

pippalIpippalImUlacavyacitrakashRu~ggaveramaricAjamodAjagandhAjAjIgaNDIrANIti dashemAni shUlaprashamanAni bhavanti (45),

iti pa~jcakaHkaShAyavargaH||17||


Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Dahaprashamana(pacifying burning sensation) laja, chandana, kashmarya phala (fruits), madhuka, sharkara, nílotpala, ushira, sariva, guduchi and hribera
Sheeta prashamana(pacifying cold) tagara, aguru, dhanyaka, shringabera, bhutíka, vacha, kantakari, agnimantha, syonaka and pippali
Udardaprashamana(pacifying allergies) tinduka, priyala, badara, khadira, kadara, saptaparna, ashwakarna, arjuna, asana and arimeda
Angamrdaprashamana(relieving body-ache) vidarigandha, prushniparni, bruhati, kantakarika, eranda, kakoli, chandana, ushira, ela and madhuka
Shula prashamana(anti-spasmodics) pippali, pippalimula, chavya, chitraka, shringavera, maricha, ajamoda, ajagandha, ajaji and gandira
Group X: Five subgroups of medicines

मधुमधुकरुधिरमोचरसमृत्कपाललोध्रगैरिकप्रियङ्गुशर्करालाजा इति दशेमानि शोणितस्थापनानि भवन्ति (४६),

शालकट्फलकदम्बपद्मकतुम्बमोचरसशिरीषवञ्जुलैलवालुकाशोका इति दशेमानि वेदनास्थापनानि भवन्ति (४७),

हिङ्गुकैटर्यारिमेदावचाचोरकवयस्थागोलोमीजटिलापलङ्कषाशोकरोहिण्य इति दशेमानि सञ्ज्ञास्थापनानि भवन्ति (४८),

ऐन्द्रीब्राह्मीशतवीर्यासहस्रवीर्याऽमोघाऽव्यथाशिवाऽरिष्टावाट्यपुष्पीविष्वक्सेनकान्ता इति दशेमानि प्रजास्थापनानि भवन्ति (४९),

अमृताऽभयाधात्रीमुक्ताश्वेताजीवन्त्यतिरसामण्डूकपर्णीस्थिरापुनर्नवा इति दशेमानि वयःस्थापनानि भवन्ति (५०),

इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः||१८||

madhumadhukarudhiramōcarasamr̥tkapālalōdhragairikapriyaṅguśarkarālājā iti daśēmāni śōṇitasthāpanāni bhavanti (46),

śālakaṭphalakadambapadmakatumbamōcarasaśirīṣavañjulailavālukāśōkā iti daśēmāni vēdanāsthāpanāni bhavanti (47),

hiṅgukaiṭaryārimēdāvacācōrakavayasthāgōlōmījaṭilāpalaṅkaṣāśōkarōhiṇya iti daśēmāni sañjñāsthāpanāni bhavanti (48),

aindrībrāhmīśatavīryāsahasravīryā'mōghā'vyathāśivā'riṣṭāvāṭyapuṣpīviṣvaksēnakāntā iti daśēmāni prajāsthāpanāni bhavanti (49),

amr̥tā'bhayādhātrīmuktāśvētājīvantyatirasāmaṇḍūkaparṇīsthirāpunarnavā iti daśēmāni vayaḥsthāpanāni bhavanti (50),

iti pañcakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||18||

madhumadhukarudhiramocarasamRutkapAlalodhragairikapriya~ggusharkarAlAjA iti dashemAni shoNitasthApanAni bhavanti (46),

shAlakaTphalakadambapadmakatumbamocarasashirIShava~jjulailavAlukAshokA iti dashemAni vedanAsthApanAni bhavanti (47),

hi~ggukaiTaryArimedAvacAcorakavayasthAgolomIjaTilApala~gkaShAshokarohiNya iti dashemAni sa~jj~jAsthApanAni bhavanti (48),

aindrIbrAhmIshatavIryAsahasravIryA~amoghA~avyathAshivA~ariShTAvATyapuShpIviShvaksenakAntA iti dashemAni prajAsthApanAni bhavanti (49),

