Dantidravanti Kalpa Adhyaya

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Dantidravanti Kalpa Adhyaya
Section/Chapter Kalpa Sthana Chapter 12
Preceding Chapter Saptalashankhini Kalpa Adhyaya
Succeeding Chapter None
Other Sections Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana

Kalpa Sthana Chapter 12, Chapter on pharmaceutical preparations of Danti and Dravanti

Abstract

In this last chapter of Kalpa Sthana, 48 various therapeutic purgative formulations and their applications, the polynyms, the collection and processing procedures and qualities of danti (Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) and dravanti (Croton tiglium L.) are explained. The general principles of the selection of ingredients, importance of the processing to potentiate and regulate the actions of formulations for wide acceptance are explained. The three varieties of drugs, actions and their applications in persons with three types of strength of doshas and atura (patient) are also described. The general methods to get the desired purgative effects and the measure to manage all the possible clinical conditions are also elaborated. The doses prescribed in the text are for the person with madhyama koshtha (normal bowel), vaya (middle age) and bala (medium strength), with reference to this one can alter the dose either higher or lower.

Information about different measurements and three snehapakas (characteristics of unctuous formulations) and their indications are also mentioned in this chapter.

Keywords: Danti (Baliospermum montanum (Willd.), Dravanti (Croton tiglium L.), therapeutic purgatives, Sneha pakas, Koshtha, various conditions of purification, measurements.

Introduction

The vata, pitta and kapha doshas denote the physiological state of a person, rasadi seven dhatus denote the structure or tissue component and pranavahaadi srotas denote the enzymatic, bio-chemical functional and circulatory activity related to each dhatu in the living beings.

The harmonious blending of this body, sense organs, mind and soul is well defined as life in Ayurveda. Health is not just absence of the disease, but it is the state of enjoying the life with physical, mental and spiritual happiness. Achievement of real health involves the maintenance, promotion of the health in a healthy individual and management, cure of the illness in a diseased person. The bheshaja or chikitsa (treatment) includes the measures for achieving the optimum health both in healthy and diseased one.

The major elimination of vitiated doshas are done by purification procedures i.e. shodhana (cleansing or elimination therapy). In Kalpa Sthana, 355 formulations for therapeutic emesis and 245 formulations for therapeutic purgatives, a total number of 600 formulations are formulated by using 15 important herbs for the different likings of the persons, doshika involvement and the specific disorders.

In the present chapter, 48 different formulations of danti and dravanti are described for therapeutic purgation. The chapter concludes Kalpa Sthana (section on pharmaceutics) and precedes Siddhi Sthana (section on successful management of Panchakarma). Therefore, in this chapter, the guidelines for designing effective formulations are mentioned along with those for management of various conditions arise during administration of purification medicines.

Sanskrit Text, Transliteration with English Translation

अथातो दन्तीद्रवन्तीकल्पं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||

इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||

athātō dantīdravantīkalpaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||

iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

athAto dantIdravantIkalpaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||

iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

Now we shall expound the pharmaceutics of danti (Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) and dravanti (Croton tiglium L.). Thus said Lord Atreya. [1-2]

Synonyms

दन्त्युदुम्बरपर्णी स्यान्निकुम्भोऽथ मुकूलकः|

द्रवन्ती नामतश्चित्रा न्यग्रोधी मूषिकाह्वया||३||

(तथा मूषिकपर्णी चाप्युपचित्रा च शम्बरीप्रत्यक्श्रेणी सुतश्रेणी दन्ती र(च)ण्डा च कीर्तिता )

dantyudumbaraparṇī syānnikumbhō'tha mukūlakaḥ|

dravantī nāmataścitrā nyagrōdhī mūṣikāhvayā||3||

(tathā mūṣikaparṇī cāpyupacitrā ca śambarīpratyakśrēṇī sutaśrēṇī dantī ra(ca)ṇḍā ca kīrtitā )

dantyudumbaraparNI syAnnikumbho~atha mukUlakaH|

dravantI nAmatashcitrA nyagrodhI mUShikAhvayA||3||

(tathA mUShikaparNI cApyupacitrA ca shambarIpratyakshreNI sutashreNI dantI ra(ca)NDA ca kIrtitA )

Danti is also known as udumbaraparni, nikumbha, and mukulaka. Dravanti is also known as chitra, nyagrodhi and musikahvaya. The names like mushkaparni, upachitra, sambari, pratyaksreni, sutasreni, danti and chanda are also considered for dravanti.[3]

Method of collection

तयोर्मूलानि सङ्गृह्य स्थिराणि बहलानि च|

हस्तिदन्तप्रकाराणि श्यावताम्राणि बुद्धिमान्||४||

tayōrmūlāni saṅgr̥hya sthirāṇi bahalāni ca|

hastidantaprakārāṇi śyāvatāmrāṇi buddhimān||4||

tayormUlAni sa~ggRuhya sthirANi bahalAni ca|

hastidantaprakArANi shyAvatAmrANi buddhimAn||4||

The roots of these plants which are strong, woody, mature which appear like elephant’s tusk, with thick root bark, black (danti) and coppery (dravanti) color should be collected by wise physician.[4]

पिप्पलीमधुलिप्तानि स्वेदयेन्मृत्कुशान्तरे|

शोषयेदातपेऽग्न्यर्कौ हतो ह्येषां विकाशिताम्||५||

pippalīmadhuliptāni svēdayēnmr̥tkuśāntarē|

śōṣayēdātapē'gnyarkau hatō hyēṣāṁ vikāśitām||5||

pippalImadhuliptAni svedayenmRutkushAntare|

shoShayedAtape~agnyarkau hato hyeShAM vikAshitAm||5||

These roots are smeared with the paste of pippali (Piper longum Linn.), madhu (honey), wrapped with kusha ( Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf.) coated with mud and baked. Roots are separated and dried under sunlight. This process reduces the vikasi property of the drugs. [5]

Effects

तीक्ष्णोष्णान्याशुकारीणि विकाशीनि गुरूणि च|

विलाययन्ति दोषौ द्वौ मारुतं कोपयन्ति च||६||

tīkṣṇōṣṇānyāśukārīṇi vikāśīni gurūṇi ca|

vilāyayanti dōṣau dvau mārutaṁ kōpayanti ca||6||

tIkShNoShNAnyAshukArINi vikAshIni gurUNi ca|

vilAyayanti doShau dvau mArutaM kopayanti ca||6||

The roots of these drugs possess properties like tikshna (sharply acting), ushna (hot potency), guru(heavy to digest), vikasi, aashukari(quickly acting) and liquifies and expels kapha and pitta, and aggravates vata dosha. [6]

Various preparations

दधितक्रसुरामण्डैः पिण्डमक्षसमं तयोः|

प्रियालकोलबदरपीलुशीधुभिरेव च||७||

पिबेद्गुल्मोदरी दोषैरभिखिन्नश्च यो नरः|

dadhitakrasurāmaṇḍaiḥ piṇḍamakṣasamaṁ tayōḥ|

priyālakōlabadarapīluśīdhubhirēva ca||7||

pibēdgulmōdarī dōṣairabhikhinnaśca yō naraḥ|

dadhitakrasurAmaNDaiH piNDamakShasamaM tayoH|

priyAlakolabadarapIlushIdhubhireva ca||7||

pibedgulmodarI doShairabhikhinnashca yo naraH|

The different formulations of danti and dravanti for therapeutic purgation are given below: 1. Dadhi - Curd

2. Takra - Butter milk

3. Suramanda – Clear supernatant liquid of sura (a fermented liquid preparation of cooked rice)

Sidhu – Fermented preparation sweetening liquids with or without subjecting to heat prepared from following drugs:

4. Priyal - Buchanania lanzan Sprengel.

5. Kola - Zizyphus jujuba Lam.

6. Badara – Zizyphus sativa Gaertn.

7. Pilu - Salvadora persica Linn.

One aksha (equivalent to 12 g of metric units) of the root paste of danti and dravanti are mixed with any one of the above seven suitable liquid media and are indicated in gulma, udara and persons affected by morbid doshas. [6-7½]

गोमृगाजरसैः पाण्डुः कृमिकोष्ठी भगन्दरी||८||

gōmr̥gājarasaiḥ pāṇḍuḥ kr̥mikōṣṭhī bhagandarī||8||

gomRugAjarasaiH pANDuH kRumikoShThI bhagandarI||8||

The above mentioned dose of the drug is used with following three liquids which are useful in pandu, krimikostha and bhagandara:

8. Gorasa – Cow’s milk

9. Mrigarasa - the soup of dear meat.

10.Ajarasa - the soup of goat meat. [8]

तयोः कल्के कषाये च दशमूलरसायुते|

कक्ष्यालजीविसर्पेषु दाहे च विपचेद्घृतम्||९||

तैलं मेहे च गुल्मे च सोदावर्ते कफानिले|

चतुःस्नेहं शकृच्छुक्रवातसङ्गानिलार्तिषु||१०||

tayōḥ kalkē kaṣāyē ca daśamūlarasāyutē|

kakṣyālajīvisarpēṣu dāhē ca vipacēdghr̥tam||9||

tailaṁ mēhē ca gulmē ca sōdāvartē kaphānilē|

catuḥsnēhaṁ śakr̥cchukravātasaṅgānilārtiṣu||10||

tayoH kalke kaShAye ca dashamUlarasAyute|

kakShyAlajIvisarpeShu dAhe ca vipacedghRutam||9||

tailaM mehe ca gulme ca sodAvarte kaphAnile|

catuHsnehaM shakRucchukravAtasa~ggAnilArtiShu||10||

The below mentioned sneha yogas (unctuous formulations) prepared with the kalka of danti and dravanti, decoction of the same two drug and decoction of dashamoola.

11. Ghrita - the medicated ghee is useful in kaksha (herpes), alaji (eruptions), visarpa (erysipelas), daha (burning).

12. Taila - the medicated oil is useful in meha, gulma, udavarta kaphavata roga.

13. Chatursneha – (ghrita, taila, vasa, majja) is used in curing the obstruction of shakrit (feces), shukra(semen) and adhovata(flatus) and other vata rogas. [9-10]

रसे दन्त्यजशृङ्गयोश्च गुडक्षौद्रघृतान्वितः|

लेहः सिद्धो विरेकार्थे दाहसन्तापमेहनुत् ||११||

वाततर्षे ज्वरे पैत्ते स्यात् स एवाजगन्धया|

दन्तीद्रवन्त्योर्मूलानि पचेदामलकीरसे||१२||

त्रींस्तु तस्य कषायस्य भागौ द्वौ फाणितस्य च|

तप्ते सर्पिषि तैले वा भर्जयेत्तत्र चावपेत्||१३||

कल्कं दन्तीद्रवन्त्योश्च श्यामादीनां च भागशः|

तत्सिद्धं प्राशयेल्लेहं सुखं तेन विरिच्यते||१४||

रसे च दशमूलस्य तथा बैभीतके रसे|

हरीतकीरसे चैव लेहानेवं पचेत् पृथक् ||१५||

rasē dantyajaśr̥ṅgayōśca guḍakṣaudraghr̥tānvitaḥ|

lēhaḥ siddhō virēkārthē dāhasantāpamēhanut ||11||

vātatarṣē jvarē paittē syāt sa ēvājagandhayā|

dantīdravantyōrmūlāni pacēdāmalakīrasē||12||

trīṁstu tasya kaṣāyasya bhāgau dvau phāṇitasya ca|

taptē sarpiṣi tailē vā bharjayēttatra cāvapēt||13||

kalkaṁ dantīdravantyōśca śyāmādīnāṁ ca bhāgaśaḥ|

tatsiddhaṁ prāśayēllēhaṁ sukhaṁ tēna viricyatē||14||

rasē ca daśamūlasya tathā baibhītakē rasē|

harītakīrasē caiva lēhānēvaṁ pacēt pr̥thak ||15||

rase dantyajashRu~ggayoshca guDakShaudraghRutAnvitaH|

lehaH siddho virekArthe dAhasantApamehanut ||11||

vAtatarShe jvare paitte syAt sa evAjagandhayA|

dantIdravantyormUlAni pacedAmalakIrase||12||

trIMstu tasya kaShAyasya bhAgau dvau phANitasya ca|

tapte sarpiShi taile vA bharjayettatra cAvapet||13||

kalkaM dantIdravantyoshca shyAmAdInAM ca bhAgashaH|

tatsiddhaM prAshayellehaM sukhaM tena viricyate||14||

rase ca dashamUlasya tathA baibhItake rase|

harItakIrase caiva lehAnevaM pacet pRuthak ||15||

Six avaleha formulations (confections/linctus):

14. Danti + Kvatha of ajashringi + gura + kshaudra + ghrita is indicated in daha, santap (burning syndrome), and meha (obstinate urinary disorders).

15. Danti + ajagandha + gura +kshaudra + ghrita is indicated in vataja trishna and pittaja jwara.

16. One part danti, dravanti mula + eight parts amalaki rasa reduced to 1/4th and decoction is prepared. This decoction is filtered and mixed with phanita in the proportion of 3:2. Shyama, trivrita, chaturangula, tilvaka , mahavriksha, saptala, & samkhini the paste of these seven drugs taken in equal quantity are fried with ghee or oil (taila) is added to the above decoction and phanita and linctus is prepared .This is a safe preparation for easy therapeutic purgation.

