Yajjah Purushiya Adhyaya

From Charak Samhita
(Redirected from Yajjah Purushiya)
Jump to navigation Jump to search


Sutra Sthana Chapter 25. Origin of Human Beings and the best things for life

Yajjah Purushiya Adhyaya
Section/Chapter Sutra Sthana Chapter 25
Tetrad/Sub-section Annapana Chatushka
Preceding Chapter Vidhishonitiya Adhyaya
Succeeding Chapter Atreyabhadrakapyiya Adhyaya
Other Sections Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana
Translator and commentator Dwivedi B.K., Deole Y. S.
Authors-vidhi vimarsha Kutty Ashwathy, Narayanan Rakesh V.
Reviewer Nishteswar K.
Editors Dwivedi R.B., Deole Y.S., Basisht G.
Year of publication 2020
Publisher Charak Samhita Research, Training and Skill Development Centre
DOI 10.47468/CSNE.2020.e01.s01.027


Abstract

This chapter, the first within the annapana chatushka (tetrad of guidelines on food and beverages), is based on the findings of a congregation of ancient Ayurveda practitioners and sages, assembled to understand the origin of Purusha (conscious/sentient being) and causes of diseases that afflict the purusha. Different theories to understand various aspects that influence the purusha are postulated, such as those of atma (spirit), manas (mind), rasa (nutrient fluid), shad dhatu (six elements), matru-pitru(parents), karma (past deeds), swabhava (nature), Prajapati (creator), and Kala (time). After considering all these postulations, it is concluded that the same factors that are responsible for the origin of humans are responsible for diseases too. The wholesome diet is responsible for proper growth and development of holistic human being, while the unwholesome diet for diseases. The most commonly applicable wholesome (and unwholesome) diet is discussed with examples. A specific collection called agrya samgraha (collection of definitive and first choice of medication or treatment) is introduced. In all, one hundred fifty-six drugs and therapies have been enumerated in this chapter. Also ingredients used in 84 naturally fermented preparations named ‘asava’ that help in strengthening the patient’s mind, body and digestive power (agni) are listed.

Keywords: Purusha (conscious beings – humans, souls, etc.), agrya samgraha (foremost collection/formulation/medication applicable), hitakara, ahitakara, wholesome, unwholesome, asava (alcoholic preparations).


Introduction

This chapter discusses various theories (regarding the origin of Purusha as well as the diseases that afflict him) postulated by ten sages (or scholars) under the aegis of Lord Punarvasu Atreya – providing insights into the various aspects that influence the shaping of the being, and also the origin of the ailments or disorders that afflict it. Kashipati Vamaka initiated the discussions with a query about the origin of human beings and disease, followed by Maudagalya Parikshi (on atma theory), Sharaloma (on sattva theory), Varyovida (on rasa theory), Hiranyaksha (on shad-dhatu theory), Kaushika (on mata-pitru theory), Bhadrakapya (on karma theory), Bharadwaja (on swabhava theory), Kankayana (on Prajapati theory), and Atreya Bhikshu (on kala theory). Lord Punarvasu Atreya concluded the discussions by stating that the same factors that are responsible for the origin and growth of human beings can cause diseases also. This chapter is closely associated with the third chapter of Sharira Sthana (Khuddika garbhavakranti), which provides additional insights into the origins of human beings.

Considering the health of human beings, dietary articles that are beneficial and harmful have been provided in this chapter with relevant examples. The first choices in medication, the best factors in various categories, and suggested lifestyle have been grouped into a category named agrya samgraha. Also, Lord Atreya answers Agnivesha's query about asava (alcoholic preparations) with an elaborate explanation of eighty-four types of asava, categorized by parts of herbs used in their preparation. Thus, this chapter provided an introduction to food and beverages that are beneficial to health.

Sanskrit text, Transliteration and English Translation

अथातो यज्जःपुरुषीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||

इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||

athātō yajjaḥpuruṣīyamadhyāyaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||

iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

athAto yajjaHpuruShIyamadhyAyaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||

iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

Now we shall expound the chapter "Yajjah Purushiya" (Origin of Human Beings and the best things for life). Thus said Lord Atreya [1-2]