amRutA~abhayAdhAtrImuktAshvetAjIvantyatirasAmaNDUkaparNIsthirApunarnavA iti dashemAni vayaHsthApanAni bhavanti (50),

iti pa~jcakaH kaShAyavargaH||18||

Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Shonita sthapana(hemostatics) madhu, madhuka, rudhira, mocharasa, mrut-kapala (pieces of earthen pot), lodhra, gairika, priyangu, sharkara and laja
Vedana sthapana(stopping sensation of pain) shala, katphala, kadamba, padmaka, tumba, mocharasa, shirisha, vanjula, elavaluka, and ashoka
Sanjna sthapana(restoring consciousness) hingu, katarya, arimeda, vacha, choraka, vayastha, golomí, jatila, palankasha, ashokarohinya
Praja sthapana(promoting conception & foetus growth) aindri, brahmi, shatavirya, sahasaravirya, amogha, avyatha, shiva, arishta, vatyapushpi, viswakasenakranta
Vaya sthapana(anti-ageing) amruta (guduchi), abhaya, dhatri, yukta, shweta, jivanti, atirasa, mandookaparni, sthira and punarnava

इति पञ्चकषायशतान्यभिसमस्य पञ्चाशन्महाकषाया महतां च कषायाणां लक्षणोदाहरणार्थं व्याख्याता भवन्ति||१९||

iti pañcakaṣāyaśatānyabhisamasya pañcāśanmahākaṣāyā mahatāṁ ca kaṣāyāṇāṁ lakṣaṇōdāharaṇārthaṁ vyākhyātā bhavanti||19||

iti pa~jcakaShAyashatAnyabhisamasya pa~jcAshanmahAkaShAyA mahatAM ca kaShAyANAM lakShaNodAharaNArthaM vyAkhyAtA bhavanti||19||

Thus five hundred medicines grouped in fifty classes have been mentioned alongwith definition and examples. [19]

Limitations and guidelines for description in Samhita

नहि विस्तरस्य प्रमाणमस्ति, न चाप्यतिसङ्क्षेपोऽल्पबुद्धीनां सामर्थ्यायोपकल्पते, तस्मादनतिसङ्क्षेपेणानतिविस्तरेण चोपदिष्टाः| एतावन्तो ह्यलमल्पबुद्धीनां व्यवहाराय, बुद्धिमतां च स्वालक्षण्यानुमानयुक्तिकुशलानामनुक्तार्थज्ञानायेति||२०||

nahi vistarasya pramāṇamasti, na cāpyatisaṅkṣēpō'lpabuddhīnāṁ sāmarthyāyōpakalpatē, tasmādanatisaṅkṣēpēṇānativistarēṇa cōpadiṣṭāḥ| ētāvantō hyalamalpabuddhīnāṁ vyavahārāya, buddhimatāṁcasvālakṣaṇyānumānayuktikuśalānāmanuktārthajñānāyēti||20||

nahi vistarasya pramANamasti, na cApyatisa~gkShepo~alpabuddhInAM sAmarthyAyopakalpate, tasmAdanatisa~gkShepeNAnativistareNa copadiShTAH| etAvanto hyalamalpabuddhInAM vyavahArAya, buddhimatAM ca svAlakShaNyAnumAnayuktikushalAnAmanuktArthaj~jAnAyeti||20||

There is no limit of expansion, nor too much briefness can be sufficient for comprehending to those having low intelligence, hence (these) have been mentioned in neither too exhaustive nor too concise (style). These as such are enough for practice to the less intelligent and for the knowledge of hidden ideas to the intelligent and proficient in inference and rationale on the basis of self-definition. [20]

एवंवादिनं भगवन्तमात्रेयमग्निवेश उवाच- नैतानि भगवन्! पञ्च कषायशतानि पूर्यन्ते, तानि तानि ह्येवाङ्गान्युपप्लवन्ते तेषु तेषु महाकषायेष्विति||२१||

