Purusha Vichaya Sharira
Sharira Sthana Chapter 5. Detailed Study of holistic human being
|Section/Chapter||Sharira Sthana Chapter 5|
|Preceding Chapter||Mahatigarbhavakranti Sharira|
|Succeeding Chapter||Sharira Vichaya Sharira|
|Other Sections||Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana|
|Translator and commentator||Awasthi H.H., Singh R., Deole Y. S.|
|Editors||Bhalerao S., Deole Y.S., Basisht G.|
|Year of publication||2020|
|Publisher||Charak Samhita Research, Training and Skill Development Centre|
Purusha Vichaya literally means detailed (or comprehensive) search or analysis of the person (or purusha). The preceding two chapters explained the developmental phase of an embryo to foetus and the birth of the child. This chapter deals with factors that help transform the child into a fully grown purusha. An important message from this chapter is the view that the purusha is a microcosm mirroring the universe, or the macrocosm. This is briefly indicated in the preceding chapter [Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 4/13], where it is said that the purusha epitomizes the universe. All the structural forms that exist in the universe also exist in purusha and vice-versa. A study of the purusha is not simply restricted to exploring the anatomy and physiology of a human being. Rather, the purusha is said to be formed of the same shad dhatu (panchamahabhuta, or the five fundamental elements, and the supreme consciousness) that the universe is made of. Thus, it signifies an interdependence between the microcosm and the macrocosm. This study underscores that a person – or a human being – should not be seen in isolation, but in the context of harmony between man and the environment.
Keywords: Purusha, man, microcosm, loka, macrocosm, universe, cause of disease and happiness, serenity, path to emancipation.
The term purusha vichayam means the search of the purusha (individual person’s living body) or the analytical study of the purusha. Since Vedic times, sages and practitioners of Ayurveda studied the environment and the various features that constituted the loka (realm or world) and its impact on the purusha (person). Many civilizations have acknowledged the relationship between man and his environment, but Vedic scholars recorded their observations of the similarities in the avyava (component) of loka and purusha, concluding that the person is the replica of the universe (Yatha Pinde Tatha Brahmande). Lord Atreya dedicated this chapter to the study of the purusha underscoring this belief. Charak advised maintaining a harmony between man and his environment to attain the prime objectives of a human life – blissful life (sukhayu), useful life (hitayu), and salvation (moksha).
Sanskrit text, Transliteration and English Translation
अथातः पुरुषविचयं शारीरं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||
इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||
athātaḥ puruṣavicayaṁ śārīraṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||
iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||
athAtaH puruShavicayaM shArIraM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||
iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||
Now we shall expound the chapter "Purusha Vichaya Sharira" (Detailed Study of holistic human being). Thus said Lord Atreya. [1-2]
The purusha (man/individual)-an epitome/ miniature of the loka (universe)
‘पुरुषोऽयं लोकसम्मितः’ इत्युवाच भगवान् पुनर्वसुरात्रेयः| यावन्तो हि लोके (मूर्तिमन्तो ) भावविशेषास्तावन्तः पुरुषे, यावन्तः पुरुषे तावन्तो लोके; इत्येवंवादिनंभगवन्तमात्रेयमग्निवेश उवाच- नैतावता वाक्येनोक्तं वाक्यार्थमवगाहामहे, भगवता बुद्ध्या भूयस्तरमतोऽनुव्याख्यायमानंशुश्रूषामह इति||३||
‘puruṣō'yaṁ lōkasammitaḥ’ ityuvāca bhagavān punarvasurātrēyaḥ| yāvantō hi lōkē (mūrtimantō ) bhāvaviśēṣāstāvantaḥ puruṣē, yāvantaḥ puruṣē tāvantō lōkē;ityēvaṁvādinaṁ bhagavantamātrēyamagnivēśa uvāca- naitāvatā vākyēnōktaṁ vākyārthamavagāhāmahē,bhagavatā buddhyā bhūyastaramatō'nuvyākhyāyamānaṁ śuśrūṣāmaha iti||3||
‘puruSho~ayaM lokasammitaH’ ityuvAca bhagavAn punarvasurAtreyaH| yAvanto hi loke (mUrtimanto  ) bhAvavisheShAstAvantaH puruShe, yAvantaH puruShe tAvanto loke; ityevaMvAdinaM bhagavantamAtreyamagnivesha uvAca-naitAvatA vAkyenoktaM vAkyArthamavagAhAmahe, bhagavatA buddhyA bhUyastaramato~anuvyAkhyAyamAnaM shushrUShAmaha iti||3||
Lord Punarvasu Atreya said that the purusha is similar to the loka. Whatever specific murtimantabhava (embodiments) are present in the loka, the same are in the purusha. Similarly, whatever is in purusha, is also in the loka. Having listened thus to Lord Atreya, Agnivesha said, "We are unable to grasp the idea contained in this aphoristic statement, hence we want to hear a more detailed exposition from you, O Lord!" 
तमुवाच भगवानात्रेयः- अपरिसङ्ख्येया लोकावयवविशेषाः, पुरुषावयवविशेषा अप्यपरिसङ्ख्येयाः; तेषां यथास्थूलंकतिचिद्भावान् सामान्यमभिप्रेत्योदाहरिष्यामः, तानेकमना निबोध सम्यगुपवर्ण्यमानानग्निवेश!| षड्धातवः समुदिताः ‘लोक’ इति शब्दं लभन्ते; तद्यथा- पृथिव्यापस्तेजो वायुराकाशं ब्रह्म चाव्यक्तमिति, एत एव चषड्धातवः समुदिताः ‘पुरुष’ इति शब्दं लभन्ते||४||
tamuvāca bhagavānātrēyaḥ- aparisaṅkhyēyā lōkāvayavaviśēṣāḥ, puruṣāvayavaviśēṣāapyaparisaṅkhyēyāḥ; tēṣāṁ yathāsthūlaṁ katicidbhāvān sāmānyamabhiprētyōdāhariṣyāmaḥ,tānēkamanā nibōdha Sāmyagupavarṇyamānānagnivēśa!| ṣaḍdhātavaḥ samuditāḥ ‘loka’ iti śabdaṁ labhantē; tadyathā- pr̥thivyāpastējō vāyurākāśaṁ brahmacāvyaktamiti, ēta ēva ca ṣaḍdhātavaḥ samuditāḥ ‘puruṣa’ iti śabdaṁ labhantē||4||
tamuvAca bhagavAnAtreyaH- aparisa~gkhyeyA lokAvayavavisheShAH, puruShAvayavavisheShA apyaparisa~gkhyeyAH; teShAM yathAsthUlaM katicidbhAvAnsAmAnyamabhipretyodAhariShyAmaH, tAnekamanA nibodha samyagupavarNyamAnAnagnivesha!| ShaDdhAtavaH samuditAH ‘puruSha’ iti shabdaM labhante; tadyathA- pRuthivyApastejo vAyurAkAshaM brahma cAvyaktamiti, eta eva ca ShaDdhAtavaH samuditAH‘puruSha’ iti shabdaM labhante||4||
Lord Atreya replied, "Innumerable are the specific parts (different unit constituents) of the loka and so are innumerable the specific parts (unit constituents) of a purusha. I will explain (to you) some of the gross entities common (to the loka and purusha) because it is very difficult to mention all of them, but the rest you understand yourself by inference.