Symposium on origin of purusha

The objective of Symposium

पुरा प्रत्यक्षधर्माणं भगवन्तं पुनर्वसुम्|

समेतानां महर्षीणां प्रादुरासीदियं कथा ||३||

आत्मेन्द्रियमनोर्थानां योऽयं पुरुषसञ्ज्ञकः|

राशिरस्यामयानां च प्रागुत्पत्तिविनिश्चये||४||

purā pratyakṣadharmāṇaṁ bhagavantaṁ punarvasum|

samētānāṁ [1] maharṣīṇāṁ prādurāsīdiyaṁ kathā [2] ||3||

ātmēndriyamanōrthānāṁ yō'yaṁ puruṣasañjñakaḥ|

rāśirasyāmayānāṁ ca prāgutpattiviniścayē||4||

purA pratyakShadharmANaM bhagavantaM punarvasum|

sametAnAM maharShINAM prAdurAsIdiyaM kathA ||3||

AtmendriyamanorthAnAM yo~ayaM puruShasa~jj~jakaH|

rAshirasyAmayAnAM ca prAgutpattivinishcaye||4||

Long ago, the great sages (thinkers) assembled before Lord Punarvasu (Atreya), who had directly perceived and realized all knowledge. A discussion arose about the determination of the truth of the primal origin of Purusha (an aggregate of soul, senses, psyche and sense objects) and the origin of the diseases. [3-4]

Query by Kashipati Vamaka

तदन्तरं काशिपतिर्वामको वाक्यमर्थवित् [१] | व्याजहारर्षिसमितिमुपसृत्याभिवाद्य च||५||

किन्नु भोः पुरुषो यज्जस्तज्जास्तस्यामयाः स्मृताः| न वेत्युक्ते नरेन्द्रेण प्रोवाचर्षीन् पुनर्वसुः||६||

सर्व एवामितज्ञानविज्ञानच्छिन्नसंशयाः| भवन्तश्छेत्तुमर्हन्ति काशिराजस्य संशयम्||७||

tadantaraṁ kāśipatirvāmakō vākyamarthavit [1] | vyājahārarṣisamitimupasr̥tyābhivādya ca||5||

kinnu bhōḥ puruṣō yajjastajjāstasyāmayāḥ smr̥tāḥ| na vētyuktē narēndrēṇa prōvācarṣīn punarvasuḥ||6||

sarva ēvāmitajñānavijñānacchinnasaṁśayāḥ| bhavantaśchēttumarhanti kāśirājasya saṁśayam||7||

tadantaraM kAshipatirvAmako vAkyamarthavit | vyAjahArarShisamitimupasRutyAbhivAdya ca||5||

kinnu bhoH puruSho yajjastajjAstasyAmayAH smRutAH| na vetyukte narendreNa provAcarShIn punarvasuH||6||

sarva evAmitaj~jAnavij~jAnacchinānasaMshayAH| bhavantashchettumarhanti kAshirAjasya saMshayam||7||

After that, Vamaka, the king of Kashi, who was learned in the science of the subject (medicine), approached the assembly of the sages (learned persons/exponents in various subject matters) and put the following questions. "Oh sirs! What is the truth? Do diseases originate from the same source, which is also the origin of humans? Is it truth or otherwise?"

In this reference, Lord Punarvasu addressing the sages said as follows- "You all sages are enlightened and have broad knowledge. Your doubts have been cleared by your unlimited knowledge of science. You are capable of resolving the doubts raised by the king of Kashi." [5-7]

The opinion of Maudgalya Parikshi on Atmaja Purusha (spirit theory)

पारीक्षिस्तत्परीक्ष्याग्रे मौद्गल्यो वाक्यमब्रवीत्|

आत्मजः पुरुषो रोगाश्चात्मजाः कारणं हि सः||८||

स चिनोत्युपभुङ्क्ते च कर्म कर्मफलानि च|

नह्यृते चेतनाधातोः प्रवृत्तिः सुखदुःखयोः||९||

pārīkṣistatparīkṣyāgrē maudgalyō vākyamabravīt|

ātmajaḥ puruṣō rōgāścātmajāḥ kāraṇaṁ hi saḥ||8||

sa cinōtyupabhuṅktē ca karma karmaphalāni ca|

nahyr̥tē cētanādhātōḥ pravr̥ttiḥ sukhaduḥkhayōḥ||9||

pArIkShistatparIkShyAgre maudgalyo vAkyamabravIt|

AtmajaH puruSho rogAshcAtmajAH kAraNaM hi saH||8||

sa cinotyupabhu~gkte ca karma karmaphalAni ca|

nahyRute cetanAdhAtoH pravRuttiH sukhaduHkhayoH||9||

Considering the query of Kashipati Vamaka, Maudgalya Parikshit formulated his answer first. He said “Human being is born of Atma (spirit) and like that all the diseases are born of atma. The spirit is the source of all things. The atma acquires the actions and enjoys the merits of action as the fruit of actions. In the absence of this atma, there is no activity either pleasurable or painful. [8-9]