ēvaṁvādinaṁ bhagavantamātrēyamagnivēśa uvāca- naitāni bhagavan! pañca kaṣāyaśatāni pūryantē, tāni tāni hyēvāṅgānyupaplavantē tēṣu tēṣu mahākaṣāyēṣviti||21||

evaMvAdinaM bhagavantamAtreyamagnivesha uvAca- naitAni bhagavan! pa~jca kaShAyashatAni pUryante, tAni tAni hyevA~ggAnyupaplavante [1] teShu teShumahAkaShAyeShviti||21||

While Lord Atreya was saying thus, Agnivesha, inquired, “Sir, the number five hundred does not match with regards to medicines (or medicinal herbs) because the same constituents are repeated in these classes of medicines.” [21]

Importance of knowing synonyms

तमुवाच भगवानात्रेयः- नैतदेवं बुद्धिमता द्रष्टव्यमग्निवेश| एकोऽपि ह्यनेकां सञ्ज्ञां लभते कार्यान्तराणि कुर्वन्, तद्यथा- पुरुषो बहूनां कर्मणां करणे समर्थो भवति, स यद्यत् कर्म करोति तस्य तस्य कर्मणः कर्तृ-करण-कार्यसम्प्रयुक्तं तत्तद्गौणं नामविशेषं प्राप्नोति, तद्वदौषधद्रव्यमपिद्रष्टव्यम्|यदिचैकमेवकिञ्चिद्द्रव्यमासादयामस्तथागुणयुक्तं यत् सर्वकर्मणां करणे समर्थं स्यात्, कस्ततोऽन्यदिच्छेदुपधारयितुमुपदेष्टुं वा शिष्येभ्य इति||२२||

tamuvāca bhagavānātrēyaḥ- naitadēvaṁ buddhimatā draṣṭavyamagnivēśa| ēkō'pi hyanēkāṁ sañjñāṁ labhatē kāryāntarāṇi kurvan, tadyathā- puruṣō bahūnāṁ karmaṇāṁ karaṇē samarthō bhavati, sa yadyat karma karōti tasya tasya karmaṇaḥ kartr̥-karaṇa-kāryasamprayuktaṁ tattadgauṇaṁ nāmaviśēṣaṁ prāpnōti, tadvadauṣadhadravyamapi draṣṭavyam| yadi caikamēva kiñciddravyamāsādayāmastathāguṇayuktaṁ yat sarvakarmaṇāṁ karaṇē samarthaṁ syāt, kastatō'nyadicchēdupadhārayitumupadēṣṭuṁ vā śiṣyēbhya iti||22||

tamuvAca bhagavAnAtreyaH- naitadevaM buddhimatA draShTavyamagnivesha| eko~api hyanekAM sa~jj~jAM labhate kAryAntarANi kurvan, tadyathA- puruSho bahUnAM karmaNAM karaNe samartho bhavati, sa yadyat karma karoti tasya tasyakarmaNaH kartRu-karaNa-kAryasamprayuktaM tattadgauNaM nAmavisheShaM prApnoti, tadvadauShadhadravyamapi draShTavyam| yadi caikameva ki~jciddravyamAsAdayAmastathAguNayuktaM yat sarvakarmaNAM karaNe samarthaM syAt, kastato~anyadicchedupadhArayitumupadeShTuM vAshiShyebhya iti||22||

Lord Atreya replied to him, “Agnivesha! These should not be looked at in this way by the intelligent. If a person acquires multiple skills, then he is identified by different names as per his skills based on instruments and his profession. Likewise, a single medicine can work in different ways depending upon the properties and interaction with biological systems and performance of multiple functions. If we could find such a certain single drug that is able to exert all the actions, who would intend to know or teach the students about the other drugs?” [22]

Summary

तत्र श्लोकाः- यतो यावन्ति यैर्द्रव्यैर्विरेचनशतानि षट्| उक्तानि सङ्ग्रहेणेह तथैवैषां षडाश्रयाः||२३||

रसा लवणवर्ज्याश्च कषाय इति सञ्ज्ञिताः| तस्मात् पञ्चविधा योनिः कषायाणामुदाहृता||२४||