17. Dashamula kashaya

18. Vibhitaki kashaya

19. Haritaki kashaya

These three leha preparation are prepared in the same way to that of 16th yoga by replacing the amalaki with these drugs. [11-15]

तयोर्बिल्वसमं चूर्णं तद्रसेनेव भावितम्|

असृष्टे विशि वातोत्थे गुल्मे चाम्लयुतं शुभम्||१६||

tayōrbilvasamaṁ cūrṇaṁ tadrasēnēva bhāvitam|

asr̥ṣṭē viśi vātōtthē gulmē cāmlayutaṁ śubham||16||

tayorbilvasamaM cUrNaM tadraseneva bhAvitam|

asRuShTe vishi vAtotthe gulme cAmlayutaM shubham||16||

20. Churna Yoga:

1 Bilwa (= 1 pala approximately 40 grams) root of danti & dravanti is triturated with the decoction of the same two drugs. This is indicated in severe constipation and vataja gulma along with sour recipes. [16]

पाटयित्वेक्षुकाण्डं वा कल्केनालिप्य चान्तरा|

स्वेदयित्वा ततः खादेत् सुखं तेन विरिच्यते||१७||

pāṭayitvēkṣukāṇḍaṁ vā kalkēnālipya cāntarā|

svēdayitvā tataḥ khādēt sukhaṁ tēna viricyatē||17||

pATayitvekShukANDaM vA kalkenAlipya cAntarA|

dayitvA tataH khAdet sukhaM tena viricyate||17||

21. The stem of sugarcane is longitudinally cut into two pieces and inner portion is applied with the paste of danti & dravanti, join the two pieces, wrap it with kusha, coat with mud and baked. This baked ikshu is safe purgative. [17]

मूलं दन्तीद्रवन्त्योश्च सह मुद्गैर्विपाचयेत्|

लाववर्तीरकाद्यैश्च ते रसाः स्युर्विरेचने||१८||

mūlaṁ dantīdravantyōśca saha mudgairvipācayēt|

lāvavartīrakādyaiśca tē rasāḥ syurvirēcanē||18||

mUlaM dantIdravantyoshca saha mudgairvipAcayet|

lAvavartIrakAdyaishca te rasAH syurvirecane||18||

The gruel prepared from the root of danti & dravanti boiled with green gram is used for preparation of below eight mamsa yogas (meat formulations).

22. Lava mamsa.

23. Vartiraka mamsa.

24. Vartika mamsa.

25. Kapinjala mamsa.

26. Chakora mamsa.

27. Upachakra mamsa.

28. Kukkubha mamsa.

29. Raktavartamaka mamsa. [18]

तयोर्वाऽपि कषायेण यवागूं जाङ्गलं रसम्|

माषयूषं च संस्कृत्य दद्यात्तैश्च विरिच्यते||१९||

tayōrvā'pi kaṣāyēṇa yavāgūṁ jāṅgalaṁ rasam|

māṣayūṣaṁ ca saṁskr̥tya dadyāttaiśca viricyatē||19||

tayorvA~api kaShAyeNa yavAgUM jA~ggalaM rasam|

mAShayUShaM ca saMskRutya dadyAttaishca viricyate||19||

30. Yavagu – rice gruel is prepared by adding the danti & dravanti

31. Janngala rasa – meat soup of animals leaving in arid region prepared with the decoction of danti & dravanti.

32. Mashayūsha- soup of black gram prepared with the root of two drugs. These three preparations are also purgative. [19]

तत्कषायात्त्रयो भागा द्वौ सितायास्तथैव च|

एको गोधूमचूर्णानां कार्या चोत्कारिका शुभा||२०||

मोदको वाऽस्य कल्पेन कार्यस्तच्च विरेचनम्|

तयोश्चापि कषायेण मद्यान्यस्योपकल्पयेत्||२१||

tatkaṣāyāttrayō bhāgā dvau sitāyāstathaiva ca|

ēkō gōdhūmacūrṇānāṁ kāryā cōtkārikā śubhā||20||

mōdakō vā'sya kalpēna kāryastacca virēcanam|

tayōścāpi kaṣāyēṇa madyānyasyōpakalpayēt||21||

tatkaShAyAttrayo bhAgA dvau sitAyAstathaiva ca|

eko godhUmacUrNAnAM kAryA cotkArikA shubhA||20||

modako vA~asya kalpena kAryastacca virecanam|

tayoshcApi kaShAyeNa madyAnyasyopakalpayet||21||

33.The paw cake (utkarika) is prepared from the decoction of danti & dravanti – three parts, sugar candy (sita)- two parts, godhuma churna (wheat flour) – one part is the best preparation for therapeutic purgation.

34. In the similar way modaka (sweet bolus) is prepared for purgation.

35. Madya: alcoholic beverages can also be prepared with the decoction. [20-21]

दन्तीक्वाथेन चालोड्य दन्तीतैलेन साधितान्|

गुडलावणिकान् भक्ष्यान् विविधान् भक्षयेन्नरः||२२||

dantīkvāthēna cālōḍya dantītailēna sādhitān|

guḍalāvaṇikān bhakṣyān vividhān bhakṣayēnnaraḥ||22||

dantIkvAthena cAloDya [dantItailena sAdhitAn|

guDalAvaNikAn bhakShyAn vividhAn bhakShayennaraH||22||

36. Bhakshya yoga : The different sweet preparations prepared by mixing the decoction of the drugs, jaggery, salt (saindhava) & fried in danti oil also act as purgatives. [22]

दन्तीं द्रवन्तीं मरिचं यवानीमुपकुञ्चिकाम्|

नागरं हेमदुग्धां च चित्रकं चेति चूर्णितम्||२३||

सप्ताहं भावयेन्मूत्रे गवां पाणितलं ततः|

पिबेत्घृतेन जीर्णे तु विरिक्तश्चापि तर्पणम्||२४||

सर्वरोगहरं मुख्यं सर्वेष्वृतुषु यौगिकम्|

चूर्णं तदनपायित्वाद्बालवृद्धेषु पूजितम्||२५||

दुर्भक्ताजीर्णपार्श्वार्तिगुल्मप्लीहोदरेषु च|

गण्डमालासु वाते च पाण्डुरोगे च शस्यते||२६||

dantīṁ dravantīṁ maricaṁ yavānīmupakuñcikām|

nāgaraṁ hēmadugdhāṁ ca citrakaṁ cēti cūrṇitam||23||

saptāhaṁ bhāvayēnmūtrē gavāṁ pāṇitalaṁ tataḥ|

pibētghr̥tēna jīrṇē tu viriktaścāpi tarpaṇam||24||

sarvarōgaharaṁ mukhyaṁ sarvēṣvr̥tuṣu yaugikam|

cūrṇaṁ tadanapāyitvādbālavr̥ddhēṣu pūjitam||25||

durbhaktājīrṇapārśvārtigulmaplīhōdarēṣu ca|

gaṇḍamālāsu vātē ca pāṇḍurōgē ca śasyatē||26||

dantIM dravantIM maricaM yavAnImupaku~jcikAm|

nAgaraM hemadugdhAM ca citrakaM ceti cUrNitam||23||

saptAhaM bhAvayenmUtre gavAM pANitalaM tataH|

pibetghRutena jIrNe tu viriktashcApi tarpaNam||24||

sarvarogaharaM mukhyaM sarveShvRutuShu yaugikam|

cUrNaM tadanapAyitvAdbAlavRuddheShu pUjitam||25||

durbhaktAjIrNapArshvArtigulmaplIhodareShu ca|

gaNDamAlAsu vAte ca pANDuroge ca shasyate||26||

37. Churna yoga

  1. Danti
  2. Dravanti
  3. Maricha
  4. Yavani
  5. Upakunchika
  6. Nagara
  7. Hemadugdha
  8. Chitraka

These above eight drugs are taken in equal quantity, powdered and triturated with cow’s urine for a week. One panitala (around one karsha-approximately 10 grams) of this powder can be used with ghee for purgation. After purgation the tarpana (the drink which gives satiety) has to be given.

This combination is safe for all the ages, in all the seasons and useful in all the disorders. It is indicated in the durbhakta (irregular food habits), ajirna (indigestion), parshwarthi (pain in the flanks), gulma (abdominal lump), plihodara(ascitis due to splenic disorder), gandamala (inflammation of glands on neck), vata roga and pandu(anemia). [23-26]

पलं चित्रकदन्त्योश्च हरीतक्याश्च विंशतिः|

त्रिवृत्पिप्पलिकर्षौ द्वौ गुडस्याष्टपलेन तत्||२७||

विनीय मोदकान् कुर्याद्दशैकं भक्षयेत्ततः|

उष्णाम्बु च पिबेच्चानु दशमे दशमेऽह्नि च||२८||

एते निष्परिहाराः स्युः सर्वरोगनिबर्हणाः|

ग्रहणीपाण्डुरोगार्शःकण्डूकोठानिलापहाः||२९||

palaṁ citrakadantyōśca harītakyāśca viṁśatiḥ|

trivr̥tpippalikarṣau dvau guḍasyāṣṭapalēna tat||27||

vinīya mōdakān kuryāddaśaikaṁ bhakṣayēttataḥ|

uṣṇāmbu ca pibēccānu daśamē daśamē'hni ca||28||

ētē niṣparihārāḥ syuḥ sarvarōganibarhaṇāḥ|

grahaṇīpāṇḍurōgārśaḥkaṇḍūkōṭhānilāpahāḥ||29||

palaM citrakadantyoshca harItakyAshca viMshatiH|

trivRutpippalikarShau dvau guDasyAShTapalena tat||27||

vinIya modakAn kuryAddashaikaM bhakShayettataH|

uShNAmbu ca pibeccAnu dashame dashame~ahni ca||28||

ete niShparihArAH syuH sarvaroganibarhaNAH|

grahaNIpANDurogArshaHkaNDUkoThAnilApahAH||29||

38. Modaka:

Ingredients:

  1. Chitraka - 1 Pala ( approximately 40 grams)
  2. Danti - 1 Pala ( approximately 40 grams)
  3. Haritaki - 20 fruits of same size.
  4. Trivrita - 2 karsha ( approximately 20 grams)
  5. Pippali - 2 karsha ( approximately 20 grams)
  6. Gud - 8 pala( approximately 320 grams)

These above ingredients are mixed and prepare 10 modaka (sweet bolus). One modaka is advised to use on every 10th day with hot water without any dietetic restriction. This is indicated in all the disorders, grahani, pandu, arsha, kandu, kotha and vitiated vata. [27-29]

दन्तीद्विपलनिर्यूहो द्राक्षार्धप्रस्थसाधितः |

विरेचनं पित्तकासे पाण्डुरोगे च शस्यते||३०||

dantīdvipalaniryūhō drākṣārdhaprasthasādhitaḥ |

virēcanaṁ pittakāsē pāṇḍurōgē ca śasyatē||30||

dantIdvipalaniryUho drAkShArdhaprasthasAdhitaH |

virecanaM pittakAse pANDuroge ca shasyate||30||

Five fermented preparations :

39. Danti - 2 pala (8 karsha) draksha - ½ prastha (32 karsha) the decoction prepared by these two drugs are fermented and used for pittakasa, pandu. [30]

दन्तीकल्कं समगुडं शीतवारियुतं पिबेत्|

विरेचनं मुख्यतमं कामलाहरमुत्तमम्||३१||

dantīkalkaṁ samaguḍaṁ śītavāriyutaṁ pibēt|

virēcanaṁ mukhyatamaṁ kāmalāharamuttamam||31||

dantIkalkaM samaguDaM shItavAriyutaM pibet|

virecanaM mukhyatamaM kAmalAharamuttamam||31||

40. The paste of root of danti and equal quantity of jaggery are mixed and asava is prepared. This is the best formulation for therapeutic purgation in kamala. [31]

श्यामादन्तीरसे गौडः पिप्पलीफलचित्रकैः|

लिप्तेऽरिष्टोऽनिलश्लेष्मप्लीहपाण्डूदरापहः||३२||

तथा दन्तीद्रवन्त्योश्च कषाये साजगन्धयोः|

गौडः कार्योऽऽजशृङ्ग्या वा स वै सुखविरेचनः||३३||

तच्चूर्णक्वाथमाषाम्बुकिण्वतोयसमुद्भवा|

मदिरा कफगुल्माल्पवह्निपार्श्वकटिग्रहे||३४||

śyāmādantīrasē gauḍaḥ pippalīphalacitrakaiḥ|

liptē'riṣṭō'nilaślēṣmaplīhapāṇḍūdarāpahaḥ||32||

tathā dantīdravantyōśca kaṣāyē sājagandhayōḥ|

gauḍaḥ kāryōjaśr̥ṅgyā vā sa vai sukhavirēcanaḥ||33||

taccūrṇakvāthamāṣāmbukiṇvatōyasamudbhavā|

madirā kaphagulmālpavahnipārśvakaṭigrahē||34||

shyAmAdantIrase gauDaH pippalIphalacitrakaiH|

lipte~ariShTo~anilashleShmaplIhapANDUdarApahaH||32||

tathA dantIdravantyoshca kaShAye sAjagandhayoH|

gauDaH kAryo~a~ajashRu~ggyA vA sa vai sukhavirecanaH||33||

taccUrNakvAthamAShAmbukiNvatoyasamudbhavA|

madirA kaphagulmAlpavahnipArshvakaTigrahe||34||

41. The decoction prepared from phanita of shyama (krishna trivrita) and danti is mixed with jaggery (gud) in a vessel coated with the paste of pippali, madanaphala, chitraka and fermented. This arista is vata kapha shamaka and useful in pliha, pandu & udara.

42.– 43. The decoction of danti and dravanti either with ajagandha or ajashringi is mixed with gud and fermented. these are the safe therapeutic purgation preparations.