Attentively, listen to me O Agnivesha!, The aggregate (collective combination) of the six dhatus, viz. prithvi, apa, tejas, vayu, akasha and unmanifested Brahman is termed as loka (universe) and (similarly these) six constituents also make the purusha. [3-4]
Identity of avayava /parts/ factors of samyatva (similarity) in purusha (man) with those of loka (universe)
तस्य पुरुषस्य पृथिवी मूर्तिः, आपः क्लेदः, तेजोऽभिसन्तापः, वायुः प्राणः, वियत् सुषिराणि, ब्रह्म अन्तरात्मा| यथा खलु ब्राह्मी विभूतिर्लोके तथा पुरुषेऽप्यान्तरात्मिकी विभूतिः, ब्रह्मणो विभूतिर्लोके प्रजापतिरन्तरात्मनो विभूतिः पुरुषेसत्त्वं, यस्त्विन्द्रो लोके स पुरुषेऽहङ्कारः, आदित्यस्त्वादानं, रुद्रो रोषः, सोमः प्रसादः, वसवः सुखम्, अश्विनौ कान्तिः,मरुदुत्साहः, विश्वेदेवाः सर्वेन्द्रियाणि सर्वेन्द्रियार्थाश्च, तमो मोहः, ज्योतिर्ज्ञानं, यथा लोकस्य सर्गादिस्तथा पुरुषस्य गर्भाधानं,यथा कृतयुगमेवं बाल्यं, यथा त्रेता तथा यौवनं, यथा द्वापरस्तथा स्थाविर्यं, यथा कलिरेवमातुर्यं, यथा युगान्तस्तथामरणमिति| एवमेतेनानुमानेनानुक्तानामपि लोकपुरुषयोरवयवविशेषाणामग्निवेश! सामान्यं विद्यादिति||५||
tasya puruṣasya pr̥thivī mūrtiḥ, āpaḥ klēdaḥ, tējō'bhisantāpaḥ, vāyuḥ prāṇaḥ, viyat suṣirāṇi, brahmaantarātmā| yathā khalu brāhmī vibhūtirlōkē tathā puruṣē'pyāntarātmikī vibhūtiḥ, brahmaṇō vibhūtirlōkēprajāpatirantarātmanō vibhūtiḥ puruṣē sattvaṁ, yastvindrō lōkē sa puruṣē'haṅkāraḥ, ādityastvādānaṁ,rudrō rōṣaḥ, sōmaḥ prasādaḥ, vasavaḥ sukham, aśvinau kāntiḥ, marudutsāhaḥ, viśvēdēvāḥ sarvēndriyāṇisarvēndriyārthāśca, tamō mōhaḥ, jyōtirjñānaṁ, yathā lōkasya sargādistathā puruṣasya garbhādhānaṁ,yathā kr̥tayugamēvaṁ bālyaṁ, yathā trētā tathā yauvanaṁ, yathā dvāparastathā sthāviryaṁ, yathākalirēvamāturyaṁ, yathā yugāntastathā maraṇamiti| ēvamētēnānumānēnānuktānāmapi lōkapuruṣayōravayavaviśēṣāṇāmagnivēśa! sāmānyaṁ vidyāditi||5||
tasya puruShasya pRuthivI mUrtiH, ApaH kledaH, tejo~abhisantApaH, vAyuH prANaH, viyat suShirANi, brahma antarAtmA| yathA khalu brAhmI vibhUtirloke tathA puruShe~apyAntarAtmikI vibhUtiH, brahmaNo vibhUtirloke prajApatirantarAtmano vibhUtiH puruShe sattvaM, yastvindro lokesa puruShe~aha~gkAraH, AdityastvAdAnaM, rudro roShaH, somaH prasAdaH, vasavaH sukham, ashvinau kAntiH, marudutsAhaH, vishvedevAH sarvendriyANisarvendriyArthAshca, tamo mohaH, jyotirj~jAnaM, yathA lokasya sargAdistathA puruShasya garbhAdhAnaM, yathA kRutayugamevaM bAlyaM, yathA tretA tathAyauvanaM, yathA dvAparastathA sthAviryaM, yathA kalirevamAturyaM, yathA yugAntastathA maraNamiti| evametenAnumAnenAnuktAnAmapi lokapuruShayoravayavavisheShANAmagnivesha! sAmAnyaM vidyAditi||5||
In the person, prithvi, apa, tejas, vayu, akasha and Brahman are represented in the form of embodiments, moisture, heat, vital breath, space and the Self (atman) respectively. As is the magnificence of the Brahman, the super-consciousness, in the universe so is that of the atman in the person. While in the universe, the splendor of the Brahman is personified by Prajapati, the atman in the purusha is represented by the mind. Similarly, Indra in the universe is represented by ego in the person, Aditya (the sun) is represented in the processes that consume nutrients, Rudra in agitation, Soma (the moon) in cheerfulness, Vasu in happiness, Marut (the air) in enthusiasm, Ashwin in luster, Vishvadeva in all sense organs and their objects, darkness in ignorance, light in knowledge. just as there is act of creation in the universe, so also in man there is conception. Corresponding to krita yuga( the first age of universe), there is childhood. Corresponding to treta yuga (the second age), is youth. Corresponding to dwapara yuga (the third age), there is old age. Corresponding to kali yuga(the last age), is infirmity or diseases. Thus corresponding to the end of world cycle, is death in man. Thus, O Agnivesha, analogies between various features and phenomena could be drawn from the macrocosm to understand the microcosm (and vice versa). 
Applied aspect of the knowledge of the purusha (man/individual) -an epitome / miniture of the loka (universe)
एवंवादिनं भगवन्तमात्रेयमग्निवेश उवाच- एवमेतत् सर्वमनपवादं यथोक्तं भगवता लोकपुरुषयोः सामान्यम्| किन्न्वस्य सामान्योपदेशस्य प्रयोजनमिति||६||
ēvaṁvādinaṁ bhagavantamātrēyamagnivēśa uvāca- ēvamētat sarvamanapavādaṁ yathōktaṁ bhagavatālōkapuruṣayōḥ sāmānyam| kinnvasya sāmānyōpadēśasya prayōjanamiti||6||
evaMvAdinaM bhagavantamAtreyamagnivesha uvAca- evametat sarvamanapavAdaM yathoktaM bhagavatA lokapuruShayoH sAmAnyam| kinnvasya sAmAnyopadeshasya prayojanamiti||6||
When Lord Atreya finished his talk, Agnivesha said, “The similarity between purusha and the universe is undoubtedly logical. What is the purpose of this discourse in the context of medicine?”