तथा कल्पनमप्येषामुक्तं पञ्चविधं पुनः| महतां च कषायाणां पञ्चाशत् परिकीर्तिता||२५||

पञ्च चापि कषायाणां शतान्युक्तानि भागशः| लक्षणार्थं, प्रमाणं हि विस्तरस्य न विद्यते||२६||

न चालमतिसङ्क्षेपः सामर्थ्यायोपकल्पते| अल्पबुद्धेरयं तस्मान्नातिसङ्क्षेपविस्तरः||२७||

मन्दानां व्यवहाराय, बुधानां बुद्धिवृद्धये| पञ्चाशत्को ह्ययं वर्गः कषायाणामुदाहृतः||२८||

तेषां कर्मसु बाह्येषु योगमाभ्यन्तरेषु च| संयोगं च प्रयोगं च यो वेद स भिषग्वरः||२९||

tatra ślōkāḥ- yatō yāvanti yairdravyairvirēcanaśatāni ṣaṭ| uktāni saṅgrahēṇēha tathaivaiṣāṁ ṣaḍāśrayāḥ||23||

rasā lavaṇavarjyāśca kaṣāya iti sañjñitāḥ| tasmāt pañcavidhā yōniḥ kaṣāyāṇāmudāhr̥tā||24||

tathā kalpanamapyēṣāmuktaṁ pañcavidhaṁ punaḥ| mahatāṁ ca kaṣāyāṇāṁ pañcāśat parikīrtitā||25||

pañca cāpi kaṣāyāṇāṁ śatānyuktāni bhāgaśaḥ| lakṣaṇārthaṁ, pramāṇaṁ hi vistarasya na vidyatē||26||

na cālamatisaṅkṣēpaḥ sāmarthyāyōpakalpatē| alpabuddhērayaṁ tasmānnātisaṅkṣēpavistaraḥ||27||

mandānāṁ vyavahārāya, budhānāṁ buddhivr̥ddhayē| pañcāśatkō hyayaṁ vargaḥ kaṣāyāṇāmudāhr̥taḥ||28||

tēṣāṁ karmasu bāhyēṣu yōgamābhyantarēṣu ca| saṁyōgaṁ ca prayōgaṁ ca yō vēda sa bhiṣagvaraḥ||29||

tatra shlokAH- yato yAvanti yairdravyairvirecanashatAni ShaT| uktAni sa~ggraheNeha tathaivaiShAM ShaDAshrayAH||23||

rasA lavaNavarjyAshca kaShAya iti sa~jj~jitAH| tasmAt [1] pa~jcavidhA yoniH kaShAyANAmudAhRutA||24||

tathA kalpanamapyeShAmuktaM pa~jcavidhaM punaH| mahatAM ca kaShAyANAM pa~jcAshat parikIrtitA||25||

pa~jca cApi kaShAyANAM shatAnyuktAni bhAgashaH| lakShaNArthaM, pramANaM hi vistarasya na vidyate||26||

na cAlamatisa~gkShepaH sAmarthyAyopakalpate| alpabuddherayaM tasmAnnAtisa~gkShepavistaraH||27||

mandAnAM vyavahArAya, budhAnAM buddhivRuddhaye| pa~jcAshatko hyayaM vargaH kaShAyANAmudAhRutaH||28||

teShAM karmasu bAhyeShu yogamAbhyantareShu ca| saMyogaM ca prayogaM ca yo veda sa bhiShagvaraH||29||

Now, to summarize all this body of knowledge:

Six hundred evacuatives with their number of formulations and ingredients have been mentioned in this chapter in brief along with their six resources. Rasas, except lavana, are known as kashaya and as such five sources of medicines have been mentioned. Their five forms of preparations have also been mentioned. Further, fifty subgroups of medicines have also been mentioned along with the five hundred medicines as ingredients for the sake of definition. While there is no limit to elaboration, too much brevity would make things incomprehensible for the less intelligent. This description about fifty groups of medicines is neither too exhaustive nor too concise, which should be enough for the practice to the dull and for (further) advancement of knowledge to the scholars.