44. The decoction of danti, dravanti and masha added with kinva is fermented and used for kaphaja gulma, agnimantha, parshvagraha and katigraha. [32-34]

अजगन्धाकषायेण सौवीरकतुषोदके|

सुराकम्पिल्लके योगौ लोध्रवच्च तयोः स्मृतौ||३५||

ajagandhākaṣāyēṇa sauvīrakatuṣōdakē|

surākampillakē yōgau lōdhravacca tayōḥ smr̥tau||35||

ajagandhAkaShAyeNa sauvIrakatuShodake|

surAkampillake yogau lodhravacca tayoH smRutau||35||

45. Souviraka

46. Tushodaka are prepared by the danti & dravanti and ajagandha.

47. Sura

48. Kampillaka yoga

47. & 48th formulations are prepared according to the lodhra yoga. [35]

Summary of formulations

तत्र श्लोकाः-

(दध्यादिषु त्रयः पञ्च प्रियालाद्यैस्त्रयो रसे|

स्नेहेषु वै त्रयो लेह्याः षट् चूर्णे त्वेक एव च||३६||

इक्षावेकस्तथा मुद्गमांसानां च रसास्त्रयः|

यवाग्वादौ त्रयश्चैव उक्त उत्कारिकाविधौ||३७||

एकश्च मोदके मद्ये चैकस्तत्क्वाथतैलके|

चूर्णमेकं पुनश्चैको मोदकः पञ्च चासवे||३८||

एकः सौवीरकेऽथैको योगः स्यात्तु तुषोदके|

एका सुरैकः कम्पिल्ले तथा पञ्च घृते स्मृताः )||३९||

tatra ślōkāḥ-

(dadhyādiṣu trayaḥ pañca priyālādyaistrayō rasē|

snēhēṣu vai trayō lēhyāḥ ṣaṭ cūrṇē tvēka ēva ca||36||

ikṣāvēkastathā mudgamāṁsānāṁ ca rasāstrayaḥ|

yavāgvādau trayaścaiva ukta utkārikāvidhau||37||

ēkaśca mōdakē madyē caikastatkvāthatailakē|

cūrṇamēkaṁ punaścaikō mōdakaḥ pañca cāsavē||38||

ēkaḥ sauvīrakē'thaikō yōgaḥ syāttu tuṣōdakē|

ēkā suraikaḥ kampillē tathā pañca ghr̥tē smr̥tāḥ )||39||

tatra shlokAH-

(dadhyAdiShu trayaH pa~jca priyAlAdyaistrayo rase|

sneheShu vai trayo lehyAH ShaT cUrNe tveka eva ca||36||

ikShAvekastathA mudgamAMsAnAM ca rasAstrayaH|

yavAgvAdau trayashcaiva ukta utkArikAvidhau||37||

ekashca modake madye caikastatkvAthatailake|

cUrNamekaM punashcaiko modakaH pa~jca cAsave||38||

ekaH sauvIrake~athaiko yogaH syAttu tuShodake|

ekA suraikaH kampille tathA pa~jca ghRute smRutAH )||39||

Yogas (Formulations) No. of Yogas
Dadhi, takra, suramanda 3
Priyaladi sidhu 5
Rasa 3
Sneha 3
Lehya 6
Churna 1
Ikshu 1
Mudga, mamsa rasa 3
Yavagu 3
Utkarika 1
Modaka 1
Madhya 1
Kwatha Taila 1
Churna 1
Modaka 1
Asava 5
Souviraka 1
Tushodaka 1
Sura 1
Kampillaka 1
Grita 5
Total 48

Note: There are few variations are observed in the numbers of virechana yogas explained and summarized in this chapter.

There are only four sidhu are mentioned in priyaladi yogas, but not five. Eight mudga mamsarasa formulations can be considered instead of three. Kwatha taila yoga is nothing but the bakshya yoga. There are six asava yogas not five. There is no description of five gritha yogas. Still the total numbers of yoga remains the same.

Yoga No. of yogas listed in the text No. of yogas observed in the text
Priyaladi Sidhu 5 4
Mudga, mamsa rasa 3 8
Asava 5 6
Gritha 5 -

[36-39]

दन्तीद्रवन्तीकल्पेऽस्मिन् प्रोक्ताः षोडशकास्त्रयः|

नानाविधानां योगानां भक्तिदोषामयान्प्रति||४०||

dantīdravantīkalpē'smin prōktāḥ ṣōḍaśakāstrayaḥ|

nānāvidhānāṁ yōgānāṁ bhaktidōṣāmayānprati||40||

dantIdravantIkalpe~asmin proktAH ShoDashakAstrayaH|

nAnAvidhAnAM yogAnAM bhaktidoShAmayAnprati||40||

Sixteen recipes each for the likings of the person, the dosha involved and various disorders of danti and dravanti are mentioned in this chapter. A total number of 48 (16x3) therapeutic purgative formulation are mentioned. [40]

Number of emetic and purgative formulations

त्रिशतं पञ्चपञ्चाशद्योगानां वमने स्मृतम्|

द्वे शते नवकाः पञ्च योगानां तु विरेचने||४१||

ऊर्ध्वानुलोमभागानामित्युक्तानि शतानि षट्|

प्राधान्यतः समाश्रित्य द्रव्याणि दश पञ्च च||४२||

triśataṁ pañcapañcāśadyōgānāṁ vamanē smr̥tam|

dvē śatē navakāḥ pañca yōgānāṁ tu virēcanē||41||

ūrdhvānulōmabhāgānāmityuktāni śatāni ṣaṭ|

prādhānyataḥ samāśritya dravyāṇi daśa pañca ca||42||

trishataM pa~jcapa~jcAshadyogAnAM vamane smRutam|

dve shate navakAH pa~jca yogAnAM tu virecane||41||

UrdhvAnulomabhAgAnAmityuktAni shatAni ShaT|

prAdhAnyataH samAshritya dravyANi dasha pa~jca ca||42||

355 formulation for therapeutic emesis and 245 formulation for therapeutic purgatives, a total number of 600 formulations are formulated by using 15 important herbs. [41-42]

Guidelines for formulating medicines

Nomenclature of formulations

भवन्ति चात्र-

यद्धि येन प्रधानेन द्रव्यं समुपसृज्यते|

तत्सञ्ज्ञकः स योगो वै भवतीति विनिश्चयः ||४३||

फलादीनां प्रधानानां गुणभूताः सुरादयः|

ते हि तान्यनुवर्तन्ते मनुजेन्द्रमिवेतरे||४४||

bhavanti cātra-

yaddhi yēna pradhānēna dravyaṁ samupasr̥jyatē|

tatsañjñakaḥ sa yōgō vai bhavatīti viniścayaḥ ||43||

phalādīnāṁ pradhānānāṁ guṇabhūtāḥ surādayaḥ|

tē hi tānyanuvartantē manujēndramivētarē||44||

bhavanti cAtra-

yaddhi yena pradhAnena dravyaM samupasRujyate|

tatsa~jj~jakaH sa yogo vai bhavatIti vinishcayaH ||43||

phalAdInAM pradhAnAnAM guNabhUtAH surAdayaH|

te hi tAnyanuvartante manujendramivetare||44||

The nomenclature of the combination are always in the name of main ingredient. The remaining ingredients in the formulations will boost, regulate and they act in accordance to the main ingredient similar to the followers follow the king. [43-44]

Addition of other ingredients

विरुद्धवीर्यमप्येषां प्रधानानामबाधकम्|

अधिकं तुल्यवीर्ये हि क्रियासामर्थ्यमिष्यते ||४५||

viruddhavīryamapyēṣāṁ pradhānānāmabādhakam|

adhikaṁ tulyavīryē hi kriyāsāmarthyamiṣyatē ||45||

viruddhavIryamapyeShAM pradhAnAnAmabAdhakam|

adhikaM tulyavIrye hi kriyAsAmarthyamiShyate ||45||

The action of main ingredient should not be hampered by the addition of other ingredients having opposite qualities. Addition of ingredients with similar properties will enrich the action of the formulations. [45]

इष्टवर्णरसस्पर्शगन्धार्थं प्रति चामयम्|

अतो विरुद्धवीर्याणां प्रयोग इति निश्चितम्||४६||

iṣṭavarṇarasasparśagandhārthaṁ prati cāmayam|

atō viruddhavīryāṇāṁ prayōga iti niścitam||46||

iShTavarNarasasparshagandhArthaM prati cAmayam|

ato viruddhavIryANAM prayoga iti nishcitam||46||

The rationality for using viruddha virya (opposite quality drugs or antagonistic) drugs along with main drug are to impart pleasant color, good taste, agreeable smell and touch and relation to the specific disorders. [46]

भूयश्चैषां बलाधानं कार्यं स्वरसभावनैः|

सुभावितं ह्यल्पमपि द्रव्यं स्याद्बहुकर्मकृत्||४७||

स्वरसैस्तुल्यवीर्यैर्वा तस्माद्द्रव्याणि भावयेत्|४८|

bhūyaścaiṣāṁ balādhānaṁ kāryaṁ svarasabhāvanaiḥ|

subhāvitaṁ hyalpamapi dravyaṁ syādbahukarmakr̥t||47||

svarasaistulyavīryairvā tasmāddravyāṇi bhāvayēt|48|

bhUyashcaiShAM balAdhAnaM kAryaM svarasabhAvanaiH|

subhAvitaM hyalpamapi dravyaM syAdbahukarmakRut||47||

svarasaistulyavIryairvA tasmAddravyANi bhAvayet|48|

The quality and action of drugs can be enhanced by the proper triturating with either swarasa (juice) or kwatha (decoction) of the same drug or of the other drugs with similar qualities and action. This method also potentiates the multidimensional action of the preparation. [47-47½]

अल्पस्यापि महार्थत्वं प्रभूतस्याल्पकर्मताम्||४८||

कुर्यात् संयोगविश्लेषकालसंस्कारयुक्तिभिः|४९|

alpasyāpi mahārthatvaṁ prabhūtasyālpakarmatām||48||

kuryāt saṁyōgaviślēṣakālasaṁskārayuktibhiḥ|49|

alpasyApi mahArthatvaM prabhUtasyAlpakarmatAm||48||

kuryAt saMyogavishleShakAlasaMskArayuktibhiH|49|

By the combination and separation of drugs, kala (time), sanskara (processings), & yukti (proper planning) one can modify the potency of medicaments. There by minute dose can produce greater benefits and vice versa. [48-48½]

प्रदेशमात्रमेतावद्द्रष्टव्यमिह षट्शतम्||४९||

स्वबुद्ध्यैवं सहस्राणि कोटीर्वाऽपि प्रकल्पयेत्|

बहुद्रव्यविकल्पत्वाद्योगसङ्ख्या न विद्यते||५०||

pradēśamātramētāvaddraṣṭavyamiha ṣaṭśatam||49||

svabuddhyaivaṁ sahasrāṇi kōṭīrvā'pi prakalpayēt|

bahudravyavikalpatvādyōgasaṅkhyā na vidyatē||50||

pradeshamAtrametAvaddraShTavyamiha ShaTshatam||49||

svabuddhyaivaM sahasrANi koTIrvA~api prakalpayet|

bahudravyavikalpatvAdyogasa~gkhyA na vidyate||50||

Six hundred formūlation mentioned in Kalpa Sthana are practically experienced combination for the use. Such thousands or crores of combination can be planned & prepared by the wise physician with his own intellect and experience. There is no limit for framing new formulations as there exists a wide scope for multidrug combinations. [49-50]

Three types of purification drugs

तीक्ष्णमध्यमृदूनां तु तेषां शृणुत लक्षणम्|

सुखं क्षिप्रं महावेगमसक्तं यत् प्रवर्तते||५१||

नातिग्लानिकरं पायौ हृदये न च रुक्करम्|

अन्तराशयमक्षिण्वन् कृत्स्नं दोषं निरस्यति||५२||

विरेचनं निरूहो वा तत्तीक्ष्णमिति निर्दिशेत्|

जलाग्निकीटैरस्पृष्टं देशकालगुणान्वितम्||५३||

ईषन्मात्राधिकैर्युक्तं तुल्यवीर्यैः सुभावितम्|

स्नेहस्वेदोपपन्नस्य तीक्ष्णत्वं याति भेषजम्||५४||

tīkṣṇamadhyamr̥dūnāṁ tu tēṣāṁ śr̥ṇuta lakṣaṇam|

sukhaṁ kṣipraṁ mahāvēgamasaktaṁ yat pravartatē||51||

nātiglānikaraṁ pāyau hr̥dayē na ca rukkaram|

antarāśayamakṣiṇvan kr̥tsnaṁ dōṣaṁ nirasyati||52||

virēcanaṁ nirūhō vā tattīkṣṇamiti nirdiśēt|

jalāgnikīṭairaspr̥ṣṭaṁ dēśakālaguṇānvitam||53||

īṣanmātrādhikairyuktaṁ tulyavīryaiḥ subhāvitam|

snēhasvēdōpapannasya tīkṣṇatvaṁ yāti bhēṣajam||54||

tIkShNamadhyamRudUnAM tu teShAM shRuNuta lakShaNam|

sukhaM kShipraM mahAvegamasaktaM yat pravartate||51||

nAtiglAnikaraM pAyau hRudaye na ca rukkaram|

antarAshayamakShiNvan kRutsnaM doShaM nirasyati||52||

virecanaM nirUho vA tattIkShNamiti nirdishet|

jalAgnikITairaspRuShTaM deshakAlaguNAnvitam||53||

IShanmAtrAdhikairyuktaM tulyavIryaiH subhAvitam|

snehasvedopapannasya tIkShNatvaM yAti bheShajam||54||

The characteristic features of three categories of dravya and its therapeutic elimination effects are explained.

Tikshna (sharp acting)

The action of the drug which has easy expulsion without any difficulties, quick in action, immediate effect, forceful & unimpeded evacuation, without producing fatigue & painful sensation in the chest, anus, does not produce any discomfort to inner organs, expulses the morbid doshas completely are said to be tikshna category of therapeutic emesis, purgation & medicated enema. The drugs which are not deteriorated by water (moisture), fire (heat & temperature), insects (microorganisms), collected from an ideal land, in specific season, with utmost required properties, administered in slightly higher doses, potencified by triturating with the similar quality drugs when used in the person underwent proper snehana & swedana therapy will produce tikshna action. [51-54]

किञ्चिदेभिर्गुणैर्हीनं पूर्वोक्तैर्मात्रया तथा|

स्निग्धस्विन्नस्य वा सम्यङ्मध्यं भवति भेषजम्||५५||

मन्दवीर्यं विरूक्षस्य हीनमात्रं तु भेषजम्|

अतुल्यवीर्यैः संयुक्तं मृदु स्यान्मन्दवेगवत्||५६||

kiñcidēbhirguṇairhīnaṁ pūrvōktairmātrayā tathā|

snigdhasvinnasya vā samyaṅmadhyaṁ bhavati bhēṣajam||55||

mandavīryaṁ virūkṣasya hīnamātraṁ tu bhēṣajam|

atulyavīryaiḥ saṁyuktaṁ mr̥du syānmandavēgavat||56||

ki~jcidebhirguNairhInaM pUrvoktairmAtrayA tathA|

snigdhasvinnasya vA samya~gmadhyaM bhavati bheShajam||55||

mandavIryaM virUkShasya hInamAtraM tu bheShajam|

atulyavIryaiH saMyuktaM mRudu syAnmandavegavat||56||

Madhyama (medium)

The drugs with slightly less quality than above mentioned characteristic features used in medium dosage will produce medium action in the person who underwent proper snehana & swedana and are called as madhyama.