The opinion of Sharaloma as Sattvaja Purusha (mind theory)

शरलोमा तु नेत्याह न ह्यात्माऽऽत्मानमात्मना|

योजयेद्व्याधिभिर्दुःखैर्दुःखद्वेषी कदाचन||१०||

रजस्तमोभ्यां तु मनः परीतं सत्त्वसञ्ज्ञकम्|

शरीरस्य समुत्पत्तौ विकाराणां च कारणम्||११||

śaralōmā tu nētyāha na hyātmātmānamātmanā|

yōjayēdvyādhibhirduḥkhairduḥkhadvēṣī kadācana||10||

rajastamōbhyāṁ tu manaḥ parītaṁ sattvasañjñakam|

śarīrasya samutpattau vikārāṇāṁ ca kāraṇam||11||

sharalomA tu netyAha na hyAtmA~a~atmAnamAtmanA|

yojayedvyAdhibhirduHkhairduHkhadveShI kadAcana||10||

rajastamobhyAM tu manaH parItaM sattvasa~jj~jakam|

sharIrasya samutpattau vikArANAM ca kAraNam||11||

Intervening the opinion of Maudgalya, Sharaloma said, “No. This is not correct, because atma dislikes pain naturally and, therefore, would never repress itself with disease and other types of pain. The manas(mind), influenced by rajas and tamas, which is also called sattva, is the real cause of the origin of the body and its afflictions, both."[10-11]

The opinion of Varyovida as Rasaja Purusha (fluid theory)

वार्योविदस्तु नेत्याह न ह्येकं कारणं मनः |

नर्ते शरीराच्छारीररोगा न मनसः स्थितिः||१२||

रसजानि तु भूतानि व्याधयश्च पृथग्विधाः|

आपो हि रसवत्यस्ताः स्मृता निर्वृत्तिहेतवः||१३||

vāryōvidastu nētyāha na hyēkaṁ kāraṇaṁ manaḥ |

nartē śarīrācchārīrarōgā na manasaḥ sthitiḥ||12||

rasajāni tu bhūtāni vyādhayaśca pr̥thagvidhāḥ|

āpō hi rasavatyastāḥ smr̥tā nirvr̥ttihētavaḥ||13||

vAryovidastu netyAha na hyekaM kAraNaM manaH |

narte sharIrAcchArIrarogA na manasaH sthitiH||12||

rasajAni tu bhUtAni vyAdhayashca pRuthagvidhAH|

Apo hi rasavatyastAH smRutA nirvRuttihetavaH||13||

Varyovida objected to the views of Sharaloma. He said,“No! Manas (mind) alone is not the cause of the origin of both (human and disease) because, without the body, there can neither be any somatic disease nor mind will get existence. All creatures (animates) originate from rasa (fluid), and so are the various types of diseases. Rasas originate from water and, therefore, water is ascribed as the source of their manifestations.” [12-13]

The opinion of Hiranyaksha as Shad-dhatuja Purusha (six element theory)

हिरण्याक्षस्तु नेत्याह न ह्यात्मा रसजः स्मृतः|

नातीन्द्रियं मनः सन्ति रोगाः शब्दादिजास्तथा||१४||

षड्धातुजस्तु पुरुषो रोगाः षड्धातुजास्तथा|

राशिः षड्धातुजो ह्येष साङ्ख्यैराद्यैः प्रकीर्तितः ||१५||

hiraṇyākṣastu nētyāha na hyātmā rasajaḥ smr̥taḥ|

nātīndriyaṁ manaḥ santi rōgāḥ śabdādijāstathā||14||

ṣaḍdhātujastu puruṣō rōgāḥ ṣaḍdhātujāstathā|

rāśiḥ ṣaḍdhātujō hyēṣa sāṅkhyairādyaiḥ prakīrtitaḥ ||15||

hiraNyAkShastu netyAha na hyAtmA rasajaH smRutaH|

nAtIndriyaM manaH santi rogAH shabdAdijAstathA||14||

ShaDdhAtujastu puruSho rogAH ShaDdhAtujAstathA|

rAshiH ShaDdhAtujo hyeSha sA~gkhyairAdyaiH prakIrtitaH ||15||

After hearing the views of Varyovida, Hiranyaksha said, “No! It is not right. Human beings are born neither from the atman, nor rasa (fluids) nor even the super-sensual mind because there are some diseases caused due to sense objects (such as sound) as well.