He is the best among physicians who knows the application for external as well as internal actions, as well as combination and rational administration of these drugs. [23-29]

Tattva vimarsha / Fundamental Principles

  • Six sources of evacuatives (sourced from plant parts) are latex, root, bark, leaf, flower and fruit. Classification of medicinal herbs has been done on the basis of their specific action. [verse 5]
  • Five origins of medicines in this compendium are based on their tastes: sweet, sour, pungent, bitter and astringent. These basic tastes can produce various medicine forms. However, the salty taste cannot produce any other medicinal form as it is soluble in water. [verse 6]
  • A drug can be prepared in five forms viz. juices, pastes, decoctions, cold infusions and hot infusions. Fresh juice is more potent/effective than paste; the paste is more potent than decoction; the decoction is more potent than cold infusion; and, cold infusion is more potent than hot infusion. Here, potency refers to active potential of the drug as well as expected bio-availability of the drug inside the body. The dosage of medication is decided depending upon the strength of the patient and the severity of disease. The digestive power of the patient is also an important consideration when deciding the form or mode of administration. If the digestive power of patient is weak, then swarasa (juice) should be avoided because it is strong and heavy to digest. In that case, one should recommend phanta (hot infusion). There are many new forms of medicine available these days. However, the basic forms will remain five as described above. [verse 7]
  • A single medicine can work in different ways and depending upon the properties and modes of interaction with biological systems, may lead to different pharmacological effects. Similarly, different drugs could result in similar patterns to produce a common cumulative pharmacological effect. Therefore, these drugs have been grouped into specific mahakashaya [verse 22].

Vidhi vimarsha / Applied Inferences

The chapter describes fifty classes of medicines per their selective action on biological systems and their expected pharmacological effects. These medicines are clinically used in various disease conditions and for indicated benefit:

  1. Jivaniya (vitaliser): Drugs which promote vitality are called jivaniya. They promote formation of good quality body tissues and are used in the management of ojas disorders. These drugs are predominant in prithví + jala mahabhuta and are mostly madhura (sweet in taste) and sheeta veerya (cool in potency). These drugs are used in immunocompromised and chronic debilitating diseases.
  2. Brimhaniya (strength promoting): Drugs that increase body strength and bulk of muscles (weight), and anabolic activities by nourishing the dhatus are termed brimhaniya. Thus, brimhaniya drugs make body strong and firm. Prithvi and jala mahabhutas are predominant in brimhaniya drugs. These drugs are indicated in degenerative diseases like neuromuscular diseases.
  3. Lekhaniya (lightness producing): Drugs that reduce excessively increased dhatus and make person lean and thin along with feeling of lightness are said lekhaniya. Vayu and agni mahabhutas are predominant in such type of drugs. These drugs are indicated in diseases like obesity that are caused due to overnutrition.
  4. Bhedaniya (useful for probing and depressurizing): Those drugs that break the accumulation of dosha, fecal material, gulma (abdominal lump) or any type of growth are called bhedaniya. Bhedana action of these drugs is due to their tikshna property (sharp, piercing properties). These are indicated in diseases with obstructive pathology.
  5. Sandhaniya (union promoter): The drugs that are helpful for uniting tissues, wound healing and treatment of fractures are called sandhaniya. Mostly kashaya rasa dravyas are included in this group.
  6. Dipaniya (appetiser): The drugs which increase appetite are called dipaniya. These drugs stimulate appetite as they possess predominantly agni mahabhuta. These drugs are pungent, sour and salty in taste, hot in potency, and with light and strong properties.
  7. Balya (tonic): Balya has been defined as a class of drugs that have upachaya (firm) and shakti (strength) as their key properties. So balya means that which enhances strength by promoting ojas (Dalhana– Su.Su. 45.26). Bala has been considered as action of ojas. In absence of ojas body becomes unable to perform its own natural function. Balya dravyas are considered as of two types:
    1. Samanya (general) – These drugs promote general bodily strength, such as shatavari etc. Being dhatu promoting they potentiate the formation of ojas.
    2. Vishishta (specific) – Some drugs provide strength to specific organs, such as
      1. Tiktarasa dravyas, effective for amashaya (stomach)
      2. Arjuna, effective for hridaya (heart)
  8. Varnya (complexion promoting): Drugs that are useful in the maintenance and improvement of natural body complexion are called varnya. Bhrajaka pitta situated in the skin is responsible for the complexion of the skin. These drugs (e.g., chandana, ushira, manjishtha, sariva etc.) pacify bhrajaka pitta and improve the complexion, and therefore are used in cosmetics .
  9. Kanthya (beneficial for throat and voice): Drugs which alleviate defect in the vocal cord and restore the normalcy of voice are called kanthya or svarya. Disorders of throat are considered tridoshaja (since all the doshas are vitiated in these disorders), however vata and kapha are predominant. Therefore, vata-kapha pacifying drugs are beneficial in alleviating throat disorders and improving voice.
  10. Hridya (cardiac tonic): The ten hridya drugs are generally mildly sour tasting and liked by most people. The word hridya denotes that which is beneficial to the heart (cardiac tonic) i.e. arjuna, gold. etc.
  11. Truptighna (anti-satiety): Trupti (satiety) is a specific disorder of kapha in which feeling of fullness or bloatedness is experienced. The drugs of this group are mostly pungent and bitter tasting.
  12. Arshodhna (anti-hemorrhoids): These drugs alleviate the cause of doshas of arsha (haemorrhoids) are called arshoghna.
  13. Kushthaghna (anti-dermatosis): These drugs mainly pacify the vitiation of blood and alleviate skin disorders and are called kushthaghna. Most of the drugs of this group act as vyadhipratyanika (anti-disease) but this property is also gauged by the prabhava (specific potency) of a drug. Khadira is an example of a kushthaghna (alleviating skin diseases).
  14. Kandughna (anti-pruritic): These drugs alleviate itching and therefore are called kandughna. Aggravated kapha localized to skin or membrane produces itching (kandu). Thus, the drug is effective in pacifying kapha and is very effective in keeping the skin healthy.
  15. Krimighna (anthelmintic or vermicidal): The drugs that destroy external and internal worms and expel them out of the body are termed krimighna. These have been classified into two groups by their mode of action:
    1. Antahkrimighna (wormicidal) –Drugs that destroy worms (especially those residing in the intestines) - either by killing them or rendering them immobile.
    2. Bahyakrimighna (affecting external microbes)
  16. Vishaghna (antidote for poison): Drugs eliminating the toxic effects of visha (poison) are called vishaghna.
  17. Stanyajanana (galactogogue): The sweet essence of rasa dhatu that reaches the breast from entire body is stanya (breast milk). In the process of breast milk formation and secretion, emotions and affection of the mother for the baby play an important role. Drugs that enhance the production and secretion of breast milk are called stanyajanana.
  18. Stanyashodhana (galacto-purifiers): Vitiated doshas reaching the breast vitiate the breast milk by affecting the rasa, rakta, mamsa dhatus. The drugs that alleviate these disorders are known as stanyashodhana.
  19. Shukrajanana (semen promoting): The drugs that promote or enhance production of shukra (semen) are called shukrajanana, or shukrala. Shukra is liquid, unctuous, sweet, smelling like honey, cold, and slimy by nature. These drugs also possess properties similar to those of shukra, thus aiding and enhancing the formation of shukra. This group includes seven medicines of the jivaniya class.
  20. Shukrashodhana (semen purifiers): These drugs eliminate the disorders of semen and purify it.

Drugs that assist or aid in evacuative therapies are called upaga. Besides the medications described above, there are snehopaga (sneha + upaga) and swedopaga (sweda + upaga) medicines are used for purvakarma (precleansing procedure) while the rest find use in Panchakarma procedures.