Mridu(mild)

The drugs with low quality, less effective, mixed with antagonistic drugs, used in lesser doses, in person having excessive dryness in the body (without snehana & swedana) acts slowly and are called as mridu. [53-56]

अकृत्स्नदोषहरणादशुद्धी ते बलीयसाम्|

मध्यावरबलानां तु प्रयोज्ये सिद्धिमिच्छता||५७||

akr̥tsnadōṣaharaṇādaśuddhī tē balīyasām|

madhyāvarabalānāṁ tu prayōjyē siddhimicchatā||57||

akRutsnadoShaharaNAdashuddhI te balIyasAm|

madhyAvarabalAnAM tu prayojye siddhimicchatA||57||

The madhya & mridu categories of drugs and their effects are not enough to expel the complete morbid doshas from the body, hence are suitable only for madhya & avara bala person for shodhana. [57]

तीक्ष्णो मध्यो मृदुर्व्याधिः सर्वमध्याल्पलक्षणः|

तीक्ष्णादीनि बलावेक्षी भेषजान्येषु योजयेत्||५८||

tīkṣṇō madhyō mr̥durvyādhiḥ sarvamadhyālpalakṣaṇaḥ|

tīkṣṇādīni balāvēkṣī [1] bhēṣajānyēṣu yōjayēt||58||

tIkShNo madhyo mRudurvyAdhiH sarvamadhyAlpalakShaNaH|

tIkShNAdIni balAvekShI [1] bheShajAnyeShu yojayet||58||

The diseases are classified as severe, medium & mild when it has all, medium, & few signs and symptoms respectively. The three categories of drugs are planned and administered respectively in three groups of diseases with due consideration of bala (strength) of person & disease. [58]

देयं त्वनिर्हृते पूर्वं पीते पश्चात् पुनः पुनः|

भेषजं वमनार्थीयं प्राय आपित्तदर्शनात्||५९||

dēyaṁ tvanirhr̥tē pūrvaṁ pītē paścāt punaḥ punaḥ|

bhēṣajaṁ vamanārthīyaṁ prāya āpittadarśanāt||59||

deyaM tvanirhRute pUrvaM pIte pashcAt punaH punaH|

bheShajaM vamanArthIyaM prAya ApittadarshanAt||59||

In case of improper emesis by the previously administered drug then the therapeutic emetic drugs are repeatedly given till the vomitus contains pitta. [59]

बलत्रैविध्यमालक्ष्य दोषाणामातुरस्य च|

पुनः प्रदद्याद्भैषज्यं सर्वशो वा विवर्जयेत्||६०||

balatraividhyamālakṣya dōṣāṇāmāturasya ca|

punaḥ pradadyādbhaiṣajyaṁ sarvaśō vā vivarjayēt||60||

balatraividhyamAlakShya doShANAmAturasya ca|

punaH pradadyAdbhaiShajyaM sarvasho vA vivarjayet||60||

After assessing the three types of strength of doshas & atura the drugs can be administered repeatedly or avoided totally. [60]

निर्हृते वाऽपि जीर्णे वा दोषनिर्हरणे बुधः|

भेषजेऽन्यत्प्रयुञ्जीत प्रार्थयन्सिद्धिमुत्तमाम्||६१||

nirhr̥tē vā'pi jīrṇē vā dōṣanirharaṇē budhaḥ|

bhēṣajē'nyatprayuñjīta prārthayansiddhimuttamām||61||

nirhRute vA~api jIrNe vA doShanirharaNe budhaH|

bheShaje~anyatprayu~jjIta prArthayansiddhimuttamAm||61||

If the administered therapeutic eliminating drugs expelled out immediately or gets digested completely without adequate clearance of doshas, then another suitable drug shall be administered to get the desired therapeutic action. [61]

अपक्वं वमनं दोषं पच्यमानं विरेचनम्|

निर्हरेद्वमनस्यातः पाकं न प्रतिपालयेत्||६२||

apakvaṁ vamanaṁ dōṣaṁ pacyamānaṁ virēcanam|

nirharēdvamanasyātaḥ pākaṁ na pratipālayēt||62||

apakvaM vamanaM doShaM pacyamAnaM virecanam|

nirharedvamanasyAtaH pAkaM na pratipAlayet||62||

The therapeutic emetic drugs expel undigested doshas without getting digested where as therapeutic purgative drugs expels the doshas during the digestion. That’s why one should not wait for the digestion of emetic drugs. [62]

पीते प्रस्रंसने दोषान्न निर्हत्य जरां गते|

वमिते चौषधे धीरः पाययेदौषधं पुनः||६३||

pītē prasraṁsanē dōṣānna nirhatya jarāṁ gatē|

vamitē cauṣadhē dhīraḥ pāyayēdauṣadhaṁ punaḥ||63||

pIte prasraMsane doShAnna nirhatya jarAM gate|

vamite cauShadhe dhIraH pAyayedauShadhaM punaH||63||

If the purgative drugs get digested without expelling the doshas or vomited, then the physician can give the suitable purgative drugs once again confidently. [63]

दीप्ताग्निं बहुदोषं तु दृढस्नेहगुणं नरम्|

दुःशुद्धं तदहर्भुक्तं श्वोभूते पाययेत् पुनः||६४||

दुर्बलो बहुदोषश्च दोषपाकेन यो नरः|

विरिच्यते शनैर्भोज्यैर्भूयस्तमनुसारयेत् ||६५||

dīptāgniṁ bahudōṣaṁ tu dr̥ḍhasnēhaguṇaṁ naram|

duḥśuddhaṁ tadaharbhuktaṁ śvōbhūtē pāyayēt punaḥ||64||

durbalō bahudōṣaśca dōṣapākēna yō naraḥ|

viricyatē śanairbhōjyairbhūyastamanusārayēt ||65||

dIptAgniM bahudoShaM tu dRuDhasnehaguNaM naram|

duHshuddhaM tadaharbhuktaM shvobhUte pAyayet punaH||64||

durbalo bahudoShashca doShapAkena yo naraH|

viricyate shanairbhojyairbhUyastamanusArayet ||65||

In case of inadequate clearance of doshas in the persons with good digestive power, abundant morbid doshas and adequate unctuousness, allow him/her to have the food on that day and administer the drug next day. Debilitated persons with abundant morbid doshas, evacuates naturally after dosha paka. For them the laxative food items have to be administered for adequate elimination of doshas. [64-65]

वमनैश्च विरेकैश्च विशुद्धस्याप्रमाणतः |

भोजनान्तरपानाभ्यां दोषशेषं शमं नयेत्||६६||

vamanaiśca virēkaiśca viśuddhasyāpramāṇataḥ |

bhōjanāntarapānābhyāṁ dōṣaśēṣaṁ śamaṁ nayēt||66||

vamanaishca virekaishca vishuddhasyApramANataH |

bhojanAntarapAnAbhyAM doShasheShaM shamaM nayet||66||

In adequate & inadequate cleansing by medicated emesis & purgation the appropriate diet & decoction is given to pacify the remnant doshas. [66]

दुर्बलं शोधितं पूर्वमल्पदोषं च मानवम्|

अपरिज्ञातकोष्ठं च पाययेतौषधं मृदु||६७||

durbalaṁ śōdhitaṁ pūrvamalpadōṣaṁ ca mānavam|

aparijñātakōṣṭhaṁ ca pāyayētauṣadhaṁ mr̥du||67||

durbalaM shodhitaM pUrvamalpadoShaM ca mAnavam|

aparij~jAtakoShThaM ca pAyayetauShadhaM mRudu||67||

In weak persons, who underwent cleansing procedure earlier, when the accumulation of morbid doshas is less, unknown and unassessed koshtha (bowel), mild drugs (mridu shodhana dravya) shall be administered. [67]

श्रेयो मृद्वसकृत्पीतमल्पबाधं निरत्ययम्|

न चातितीक्ष्णं यत् क्षिप्रं जनयेत्प्राणसंशयम्||६८||

śrēyō mr̥dvasakr̥tpītamalpabādhaṁ niratyayam|

na cātitīkṣṇaṁ yat kṣipraṁ janayētprāṇasaṁśayam||68||

shreyo mRudvasakRutpItamalpabAdhaM niratyayam|

na cAtitIkShNaM yat kShipraM janayetprANasaMshayam||68||

It is always best & safe to use the mridu shodhana dravyas (mild purification) repeatedly as they are less harmful rather than using the tikshana shodhana dravyas (strong purification), which may cause sudden threat to life. [68]

दुर्बलोऽपि महादोषो विरेच्यो बहुशोऽल्पशः|

मृदुभिर्भेषजैर्दोषा हन्युर्ह्येनमनिर्हृताः||६९||

durbalō'pi mahādōṣō virēcyō bahuśō'lpaśaḥ|

mr̥dubhirbhēṣajairdōṣā hanyurhyēnamanirhr̥tāḥ||69||

durbalo~api mahAdoSho virecyo bahusho~alpashaH|

mRudubhirbheShajairdoShA hanyurhyenamanirhRutAH||69||

When the amount of morbid doshas is high in a weak person, then the doshas can be eliminated by repeated administration of mild drugs. If not, this morbid doshas may end the life. [69]

यस्योर्ध्वं कफसंसृष्टं पीतं यात्यानुलोमिकम्|

वमितं कवलैः शुद्धं लङ्घितं पाययेत्तु तम्||७०||

विबद्धेऽल्पे चिराद्दोषे स्रवत्युष्णं पिबेज्जलम्|

तेनाध्मानं तृषा च्छर्दिर्विबन्धश्चैव शाम्यति||७१||

भेषजं दोषरुद्धं चेन्नोर्ध्वं नाधः प्रवर्तते|

सोद्गारं साङ्गशूलं च स्वेदं तत्रावचारयेत्||७२||

yasyōrdhvaṁ kaphasaṁsr̥ṣṭaṁ pītaṁ yātyānulōmikam|

vamitaṁ kavalaiḥ śuddhaṁ laṅghitaṁ pāyayēttu tam||70||

vibaddhē'lpē cirāddōṣē sravatyuṣṇaṁ pibējjalam|

tēnādhmānaṁ tr̥ṣā cchardirvibandhaścaiva śāmyati||71||

bhēṣajaṁ dōṣaruddhaṁ cēnnōrdhvaṁ nādhaḥ pravartatē|

sōdgāraṁ sāṅgaśūlaṁ ca svēdaṁ tatrāvacārayēt||72||

yasyordhvaM kaphasaMsRuShTaM pItaM yAtyAnulomikam|

vamitaM kavalaiH shuddhaM la~gghitaM pAyayettu tam||70||

vibaddhe~alpe cirAddoShe sravatyuShNaM pibejjalam|

tenAdhmAnaM tRuShA cchardirvibandhashcaiva shAmyati||71||

bheShajaM doSharuddhaM cennordhvaM nAdhaH pravartate|

sodgAraM sA~ggashUlaM ca svedaM tatrAvacArayet||72||

If the virechana medicine combined with the morbid kapha is vomited, then induce proper vamana to that person. After vamana give an appropriate kavala (holding medicine in mouth for gargling), langhana & virechana.

If the elimination is obstructed, incomplete or delayed then consume hot water. It reduces adhamana (distention of the abdomen), trishna (thirst), chhardi (vomiting) and vibhandha(constipation).

If the administered drug is obstructed by the morbid doshas, unable to expel by upward & downward direction, associated with belching & bodyache, then appropriate swedana (fomentation) is given. [70-72]

सुविरिक्ते तु सोद्गारमाश्वेवौषधमुल्लिखेत्|

अतिप्रवर्तनं जीर्णे सुशीतैः स्तम्भयेद्भिषक्||७३||

suviriktē tu sōdgāramāśvēvauṣadhamullikhēt|

atipravartanaṁ jīrṇē suśītaiḥ stambhayēdbhiṣak||73||

suvirikte tu sodgAramAshvevauShadhamullikhet|

atipravartanaM jIrNe sushItaiH stambhayedbhiShak||73||

Even after adequate virechana, if person has belching of the drugs, then it has to be removed immediately by emesis.

In the condition of excess elimination and when the administered drug is digested, then the purgation should be stopped with suitable sheetopachara (cold measures) by the physician. [73]

कदाचिच्छ्लेष्मणा रुद्धं तिष्ठत्युरसि भेषजम्|

क्षीणे श्लेष्मणि सायाह्ने रात्रौ वा तत्प्रवर्तते||७४||

kadācicchlēṣmaṇā ruddhaṁ tiṣṭhatyurasi bhēṣajam|

kṣīṇē ślēṣmaṇi sāyāhnē rātrau vā tatpravartatē||74||

kadAcicchleShmaNA ruddhaM tiShThatyurasi bheShajam|

kShINe shleShmaNi sAyAhne rAtrau vA tatpravartate||74||

There may be possibilities of virechana drugs obstructed in the chest region (stomach) because of kapha, then elimination starts in the evening or night after the reduction of kapha. [74]

रूक्षानाहारयोर्जीर्णे विष्टभ्योर्ध्वं गतेऽपि वा|

वायुना भेषजे त्वन्यत् सस्नेहलवणं पिबेत्||७५||

rūkṣānāhārayōrjīrṇē viṣṭabhyōrdhvaṁ gatē'pi vā|

vāyunā bhēṣajē tvanyat sasnēhalavaṇaṁ pibēt||75||

rUkShAnAhArayorjIrNe viShTabhyordhvaM gate~api vA|

vAyunA bheShaje tvanyat sasnehalavaNaM pibet||75||

The purgative drugs will be digested in the persons, who are ruksha (dryness in body) and indulge in fasting. This aggravates the vata dosha, obstructs the drugs and moves in upper direction without purgation. This is treated with other purgative combination mixed with sneha (unctuous substance) & lavana (salt). [75]

तृण्मोहभ्रममूर्च्छायाः स्युश्चेज्जीर्यति भेषजे|

पित्तघ्नं स्वादु शीतं च भेषजं तत्र शस्यते||७६||

tr̥ṇmōhabhramamūrcchāyāḥ syuścējjīryati bhēṣajē|

pittaghnaṁ svādu śītaṁ ca bhēṣajaṁ tatra śasyatē||76||

tRuNmohabhramamUrcchAyAH syushcejjIryati bheShaje|

pittaghnaM svAdu shItaM ca bheShajaM tatra shasyate||76||

During the digestion of virechana drugs, if a person complains of trishna (thirst), moha (confusion), bhrama (giddiness), murchcha (fainting), then pitta shamaka (pitta pacifying), madhura (sweet), sheeta (cold potency) medicaments & therapies are beneficial. [76]