Human is the result of shad-dhatu (six elements, including panchamahabuta or the five elements, and atman). Diseases also arise from those six elements. This is the principle of Samkhya philosophy. This type of constitution is also referred to as Rashi Purusha. [14-15]

The opinion of Kaushika as Matrija-pitrija Purusha(parent theory)

तथा ब्रुवाणं कुशिकमाह तन्नेति कौशिकः|

कस्मान्मातापितृभ्यां हि विना षड्धातुजो भवेत्||१६||

पुरुषः पुरुषाद्गौर्गोरश्वादश्वः प्रजायते|

पित्र्या मेहादयश्चोक्ता रोगास्तावत्र कारणम्||१७||

tathā bruvāṇaṁ kuśikamāha tannēti kauśikaḥ|

kasmānmātāpitr̥bhyāṁ hi vinā ṣaḍdhātujō bhavēt||16||

puruṣaḥ puruṣādgaurgōraśvādaśvaḥ prajāyatē|

pitryā mēhādayaścōktā rōgāstāvatra kāraṇam||17||

tathA bruvANaM kushikamAha tanneti kaushikaH|

kasmAnmAtApitRubhyAM hi vinA ShaDdhAtujo bhavet||16||

puruShaH puruShAdgaurgorashvAdashvaH prajAyate|

pitryA mehAdayashcoktA rogAstAvatra kAraNam||17||

To Kushika (Hiranyaksha) who was presenting his views, sage Kaushika said, "No, This is not true. How can the six elements create an individual without any role of the father and the mother? A human is born of a human (parents), the cow is born of cows, and the horse is born of horses. Diseases such as prameha (obstinate urinary diseases), and various other diseases, are considered to be hereditary. Therefore, the father and the mother (parents) are the origin of the humans and also the diseases. [16-17]

The opinion of Bhadrakapya as Karmaja Purusha (deeds in past life theory)

भद्रकाप्यस्तु नेत्याह नह्यन्धोऽन्धात् प्रजायते|

मातापित्रोरपि च ते प्रागुत्पत्तिर्न युज्यते||१८||

कर्मजस्तु मतो जन्तुः कर्मजास्तस्य चामयाः|

नह्यृते कर्मणो जन्म रोगाणां पुरुषस्य वा||१९||

bhadrakāpyastu nētyāha nahyandhō'ndhāt prajāyatē|

mātāpitrōrapi ca tē prāgutpattirna yujyatē||18||

karmajastu matō jantuḥ karmajāstasya cāmayāḥ|

nahyr̥tē karmaṇō janma rōgāṇāṁ puruṣasya vā||19||

bhadrakApyastu netyAha nahyandho~andhAt prajAyate|

mAtApitrorapi ca te prAgutpattirna yujyate||18||

karmajastu mato jantuH karmajAstasya cAmayAH|

nahyRute karmaNo janma rogANAM puruShasya vA||19||

Bhadrakapya disagreed with the above views and said, “No. This is not true because blind children are not born to blind parents. Parents themselves also are not born before the creation. Therefore, human beings, as well as the diseases, originate from the deeds performed in past life. Without karma (past action or deeds) neither human beings nor their diseases could have been created. [18-19]

The opinion of Bharadwaja as Svabhavaja Purusha (nature theory)

भरद्वाजस्तु नेत्याह कर्ता पूर्वं हि कर्मणः|

दृष्टं न चाकृतं कर्म यस्य स्यात् पुरुषः फलम्||२०||

भावहेतुः स्वभावस्तु व्याधीनां पुरुषस्य च|

खरद्रवचलोष्णत्वं तेजोन्तानां यथैव हि||२१||

bharadvājastu nētyāha kartā pūrvaṁ hi karmaṇaḥ|

dr̥ṣṭaṁ na cākr̥taṁ karma yasya syāt puruṣaḥ phalam||20||

bhāvahētuḥ svabhāvastu vyādhīnāṁ puruṣasya ca|

kharadravacalōṣṇatvaṁ tējōntānāṁ yathaiva hi||21||

bharadvAjastu netyAha kartA pUrvaM hi karmaNaH|

dRuShTaM na cAkRutaM karma yasya syAt puruShaH phalam||20||

bhAvahetuH svabhAvastu vyAdhInAM puruShasya ca|

kharadravacaloShNatvaM tejontAnAM yathaiva hi||21||

Listening to this theory, sage Bharadwaja said, "No, this is not true. For the doer always precedes the deeds. There is no deed performed without the presence of the doer. Nor any human being is born as a result only of deeds. The intrinsic nature alone (svabhava) is the cause of the existence of living beings and their diseases just as roughness (khara), fluidity (drava), mobility (chalatva) and heat (ushnatva) are respectively the intrinsic nature (or svabhava) of prithvi, apa, vayu and tejas.”[ 20-21]