  1. Snehopaga (aiding in oleation): This group of drugs help to promote unctuousness are called snehopaga. These are useful for internal oleation in cases of dryness produced in channels.
  2. Swedopaga (aiding in diaphoresis/sudation): These drugs are helpful in diaphoresis/sudations and are termed as swedopaga. These are indicated to remove impurities through sweat.
  3. Vamanopaga (aiding in emesis): These drugs help in the process of therapeutic emesis and avoid complications and are called vamanopaga.
  4. Virechanopaga (aiding in purgation): These drugs are useful during therapeutic purgation and are effective in dealing with complications and mucosal irritation produced by purgatives.
  5. Asthapanopaga (aiding in ununctuous enema): Ununctuous enema is generally administered with medicated decoctions for purification of channels and removing obstructions. Due to their “churning” properties, these drugs aid in eliminating the accumulated doshas of channels.
  6. Anuvasanopaga (aiding in unctuous enema): Unctuous enema is generally administered with oil for oleation of channels and improving strength of body.
  7. Shirovirechanopaga (supporting in nasal drug delivery): These drugs are useful in removing impurities from organs and channels in the head, neck and supraclavicular regions. These are generally indicated in congestive and suppurative diseases of nose, ear, eyes and head regions.
  8. Chhardi nigrahna (reduce/check vomiting): Drugs that check emesis and pacify its root cause.
  9. Trushnánigrahana (reduce thirst/polydypsia): Drugs that pacify excessive thirst.
  10. Hikkanigrahana (reduce/check hiccups): These drugs check hiccups. Hiccups are caused by vitiated vata and kapha doshas.
  11. Purishasarugrahaniya (reducing frequency and liquidity of stool): These drugs reduce the frequency of defecation and excessively watery stool.
  12. Purishavirajaniya (eliminating the abnormal colour of faces): These drugs eliminate the abnormal colour of faces and convert it into normal state. Mainly ranjaka pitta is responsible for colouring the stool. Therefore, for purishavirajana action mostly pitta pacifying drugs are useful.
  13. Mutrasarugrahaniya (anti-diuretic): These drugs reduce the frequency of urination in diabetes like conditions. In this group bhallataka has ushna virya (or is hot in potency), which decreases the quantity of urine produced in the bladder. Panchaavalkala reduces the urine output by increasing vata by virtue of sheeta, kashaya and ruksha properties.
  14. Mutravirajaniya (reducing abnormal colour of urine): These drugs correct abnormality in the colour of urine. Drugs of this group are sheetavirya and pacify pitta.
  15. Mutravirechaniya (diuretic): These drugs increase the flow and formation of urine. In panchabhautika composition jala and agni mahabhutas are predominant, so both sheeta and ushna vírya drugs increase urination.

In relation to chardi etc., word nigrahana and sangrahana with purisha etc. are used. Nigrahana means to check, control or stop, while sangrahana means to increase absorption of water, restrain and/or collect. This is the difference between above two words.

  1. Kasahara (antitussive and mucolytic): These drugs reduce the impulse to cough. Vitiated pranavayu associated with udanavayu comes out from the mouth with force in an abnormal manner, producing sound like that of “a cracked utensil of bell metal”. As such vata pacifying madhura, snigdha and ushna drugs pacify vata and alleviate kasa.
  2. Shwasahara (relieving dyspnea/bronchodilator): Pranavayu excessively moves upward resulting in bhastrikadhmana (distended leather bag) like movement of chest. Clinically, it is dyspnea due to airway obstruction commonly caused by histamine and other inflammatory peptides. Shatti contains antihistamine properties and pushkarmoola has bronchodilator properties.
  3. Shothahara (relieve swelling): Aggravated kapha, rakta and pitta obstruct vayu resulting in accumulation of fluid in interstitial space resulting in shotha (swelling).

All the ten drugs in this group are called dashamoola and they all pacify all the three doshas.

