Saptalashankhini Kalpa Adhyaya

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Kalpa Sthana Chapter 11. Pharmaceutical preparations of Saptala and Shankhini

Saptalashankhini Kalpa Adhyaya
Section/Chapter Kalpa Sthana Chapter 11
Preceding Chapter Sudha Kalpa Adhyaya
Succeeding Chapter Dantidravanti Kalpa Adhyaya
Other Sections Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana
Translator and commentator Singh A.K.,Singh A.
Reviewer Sawant B., Nishteswar K.
Editors Nishteswar K., Sawant B., Deole Y.S., Basisht G.
Year of publication 2020
Publisher Charak Samhita Research, Training and Skill Development Centre
DOI 10.47468/CSNE.2020.e01.s07.012

Abstract

In this chapter several formulations of saptala (Euphorbia pilosa) and shankhini (Euphorbia dracanculoides) for shodhana (purification) are described. Sixteen formulations with different drugs are indicated for use in combination with saptala and shankhini.

Keywords: Saptala (Euphorbia pilosa), Shankhini (Euphorbia dracanculoides), Virechana (therapeutic purgation).

Introduction

Two drugs named saptala (Euphorbia pilosa) and shankhini (Euphorbia dracanculoides) are mainly effective to eliminate the dosha through virechana (therapeutic purgation). Virechana dravya are predominant in prithvi and jala mahabhuta having sthira(steady) and guru(heavy) properties respectively and propel contents down while being digested.3[1] Out of 600 formulations, 39 formulations are for virechana and rest are for vamana. Saptala and shankhini have purgative effect, and are included in shodhana kashaya (group of purification medicines).

Saptala and shankhini are described together, because of their botanical similarity. Saptala or charmasahva has leathery and frothy appearance due to the presence of latex. Shankhini is called tiktala also, because of its bitter property (tikta rasa dravya) is good to pacify pitta by virechana karma.

For the assessment of their useful part, saptala is mulini6 whose useful part is root. Shankhini is phalini 7 whose useful part is fruit. Shankhini also has bhedana property for use in virechana. Several other drugs mentioned are used in different formulations with saptala and shankhini to provide synergistic effect and to overcome adverse effects which may occur by these two drugs because of its vikasi, tikshna and ruksha guna.

Botanical description-

Shankhini is described in Wealth of India 11 as Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. It has many branches annual, 12-18 in. High, with sessile, linear lanceolate leaves; capsules 3-4mm. in diameter containing ellipsoid seeds, 3mm. long. It is found practically throughout India in the plains and on low hills.

Sanskrit Text, Transliteration with English Translation

अथातः सप्तलाशङ्खिनीकल्पं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||

इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||

athātaḥ saptalāśaṅkhinīkalpaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||

iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

athAtaH saptalAsha~gkhinIkalpaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||

iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

Now we shall expound the chapter "Saptalashankhini Kalpa" (Pharmaceutical preparations of Saptala and Shankhini). Thus said Lord Atreya. [1-2]

Synonyms

सप्तला चर्मसाह्वा च बहुफेनरसा च सा|

शङ्खिनी तिक्तला चैव यवतिक्ताऽक्षि(क्ष)पीडकः||३||

-saptalā carmasāhvā ca bahuphēnarasā ca sā|

śaṅkhinī tiktalā caiva yavatiktā'kṣi(kṣa)pīḍakaḥ||3||

saptalA carmasAhvA ca bahuphenarasA ca sA|

sha~gkhinI tiktalA caiva yavatiktA~akShi(kSha)pIDakaH||3||

Saptala is described along with two other names like charmasahva and bahuphenarasa. Shankhini is described with other synonyms like tiktala, yavatikta, and akshipidaka. [3]

Therapeutic indications

ते गुल्मगरहृद्रोगकुष्ठशोफोदरादिषु|

विकासितीक्ष्णरूक्षत्वाद्योज्ये श्लेष्माधिकेषु तु||४||

tē gulmagarahr̥drōgakuṣṭhaśōphōdarādiṣu|

vikāsitīkṣṇarūkṣatvādyōjyē ślēṣmādhikēṣu tu||4||

te gulmagarahRudrogakuShThashophodarAdiShu|

vikAsitIkShNarUkShatvAdyojye shleShmAdhikeShu tu||4||

These two are indicated in management of gulma (abdominal lump), gara (slow poisoning), hridroga (any cardiac related problem), kushtha (skin diseases), shopha ( inflammatory condition), udara (abdominal diseases including ascitis) and excess aggravation of kapha dosha due to the presence of property like vikasi (by spreading in the body, tissues produces lassitude including joints), tikshna ( a property which exerts immediate, strong and sharp effect), ruksha (which produces dryness, roughness and hardness). [4]