भगवानुवाच-शृण्वग्निवेश! सर्वलोकमात्मन्यात्मानं च सर्वलोके सममनुपश्यतः सत्या बुद्धिः समुत्पद्यते| सर्वलोकं ह्यात्मनि पश्यतो भवत्यात्मैव सुखदुःखयोः कर्ता नान्य इति|कर्मात्मकत्वाच्च हेत्वादिभिर्युक्तः सर्वलोकोऽहमिति विदित्वा ज्ञानं पूर्वमुत्थाप्यतेऽपवर्गायेति|तत्र संयोगापेक्षीलोकशब्दः| षड्धातुसमुदायो हि सामान्यतः सर्वलोकः||७||
bhagavānuvāca-śr̥ṇvagnivēśa! sarvalōkamātmanyātmānaṁ ca sarvalōkē samamanupaśyataḥ satyā buddhiḥ samutpadyatē| sarvalōkaṁ hyātmani paśyatō Bhāvatyātmaiva sukhaduḥkhayōḥ kartā nānya iti| karmātmakatvācca hētvādibhiryuktaḥ sarvalōkō'hamiti viditvā jñānaṁ pūrvamutthāpyatē'pavargāyēti| tatra saṁyōgāpēkṣīlōkaśabdaḥ| ṣaḍdhātusamudāyō hi sāmānyataḥ sarvalōkaḥ||7||
bhagavAnuvAca- shRuNvagnivesha! sarvalokamAtmanyAtmAnaM ca sarvaloke samamanupashyataH satyA  buddhiH samutpadyate| sarvalokaM hyAtmani pashyato bhavatyAtmaiva sukhaduHkhayoH kartA nAnya iti| karmAtmakatvAcca hetvAdibhiryuktaH sarvaloko~ahamiti viditvA j~jAnaM pUrvamutthApyate~apavargAyeti| tatra saMyogApekShIlokashabdaH| ShaDdhAtusamudAyo hi sAmAnyataH sarvalokaH||7||
Lord Atreya replied that seeing the universe in the purusha, and vice-versa, gives rise to true knowledge. With such (true) knowledge, one would realize that the atman, or the Self, alone is responsible for bliss and sorrow and no one else. With this knowledge, one realizes that the whole world, being of the nature of activity and yoked to motivating factors etc. is as own self, one awakens the primary knowledge leading to salvation. The word loka here denotes aggregation. Generally, the entire universe (and the purusha) is made up of six constituents. 
Dukha (miseries) and sukha (happiness) of the purusha (man / individual)
तस्य हेतुः, उत्पत्तिः, वृद्धिः, उपप्लवः, वियोगश्च| तत्र हेतुरुत्पत्तिकारणं, उत्पत्तिर्जन्म, वृद्धिराप्यायनम्, उपप्लवो दुःखागमः, षड्धातुविभागो वियोगः सजीवापगमः सप्राणनिरोधः स भङ्गः स लोकस्वभावः| तस्य मूलं सर्वोपप्लवानां च प्रवृत्तिः, निवृत्तिरुपरमः| प्रवृत्तिर्दुःखं, निवृत्तिः सुखमिति यज्ज्ञानमुत्पद्यते तत् सत्यम्| तस्य हेतुः सर्वलोकसामान्यज्ञानम्| एतत्प्रयोजनं सामान्योपदेशस्येति||८||
tasya hētuḥ, utpattiḥ, vr̥ddhiḥ, upaplavaḥ, viyōgaśca| tatra hēturutpattikāraṇaṁ, utpattirjanma, vr̥ddhirāpyāyanam, upaplavō duḥkhāgamaḥ, ṣaḍdhātuvibhāgōviyōgaḥ sajīvāpagamaḥ sa prāṇanirōdhaḥ sa bhaṅgaḥ sa lōkasvabhāvaḥ|tasya mUlaM sarvopaplavAnAM ca pravRuttiH, nivRuttiruparamaH| pravRuttirduHkhaM, nivRuttiH sukhamiti yajj~jAnamutpadyate tat satyam| tasya hetuH sarvalokasAmAnyaj~jAnam| etatprayojanaM sAmAnyopadeshasyeti||8||
tasya hetuH, utpattiH, vRuddhiH, upaplavaH, viyogashca| tatra heturutpattikAraNaM, utpattirjanma, vRuddhirApyAyanam, upaplavo duHkhAgamaH, ShaDdhAtuvibhAgo viyogaH sajIvApagamaH sa prANanirodhaH sabha~ggaH sa lokasvabhAvaH| tasya mUlaM sarvopaplavAnAM ca pravRuttiH, nivRuttiruparamaH| pravRuttirduHkhaM, nivRuttiH sukhamiti yajj~jAnamutpadyate tat satyam| tasya hetuH sarvalokasAmAnyaj~jAnam| etatprayojanaM sAmAnyopadeshasyeti||8||
There are hetu, utpatti, vriddhi, upaplava and viyoga for purusha (man) and loka (universe). Hetu is the cause of manifestation, utpatti is germination or birth, vriddhi is growth, upaplava is advent of miseries. Viyoga is departure of soul, cessation of vital breath, disruption, dissolution of the six constituents and the reverting to the primordial state. The root cause of universe and all upaplava(advent of miseries) is pravritti (action/attachment). Nivritti (inaction/detachment from worldly affairs) leads to its destruction (of all miseries). Attachment leads to miseries and detachment to bliss. Realization of this fact is truth (pure knowledge). Imparting this knowledge is the purpose of describing this principle. 
Cause of pravritti (attachment) and method of nivritti (detachment)
अथाग्निवेश उवाच- किम्मूला भगवन्! प्रवृत्तिः, निवृत्तौ च क उपाय इति||९||
athāgnivēśa uvāca- kimmūlā bhagavan! pravr̥ttiḥ, nivr̥ttau ca ka upāya iti||9||
athAgnivēśaa uvAca- kimmUlA bhagavan! pravRuttiH, nivRuttau ca ka upAya iti||9||
Agnivesha then asks, "What is cause of pravritti (attachment) and methods of nivritti (detachment) ?".
भगवानुवाच- मोहेच्छाद्वेषकर्ममूला प्रवृत्तिः|
तज्जा ह्यहङ्कारसङ्गसंशयाभिसम्प्लवाभ्यवपातविप्रत्ययाविशेषानुपायास्तरुणमिव द्रुममतिविपुलशाखास्तरवोऽभिभूयपुरुषमवतत्यैवोत्तिष्ठन्ते; यैरभिभूतो न सत्तामतिवर्तते|
यन्मनोवाक्कायकर्म नापवर्गाय ससङ्गः,
कर्मफलमोक्षपुरुषप्रेत्यभावादयः सन्ति वा नेति संशयः,
सर्वावस्थास्वनन्योऽहमहं स्रष्टा स्वभावसंसिद्धोऽहमहंशरीरेन्द्रियबुद्धिस्मृतिविशेषराशिरिति ग्रहणमभिसम्प्लवः,
मम मातृपितृभ्रातृदारापत्यबन्धुमित्रभृत्यगणो गणस्यचाहमित्यभ्यवपातः,
कार्याकार्यहिताहितशुभाशुभेषु विपरीताभिनिवेशो विप्रत्ययः,
ज्ञाज्ञयोः प्रकृतिविकारयोः प्रवृत्तिनिवृत्त्योश्चसामान्यदर्शनमविशेषः,
प्रोक्षणानशनाग्निहोत्रत्रिषवणाभ्युक्षणावाहनयाजनयजनयाचनसलिलहुताशनप्रवेशादयः समारम्भाःप्रोच्यन्ते ह्यनुपायाः|
एवमयमधीधृतिस्मृतिरहङ्काराभिनिविष्टः सक्तः ससंशयोऽभिसम्प्लुतबुद्धिरभ्यवपतितोऽन्यथादृष्टिरविशेषग्राहीविमार्गगतिर्निवासवृक्षः सत्त्वशरीरदोषमूलानां सर्वदुःखानां भवति|
एवमहङ्कारादिभिर्दोषैर्भ्राम्यमाणो नातिवर्तते प्रवृत्तिं, सा च मूलमघस्य||१०||