लालाहृल्लासविष्टम्भलोमहर्षाः कफावृते|

भेषजं तत्र तीक्ष्णोष्णं कट्वादि कफनुद्धितम्||७७||

lālāhr̥llāsaviṣṭambhalōmaharṣāḥ kaphāvr̥tē|

bhēṣajaṁ tatra tīkṣṇōṣṇaṁ kaṭvādi kaphanuddhitam||77||

lAlAhRullAsaviShTambhalomaharShAH kaphAvRute|

bheShajaM tatra tIkShNoShNaM kaTvAdi kaphanuddhitam||77||

If the purgative drug covered (wrapped) with kapha produces lalastrava (salivation), hrillasa (nausea), vishtambha (constipation), lomaharsha (horripilation), then tikshana (sharply acting), ushna (hot potency), katu (pungent) drugs having kaphahara properties are used. [77]

सुस्निग्धं क्रूरकोष्ठं च लङ्घयेदविरेचितम्|

तेनास्य स्नेहजः श्लेष्मा सङ्गश्चैवोपशाम्यति||७८||

susnigdhaṁ krūrakōṣṭhaṁ ca laṅghayēdavirēcitam|

tēnāsya snēhajaḥ ślēṣmā saṅgaścaivōpaśāmyati||78||

susnigdhaM krUrakoShThaM ca la~gghayedavirecitam|

tenAsya snehajaH shleShmA sa~ggashcaivopashAmyati||78||

If inadequate purgation occurs in the krura koshtha persons even after proper snehapana, for them langhana is advised. This will remove the morbid kapha and the obstruction caused by sneha. [78]

रूक्ष-बह्वनिल-क्रूरकोष्ठ-व्यायामशालिनाम् |

दीप्ताग्नीनां च भैषज्यमविरिच्यैव जीर्यति||७९||

तेभ्यो बस्तिं पुरा दत्त्वा पश्चाद्दद्याद्विरेचनम्|

बस्तिप्रवर्तितं दोषं हरेच्छीघ्रं विरेचनम्||८०||

rūkṣa-bahvanila-krūrakōṣṭha-vyāyāmaśālinām |

dīptāgnīnāṁ ca bhaiṣajyamaviricyaiva jīryati||79||

tēbhyō bastiṁ purā dattvā paścāddadyādvirēcanam|

bastipravartitaṁ dōṣaṁ harēcchīghraṁ virēcanam||80||

rUkSha-bahvanila-krUrakoShTha-vyAyAmashAlinAm |

dIptAgnInAM ca bhaiShajyamaviricyaiva jIryati||79||

tebhyo bastiM purA dattvA pashcAddadyAdvirecanam|

bastipravartitaM doShaM harecchIghraM virecanam||80||

In persons with rukshata (dryness in body), excess morbid vata, krura koshtha, performing regular physical exercise, with good appetite the purgatives get digested without purgation. Then it is ideal to treat with enemata followed by suitable purgatives. This enema facilitates the expulsion of doshas through purgation immediately. [79-80]

रूक्षाशनाः कर्मनित्या ये नरा दीप्तपावकाः|

तेषां दोषाः क्षयं यान्ति कर्मवातातपाग्निभिः ||८१||

विरुद्धाध्यशनाजीर्णदोषानपि सहन्ति ते|

स्नेह्यास्ते मारुताद्रक्ष्या नाव्याधौ तान् विशोधयेत् ||८२||

rūkṣāśanāḥ karmanityā yē narā dīptapāvakāḥ|

tēṣāṁ dōṣāḥ kṣayaṁ yānti karmavātātapāgnibhiḥ ||81||

viruddhādhyaśanājīrṇadōṣānapi sahanti tē|

snēhyāstē mārutādrakṣyā nāvyādhau tān viśōdhayēt ||82||

rUkShAshanAH karmanityA ye narA dIptapAvakAH|

teShAM doShAH kShayaM yAnti karmavAtAtapAgnibhiH ||81||

viruddhAdhyashanAjIrNadoShAnapi sahanti te|

snehyAste mArutAdrakShyA nAvyAdhau tAn vishodhayet ||82||

In a person who consumes ruksha ahara (diet with excess dry items), performs regular exercise, has good appetite, the morbid of doshas are reduced by karma (activities), exposure to vata (air), atapa (sunlight), agni (fire). Even they can tolerate the untoward affects of viruddha (incompatible diet) & adhyashana (frequent eating) .

These persons are subjected to sneha to protect from vata prakopa without shodhana ( purification therapy). Shodhana can be performed only when they are afflicted by the illness indicated for shodhana. [81-82]

नातिस्निग्धशरीराय दद्यात् स्नेहविरेचनम्|

स्नेहोत्क्लिष्टशरीराय रूक्षं दद्याद्विरेचनम्||८३||

एवं ज्ञात्वा विधिं धीरो देशकालप्रमाणवित्|

विरेचनं विरेच्येभ्यः प्रयच्छन्नापराध्यति||८४||

विभ्रंशो विषवद्यस्य सम्यग्योगो यथाऽमृतम्|

कालेष्ववश्यं पेयं च तस्माद्यत्नात् प्रयोजयेत्||८५||

nātisnigdhaśarīrāya dadyāt snēhavirēcanam|

snēhōtkliṣṭaśarīrāya rūkṣaṁ dadyādvirēcanam||83||

ēvaṁ jñātvā vidhiṁ dhīrō dēśakālapramāṇavit|

virēcanaṁ virēcyēbhyaḥ prayacchannāparādhyati||84||

vibhraṁśō viṣavadyasya samyagyōgō yathā'mr̥tam|

kālēṣvavaśyaṁ pēyaṁ ca tasmādyatnāt prayōjayēt||85||

nAtisnigdhasharIrAya dadyAt snehavirecanam|

snehotkliShTasharIrAya rUkShaM dadyAdvirecanam||83||

evaM j~jAtvA vidhiM dhIro deshakAlapramANavit|

virecanaM virecyebhyaH prayacchannAparAdhyati||84||

vibhraMsho viShavadyasya samyagyogo yathA~amRutam|

kAleShvavashyaM peyaM ca tasmAdyatnAt prayojayet||85||

The employment of snigdha virechana (unctuous purgatives) is contraindicated in atisnigdha persons. To manage the morbidity caused by excess snehana, ruksha virechana (non-unctuous purgatives) is advised.

The wise physician if employed the virechana in the person who are fit for the purgative therapy as per the desha (habitat), kala (season), and pramana (body proportion) will not give room for injustice.

Improper employment (selection & administration) of shodhana causes dreadful effect similar to visha, where as fruitful effect if used properly. Maximum effort is made to carry out proper shodhana essentially when ever it is needed. [83-85]

Standard and personalized dose

द्रव्यप्रमाणं तु यदुक्तमस्मिन्मध्येषु तत् कोष्ठवयोबलेषु|

तन्मूलमालम्ब्य भवेद्विकल्प्यं तेषां विकल्प्योऽभ्यधिकोनभावः||८६||

dravyapramāṇaṁ tu yaduktamasminmadhyēṣu tat kōṣṭhavayōbalēṣu|

tanmūlamālambya bhavēdvikalpyaṁ tēṣāṁ vikalpyō'bhyadhikōnabhāvaḥ||86||

dravyapramANaM tu yaduktamasminmadhyeShu tat koShThavayobaleShu|

tanmUlamAlambya bhavedvikalpyaM teShAM vikalpyo~abhyadhikonabhAvaH||86||

The dose prescribed in the text are for the person with madhyama koshtha (normal bowel), vaya (middle age) & bala (strength). With reference to this one can alter the dose either higher or lesser. [86]

Measurements

षड् ध्वंश्यस्तु मरीचिः स्यात् षण्मरीच्यस्तु सर्षपः|

अष्टौ ते सर्षपा रक्तास्तण्डुलश्चापि तद्द्वयम्||८७||

धान्यमाषो भवेदेको धान्यमाषद्वयं यवः|

अण्डिका ते तु चत्वारस्ताश्चतस्रस्तु माषकः||८८||

हेमश्च धान्यकश्चोक्तो भवेच्छाणस्तु ते त्रयः|

शाणौ द्वौ द्रङ्क्षणं विद्यात् कोलं बदरमेव च||८९||

विद्याद्द्वौ द्रङ्क्षणौ कर्षं सुवर्णं चाक्षमेव च|

बिडालपदकं चैव पिचुं पाणितलं तथा||९०||

तिन्दुकं च विजानीयात् कवलग्रहमेव च|

द्वे सुवर्णे पलार्धं स्याच्छुक्तिरष्टमिका तथा||९१||

द्वे पलार्धे पलं मुष्टिः प्रकुञ्चोऽथ चतुर्थिका|

बिल्वं षोडशिका चाम्रं द्वे पले प्रसृतं विदुः||९२||

अष्टमानं तु विज्ञेयं कुडवौ द्वौ तु मानिका|

पलं चतुर्गुणं विद्यादञ्जलिं कुडवं तथा||९३||

चत्वारः कुडवाः प्रस्थश्चतुःप्रस्थमथाढकम्|

पात्रं तदेव विज्ञेयं कंसः प्रस्थाष्टकं तथा||९४||

कंसश्चतुर्गुणो द्रोणश्चार्मणं नल्वणं च तत्|

स एव कलशः ख्यातो घटमुन्मानमेव च||९५||

द्रोणस्तु द्विगुणः शूर्पो विज्ञेयः कुम्भ एव च|

गोणीं शूर्पद्वयं विद्यात् खारीं भारं तथैव च||९६||

द्वात्रिंशतं विजानीयाद्वाहं शूर्पाणि बुद्धिमान्|

तुलां शतपलं विद्यात् परिमाणविशारदः||९७||

ṣaḍ dhvaṁśyastu marīciḥ syāt ṣaṇmarīcyastu sarṣapaḥ|

aṣṭau tē sarṣapā raktāstaṇḍulaścāpi taddvayam||87||

dhānyamāṣō bhavēdēkō dhānyamāṣadvayaṁ yavaḥ|

aṇḍikā tē tu catvārastāścatasrastu māṣakaḥ||88||

hēmaśca dhānyakaścōktō bhavēcchāṇastu tē trayaḥ|

śāṇau dvau draṅkṣaṇaṁ vidyāt kōlaṁ badaramēva ca||89||

vidyāddvau draṅkṣaṇau karṣaṁ suvarṇaṁ cākṣamēva ca|

biḍālapadakaṁ caiva picuṁ pāṇitalaṁ tathā||90||

tindukaṁ ca vijānīyāt kavalagrahamēva ca|

dvē suvarṇē palārdhaṁ syācchuktiraṣṭamikā tathā||91||

dvē palārdhē palaṁ muṣṭiḥ prakuñcō'tha caturthikā|

bilvaṁ ṣōḍaśikā cāmraṁ dvē palē prasr̥taṁ viduḥ||92||

aṣṭamānaṁ tu vijñēyaṁ kuḍavau dvau tu mānikā|

palaṁ caturguṇaṁ vidyādañjaliṁ kuḍavaṁ tathā||93||

catvāraḥ kuḍavāḥ prasthaścatuḥprasthamathāḍhakam|

pātraṁ tadēva vijñēyaṁ kaṁsaḥ prasthāṣṭakaṁ tathā||94||

kaṁsaścaturguṇō drōṇaścārmaṇaṁ nalvaṇaṁ ca tat|

sa ēva kalaśaḥ khyātō ghaṭamunmānamēva ca||95||

drōṇastu dviguṇaḥ śūrpō vijñēyaḥ kumbha ēva ca|

gōṇīṁ śūrpadvayaṁ vidyāt khārīṁ bhāraṁ tathaiva ca||96||

dvātriṁśataṁ vijānīyādvāhaṁ śūrpāṇi buddhimān|

tulāṁ śatapalaṁ vidyāt parimāṇaviśāradaḥ||97||

ShaD dhvaMshyastu marIciH syAt ShaNmarIcyastu sarShapaH|

aShTau te sarShapA raktAstaNDulashcApi taddvayam||87||

dhAnyamASho bhavedeko dhAnyamAShadvayaM yavaH|

aNDikA te tu catvArastAshcatasrastu mAShakaH||88||

hemashca dhAnyakashcokto bhavecchANastu te trayaH|

shANau dvau dra~gkShaNaM vidyAt kolaM badarameva ca||89||

vidyAddvau dra~gkShaNau karShaM suvarNaM cAkShameva ca|

biDAlapadakaM caiva picuM pANitalaM tathA||90||

tindukaM ca vijAnIyAt kavalagrahameva ca|

dve suvarNe palArdhaM syAcchuktiraShTamikA tathA||91||

dve palArdhe palaM muShTiH praku~jco~atha caturthikA|

bilvaM ShoDashikA cAmraM dve pale prasRutaM viduH||92||

aShTamAnaM tu vij~jeyaM kuDavau dvau tu mAnikA|

palaM caturguNaM vidyAda~jjaliM kuDavaM tathA||93||

catvAraH kuDavAH prasthashcatuHprasthamathADhakam|

pAtraM tadeva vij~jeyaM kaMsaH prasthAShTakaM tathA||94||

kaMsashcaturguNo droNashcArmaNaM nalvaNaM ca tat|

sa eva kalashaH khyAto ghaTamunmAnameva ca||95||

droNastu dviguNaH shUrpo vij~jeyaH kumbha eva ca|

goNIM shUrpadvayaM vidyAt khArIM bhAraM tathaiva ca||96||

dvAtriMshataM vijAnIyAdvAhaM shUrpANi buddhimAn|

tulAM shatapalaM vidyAt parimANavishAradaH||97||

Specific measurements
6 Dhvansi 1 Marichi
6 Marichi 1 Raktasarshapa
8 Raktasarshapa 1 Tandula
2 Tandula 1 Dhanyamasha
2 Dhanyamasha 1 Yava
4 Andika 1 Mashaka (hema & dhanyaka)
3 Mashaka 1 Shaana
2 Shaana 1 Drankshana (kola, badara)
2 Drankshana 1 Karsha (suvarna, aksha, bidaalapadaka, picu, paanitala, tinduka or kavalagraha)
2 Suvarna 1 Palaardha (sukti,astamikaa)
2 Palaardha 1 Pala (mushti, prakunca, caturthikaa, bilva, shodashikaa, aamra)
2 Pala 1 Prasruta (ashtamaan)
4 Pala 1 Anjali (kudava)
2 Kudava 1 Maanikaa
4 Kudava 1 Prastha
4 Prastha 1 Aadaka (paatra)
8 Prastha 1 Kansa
4 Kansa 1 Drona (aarmana, nlvana, kalasha, ghata, unmaan)
2 Drona 1 Surpa (kumbha)
2 Surpa 1 Goni (khaari, bhaara)
32 Surpa 1 Vaaha
100 Pala 1 Tula