  1. Jwarahara (relieving fever): Increase in heat in the body and the mind are cardinal signs of fever. According to [Ayurveda|Ayurveda] , amadosha entering the amashaya causes jwara. The drugs for jwara have been grouped as follows:
    1. Santapahara (anti-pyretic)
    2. Amapachana (digesting ama)
    3. Vishamajvaraghna (relieving fever of periodic pattern)
  2. Drugs of this group may also be classified as:
    1. Drugs pacifying pitta
    2. Drugs that digest ama and cleanse the channels.
  3. Shramahara (relieving fatigue): These drugs help in overcoming fatigue. Fatigue is caused due to increased vata. Shramahara drugs, by virtue of madhura and snigdha properties, pacify vata and help in treating hypoglycemia, generalized debility etc.
  4. Dahaprashamana (pacifying burning sensation): These drugs pacify daha (internal and external burning sensations). Daha is a cardinal sign of pitta. In this group, the drugs are mostly sheetavirya and of madhura and tikta rasa, thus pitta-pacifying. This combination can also be used in hyperpyrexia.
  5. Sheetaprashamana (pacifying cold): These drugs pacify coldness in the body. Feeling cold is caused by vitiated vata and kapha. Ushnavirya drugs pacify vata and kapha while removing coldness. As such they are useful in curing fever with rigour and in vata-kapha disorders.
  6. Udaradaprashamana (alleviating allergic rashes): Allergic rashes on skin that look like insect bite are called udarda. Drugs that cure udarda are known as udaradaprashamana. In this disease, vitiated vata and kapha are predominant and have partial involvement of pitta. So udaradaprashamana drugs pacify all the three doshas.
  7. Angamardaprashamana (alleviating malaise/bodyache): Angamarda is a cardinal sign of vatika disorders that manifest specially in the stage of dhatukshaya or general debility. Most of the drugs of this group possess madhura-snigdha properties that are opposite to the properties of vata. So, they promote strength and increase nutrition of dhatus. As such these drugs restore the natural functions of the body and therefore called angamardaprashamana.
  8. Shoolaprashamana (anti-spasmodic, anticolic, analgesic): The root-cause of shoola is vata. Natural movement of the intestines is altered by vitiated vata and it moves in the pratiloma-gati (i.e., in the reverse manner). Drugs that pacify vata in the abdomen and promote the passing out of flatus and stool while removing colic are called shoolaprashamana. This group of drugs includes shadushana type of medicines/herbs.
  9. Shonitasthapana (hemostatics and blood purifiers): Drugs that promote the quality of blood by enhancing its formation, alleviating abnormalities and checking bleeding are called shonitasthapana. Shonitasthapana drugs could be categorized as follows:
    1. Raktaposhan (haematinic)
    2. Raktastambhaka (haemostatic)
    3. Raktaprosadana (blood purification)
  10. Vedanasthapana (relieving pain sensations): In Ayurveda Ayurveda , the word vedana is said to provide a general feeling of sensation. It is of two types – sukhatmaka (pleasant) and dukhatmaka (unpleasant) (Cha.Sha. 1.133). As such vedanasthapana means drugs that stabilize sensory sensations in the body. They are useful in conditions where a sensation is lost or damaged due to various reasons. These drugs also relieve pain and bring body back to normalcy.
  11. Sanjnasthapana (re-establishing consciousness): Drugs that resuscitate or revive the sense of consciousness are called sanjnasthapana. Such drugs overcome the effect of losing consciousness or fainting and help the patient in regaining consciousness.
  12. Prajasthapana (conception promoting, foetus stabilizing): These drugs promote conception by enhancing the health of the reproductive organs before pregnancy and providing adequate nourishment to the foetus to help nurture it and keep it healthy.
  13. Vayasthapana (stabilize age or anti-ageing): These drugs delay the aging process and prevent senility. Most drugs in this group contain natural antioxidants and free radical inhibitors.

An important inference from the description of these classes is that while several drugs may perform one action (and therefore be grouped together by a specific function or property), a single drug can also perform many actions depending upon its properties, interactions with the biological systems, and other circumstances. Samyoga stands for an optimum combination of drugs that helps achieve maximum efficacy. Prayoga is the application of drugs takes into consideration time, constitution (of the patient), and disease to achieve maximum efficacy.

The comprehensive information of herbs in this chapter with synonyms, botanical names and activity profile can be found in the List of herbs in Charak Samhita.