bhagavānuvāca- mōhēcchādvēṣakarmamūlā pravr̥ttiḥ| tajjā hyahaṅkārasaṅgasaṁśayābhisamplavābhyavapātavipratyayāviśēṣānupāyāstaruṇamivadrumamativipulaśākhāstaravō'bhibhūya puruṣamavatatyaivōttiṣṭhantē; yairabhibhūtō na sattāmativartatē| tatraivañjātirūpavittavr̥ttabuddhiśīlavidyābhijanavayōvīryaprabhāvasampannō'hamityahaṅkāraḥ,yanmanōvākkāyakarma nāpavargāya sa saṅgaḥ, karmaphalamōkṣapuruṣaprētyabhāvādayaḥ santi vā nētisaṁśayaḥ, sarvāvasthāsvananyō'hamahaṁ sraṣṭā svabhāvasaṁsiddhō'hamahaṁśarīrēndriyabuddhismr̥tiviśēṣarāśiriti grahaṇamabhisamplavaḥ, mamamātr̥pitr̥bhrātr̥dārāpatyabandhumitrabhr̥tyagaṇō gaṇasya cāhamityabhyavapātaḥ,kāryākāryahitāhitaśubhāśubhēṣu viparītābhinivēśō vipratyayaḥ, jñājñayōḥ prakr̥tivikārayōḥpravr̥ttinivr̥ttyōśca sāmānyadarśanamaviśēṣaḥ,prōkṣaṇānaśanāgnihōtratriṣavaṇābhyukṣaṇāvāhanayājanayajanayācanasalilahutāśanapravēśādayaḥsamārambhāḥ prōcyantē hyanupāyāḥ| ēvamayamadhīdhr̥tismr̥tirahaṅkārābhiniviṣṭaḥ saktaḥsasaṁśayō'bhisamplutabuddhirabhyavapatitō'nyathādr̥ṣṭiraviśēṣagrāhī vimārgagatirnivāsavr̥kṣaḥsattvaśarīradōṣamūlānāṁ sarvaduḥkhānāṁ Bhāvati| ēvamahaṅkārādibhirdōṣairbhrāmyamāṇō nātivartatē pravr̥ttiṁ, sā ca mūlamaghasya||10||
tajjA hyaha~gkArasa~ggasaMshayAbhisamplavAbhyavapAtavipratyayAvisheShAnupAyAstaruNamiva drumamativipulashAkhAstaravo~abhibhUyapuruShamavatatyaivottiShThante; yairabhibhUto na sattAmativartate| tatraiva~jjAtirUpavittavRuttabuddhishIlavidyAbhijanavayovIryaprabhAvasampanno~ahamityaha~gkAraH, yanmanovAkkAyakarma nApavargAya sa sa~ggaH,karmaphalamokShapuruShapretyabhAvAdayaH santi vA neti saMshayaH, sarvAvasthAsvananyo~ahamahaM sraShTA svabhAvasaMsiddho~ahamahaMsharIrendriyabuddhismRutivisheSharAshiriti grahaNamabhisamplavaH, mama mAtRupitRubhrAtRudArApatyabandhumitrabhRutyagaNo gaNasyacAhamityabhyavapAtaH, kAryAkAryahitAhitashubhAshubheShu viparItAbhinivesho vipratyayaH, j~jAj~jayoH prakRutivikArayoH pravRuttinivRuttyoshcasAmAnyadarshanamavisheShaH, prokShaNAnashanAgnihotratriShavaNAbhyukShaNAvAhanayAjanayajanayAcanasalilahutAshanapraveshAdayaH samArambhAHprocyante hyanupAyAH| evamayamadhIdhRutismRutiraha~gkArAbhiniviShTaH saktaH sasaMshayo~abhisamplutabuddhirabhyavapatito~anyathAdRuShTiravisheShagrAhIvimArgagatirnivAsavRukShaH sattvasharIradoShamUlAnAM sarvaduHkhAnAM bhavati| evamaha~gkArAdibhirdoShairbhrAmyamANo nAtivartate pravRuttiM, sA ca mUlamaghasya||10||
Lord Atreya replied, “The source of attachment are ignorance, desire, hatred and purposeful action. This in turns give rise to ahamkara (ego), sanga (attachment), samshaya (skepticism), abhisamplava (mistaken self-identity), abhyavapata (false sense of ownership), vipratyaya (sensing opposite of reality), avishesha (inability to distinguish between consciousness/unconsciousness) and anupaya (inappropriate means) that engulf an individual just like the very long branches of a big tree smother a sapling. A person overwhelmed by these emotions stays trapped in the affairs of the world.
Ahamkara means egoism. E.g., "I belong to a high descent and possess beauty, wealth, conduct, intelligence, character, modesty, learning, fame, age, power and influence."
Sanga, or attachment, includes the mental, vocal, or physical deeds associated with attachment that are not conducive to the attainment of emancipation or salvation.
Samshaya, or skepticism regarding the existence of the result of the past action, salvation, soul, life after death, etc.
Abhisamplava is the mistaken perception of identifying one’s atman with one’s body, such as "I am second to none in any situation; I am the creator; I am an accomplished person by nature and I am the aggregate of body, sense organs, intelligence and memory.”
Abhyavapata is the sense of ownership, such as " mother, father, brother, wife, progeny, keen, friend and servants belong to me and I am theirs."
Vipratyaya, or considering a desirable act as undesirable, a beneficial thing as harmful and an auspicious act/thing as inauspicious (and vice versa).
Avishesha, or the lack of distinction between a consciousness and unconsciousness, nature and its modifications, attachment and detachment.
Anupaya, or inefficient religious rituals such as prokshana (consecration), anashana (fasting), agnihotra (oblation to the fire), trishavana (worship with soma thrice a day while performing sacrifice), abhyukshana (wetting), aavahana (invocation), yajana (leading or guiding sacrificial rituals), yajna (sacrificial rituals), yachana (begging) and entering into water and fire. (Though these means are listed in good code of conduct, these can create attachments to life and desires. Therefore these means are inefficient in attaining liberation.)
Thus, if a person is devoid of intellect, restraint and memory, but is egoistic, skeptic, self-centered, is attached (to objects or actions), and is unable to discern between good or bad, self and the physical body, etc. he is an abode of all miseries. Such feelings are the root cause of vitiation of doshas relating to the mind and body. Such a person is trapped in the cycle of life and death and cannot attain salvation (from miseries). The ultimate goal of Ayurveda is salvation from all sorts of miseries which depends upon the wellbeing of the purusha - individually as well as socially. 
Moksha (Salvation) and ways and means of attaining it
निवृत्तिरपवर्गः; तत् परं प्रशान्तं तत्तदक्षरं तद्ब्रह्म स मोक्षः||११||
nivr̥ttirapavargaḥ; tat paraṁ praśāntaṁ tattadakṣaraṁ tadbrahma sa mōkṣaḥ||11||
nivRuttirapavargaH; tat paraM prashAntaM tattadakSharaM tadbrahma sa mokShaH||11||
Disinclination/detachment from worldly affairs is apavarga (salvation). It is the para (the supreme), prashanta (the serene), akshara (the immutable), the Brahman (the super-consciousness), and the moksha (emancipation). 