[87-97]

शुष्कद्रव्येष्विदं मानमेवमादि प्रकीर्तितम्|

द्विगुणं तद्द्रवेष्विष्टं तथा सद्योद्धृतेषु च||९८||

यद्धि मानं तुला प्रोक्ता पलं वा तत् प्रयोजयेत्|

अनुक्ते परिमाणे तु तुल्यं मानं प्रकीर्तितम्||९९||

śuṣkadravyēṣvidaṁ mānamēvamādi prakīrtitam|

dviguṇaṁ taddravēṣviṣṭaṁ tathā sadyōddhr̥tēṣu ca||98||

yaddhi mānaṁ tulā prōktā palaṁ vā tat prayōjayēt|

anuktē parimāṇē tu tulyaṁ mānaṁ prakīrtitam||99||

shuShkadravyeShvidaM mAnamevamAdi prakIrtitam|

dviguNaM taddraveShviShTaM tathA sadyoddhRuteShu ca||98||

yaddhi mAnaM tulA proktA palaM vA tat prayojayet|

anukte parimANe tu tulyaM mAnaM prakIrtitam||99||

These measurements are for dry drugs. The liquids, wet drugs, freshly collected drugs are used in double dose. But the measurement in terms of pala & tula are mentioned then the same is taken. If the quantity of drugs is not specified in a combination, then all ingredients are used in equal quantity. [98-99]

द्रवकार्येऽपि चानुक्ते सर्वत्र सलिलं स्मृतम्|

यतश्च पादनिर्देशश्चतुर्भागस्ततश्च सः||१००||

dravakāryē'pi cānuktē sarvatra salilaṁ smr̥tam|

yataśca pādanirdēśaścaturbhāgastataśca saḥ||100||

dravakArye~api cAnukte sarvatra salilaM smRutam|

yatashca pAdanirdeshashcaturbhAgastatashca saH||100||

Use the water in all formulations, where a particular liquid media is not specified. Wherever paada is mentioned, consider it as one fourth part. [100]

जलस्नेहौषधानां तु प्रमाणं यत्र नेरितम् |

तत्र स्यादौषधात् स्नेहः स्नेहात्तोयं चतुर्गुणम्||१०१||

jalasnēhauṣadhānāṁ tu pramāṇaṁ yatra nēritam |

tatra syādauṣadhāt snēhaḥ snēhāttōyaṁ caturguṇam||101||

jalasnehauShadhAnAM tu pramANaM yatra neritam |

tatra syAdauShadhAt snehaH snehAttoyaM caturguNam||101||

Where the proportion of jala (water), sneha (fatty media) and aushada (drugs & paste) are not mentioned then four times of sneha to that of aushada (kalkadravya) & four times of jala to sneha are used. [101]

Three types of snehapaka (characteristics of prepared unctuous formulation)

स्नेहपाकस्त्रिधा ज्ञेयो मृदुर्मध्यः खरस्तथा|

तुल्ये कल्केन निर्यासे भेषजानां मृदुः स्मृतः||१०२||

संयाव इव निर्यासे मध्यो दर्वीं विमुञ्चति|

शीर्यमाणे तु निर्यासे वर्तमाने खरस्तथा||१०३||

snēhapākastridhā jñēyō mr̥durmadhyaḥ kharastathā|

tulyē kalkēna niryāsē bhēṣajānāṁ mr̥duḥ smr̥taḥ||102||

saṁyāva iva niryāsē madhyō darvīṁ vimuñcati|

śīryamāṇē tu niryāsē vartamānē kharastathā||103||

snehapAkastridhA j~jeyo mRudurmadhyaH kharastathA|

tulye kalkena niryAse bheShajAnAM mRuduH smRutaH||102||

saMyAva iva niryAse madhyo darvIM vimu~jcati|

shIryamANe tu niryAse vartamAne kharastathA||103||

The sneha paka (characteristic of prepared unctuous formulation) is categorized into three the mridupaka (soft/thin), madhyama paka (medium consistency) & khara paka (dense/thick consistency). If the kalka turns to niryasa (gum like) is called as mridupaka, becomes round soft mass then it is madhyama paka and paste disintegrates during wicking is known as kharapaka. [102-103]

Their indications

खरोऽभ्यङ्गे स्मृतः पाको, मृदुर्नस्तःक्रियासु च|

मध्यपाकं तु पानार्थे बस्तौ च विनियोजयेत्||१०४||

kharō'bhyaṅgē smr̥taḥ pākō, mr̥durnastaḥkriyāsu ca|

madhyapākaṁ tu pānārthē bastau ca viniyōjayēt||104||

kharo~abhya~gge smRutaH pAko, mRudurnastaHkriyAsu ca|

madhyapAkaM tu pAnArthe bastau ca viniyojayet||104||

Kharapaka sneha (dense) is mostly used for the abhyanga (unction), the mridupaka sneha (soft/thin) is ideal for administration through the nasal route (nasya), madhyama paka sneha (medium) is preferred both oral administration (pana) as well as for enema (basti). [104]

Two types of measurements

मानं च द्विविधं प्राहुः कालिङ्गं मागधं तथा|

कालिङ्गान्मागधं श्रेष्ठमेवं मानविदो विदुः||१०५||

mānaṁ ca dvividhaṁ prāhuḥ kāliṅgaṁ māgadhaṁ tathā|

kāliṅgānmāgadhaṁ śrēṣṭhamēvaṁ mānavidō viduḥ||105||

mAnaM ca dvividhaM prAhuH kAli~ggaM mAgadhaM tathA|

kAli~ggAnmAgadhaM shreShThamevaM mAnavido viduH||105||

There are two categories of measurements 1. kalinga 2. magadha. Out of these, magadha is considered as best by the experts. [105]

Summary of content of chapter

तत्र श्लोकौ-

कल्पार्थः शोधनं सञ्ज्ञा पृथग्घेतुः प्रवर्तने|

देशादीनां फलादीनां गुणा योगशतानि षट्||१०६||

विकल्पहेतुर्नामानि तीक्ष्णमध्याल्पलक्षणम्|

विधिश्चावस्थिको मानं स्नेहपाकश्च दर्शितः||१०७||

tatra ślōkau-

kalpārthaḥ śōdhanaṁ sañjñā pr̥thagghētuḥ pravartanē|

dēśādīnāṁ phalādīnāṁ guṇā yōgaśatāni ṣaṭ||106||

vikalpahēturnāmāni tīkṣṇamadhyālpalakṣaṇam|

vidhiścāvasthikō mānaṁ snēhapākaśca darśitaḥ||107||

tatra shlokau-

kalpArthaH shodhanaM sa~jj~jA pRuthagghetuH pravartane|

deshAdInAM phalAdInAM guNA yogashatAni ShaT||106||

vikalpaheturnAmAni tIkShNamadhyAlpalakShaNam|

vidhishcAvasthiko mAnaM snehapAkashca darshitaH||107||

The 12th chapter of Kalpa Sthana deals with the concept of kalpana (preparation), concept of shodhana, qualities and mechanisms of shodhana, qualities of different desha & Madanaphala etc drugs, detailed information of six hundred formulation for shodhana, tikshana madhya alpa categorization of shodhana drugs & actions, administration methods its rules & regulation, information on measurements & the preparation of different sneha kalpanas. [106-107]

Tattva Vimarsha / Fundamental Principles

  • Danti(Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) and dravanti (Croton tiglium L.) are strong purgative drugs with tikshna (sharply acting), ashukari (quickly acting), vikasi ( immediately getting distributed in body) properties. Roots of these plants are used for therapeutic purpose after purification. These drugs are mainly indicated in gulma(abdominal lumps), udara (abdominal diseases including ascitis), and udavarta. These drugs can liquefy kapha-pitta dosha and expel them out.
  • The nomenclature of the combination is always in the name of main ingredient. The remaining ingredients in the formulations boost, regulate and act in accordance to the main ingredient.
  • In a formulation, the action of main ingredient should not be hampered by the addition of other ingredients having opposite qualities. Addition of ingredients with similar properties will enrich the action of the formulations.
  • In order to impart pleasant color, good taste, agreeable smell and touch and relation to the specific disorders, viruddha virya (opposite quality drugs or antagonistic) drugs along with main drug are added.
  • The quality and action of drugs can be enhanced by the proper triturating with either swarasa (juice) or kwatha (decoction) of the same drug or of the other drugs with similar qualities and action. This method also potentiates the multidimensional action of the preparation. Thus two important measures to potentiate the activity of medicaments are 1. repeated & proper bhavana (processing) of the same drug 2. addition of similar quality drugs.
  • By the combination and separation of drugs, kala (time), sanskara (processings), & yukti (proper planning) one can modify the potency of medicaments. There by minute dose can produce greater benefits and vice versa.
  • There are three categories of drugs based upon their therapeutic potential of elimination viz. tikshna (sharp acting), madhyama (medium potential), mridu (mild acting).
  • These three drugs shall be administered in respective category according to strength of disease and patient.
  • In case of improper emesis by the previously administered drug then the therapeutic emetic drugs are repeatedly given till the vomitus contains pitta.
  • If the administered therapeutic eliminating drugs expelled out immediately or gets digested completely without adequate clearance of doshas, then another suitable drug shall be administered to get the desired therapeutic action.
  • The therapeutic emetic drugs expel undigested doshas without getting digested.
  • Therapeutic purgative drugs expel the doshas during digestion.
  • Various conditions of inadequate elimination can be managed after giving proper elimination therapy again. Or medicine and diet can be given to digest remnant doshas.
  • In weak persons, who underwent cleansing procedure earlier, when the accumulation of morbid doshas is less, unknown and unassessed koshtha (bowel), mild drugs (mridu shodhana dravya) shall be administered.
  • It is always best & safe to use the mridu shodhana dravyas (mild purification) repeatedly as they are less harmful rather than using the tikshana shodhana dravyas (strong purification), which may cause sudden threat to life.
  • In persons with rukshata (dryness in body), excess morbid vata, krura koshtha, performing regular physical exercise, with good appetite, the purgatives get digested without purgation. In these patients, enema shall be administered before purgation. This enema facilitates the expulsion of doshas through purgation immediately.
  • The morbid doshas are naturally reduced by karma (activities), exposure to vata (air), atapa (sunlight), agni (fire) in a person who consumes ruksha ahara (diet with excess dry items), performs regular exercise, has good appetite. These persons can tolerate the untoward affects of viruddha (incompatible diet) & adhyashana (frequent eating).
  • Snigdha virechana (unctuous purgatives) is contraindicated in atisnigdha (excess unctuous) persons. The morbidity caused by excess snehana is managed by ruksha virechana (non-unctuous purgatives). Virechana shall be administered in the person who are fit for the purgative therapy as per the desha (habitat), kala (season), and pramana (body proportion).
  • The consistency of sneha (unctuous drug) shall be changed according to its route of administration. Kharapaka sneha (dense) is used for the abhyanaga (unction). Mridupaka sneha (soft/thin) is ideal for administration through the nasal route (nasya). Madhyama paka sneha (medium) is preferred both oral administration (pana) as well as for enema (basti).

Vidhi Vimarsha / Applied Inferences

Polynyms are used for the identification of the plants, to know their qualities and the therapeutic actions. Chitropachitra, sambari, pratyakshreni, chanda are not available in some of the original texts. These different names of both the plants are mentioned in Bhavaprakash Nighantu (Pg.no 399, Guduchyadi varga) in the names of laghudanti and dravanti as dantidvaya. The Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg. and Croton tigilium L. of Euphorbiaceae family are considered as the botanical source respectively. The seeds of the C. tiglium are also considered as jayapala in this text.( verse 3)

The other principle of collection of mula is discussed in Madanakalpa Adhyaya and Sushruta Samhita Sutra sthana 37th chapter. (verse 4)

The fresh roots of danti and dravanti are used for the purification processing. This process reduces the harmful effect and imparts a safer action to the drug. Vikasi quality is explained in Sushruta Samhita Sutra sthana 46 / 530 and in Sharangadhara Madhyama Khanda 4/20.