The opinion of Kankayana as Prajapatija Purusha (creator theory)

काङ्कायनस्तु नेत्याह न ह्यारम्भफलं भवेत्|

भवेत् स्वभावाद्भावानामसिद्धिः सिद्धिरेव वा||२२||

स्रष्टा त्वमितसङ्कल्पो ब्रह्मापत्यं प्रजापतिः|

चेतनाचेतनस्यास्य जगतः सुखदुःखयोः||२३||

kāṅkāyanastu nētyāha na hyārambhaphalaṁ bhavēt|

bhavēt svabhāvādbhāvānāmasiddhiḥ siddhirēva vā||22||

sraṣṭā tvamitasaṅkalpō brahmāpatyaṁ prajāpatiḥ|

cētanācētanasyāsya [1] jagataḥ sukhaduḥkhayōḥ||23||

kA~gkAyanastu netyAha na hyArambhaphalaM bhavet|

bhavet svabhAvAdbhAvAnAmasiddhiH siddhireva vA||22||

sraShTA tvamitasa~gkalpo brahmApatyaM prajApatiH|

cetanAcetanasyAsya [1] jagataH sukhaduHkhayoH||23||

Refuting the arguments of Bharadwaja, sage Kankayana said, “No, such an effort would be fruitless. Things would either get accomplished or not get accomplished by the course of nature. The son of Brahma, Prajapati, who possesses infinite creative powers, is the origin of living beings as well as non-living things, happiness as well as misery”.[22-23]

The opinion of Bhikshu Atreya as Kalaja Purusha (time theory)

तन्नेति भिक्षुरात्रेयो न ह्यपत्यं प्रजापतिः|

प्रजाहितैषी सततं दुःखैर्युञ्ज्यादसाधुवत्||२४||

कालजस्त्वेव पुरुषः कालजास्तस्य चामयाः|

जगत् कालवशं सर्वं कालः सर्वत्र कारणम्||२५||

tannēti bhikṣurātrēyō na hyapatyaṁ prajāpatiḥ|

prajāhitaiṣī satataṁ duḥkhairyuñjyādasādhuvat||24||

kālajastvēva puruṣaḥ kālajāstasya cāmayāḥ|

jagat kālavaśaṁ sarvaṁ kālaḥ sarvatra kāraṇam||25||

tanneti bhikShurAtreyo na hyapatyaM prajApatiH|

prajAhitaiShI satataM duHkhairyu~jjyAdasAdhuvat||24||

kAlajastveva puruShaH kAlajAstasya cAmayAH|

jagat kAlavashaM sarvaM kAlaH sarvatra kAraNam||25||

Bhikshu Atreya said, “No. This is not true. Prajapati (the Lord of Creation) always seeks the well-being of all of the creation. So he would never bring misery to his creations, like some cruel friend??. Human beings and their diseases are caused by time (kala) because the whole universe is under control of kala. Kala is the origin of all. [22-25]