तत्र मुमुक्षूणामुदयनानि व्याख्यास्यामः|
तत्र लोकदोषदर्शिनो मुमुक्षोरादित एवाचार्याभिगमनं, तस्योपदेशानुष्ठानम्, अग्नेरेवोपचर्या, धर्मशास्त्रानुगमनं, तदार्थावबोधः,तेनावष्टम्भः, तत्र यथोक्ताः क्रियाः, सतामुपासनम्, असतां परिवर्जनम्, असङ्गतिर्दुर्जनेन, सत्यंसर्वभूतहितमपरुषमनतिकाले परीक्ष्य वचनं, सर्वप्राणिषु चात्मनीवावेक्षा, सर्वासामस्मरणमसङ्कल्पनमप्रार्थनमनभिभाषणं चस्त्रीणां, सर्वपरिग्रहत्यागः, कौपीनं प्रच्छादनार्थं, धातुरागनिवसनं, कन्थासीवनहेतोः सूचीपिप्पलकं, शौचाधानतोर्जलकुण्डिका,दण्डधारणं, भैक्षचर्यार्थं पात्रं, प्राणधारणार्थमेककालमग्राम्यो यथोपपन्नोऽभ्यवहारः, श्रमापनयनार्थंशीर्णशुष्कपर्णतृणास्तरणोपधानं, ध्यानहेतोः कायनिबन्धनं, वनेष्वनिकेतवासः, तन्द्रानिन्द्रालस्यादिकर्मवर्जनं,इन्द्रियार्थेष्वनुरागोपतापनिग्रहः, सुप्तस्थितगतप्रेक्षिता हारविहारप्रत्यङ्गचेष्टादिकेष्वारम्भेषु स्मृतिपूर्विका प्रवृत्तिः,सत्कारस्तुतिगर्हावमानक्षमत्वं, क्षुत्पिपासायासश्रमशीतोष्णवातवर्षासुखदुःखसंस्पर्शसहत्वं,शोकदैन्यमानोद्वेगमदलोभरागेर्ष्याभयक्रोधादिभिरसञ्चलनम्, अहङ्कारादिषूपसर्गसञ्ज्ञा, लोकपुरुषयोःसर्गादिसामान्यावेक्षणं, कार्यकालात्ययभयं, योगारम्भे सततमनिर्वेदः, सत्त्वोत्साहः, अपवर्गाय धीधृतिस्मृतिबलाधानं;नियमनमिन्द्रियाणां चेतसि, चेतस आत्मनि, आत्मनश्च; धातुभेदेन शरीरावयवसङ्ख्यानमभीक्ष्णं, सर्वंकारणवद्दुःखमस्वमनित्यमित्यभ्युपगमः, सर्वप्रवृत्तिष्वघसञ्ज्ञा  , सर्वसन्न्यासे सुखमित्यभिनिवेशः; एष मार्गोऽपवर्गाय,अतोऽन्यथा बध्यते; इत्युदयनानि व्याख्यातानि||१२||
tatra mumukṣūṇāmudayanāni vyākhyāsyāmaḥ|
tatra lōkadōṣadarśinō mumukṣōrādita ēvācāryābhigamanaṁ, tasyōpadēśānuṣṭhānam, agnērēvōpacaryā,dharmaśāstrānugamanaṁ, tadārthāvabōdhaḥ, tēnāvaṣṭambhaḥ, tatra yathōktāḥ kriyāḥ, satāmupāsanam,asatāṁ parivarjanam, asaṅgatirdurjanēna, satyaṁ sarvabhūtahitamaparuṣamanatikālē parīkṣya vacanaṁ,sarvaprāṇiṣu cātmanīvāvēkṣā, sarvāsāmasmaraṇamasaṅkalpanamaprārthanamanabhibhāṣaṇaṁ castrīṇāṁ, sarvaparigrahatyāgaḥ, kaupīnaṁ pracchādanārthaṁ, dhāturāganivasanaṁ, kanthāsīvanahētōḥsūcīpippalakaṁ, śaucādhānatōrjalakuṇḍikā, daṇḍadhāraṇaṁ, bhaikṣacaryārthaṁ pātraṁ,prāṇadhāraṇārthamēkakālamagrāmyō yathōpapannō'bhyavahāraḥ, śramāpanayanārthaṁśīrṇaśuṣkaparṇatr̥ṇāstaraṇōpadhānaṁ, dhyānahētōḥ kāyanibandhanaṁ, vanēṣvanikētavāsaḥ,tandrānindrālasyādikarmavarjanaṁ, indriyārthēṣvanurāgōpatāpanigrahaḥ, suptasthitagataprēkṣitāhāravihārapratyaṅgacēṣṭādikēṣvārambhēṣu smr̥tipūrvikā pravr̥ttiḥ, satkārastutigarhāvamānakṣamatvaṁ,kṣutpipāsāyāsaśramaśītōṣṇavātavarṣāsukhaduḥkhasaṁsparśasahatvaṁ,śōkadainyamānōdvēgamadalōbharāgērṣyābhayakrōdhādibhirasañcalanam, ahaṅkārādiṣūpasargasañjñā,lōkapuruṣayōḥ sargādisāmānyāvēkṣaṇaṁ, kāryakālātyayabhayaṁ, yōgārambhē satatamanirvēdaḥ,sattvōtsāhaḥ, apavargāya dhīdhr̥tismr̥tibalādhānaṁ; niyamanamindriyāṇāṁ cētasi, cētasa ātmani,ātmanaśca; dhātubhēdēna śarīrāvayavasaṅkhyānamabhīkṣṇaṁ, sarvaṁkāraṇavadduḥkhamasvamanityamityabhyupagamaḥ, sarvapravr̥ttiṣvaghasañjñā  , sarvasannyāsēsukhamityabhinivēśaḥ; ēṣa mārgō'pavargāya, atō'nyathā badhyatē; ityudayanāni vyākhyātāni||12||
tatra lokadoShadarshino mumukShorAdita evAcAryAbhigamanaM, tasyopadeshAnuShThAnam, agnerevopacaryA, dharmashAstrAnugamanaM, tadArthAvabodhaH,tenAvaShTambhaH, tatra yathoktAH kriyAH, satAmupAsanam, asatAM parivarjanam, asa~ggatirdurjanena, satyaM sarvabhUtahitamaparuShamanatikAle parIkShyavacanaM, sarvaprANiShu cAtmanIvAvekShA, sarvAsAmasmaraNamasa~gkalpanamaprArthanamanabhibhAShaNaM ca strINAM, sarvaparigrahatyAgaH, kaupInaMpracchAdanArthaM, dhAturAganivasanaM, kanthAsIvanahetoH sUcIpippalakaM, shaucAdhAnatorjalakuNDikA, daNDadhAraNaM, bhaikShacaryArthaM pAtraM,prANadhAraNArthamekakAlamagrAmyo yathopapanno~abhyavahAraH, shramApanayanArthaM shIrNashuShkaparNatRuNAstaraNopadhAnaM, dhyAnahetoHkAyanibandhanaM, vaneShvaniketavAsaH, tandrAnindrAlasyAdikarmavarjanaM, indriyArtheShvanurAgopatApanigrahaH, suptasthitagataprekShitAhAravihArapratya~ggaceShTAdikeShvArambheShu smRutipUrvikA pravRuttiH, satkArastutigarhAvamAnakShamatvaM,kShutpipAsAyAsashramashItoShNavAtavarShAsukhaduHkhasaMsparshasahatvaM, shokadainyamAnodvegamadalobharAgerShyAbhayakrodhAdibhirasa~jcalanam,aha~gkArAdiShUpasargasa~jj~jA, lokapuruShayoH sargAdisAmAnyAvekShaNaM, kAryakAlAtyayabhayaM, yogArambhe satatamanirvedaH, sattvotsAhaH,apavargAya dhIdhRutismRutibalAdhAnaM; niyamanamindriyANAM cetasi, cetasa Atmani, Atmanashca; dhAtubhedena sharIrAvayavasa~gkhyAnamabhIkShNaM,sarvaM kAraNavadduHkhamasvamanityamityabhyupagamaH, sarvapravRuttiShvaghasa~jj~jA  , sarvasannyAse sukhamityabhiniveshaH; eShamArgo~apavargAya, ato~anyathA badhyate; ityudayanAni vyAkhyAtAni||12||
We shall now describe the path and means for attaining emancipation. One who sees defects of the world (and therefore is disenchanted with it) and is desirous of attaining salvation should do the following:
- Submit to a teacher/ preceptor (who can impart instructions for attaining salvation)
- Put those instructions to practice
- Tend to exclusive service to the ceremonial fire;
- Study the sacred religious scriptures;
- Understand the meaning of such scriptures;
- Imbibe the teachings in those scriptures;
- Mould one’s conduct as prescribed therein;
- Seek the company of like-minded individuals and saints;
- Eschew the company of wicked ;
- Speak statements that are true, useful for all creatures and gentle; such statements should be made after pro¬per examination at appropriate time;
- View all creatures as if they are like him;