The same method of processing is described by Vriddhavaghbhata in Astanga Sangraha Kalpa Sthana 2nd chapter. The procedure of this samskara is described in Sharangadhara Madhyama Khanda 1/21-24 in the context of putapaka swarasa. (verse 5)

The similar qualities of tikshna, ushna, vikasi and ashukari are mentioned by Vriddhavaghbhata in Astanga Sangraha Kalpasthana 2nd chapter. Some additional qualities and therapeutic actions of the drug are mentioned in Bhavaprakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga/ 199-200. (verse 6)

Gangadhara considered gorasa as paya: specifically one should consider cows milk and not the soup of cows meat. Vridhha Vagbhata mentioned the same 3 yogas (Astanga Samgraha, Kalpasthana 2/62). (verse 8)

One part of kalka + 2 parts of kashaya of danti and dravantimula + 2 part of dashamula kashaya are taken for the preparation of sneha. (Gangadhara) The same three sneha preparations are mentioned by Vriddhavaghbhata in Ashtanga Sangraha Kalpasthana 2nd chapter. (verse 9-10)

Shyamadi in verse 11-15, refers to nine purgative drugs mentioned in Madanakalpa Adhyaya, verse 6. Preparation and description of phanita is discussed in Bhavaprakasha Nigantu Iksu Varga. The same purgative preparations discussed in Astanga Sangraha Kalpasthana 2/66- 67. Ghrita or taila can be selected according to the doshas involved in the disease. (verse 11-15)

The same preparation as in verse 16 is mentioned in Astanga Sangraha Kalpasthana 2/68. The bilwasama dose is only for the preparation of medicament and not to be considered as therapeutic dose. Asrustavishi is nothing but baddhapurisha (Gangadhara). Amla pada (sour recipes) are kanji, dadima rasa, dadhi manda, madya, sidhu, souvira, tushodaka. (verse 16)

In Astanga Sangraha Kalpasthana 2/9, the same preparationas in verse 17 is mentioned. The sugarcane juice should not be extracted by instrument; it should be cleaned and chewed (Bhavaprakasha Nigantu). (verse 17)

Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana 27/47 the eight birds flesh are mentioned these are boiled with green gram and the root of danti & dravanti can also be considered as eight different therapeutic purgative soup preparations. (verse 18)

The preparation method of yavagu is mentioned in Sushruta Sutrasthana 46/344-345 and yūśa in Sharngadhara Madhyamakhanda 2/154. (verse 19)

The godhuma churna or other flour can be used for the preparation in verse 22. The oil prepared from the decoction & paste of the roots of danti & dravanti with sesame oil is suitable for frying than the available croton oil (the seed oil of these plants). ( verse 22)

Qualities of ideal haritaki are mentioned in Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritakyadi Varga. Modaka is mentioned as agyasta modaka in other texts (Chakrapani) (verse 27-29)

The fermented formūlation is prepared after 1/4 th decoction is mixed with 2 palas of jaggery. (verse 30)

The method of preparation of these four yogas are mentioned in Tilvaka Kalpa Adhyaya. Souvira Charaka Samhita Kalpa. 9/7. Sura- Charaka Samhita Kalpa. 9/8-9. Kampillaka yoga Charaka Samhita Kalpa. 9/10-11. (verse 35)

Numbers of formulations described in Kalpa Sthana

Vamana Kalpa Virechana Kalpa
1. Madanaphala - 133 7-8. Shyamatrivrata - 110
2. Jimutaka - 39 9. Chaturangula - 12
3. Ikshavaku - 45 10. Tilvaka - 16
4. Dhamargava - 60 11. Sudha - 20
5. Vatsaka - 18 12-13. Saptalā Saṁkhiṇi- 39
6. Krutavedhana - 60 14-15. Dantī Dravanti - 48
Total - 355 Total - 245
Total – 600

( verses 41-42)

The opposite quality ingredients and the antagonistic drugs which supports the action of main ingredient can also be added in the combinations. (verse 45)

It is always recommended to use the tulya virya (drugs with similar qualities/ actions) drugs in the formulations. The viruddha virya drugs used will help for easy administration, can cure & manage the disease in specific and wide acceptance by the person. (verse 46)

When the vamana and virechana dravyas are obstructed, then swedana is performed in chest and abdomen respectively. (verse 70-72)

In the process of preparing the medicated sneha depending upon the degree of frying of the paste added to sneha is identified as three types –

Sneha prepared by minimal frying and the paste turns to gum like then it is called as mridupaka. If the paste is moderately fried & it becomes a round mass like that of bolus mixing with ghee, wheat flour & jaggery is madhyamapaka. When the paste is fried maximum and it is separated like granules then is named as kharapaka sneha.

In mridu paka, the niryasa is commented specifically for the aragwadha phala majja (pulp of Cassia fistula fruit). (verse 102-103)

The same as in verse 105 is opined by Sharangadhara Samhita Purva Khanda 1/33-34 ( verse 105)