Method of collection

नातिशुष्कं फलं ग्राह्यं शङ्खिन्या निस्तुषीकृतम्|

सप्तलायाश्च मूलानि गृहीत्वा भाजने क्षिपेत्||५||

nātiśuṣkaṁ phalaṁ grāhyaṁ śaṅkhinyā nistuṣīkr̥tam|

saptalāyāśca mūlāni gr̥hītvā bhājanē kṣipēt||5||

nAtishuShkaM phalaM grAhyaM sha~gkhinyA nistuShIkRutam|

saptalAyAshca mUlAni gRuhItvA bhAjane kShipet||5||

Shankhini fruits that are not too dry should be taken after removing husk. Root of saptala should be taken and preserved in a vessel. [5]

Preparation in kapha-vata dominant cardiac disorder and gulma

अक्षमात्रं तयोः पिण्डं प्रसन्नालवणायुतम्|

हृद्रोगे कफवातोत्थे गुल्मे चैव प्रयोजयेत्||६||

-akṣamātraṁ tayōḥ piṇḍaṁ prasannālavaṇāyutam|

hr̥drōgē kaphavātōtthē gulmē caiva prayōjayēt||6||

akShamAtraM tayoH piNDaM prasannAlavaNAyutam|

hRudroge kaphavAtotthe gulme caiva prayojayet||6||

Paste of saptala and shankhini is indicated in amount of akshaamatra (measuring unit which is approximately 12 gm) with prasanna (clear wine) and saindhava lavana (rock salt) in hridroga and gulma caused due to kapha and vata dosha. [6]

Purgative formulations

प्रियालपीलुकर्कन्धुकोलाम्रातकदाडिमैः|

द्राक्षापनसखर्जूरबदराम्लपरूषकैः||७||

मैरेये दधिमण्डेऽम्ले सौवीरकतुषोदके|

सीधौ चाप्येष कल्पः स्यात् सुखं शीघ्रविरेचनः||

priyālapīlukarkandhukōlāmrātakadāḍimaiḥ|

drākṣāpanasakharjūrabadarāmlaparūṣakaiḥ||7||

mairēyē dadhimaṇḍē'mlē sauvīrakatuṣōdakē|

sīdhau cāpyēṣa kalpaḥ syāt sukhaṁ śīghravirēcanaḥ||8||

priyAlapIlukarkandhukolAmrAtakadADimaiH|

drAkShApanasakharjUrabadarAmlaparUShakaiH||7||

maireye dadhimaNDe~amle sauvIrakatuShodake|

sIdhau cApyeSha kalpaH syAt sukhaM shIghravirecanaH||8||

This paste of saptala, shankhini, wine and salt can also be used with other drugs separately for quick and easy purgation as enlisted below:

  1. Buchanania lanzan (priyala)
  2. Salvidora persica (pilu)
  3. Ziziphus nummularia (karkandhu)
  4. Ziziphus mauritiana (kola)
  5. Spondias mangifera (amrataka)
  6. Punica granatum (dadima)
  7. Vitis vinifera (draksha)
  8. Artocarpus indica (panasa)
  9. Phoenix sylvestris (kharjura)
  10. Ziziphus jujuba ( badaramla)
  11. Grewia asiatica (parushaka)
  12. Mairey(a kind of alcohol)
  13. Amla dadhi manda ( a sour and diluted preparation of curd after mixing water about two times of curd i.e curd and water ratio should be 1:2)
  14. Sauviraka ( a sour liquid like kanji )
  15. Tushodaka ( a fermented mixture of water and Hordium vulgare)
  16. Sidhu (another variety of alcohol) [7-8]

Oil based formulations

तैलं विदारिगन्धाद्यैः पयसि क्वथिते पचेत्|

सप्तलाशङ्खिनीकल्के त्रिवृच्छ्यामार्धभागिके||९||

tailaṁ vidārigandhādyaiḥ payasi kvathitē pacēt|

saptalāśaṅkhinīkalkē trivr̥cchyāmārdhabhāgikē||9||

tailaM vidArigandhAdyaiH payasi kvathite pacet|

saptalAsha~gkhinIkalke trivRucchyAmArdhabhAgike||9||

The oil (sesame oil) cooked in the milk (cow’s milk) prepared with vidarigandhadi group, with the paste of saptala and shankhini and half its quantity of the paste of trivrita (Operculina turpethum Linn.) and shyama(Ipomoea petaloiodea Chois), should be administered. [9]