- Lead life as a celibate, avoiding all contacts - including remembering, thinking, questing and discourse with the opposite sex;
- Renounce all worldly acquisitions;
- Retain only the following to sustain one’s life as a seeker of salvation:
- Kaupina ( loin-cloth );
- Ochre/Saffron coloured dress;
- A needle-case for mending the clothing;
- A water pot for cleansing;
- A medicant’s staff;
- A bowl to collect alms;
- Meal only once-a-day, consisting of wild grains if possible, to sustain one’s life;
- In case of fatigue, shall take rest on bed made of dry leaves, grass, etc.;
- Kayanibandhana (wooden resting plank/arm rest) for aid in meditation;
- Staying lonely in the forest;
- Avoid drowsiness, lassitude, sleep, etc.;
- Avoiding attachment or hatred towards sensory objects (animate or inanimate);
- Introspect (thinking of the nature of one’s Self) while sleeping, seeing, eating, moving one’s limbs, etc.;
- Maintain equanimity and serenity when being praised or insulted, honoured or criticised;
- Tolerate hunger, thirst, physical stress, cold, heat, wind, rains, happiness, misery, and sensory contacts;
- Be unaffected by sorrow, dejection, ego, vanity, greed, attachment, envy, fear, anger, etc.;
- Regard ego as the root cause of all sufferings;
- Observe the similarity between manifestation, etc. of man and the universe
- Be afraid of procrastinations in performing these duties to attain salvation ;
- Never lose one’s inclination to performing yogic practices;
- Be in enthusiastic frame of mind;
- Intellect, restraint and memory should be empowered to attain emancipation;
- Restrain sense organs by means of the mind, the mind by the soul and the soul by itself;
- Constantly (try to know) the body constituents by knowing basic elements and think it is just a matter
- Realise that all worldly objects are painful, transient and not eternal.
- Regard all activities as cause of evil and renunciation of all things is true happiness
This is the path to attaining salvation else one finds himself in bondage. [11-12]
एतैरविमलं सत्त्वं शुद्ध्युपायैर्विशुध्यति| मृज्यमान इवादर्शस्तैलचेलकचादिभिः||१३||
ētairavimalaṁ sattvaṁ śuddhyupāyairviśudhyati| mr̥jyamāna ivādarśastailacēlakacādibhiḥ||13||
etairavimalaM sattvaM shuddhyupAyairvishudhyati| mRujyamAna ivAdarshastailacelakacAdibhiH||13||
Thus, it is said: By these purifying factors, the vitiated mind gets purified like a mirror is cleansed with the help of brush and cleansing solutions , etc. 
ग्रहाम्बुदरजोधूमनीहारैरसमावृतम्| यथाऽर्कमण्डलं भाति भाति सत्त्वं तथाऽमलम्||१४||
grahāmbudarajōdhūmanīhārairasamāvr̥tam| yathā'rkamaṇḍalaṁ bhāti bhāti sattvaṁ tathā'malam||14||
grahAmbudarajodhUmanIhArairasamAvRutam| yathA~arkamaNDalaM bhAti bhAti sattvaM tathA~amalam||14||
Thus, the purified mind shines like the sun’s orb that has emerged out of an eclipse, clouds, dust, smoke and fog. 
ज्वलत्यात्मनि संरुद्धं तत् सत्त्वं संवृतायने| शुद्धः स्थिरः प्रसन्नार्चिर्दीपो दीपाशये यथा||१५||
jvalatyātmani saṁruddhaṁ tat sattvaṁ saṁvr̥tāyanē| śuddhaḥ sthiraḥ prasannārcirdīpō dīpāśayē yathā||15||
jvalatyAtmani saMruddhaM tat sattvaM saMvRutAyane| shuddhaH sthiraH prasannArcirdIpo dIpAshaye yathA||15||
The mind, focused on the soul with its movement obscured, pure and stable, shines as the lamp shines with steady and luminous bright flame in a lamp case. 
शुद्धसत्त्वस्य या शुद्धा सत्या बुद्धिः प्रवर्तते| यया भिनत्त्यतिबलं महामोहमयं तमः||१६||
śuddhasattvasya yā śuddhā satyā buddhiḥ pravartatē| yayā bhinattyatibalaṁ mahāmōhamayaṁ tamaḥ||16||
shuddhasattvasya yA shuddhA satyA buddhiH pravartate| yayA bhinattyatibalaM mahAmohamayaM tamaH||16||
The pure and true wisdom that originates from a pure mind dispels the excessively thick darkness of illusion caused by ignorance. 
सर्वभावस्वभावज्ञो यया भवति निःस्पृहः| योगं यया साधयते साङ्ख्यः सम्पद्यते यया||१७||
sarvabhāvasvabhāvajñō yayā Bhāvati niḥspr̥haḥ| yōgaṁ yayā sādhayatē sāṅkhyaḥ sampadyatē yayā||17||
sarvabhAvasvabhAvaj~jo yayA bhavati niHspRuhaH| yogaM yayA sAdhayate sA~gkhyaH sampadyate yayA||17||
After this, one realizes the true nature of all beings which brings about detachment to things i.e., one becomes desire less leading to attainment of yogic power and accomplishment of samkhya (knowledge of all categories). 
यया नोपैत्यहङ्कारं नोपास्ते कारणं यया| यया नालम्बते किञ्चित् सर्वं सन्न्यस्यते यया||१८||
yayā nōpaityahaṅkāraṁ nōpāstē kāraṇaṁ yayā| yayā nālambatē kiñcit sarvaṁ sannyasyatē yayā||18||
yayA nopaityaha~gkAraM nopAste kAraNaM yayA| yayA nAlambate ki~jcit sarvaM sannyasyate yayA||18||
These realizations make the individual wise freeing him from ego, leading to freedom from vanity and detachment from the causes of misery. Such a person does not hold anything but renounces everything. 
याति ब्रह्म यया नित्यमजरं शान्तमव्ययम् | विद्या सिद्धिर्मतिर्मेधा प्रज्ञा ज्ञानं च सा मता||१९||
yāti brahma yayā nityamajaraṁ śāntamavyayam | vidyā siddhirmatirmēdhā prajñā jñānaṁ ca sā matā||19||
yAti brahma yayA nityamajaraM shAntamavyayam  | vidyA siddhirmatirmedhA praj~jA j~jAnaM ca sA matA||19||
The Brahman, the Eternal, Immutable, Tranquil and Indestructible, is, thus, attained and is the ultimate wisdom, also known as vidya (learning), siddhi (accomplishment), mati (wisdom), medha (power of retention), prajna (intellect) and jnana (knowledge). 