Glossary

  1. abhya±ga (AprÉ…¡û) : Manually manipulating technique in which oil is applied over various parts of the body to get desired effect.
  2. adhya¾ana (AkrÉzÉlÉ) : Taking food over and again the previous meal (before it gets digested)
  3. aja¾»±ga (AeÉzÉ×…¡û) : Saussurea gossipifolia Don. (a controversial source)
  4. ajagandh¡ (AeÉaÉlkÉÉ) : Gynandropsis gynandra (L.) Briquet
  5. aj§r³a (AeÉÏhÉï) : Indigestion.
  6. ak½a (A¤É) : A unit of measurement and synonym of fruit of beleric myrobalan and synonym of kar½a equivalent to 12 g of metric units.
  7. alpadµ½a (AsmÉSÉåwÉ) : Less aggravated dosha, minimum accumulation of the morbid dosha
  8. a±ga¾Àla (A…¡ûzÉÔsÉ) : Bodyache
  9. a²jali (AgeÉÍsÉ) : A unit of measurement and synonym of one ku¢ava =192 g of metric units.
  10. anirh»ta (AÌlÉWØïûiÉ) : Not extracted / not removed.
  11. antarap¡nam (AliÉUmÉÉlÉqÉç) : ka½¡yap¡nam (ca. p¡.) Intake of decoctions after food
  12. anukta (AlÉÑ£ü) : Unsaid, unuttered.
  13. anulµmana (AlÉÑsÉÉåqÉlÉ) : Substances which restores and facilitate the physiological direction of various flows within the body like different malas (flatus, stool, etc.).
  14. apakva (AmÉYuÉ) : Unripe, immature, undigested.
  15. api¢ayan (AmÉÏQûrÉlÉç) : Without trouble
  16. ari½¿a (AËU¹) : A self-fermented preparation prepared by kv¡tha.
  17. arma³a (AqÉïhÉ) : A unit of measurement and synonym of one drµ³a = 12.228 kg of metric units.
  18. arti (AÌiÉï) : Pain.
  19. ar¾a (AzÉï) : Piles, polypus.
  20. asak»t (AxÉM×üiÉç) : Repeatedly, often.
  21. atipravartana (AÌiÉmÉëuÉiÉïlÉ) : Hyperactivity
    1. dhm¡na (AÉkqÉÉlÉ) : Distention of abdomen due to gas.
    2. ¢haka (AÉRûMü) : A unit of measurement, four prastha are equal to one ¡¢haka = 3.073 kg or l of metric units.
    3. lipya (AÉÍsÉmrÉ) : Having besmeared or anointed.
    4. maya (AÉqÉrÉ) : Sickness, disease.
    5. mra (AÉqÉë) : Mangifera indica Linn.
    6. pittadar¾an¡t (AÉÌmɨÉSzÉïlÉÉiÉç) : Till the appearance of pitta
    7. sava (AÉxÉuÉ) : A self-fermented preparation prepared swarasa.
    8. ¾uk¡ri (AÉzÉÑMüÉËU) : Fast acting or fast moving , operating quickly.
    9. vasthika (AÉuÉÎxjÉMü) : Being in accordance with or adopted to the circumstances suitable.
  22. badara (oÉSU) : Zizypus jujuba Lam.
  23. bahala (oÉWûsÉ) : ghanatwak (ca. p¡.) Thick bark
  24. bahudµ½am (oÉWÒûSÉåwÉqÉç) : Excessive accumulation of the morbid dosha
  25. basti (oÉÎxiÉ) : Administration of liquid medicine through the rectal, urethral or vaginal route
  26. bhagandara (pÉaÉlSU) : Fistula in ano
  27. bhak½ya (pɤrÉ) : Masticable; dietary substances to be masticated.
  28. bharjay£ta (pÉeÉïrÉåiÉ) : bharjana - Frying/ roasting; one of the processes applied in purification or refining of the material.
  29. bh¡ra (pÉÉU) : A unit of measurement, forty tul¡s are equal to one bh¡ra = 96 kg of metric units.
  30. bh¡van¡ (pÉÉuÉlÉÉ) : Trituration - One of the process applied in purification or refining of the material.
  31. bhrama (pÉëûqÉ) : Giddiness
  32. bibh§taka (ÌoÉpÉÏiÉMü) : Terminalia bellerica Roxb.
  33. bilva (ÌoÉsuÉ) : A unit of measurement, four aksha are equal to one bilva = 48 g of metric units.
  34. buddhi (oÉÑή) : The power of forming and retaining conceptions and general notions , intelligence, reason, intellect, judgement.
  35. ca³¢a (cÉhQû) : Fierce, violent, cruel.
  36. catu:sn£ha (cÉiÉÑ: xlÉåWû) : Ghrita, taila,vasa, majja
  37. caturb§ja (cÉiÉÑoÉÏïeÉ) : A combination of following four drugs viz. Methika, Candrasura, Kalajaji & Yavanika.(B.P.N.)
  38. caturthikaa (cÉiÉÑÍjÉïMü) : A unit of measurement, four kar½a are equal to one caturthika = 48 g of metric units.
  39. cchardi (cNûÌSï) : Vomiting.
  40. citraka (ÍcɧÉMü) : Plumbago zeylanica Linn.
  41. cÀr³a (cÉÔhÉï) : Nicely powdered dry drug which is filtered through a cloth
  42. dadhi (SÍkÉ) : Curd
  43. dant§ (SliÉÏ) : Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg.
  44. darv§ (SuÉÏï) : Spatula
  45. da¾amÀla (SzÉqÉÔsÉ) : Group of bilva, etc. ten drugs
  46. d¡ha (SÉWû) : Burning sensation.
  47. dh¡nyam¡½a (kÉÉlrÉqÉÉwÉ) : A measurement equal to 2 tandula
  48. dh§ra: (kÉÏU:) : Steady, firm, brave, calm, intelligent, wise, clever.
  49. dµ½ap¡kam (SÉåwÉmÉÉMüqÉç) : Digestion of the accumulated doshas
  50. dra¯k½a³a (SìǤÉhÉ) : A unit of measurement, two ¾¡³a are equal to one dra¯k½a³a = 6 g of metric units.
  51. dravant§ (SìuÉliÉÏ) : Croton tiglium Linn.
  52. dr¡k½¡ (SìɤÉÉ) : Vitis vinifera Linn.
  53. drµ³a (SìÉåhÉ) : A unit of measurement, sixteen prastha are equal to one drµ³a = 12.228 kg of metric units.
  54. d»¢hasn£ham (SØRûxlÉåWûqÉç) : Excess unctuousness
  55. durbala (SÒoÉïsÉ) : Of little strength, weak, emaciated.
  56. durbhakta (SÒpÉï£ü) : A person with improper food habit.
  57. ga³¢am¡l¡ (aÉhQûqÉÉsÉÉ) : Inflammation of the glands of the neck.
  58. gau¢a (aÉÉæQû) : Preparation from jaggery.
  59. gh»ta (bÉ×iÉ) : Ghee.
  60. gha¿a (bÉûOû) : A unit of measurement, synonym of one drµ³a = 12.228 kg of metric units.
  61. ghanatvak (bÉûlÉiuÉMçü) : Thick bark
  62. gl¡nikaram (asÉÉÌlÉMüUqÉç) : That which causes fatigue of mind or body or loss of enthusiasm.
  63. gµ (aÉÉå) : Cow
  64. gµdhÀma (aÉÉåkÉÔqÉ) : Wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn.)
  65. gµ³i (aÉÉåÍhÉ) : A unit of measurement, synonym of drµ³i = 49.152 kg of metric units.
  66. graha (aÉëWû) : Stiffness, checked.
  67. graha³§ (aÉëWûÍhÉ) : Disease of intestine characterised by constipation and diarrhoea.
  68. gu¢a (aÉÑQû) : Jaggery
  69. gulma (aÉÑsqÉ) : Diseases related to abdomen with abdominal pain and mass
  70. guru (aÉÑÂ) : Heavy/ heaviness; one among 20 Gurv¡di gu³a.
  71. har§taki (WûUÏiÉÌMü) : Terminalia chebula Retz.
  72. hastidanta (WûÎxiÉSliÉ) : The tusk of an elephant.
  73. h£madugdh¡ (WåûqÉSÒakÉÉ) : xuÉhÉï¤ÉÏUÏ – Argemone mexicana Linn.(A controversial source)
  74. h»ll¡sa (WØûssÉÉxÉ) : Nausea.
  75. ik½u (C¤ÉÑ) : Saccharum officinarum Linn.
  76. jara³am (eÉUhÉqÉç) : Digestion.
  77. j¡±gala (eÉÉ…¡ûsÉ) : Arid, sparingly grown with trees and plants.
  78. j§r³am (eÉÏhÉïqÉç) : Digested.
  79. jvara (euÉU) : Fever.
  80. ka¯sa (MÇüxÉ) : A unit of measurement, synonym of ¡¢haka ,four prastha are equal to one ka¯sa = 3.073 kg of metric units.
  81. ka¿igraha (MüÌOûaÉëWû) : Stiffness in low back
  82. ka½¡ya (MüwÉÉrÉ) : A medicinal preparation - One pala of coarsely powdered drug is boiled with 16 parts of water in an earthen pot over a mild fire till liquid is reduced to 1/8th of original quantity.
  83. ka³¢u (MühQÒû) : Itching
  84. kak½¡ (Mü¤ÉÉ) : A type of skin disease which mimics visarpa
  85. kala¾a (MüsÉzÉ) : A unit of measurement, synonym of drµ³a, sixteen prastha are equal to one kala¾a = 12.228 kg of metric units.
  86. kalka (MüsMü) : A fresh drug or a dry drug converted into a paste by rubbing it on a stone with or without water added, is called kalka.
  87. kampillaka (MüÎqmÉssÉMü) : Mallotus philippinensis Muell Arg.
  88. kapha sa¯s»½¿am (MüTü xÉÇxÉ×¹qÉç) : Accumulation of kapha dosha
  89. kar½a (MüwÉï) : A unit of measurement, equivalent to 12 g of metric units.
  90. karmanitya (MüqÉïÌlÉirÉ) : Person who does regular exercise
  91. kavala (MüuÉsÉ) : Procedure of hoding oil or decoctions in the oral cavity and gargling for a certain period.
  92. k¡li±ga (MüÉÍsÉ…¡û) : A type of measurement belonging to Kalinga country
  93. k¡mal¡ (MüÉqÉsÉÉ) : Jaundice related disorders
  94. k¡sa (MüÉxÉ) : Cough
  95. kh¡ri (ZÉÉËU) : A unit of measurement equivqlent to 4096 pala
  96. khara (ZÉU) : Rough
  97. ki³va (ÌMühuÉ) : The sedimented portion of alcoholic preparation
  98. k§¿a (MüÐOû) : A worm or insect
  99. kµ½¿ha (MüÉå¸) : a. A closed space or area typically indicative of organs in the abdominal, thoracic and pelvic cavities. b.Physiologically, indicative of Gastro-intestinal tract
  100. kµ¿ha (MüÉåPû) : A disease with large round spots, wheels on the skin
  101. kµla (MüÉåsÉ) : A unit of measurement; eight seeds of maasha / two shaana will make one seed of kola = 6 g of metric units
  102. krÀrakµ½¿ha (¢ÔüUMüÉå¸) : A vata variety of Gastro-intestinal tract with habitual constipation.
  103. k»mikµ½¿h§ (M×üÍqÉMüÉå¸Ï) : Infested with intestinal worms
  104. k½audra (¤ÉÉæSì) : Honey
  105. ku¢ava (MÑüQûuÉ) : A unit of measurement =192 g of metric units
  106. k½ipram (ͤÉmÉëqÉç) : Immediately, quickly
  107. k½§³a (¤ÉÏhÉ) : Wasted, diminished
  108. ku¾a (MÑüzÉ) : Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf.
  109. kumbha (MÑüqpÉ) : A unit of measurement = 24.576 kg of metric units.
  110. kv¡tha (YuÉÉjÉ) : A synonym of kashaya
  111. la±ghitam (sÉ̆¡ûiÉqÉç) : A person who is on fasting
  112. lava³a (sÉuÉhÉ) : Salt
  113. l¡l¡ (sÉÉsÉÉ) : Salivation
  114. l¡va (sÉÉuÉ) : A type of bird
  115. l£ha (sÉåWû) : Confection - A medicinal semi solid preparation prepared using drava dravya , madhura dravya & aushadha dravya.
  116. lµdhra (sÉÉåkÉë) : Symplocos racemosa Roxb.
  117. lµmahar½a (sÉÉåqÉWûwÉï) : Horripilation
  118. madhu (qÉkÉÑ) : Honey.
  119. madhya (qÉkrÉ) : Middle, intermediate, moderate
  120. madir¡ (qÉÌSUÉ) : Spirituous liquor, wine
  121. madya (qɱ) : The medicated alcohol
  122. ma³¢a (qÉhQû) : Only supernatant liquid portion of the gruel.
  123. marica (qÉËUcÉ) : Black pepper, Piper nigrum Linn.
  124. mar§ci (qÉUÏÍcÉ) : A unit of measurement equivalent to 6 dhvamshi
  125. m¡nik¡ (qÉÉÌlÉMüÉ) : A unit of measurement equivalent to two kudava
  126. m¡ruta (qÉÉÂiÉ) : Synonym of Vata.
  127. m¡½a (qÉÉwÉ) : Black gram, Phaseolus mungo Linn.
  128. m¡½aka (qÉÉwÉMü) : A unit of measurement equivalent to four andika
  129. m£ha (qÉåWû) : Disease characterised by excessive amount and altered character of urine
  130. mµdaka (qÉÉåSMü) : A sweet, soft, bolus preparation;
  131. mµha (qÉÉåWû) : Altered states of consciousness or confused state
  132. m»du (qÉ×SÒ) : Soft
  133. m»ga (qÉ×aÉ) : Animal, commonly considered for deer.
  134. m»t (qÉ×iÉç) : Soil
  135. mudga (qÉѪ) : Green gram, Vigna radiata (L.) Var. radiata
  136. mÀla (qÉÔsÉ) : Root.
  137. mÀrcch¡ (qÉÔcNûÉï) : Transient loss of conscious.
  138. mÀ½ikapar³i (qÉÔÌwÉMümÉÍhÉï) : A synonym of dravanti
  139. nalva³a (lÉsuÉhÉ) : A unit of measurement, sixteen prastha are equal to one drµ³a = 12.228 kg of metric units.
  140. nasta (lÉxiÉ) : A person who underwent nasya
  141. n¡gara (lÉÉaÉU) : Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roxb.
  142. nikumbha (ÌlÉMÑüqpÉ) : Synonym of danti, Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg.
  143. niratyayam (ÌlÉUirÉrÉqÉç) : Free from danger, secure, causing no pain
  144. niry¡sa (ÌlÉrÉÉïxÉ) : Exudate of a plant
  145. niryÀha (ÌlÉrÉÔïWû) : Synonym of ka½¡ya
  146. nyagrµdhi (lrÉaÉëÉåÍkÉ) : Synonym of dravanti
  147. pacyam¡nam (mÉcrÉqÉÉlÉqÉç) : Undergoing digestion
  148. pala (mÉsÉ) : A unit of measurement, four kar½a are equal to one pala = 48 g of metric units.
  149. parim¡³am (mÉËUqÉÉhÉqÉç) : Measure of any kind e.g. circumference, length, weight, value
  150. p¡kam (mÉÉMüqÉç) : Digestion, transformation of substances with the help of agni
  151. p¡³¢u (mÉÉhQÒû) : Anaemia
  152. p¡³itala (mÉÉÍhÉiÉsÉ) : A unit of measurement and synonym of kar½a equivalent to 12 g of metric units.
  153. p¡r¾va (mÉɵÉï) : Sides of the chest; flanks
  154. p¡r¾vagraha (mÉɵÉïaÉëWû) : Stiffness in the sides of the chest or flanks
  155. p¡¿ayitv¡ (mÉÉOûÌrÉiuÉÉ) : Splitting
  156. ph¡³ita (TüÉÍhÉiÉ) : It is a semisolid condensed sugarcane preparation traditionally used to prepare ¡sava, ari½¿a and other forms of alcoholic fermentation.
  157. phala (TüsÉ) : Fruit, Considered as madanaphala
  158. picu (ÌmÉcÉÑ) : A unit of measurement and synonym of kar½a equivalent to 12 g of metric units.
  159. pi³¢a (ÌmÉhQû) : Any round or roundish mass
  160. pippali (ÌmÉmmÉÍsÉ) : Long pepper, Piper longum Linn.
  161. p§lu (mÉÏsÉÑ) : Salvadora persica Linn.
  162. pl§hµdara (msÉÏWûÉåSU) : A disease of spleen with splenomegaly
  163. praku²ca (mÉëMÑügcÉ) : A unit of measurement and synonym of pala equivalent to 48 g of metric units.
  164. prasra¯sanam (mÉëxÉëÇxÉlÉqÉç) : gets digested without eliminating the impurity or vomited.
  165. prastha (mÉëxjÉ) : Weight and measurement of capacity = 32 palas equivalent to 1536 gm of metric units.
  166. pratyak ¾r£³i (mÉëirÉMçü ´ÉåÍhÉ) : Synonym of dravanti, Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg.
  167. priy¡la (ÌmÉërÉÉsÉ) : Buchanania lanzan Spreng
  168. rÀk½a (äÉ) : Dryness; one among 20 Gurv¡di gu³a.
  169. rÀk½a a¾ana (Ã¤É AzÉlÉ) : Diet predominant with ruksha food stuff
  170. ruddham (®qÉç) : Obstructed, checked, stopped, suppressed.
  171. rukkaram (‚üUqÉç) : That which induces pain
  172. sal§la (xÉsÉÏsÉ) : Water
  173. sa¯sk¡ra (xÉÇxMüÉU) : Pharmaceutical processes to modify and regulate the qualities of a drug or combinations
  174. sa¯y¡va (xÉÇrÉÉuÉ) : A sort of cake of wheat flour fried with ghee and milk and made up into an oblong form with sugar and spices.
  175. sa¯yµga (xÉÇrÉÉåaÉ) : Combination, one of the 10 paradi gunas. Combination of two or more substances
  176. sant¡pa (xÉliÉÉmÉ) : Heat
  177. sa±ga (xÉ…¡û) : Stiking, clinging to, blocking
  178. sarpi (xÉÌmÉï) : Ghee.
  179. sauv§raka (xÉÉæuÉÏUMü) : Sour gruel
  180. sit¡ (ÍxÉiÉÉ) : Sugar candy.
  181. sn£ha (xlÉåWû) : Oil
  182. stambhay£t (xiÉqpÉrÉåiÉç) : Stambhana = Substances used to check any flow through or out of the body
  183. sthir¡³i (ÎxjÉUÉÍhÉ) : sarabhootaani (ca. paa.) – Woody and strong
  184. sukham (xÉÑZÉqÉç) : Comfortable, agreeable, gentle, pleasant
  185. sur¡ (xÉÑUÉ) : Indegenous beer- beverage prepared from fermented cereals. The cereals that are either cooked or ground are mixed with jaggery and other spices, and are subjected to natural fermentation
  186. sur¡ma³¢a (xÉÑUÉqÉhQû) : The scum or froth of sur¡
  187. suta¾r£³i (xÉÑiÉ´ÉåÍhÉ) : A synonym of dravanti
  188. suvar³a (xÉÑuÉhÉï) : Gold; golden colour
  189. svarasa (xuÉUxÉ) : Expressed juice of a plant part
  190. sv¡du (xuÉÉSÒ) : Sweet, pleasant to test
  191. sv£da (xuÉåS) : Warmth, heat
  192. ¾ak»t (zÉM×üiÉç) : Faeces
  193. ¾ambar§ (zÉqoÉUÏ) : A synonym of dravanti
  194. ¾¡³a (zÉÉhÉ) : A measurement of weight; equals to 3 g of metric units.
  195. ¾§dhu (zÉÏkÉÑ) : Fermentation of sweetening liquids with or without subjecting to heat.
  196. ¾§ta (zÉÏiÉ) : Cold, cool; one among the 20 gurvadi gunas.
  197. ¾µdhitam (zÉÉåÍkÉiÉqÉç) : Cleansed, purified, refined, corrected
  198. ¾ukra (zÉÑ¢ü) : The seventh dhaatu whose function is reproduction.
  199. ¾Àrpa (zÉÔmÉï) : A unit of measurement, synonym of kumbha = 24.576 kg of metric units
  200. ¾y¡m¡ (zrÉÉqÉÉ) : A synonym of krishna trivrut
  201. ¾y¡va (zrÉÉuÉ) : Bluish colour, cyan colour
  202. dhva¯¾§ : A unit of measurement, equivalent to 1/6th of mareechi
  203. ½µ¢a¾ika (wÉÉåQûÍzÉMüÉ) : A unit of measurement and synonym of pala equivalent to 48 g of metric units.
  204. taila (iÉæsÉ) : Sesame oil; oil
  205. ta³¢ula (iÉhQÒûsÉ) : Grain, rice
  206. tarpa³a (iÉmÉïhÉ) : That which satiets?
  207. t¡mra (iÉÉqÉë) : Coppery colour
  208. tinduka (ÌiÉlSÒMü) : Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel.
  209. t§k½³a (iÉϤhÉ) : The property of the substance which causes sharpness and quick penetration.
  210. tµya (iÉÉårÉ) : Water
  211. triv»t (̧ÉuÉ×iÉç) : Operculina turpethum (Linn.) Silva Manso.
  212. t»½³¡ (iÉ×whÉÉ) : Thirst
  213. tul¡ (iÉÑsÉÉ) : A unit of measurement, 100 pala are equal to one tul¡ = 4.8 kg of metric units.
  214. tu½µdaka (iÉÑwÉÉåSMü) : Water collected by soaking the husk
  215. udara (ESU) : Enlargement of the abdomen (from dropsy or flatulence); any morbid abdominal affection (as the liver, spleen)
  216. ud¡varta (ESÉuÉiÉï) : Constipated or upward movement of vata or mala.
  217. udg¡ram (EªÉUqÉç) : Belching.
  218. udumbarapar³i (ESÒqoÉUmÉÍhÉï) : A synonym of danti, Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg.
  219. ullikh£t (EÎssÉZÉåiÉç) : Scrape out
  220. unm¡na (ElqÉÉlÉ) : Measure, weight, particular measure of quantity equal to 1 drona.
  221. upacitr¡ (EmÉÍcɧÉ) : A synonym of dravanti
  222. upaku²cik¡ (EmÉMÑüÎgcÉMüÉ) : Nigella sativa Linn.
  223. upas»jya (EmÉxÉ×erÉ) : Having added, adding
  224. u½³a (EwhÉ) : Hot, warm
  225. utk¡rik¡ (EiMüÉËUMüÉ) : Poultice like preparation prepared with anti-venomous drugs to soothe or aggravate and release the local doshas.
  226. utkli½¿a (EÎiYsɹ) : Aggravated
  227. vac¡ (uÉcÉÉ) : Acorus calamus
  228. vamana (uÉqÉlÉ) : Vomiting, Therapeutic emesis
  229. vart§ra (uÉiÉÏïU) : A sort of quail or patridge
  230. vibandha (ÌuÉoÉlkÉ) : Obstruction, block
  231. vik¡¾I (ÌuÉMüÉzÉÏ) : Drugs which weaken all the joints of the body and dislodge the ojas from dhatu.
  232. vilaya (ÌuÉsÉrÉ) : Dissolution, liquefaction
  233. vir£canam (ÌuÉUåcÉlÉqÉç) : Therapeutic purgation
  234. viruddha (ÌuÉ®) : Opposite, not contradictory
  235. viruddh¡¾ana (ÌuÉ®ÉzÉlÉqÉç) : Consuming incompatible food stuffs
  236. visarpa (ÌuÉxÉmÉï) : erysipelas
  237. vi¾l£½a (ÌuÉzsÉåwÉ) : Distraction, flabbiness
  238. vi¾uddha (ÌuÉzÉÑ®) Completely cleansed or purified
  239. vi½¿ambha (ÌuɹqpÉ) : Obstruction of urine or faces, constipation
  240. v§rya (uÉÏrÉï) : Strength, power, energy;
  241. vy¡y¡ma (urÉÉrÉÉqÉ) : Exercise ; the act of movement of the body.
  242. yava (rÉuÉ) : Cereal, barley, eight mustard seeds are equal to one Yava. A quantity of measurement.
  243. yav¡gu (rÉuÉÉaÉÑ) : Gruel- it is a type of congenial preparation of cereals, like rice, wheat, barley, etc. Where more cooked rice #particle and less liquid portion are taken.
  244. yav¡ni (rÉuÉÉÌlÉ) : Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprague.
  245. yukti (rÉÑÌ£ü) : Wisdom/ skill; includes a. Property of physician and pharmacist to formulate the medicine; b. Tool of examination, #logical plan/ tactics, pertains to the logic and plan of therapeutic action
  246. yÀ½a (rÉÔwÉ) : It is a semisolid preparation obtained by boiling one part of different types of dhanya vishesha (kulattha, yava, #mudga, etc.) along with 1/8th quantity of pippali, shunthi and 16 parts of water.