दधिमण्डेन सन्नीय सिद्धं तत् पाययेत च|

शङ्खिनीचूर्णभागौ द्वौ तिलचूर्णस्य चापरः||१०||

हरीतकीकषायेण तैलं तत्पीडितं पिबेत्|

अतसीसर्षपैरण्डकरञ्जष्वेष संविधिः||११||

dadhimaṇḍēna sannīya siddhaṁ tat pāyayēta ca|

śaṅkhinīcūrṇabhāgau dvau tilacūrṇasya cāparaḥ||10||

harītakīkaṣāyēṇa tailaṁ tatpīḍitaṁ pibēt|

atasīsarṣapairaṇḍakarañjaṣvēṣa saṁvidhiḥ||11||

dadhimaNDena sannIya siddhaM tat pAyayeta ca|

sha~gkhinIcUrNabhAgau dvau tilacUrNasya cAparaH||10||

harItakIkaShAyeNa tailaM tatpIDitaM pibet|

atasIsarShapairaNDakara~jjaShveSha saMvidhiH||11||

After completion of oil processing, this oil should be used along with diluted curd, two part of powdered shankhini, one part of sesame powder and decoction of haritaki (Terminalia chebula). Like this formulation other four formulations are prepared using four different dravya in place of sesame which are:

  1. Atasi ( Linum usitatissimum Linn.)
  2. Sarshapa (Brassica compestris Linn.)
  3. Eranda (Ricinus communis)
  4. Karanja (Pongamia pinnata Pierre) [10-11]

Ghee (clarified butter) preparations

शङ्खिनीसप्तलासिद्धात् क्षीराद्यदुदियाद्घृतम्|

कल्कभागे तयोरेव त्रिवृच्छ्यामार्धसंयुते||१२||

śaṅkhinīsaptalāsiddhāt kṣīrādyadudiyādghr̥tam|

kalkabhāgē tayōrēva trivr̥cchyāmārdhasaṁyutē||12||

sha~gkhinIsaptalAsiddhAt kShIrAdyadudiyAdghRutam|

kalkabhAge tayoreva trivRucchyAmArdhasaMyute||12||

Ghrita (ghee, clarified butter) should be prepared from the milk processed with saptala & shankhini. This ghrita, is processed with paste of saptala & shankhini along with half part of shyama and trivrita. [12]

क्षीरेणालोड्य सम्पक्वं पिबेत्तच्च विरेचनम्|

दन्तीद्रवन्त्योः कल्पोऽयमजशृङ्ग्यजगन्धयोः||१३||

क्षीरिण्या नीलिकायाश्च तथैव च करञ्जयोः|

मसूरविदलायाश्च प्रत्यक्पर्ण्यास्तथैव च||१४||

kṣīrēṇālōḍya sampakvaṁ pibēttacca virēcanam|

dantīdravantyōḥ kalpō'yamajaśr̥ṅgyajagandhayōḥ||13||

kṣīriṇyā nīlikāyāśca tathaiva ca karañjayōḥ|

masūravidalāyāśca pratyakparṇyāstathaiva ca||14||

kShIreNAloDya sampakvaM pibettacca virecanam|

dantIdravantyoH kalpo~ayamajashRu~ggyajagandhayoH||13||

kShIriNyA nIlikAyAshca tathaiva ca kara~jjayoH|

masUravidalAyAshca pratyakparNyAstathaiva ca||14||

When the ghee gets cooked with all mentioned drugs, it is prescribed to take orally with milk for purgation. The above mentioned process can be applied to other preparations of ghee with the paste of different pairs and these pairs are:

  1. Paste of danti and dravanti
  2. Paste of ajashringi and ajagandha
  3. Paste of kshirini (dugdhika) and nilika
  4. Paste of karanja drvaya
  5. Paste of masurvidala (shyama lata) and pratyakaparni[13-14]

द्विवर्गार्धांशकल्केन तद्वत् साध्यं घृतं पुनः|

शङ्खिनीसप्तलाधात्रीकषाये साधयेद्घृतम् ||१५||

dvivargārdhāṁśakalkēna tadvat sādhyaṁ ghr̥taṁ punaḥ|

śaṅkhinīsaptalādhātrīkaṣāyē sādhayēdghr̥tam ||15||

dvivargArdhAMshakalkena tadvat sAdhyaM ghRutaM punaH|

sha~gkhinIsaptalAdhAtrIkaShAye sAdhayedghRutam ||15||

Ghrita may also be prepared with decoction of saptala, shankhini & amalaki and again processed with paired drugs.[15]

त्रिवृत्कल्पेन सर्पिश्च त्रयो लेहाश्च लोध्रवत् |

सुराकम्पिल्लयोर्योगः कार्यो लोध्रवदेव च||१६||

trivr̥tkalpēna sarpiśca trayō lēhāśca lōdhravat |

surākampillayōryōgaḥ kāryō lōdhravadēva ca||16||

trivRutkalpena sarpishca trayo lehAshca lodhravat |

surAkampillayoryogaH kAryo lodhravadeva ca||16||

Ghrita may also be prepared with trivrita. Three types of linctus should be prepared with lodhra. As in lodhra other preparations were mentioned with wine and kampillaka should be made.[16]