Identification of the purusha (man/individual) with the loka (universe) -the effect
लोके विततमात्मानं लोकं चात्मनि पश्यतः| परावरदृशः शान्तिर्ज्ञानमूला न नश्यति||२०||
lōkē vitatamātmānaṁ lōkaṁ cātmani paśyataḥ| parāvaradr̥śaḥ śāntirjñānamūlā na naśyati||20||
loke vitatamAtmAnaM lokaM cAtmani pashyataH| parAvaradRushaH shAntirj~jAnamUlA na nashyati||20||
If one perceives himself as extended across entire universe and vice versa (i.e., identifies his true Self with the Brahman), he is said to possess transcendental and worldly vision and his serenity of mind based on this wisdom never fades away. 
पश्यतः सर्वभावान् हि सर्वावस्थासु सर्वदा| ब्रह्मभूतस्य संयोगो न शुद्धस्योपपद्यते||२१||
paśyataḥ sarvabhāvān hi sarvāvasthāsu sarvadā| brahmabhūtasya saṁyōgō na śuddhasyōpapadyatē||21||
pashyataH sarvabhAvAn hi sarvAvasthAsu sarvadA| brahmabhUtasya saMyogo na shuddhasyopapadyate||21||
When a person realizes the presence of everything in all situations, he becomes one with Brahman, the pure. He no longer has any connection with the forces of attachment, which are the cause of misery. 
Liberation from bondage
नात्मनः करणाभावाल्लिङ्गमप्युपलभ्यते| स सर्वकरणायोगान्मुक्त इत्यभिधीयते||२२||
nātmanaḥ karaṇābhāvālliṅgamapyupalabhyatē| sa sarvakaraṇāyōgānmukta ityabhidhīyatē||22||
nAtmanaH karaNAbhAvAlli~ggamapyupalabhyate| sa sarvakaraNAyogAnmukta ityabhidhIyate||22||
At this stage, even the signs of Self cannot be found because once there is detachment from all sensory organs, one is said to be emancipated. 
Synonyms of Shanti (Liberation)
विपापं विरजः शान्तं परमक्षरमव्ययम्| अमृतं ब्रह्म निर्वाणं पर्यायैः शान्तिरुच्यते||२३||
vipāpaṁ virajaḥ śāntaṁ paramakṣaramavyayam| amr̥taṁ brahma nirvāṇaṁ paryāyaiḥ śāntirucyatē||23||
vipApaM virajaH shAntaM paramakSharamavyayam| amRutaM brahma nirvANaM paryAyaiH shAntirucyate||23||
Shanti or Moksha is synonymous with the following –
- Vipapa (free from sins),
- Viraja (free from attachments),
- Shanta (serene),
- Para (absolute),
- Akshara (indestructible),
- Avyaya (immutable)
- Amritam (immortal),
- Brahman (supreme consciousness), and
- Nirvana (the state at extinction of all miseries). 
एतत्तत् सौम्य! विज्ञानं यज्ज्ञात्वा मुक्तसंशयाः| मुनयः प्रशमं जग्मुर्वीतमोहरजःस्पृहाः||२४||
ētattat saumya! vijñānaṁ yajjñātvā muktasaṁśayāḥ| munayaḥ praśamaṁ jagmurvītamōharajaḥspr̥hāḥ||24||
etattat saumya! vij~jAnaM yajj~jAtvA muktasaMshayAH| munayaH prashamaM jagmurvItamoharajaHspRuhAH||24||
O Gentle One! This is the knowledge that, when acquired by the sages, frees them from all skepticism while liberating them from moha (endearment), rajas (ignorance/ passion), leading them to the state of prashama (absolute tranquility) i.e., salvation. 
सप्रयोजनमुद्दिष्टं लोकस्य पुरुषस्य च| सामान्यं मूलमुत्पत्तौ निवृत्तौ मार्ग एव च||२५||
शुद्धसत्त्वसमाधानं सत्या बुद्धिश्च नैष्ठिकी| विचये पुरुषस्योक्ता निष्ठा च परमर्षिणा||२६||
saprayōjanamuddiṣṭaṁ lōkasya puruṣasya ca| sāmānyaṁ mūlamutpattau nivr̥ttau mārga ēva ca||25||
śuddhasattvasamādhānaṁ satyā buddhiśca naiṣṭhikī| vicayē puruṣasyōktā niṣṭhā ca paramarṣiṇā||26||
saprayojanamuddiShTaM lokasya puruShasya ca| sAmAnyaM mUlamutpattau nivRuttau mArga eva ca||25||
shuddhasattvasamAdhAnaM satyA buddhishca naiShThikI| vicaye puruShasyoktA niShThA ca paramarShiNA||26||
To summarize, in this chapter Purusha Vichaya Sharira (The analytical study/search of purusha) the sage has explained:
- The similarities between the universe and the individual along with the purpose of such knowledge, and
- The cause of utapatti (soul’s bondage) and the means for release of the soul.
- Concentration of pure mind and true knowledge leading to final goal (salvation)
- The concept of nishtha (salvation)
All these concepts have been elaborated by the great sage in this chapter [25-26]
Tattva Vimarsha (Fundamental Principles)
- 'purusha (microcosm) is exactly similar to the loka (macrocosm). Whatever specific embodiments are present in the loka, the same are in the purusha. Similarly, whatever is in purusha, is also in the loka.
- The purusha and loka, both are aggregate (collective combination) of six constituents viz. prithvi, apa, tejas, vayu, akasha and un-manifested Brahman (consciousness).
- Seeing the universe in Self and vice-versa, gives rise to true knowledge. With such (true) knowledge, one realizes that the atman, or the Self, alone is responsible for bliss and sorrow and no one else.
- The realization of true knowledge leads to salvation.
- The purusha (man) and loka (universe) both have cause of manifestation, germination or birth, growth, advent of miseries and cessation.
- The root cause of universe and all miseries is pravritti (action/attachment). Nivritti (inaction/detachment from worldly affairs) leads to destruction (of all miseries). Attachment leads to miseries and detachment to bliss. Realization of this fact is truth (pure knowledge).
- The ignorance, hatred, desire are sources of all miseries and lead to attachment to worldly affairs.
- Ahamkara (ego), sanga (attachment), samshaya (skepticism), abhisamplava (mistaken self-identity), abhyavapata (false sense of ownership), vipratyaya (sensing opposite of reality), avishesha (inability to distinguish between consciousness/unconsciousness) and anupaya (believing in outdated traditions) are self-destructive factors arouse due to above said attachment. These are the origins of all evils in the world.
- Disinclination/detachment from worldly affairs is apavarga (salvation). It is the para (the supreme), prashanta (the serene), akshara (the immutable), the Brahman (the super-consciousness), and the moksha (emancipation).
- In order to attain emancipation, one shall follow sadvritta i.e. instructions guided by Ayurveda. This will lead oneself to attain serenity, tranquility, freedom from all miseries.
- The pure and true wisdom that originates from a pure mind dispels the excessively thick darkness of illusion caused by ignorance.
- The supreme human being is the Brahman, the Eternal, Immutable, Tranquil and Indestructible. It possesses the ultimate wisdom, also known as vidya (learning), siddhi (accomplishment), mati (wisdom), medha (power of retention), pranja (intellect) and jyana (knowledge).
- Shanti or Moksha is a state which is vipapa (free from sins), viraja (free from attachments), shanta (serene), para (absolute), akshara (indestructible), avyaya (immutable), amritam (immortal), Brahman (supreme consciousness), and nirvana (the state at extinction of all miseries).
Vidhi Vimarsha (Applied Inferences)
In Vedic philosophies, the atman (sole) transmigrates from one body to the other in the process of birth and death. The happiness and sorrow are cumulative result of self deeds in lifetime.
Eishana and purushartha
There are three primary instincts, or eishanas, of the purusha – praneishana (longevity of life), dhanaeishana (desire for wealth), and paralokaeishana (liberation), etc. A person who possesses unimpaired intelligence, ability to discern, enthusiasm and desire to secure his wellbeing – both in this world and in the world after death – would have these three eishanas. The primary objective is to afford arogya (health), which is essential to attain the four purusharthas (i.e., dharma (righteous life), artha (wealth), kama (pleasure), and moksha (salvation)).
Only when the person accepts the fact that he is one with the universe, that he is made up of the same six dhatus that makes the universe – the five mahabhuta, and Consciousness-, and that egoism, vanity, selfishness, skepticism, etc. are only the manifestations of a mind that wrongly identifies the physical body with the Self, causing the person to suffer from miseries and trapping him into the perennial cycle of birth and death.
Applied aspects of the concept of commonness of the purusha and the universe in the study of health and diseases
The whole premise is the maintaining a state of health that would help an individual attain salvation. To achieve such a state of health requires harmony (samya) between the person (purusha) and the environment around him, or rather, the entire universe (loka). Health cannot be defined only as the absence of disease within the human body, but rather, a state of consciousness where the person identifies himself with the universe, and gets detached from worldly emotions of bliss and grief (while still being able to discern the good and the bad, and avoiding the company of those who cling onto worldly feelings of attachment, ego, vanity, greed, etc.).
Connection of consciousness between man and the universe
The neurologist Dr. David Wiebers in his book “Theory of reality” coined the terms ‘C’ unit as the unit of consciousness in human body and ‘C’ field as the cosmic consciousness. The C unit is always connected with C field to carry out certain functions. The person is a unit of cosmos. Ayurveda narrates Human beings are a microcosm of the planet and exhibit holographic phenomenon. The Self-conscious i.e. ‘C’ unit is a unitary part of ‘C’ field (consciousness) in the cosmos. This C unit is controlling and regulating intellect, that controls mind; and the mind controls sense organs which lead the body as the horses lead a chariot. The interaction of C field with C unit for fetching positive energy from cosmos is of utmost importance. Empowerment of the self-conscious for communication with intellect in brain and mind seated at heart is important mechanism for mental health in holistic view. Therefore promotion of positive mental health shall be focused with a holistic view of all these factors thinking beyond reductionist’s approaches of neurotransmitter, endocrinal and genetic biological theories. Hologram for mental health, the constituents of human being that make the humans real “Humans” are considered vital for complete health.
Panchamahabhuta: the building blocks of the purusha and the loka
The purusha is a microcosm, made up of the same dhatus that constitute the universe: the panchamahabhuta and consciousness (atman, or the Self, within the purusha, and Brahman, or the super consciousness, within the universe) is central to Vedic philosophy in general and Ayurveda in particular. Bodily components – doshas, dhatus, and mala – are also made up of mahabhutas, and so are ahara (food), and aushadha (medicine). A disequilibrium between the environment and the person could therefore vitiate the constitution of the person, the food he eats, and the efficacy of the medication he takes, making him physically or mentally diseased. A society made up of diseased individuals would only make the environment more diseased. Thus, Ayurveda is not just about the health of an individual, but also the health of the planet.
The specific actions and effects of mahabhuta in development of various body constituents, organs, systems are described in previous chapter. [Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 4/12] The knowledge of similarity between man and universe can be applied for diagnosis of ailments and their treatments. The panchabhautika chikitsa system focuses on this principle. E.g. if certain body constituents originated from prithvi mahabhuta (bones) are disordered, then it can be treated with parthiva medicines available in the external world ( viz. shells, minerals).
Health and Disease: Causes
The principle causes of disease are:
- Kala parinama,
- Prajnaparadha, and
- Asatmyaindriyartha Samayoga. [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 1/54] and [Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 1/98]
In this context, it is important to note that kala (time), buddhi (intellect), and indriyartha (sense objects) are the three basic factors that govern an individual’s state of health and disease. Samayoga, or favorable conditions, are conducive to health while vishamayoga (ayoga, atiyoga, and mithyayoga) of kala, buddhi, and indriyartha leads to disease. In the state of health, the basic components of the body – doshas, dhatus, and mala – are in a state of equilibrium, implied by the term samayoga.
Desha (habitat or local environment), and its role in health and disease
The role of desha is significant in matters of health and disease. It denotes the habitat of an individual and is also considered among the karana dravyas in Deerghanjiviteeya Adhyaya. Desha influences the individual’s diet, etiological factors responsible for various diseases, availability of medicinal plants. In fact, extending the man-environment, relationship, examination of one’s locale to be an important factor in the diagnosis of a disease. Desha is classified into three types: anupa desha (marshy land), jangala desha (forested or wooded land), and sadharana desha (mix of marshy and forested land). [Cha.Sa.Kalpa Sthana 1/6] The concept of oka satmya (adjustment or adapting to a particular diet or behavior due to habitual use or practice) is also closely related to desha and season. A diet or medication suitable to a particular region or time may be contraindicated in another.
Kala (temporal factors), and its role in health and disease
Kala plays a very important role, and is a universal factor that affects the purusha and the loka. Vedic texts talk of various time spans, quite similar to those in modern sciences – describing the life-spans of the universe and various celestial objects, as well as that of the purusha. It is also a karana dravya. [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 1/48] Kala does not only mean time, but also seasons (ritu), and from that standpoint, plays an important role in determining causative factors of diseases or prescribing therapies for maintaining health.[Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 11/23],[Cha.Sa.Vimana Sthana 1/21/6], [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 6/4]
Kala also influences doshika rhythm. External environmental changes brought about by changes in the season influence the pattern of doshika changes in the body. These have been described to be of three stages: chaya (or sanchaya, accumulation), prakopa (vitiation, aggravation), and prashamana (remission to normalcy). [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 17/114] These stages generally occur in a natural manner through normal seasonal variations, and therefore care and adjustment in diet and lifestyle to account for these changes is specially advised.
Influence of purusha on loka: janapadodhwamsa
While the purusha is influenced by his environment, the loka is also influenced by purusha by his virtuous as well as destructive activities. The concept of janapadodhwamsa talks of natural as well as man-made calamities and epidemics. [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 1/41], [Cha.Sa.Vimana Sthana 3/9-11] In their natural elements, air, water, land, and seasons are indispensable in this order. This indicates that desha and kala/ritu are the most important factors from the standpoint of maintenance of health or for the occurrence of diseases. Vitiation of these four factors, besides the actions of one’s past life, has a direct bearing on the state of physical and mental health of individuals in particular and societies in general.
The path to achieve a status of complete human being and salvation is described in this chapter.
In conclusion, the causes of somatic and mental health conditions are emphasized, and invariably all point to imbalances in the equilibrium between man and his environment.