दन्तीद्रवन्त्योः कल्पेन सौवीरकतुषोदके|

अजगन्धाजशृङ्ग्योश्च तद्वत् स्यातां विरेचने||१७||

dantīdravantyōḥ kalpēna sauvīrakatuṣōdakē|

ajagandhājaśr̥ṅgyōśca tadvat syātāṁ virēcanē||17||

dantIdravantyoH kalpena sauvIrakatuShodake|

ajagandhAjashRu~ggyoshca tadvat syAtAM virecane||17||

Sauviraka and tushodaka as said in context of danti and dravanti as well with ajagandha and ajashringi should be prepared with saptala & shankhini which act as purgative.[17]

Summary

तत्र श्लोकौ-

कषाया दश षट् चैव षट् तैलेऽष्टौ च सर्पिषि|

पञ्च मद्ये त्रयो लेहा योगः कम्पिल्लके तथा||१८||

सप्तलाशङ्खिनीभ्यां ते त्रिंशदुक्ता नवाधिकाः|

योगाः सिद्धाः समस्ताभ्यामेकशोऽपि च ते हिताः||१९||

tatra ślōkau-

kaṣāyā daśa ṣaṭ caiva ṣaṭ tailē'ṣṭau ca sarpiṣi|

pañca madyē trayō lēhā yōgaḥ kampillakē tathā||18||

saptalāśaṅkhinībhyāṁ tē triṁśaduktā navādhikāḥ|

yōgāḥ siddhāḥ samastābhyāmēkaśō'pi ca tē hitāḥ||19||

tatra shlokau-

kaShAyA dasha ShaT caiva ShaT taile~aShTau ca sarpiShi|

pa~jca madye trayo lehA yogaH kampillake tathA||18||

saptalAsha~gkhinIbhyAM te triMshaduktA navAdhikAH|

yogAH siddhAH samastAbhyAmekasho~api ca te hitAH||19||

Sixteen preparations with decoctions, six in oil, eight in ghee, five in fermented liquors, three as linctus and one with kampillaka thus total thirty nine tested formulations of saptala & shankhini have been described. They are useful in combination or separately. [18-19]

Tattva Vimarsha (Fundamental Principles)

  • Saptala (Euphorbia pilosa) and shankhini (Euphorbia dracanculoides) are purgatives with sharp, instantaneous pharmacological effects.
  • They are mainly indicated in diseases with abnormally increased fluid accumulation in body cavities.

Vidhi Vimarsha (Applied Inferences )

These are indicated in management of gulma (abdominal lump), gara (slow poisoning), hridroga (cardiac disorder), kushtha (skin diseases), shopha (swellings), udara ( abdominal diseases) due to the presence of property like vikasi ( by spreading in the body, tissues produces lassitude including joints), tikshana ( a property which exerts immediate, strong and effect), ruksha (which produces dryness, roughness and hardness), by these properties it pacifies kapha dosha in persons predominating kapha. Various formulations are mentioned in this chapter.

Related Links

Deerghanjiviteeya Adhyaya Verse 6, 78-79, 81-84

Shadvirechanashatashritiya Adhyaya Verse 8

Further reading

  1. Sushruta. Sutra Sthana, Cha.45 Dravadravyavidhi Adhyaya. Verse 45 In: Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya, Editors. Sushruta Samhita. 8th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia;2005. p.1-10.
  2. Sushruta. Sutra Sthana, Cha.33 Avaaraneya Adhyaya. Verse 34 In: Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya, Editors. Sushruta Samhita. 8th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia;2005. p.1-10.
  3. Sushruta. Sutra Sthana, Cha.37 Mishraka Adhyaya. Verse 12 In: Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya, Editors. Sushruta Samhita. 8th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia;2005. p.1-10.
  4. Bhela.Kalpa Sthana, Chapter 8, In:P.V Sherma,, Editor, Bhela Samhita. ?ed. Varanasi:Chaukhamba Bharti Academy: ?? pg no. 504-507
  5. Dravyaguna Vigyan by P.V Sharma, Vol 1, Chaukhamba Bharti Academy
  6. Wealth of India, Vol III, Publication & Directorate CSIR, New Delhi


References

  1. Sushruta. Chikitsa Sthana, Cha.33 Vamanavirechanasadhyopadrava Chaikitsitam Adhyaya verse 34. In: Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya, Editors. Sushruta Samhita. 8th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia;2005. p.1.