Explanation and Decision by Punarvasu Atreya

तथर्षीणां विवदतामुवाचेदं पुनर्वसुः|

मैवं वोचत तत्त्वं हि दुष्प्रापं पक्षसंश्रयात्||२६||

वादान् सप्रतिवादान् हि वदन्तो निश्चितानिव|

पक्षान्तं नैव गच्छन्ति तिलपीडकवद्गतौ||२७||

मुक्त्वैवं वादसङ्घट्टमध्यात्ममनुचिन्त्यताम्|

नाविधूते तमःस्कन्धे ज्ञेये ज्ञानं प्रवर्तते||२८||

येषामेव हि भावानां सम्पत् सञ्जनयेन्नरम्|

तेषामेव विपद्व्याधीन्विविधान्समुदीरयेत्||२९||

tatharṣīṇāṁ vivadatāmuvācēdaṁ [1] punarvasuḥ|

maivaṁ vōcata tattvaṁ hi duṣprāpaṁ pakṣasaṁśrayāt||26||

vādān saprativādān hi vadantō niścitāniva|

pakṣāntaṁ naiva gacchanti tilapīḍakavadgatau||27||

muktvaivaṁ vādasaṅghaṭṭamadhyātmamanucintyatām|

nāvidhūtē tamaḥskandhē jñēyē jñānaṁ pravartatē||28||

yēṣāmēva hi bhāvānāṁ sampat sañjanayēnnaram|

tēṣāmēva vipadvyādhīnvividhānsamudīrayēt||29||

tatharShINAM vivadatAmuvAcedaM [1] punarvasuH|

maivaM vocata tattvaM hi duShprApaM pakShasaMshrayAt||26||

vAdAn saprativAdAn hi vadanto nishcitAniva|

pakShAntaM naiva gacchanti tilapIDakavadgatau||27||

muktvaivaM vAdasa~gghaTTamadhyAtmamanucintyatAm|

nAvidhUte tamaHskandhe j~jeye j~jAnaM pravartate||28||

yeShAmeva hi bhAvAnAM sampat sa~jjanayennaram|

teShAmeva vipadvyAdhInvividhAnsamudIrayet||29||

Observing the course of such a controversial and sensitive discussion involving such eminent sages, Lord Punarvasu stated, “ Please do not dispute over this matter, O Sages! It is difficult to arrive at the whole truth in this debate considering only partial aspects. Those who argue and counter argue over points go on circumventing without reaching any conclusion, like a person who operates an oil press. Therefore, let us avoid this war of words and put our collective minds to arrive at the truth. One cannot attain any true knowledge without clearing the obscuring cloud or the darkness of ignorance. The fact is that the same elements, whose wholesome combination gives rise to the well-being of human beings, bring about various kinds of diseases when combined in an unwholesome manner. [26-29]

Origin of disease

Second query by Kashipati Vamaka

अथात्रेयस्य भगवतो वचनमनुनिशम्य पुनरेव वामकः काशिपतिरुवाच भगवन्तमात्रेयं-

भगवन्! सम्पन्निमित्तजस्य पुरुषस्यविपन्निमित्तजानां च रोगाणां किमभिवृद्धिकारणमिति||३०||

athātrēyasya bhagavatō vacanamanuniśamya punarēva vāmakaḥ kāśipatiruvāca bhagavantamātrēyaṁ-

Bhagavan! sampannimittajasya puruṣasya vipannimittajānāṁ ca rōgāṇāṁ kimabhivr̥ddhikāraṇamiti||30||

athAtreyasya bhagavato vacanamanunishamya punareva vAmakaH kAshipatiruvAcabhagavantamAtreyaM-

Bhagavan! sampannimittajasya puruShasya vipannimittajAnAM ca rogANAMkimabhivRuddhikAraNamiti||30||

On hearing this statement by Lord Atreya, Kashipati Vamaka again asked, “Sir, what is the cause of the growth of human beings who are born with wholesome combination and diseases which are born of unwholesome combinations? [30]

Reply by Atreya- Cause of growth of human being and diseases

तमुवाच भगवानात्रेयः-

हिताहारोपयोग एक एव पुरुषवृद्धिकरो भवति, अहिताहारोपयोगः पुनर्व्याधिनिमित्तमिति [१] ||३१||

tamuvāca bhagavānātrēyaḥ-

hitāhārōpayōga ēka ēva puruṣavr̥ddhikarō bhavati, ahitāhārōpayōgaḥpunarvyādhinimittamiti [1] ||31||

tamuvAca bhagavAnAtreyaH-

hitAhAropayoga eka eva puruShavRuddhikaro bhavati, ahitAhAropayogaHpunarvyAdhinimittamiti [1] ||31||

Lord Atreya replied to him, “Ingesting wholesome food is the only cause of the nourishment of Purusha, and unwholesome diet is the cause of diseases." [31]

Wholesome and unwholesome things for holistic human being

Query by Agnivesha

एवंवादिनं भगवन्तमात्रेयमग्निवेश उवाच- कथमिह भगवन्!

हिताहितानामाहारजातानां लक्षणमनपवादमभिजानीमहे;हितसमाख्यातानामाहारजातानामहितसमाख्यातानां च मात्राकालक्रियाभूमिदेहदोषपुरुषावस्थान्तरेषुविपरीतकारित्वमुपलभामह इति||३२||

ēvaṁvādinaṁ bhagavantamātrēyamagnivēśa uvāca- kathamiha Bhagavan!

hitāhitānāmāhārajātānāṁlakṣaṇamanapavādamabhijānīmahē; hitasamākhyātānāmāhārajātānāmahitasamākhyātānāṁ camātrākālakriyābhūmidēhadōṣapuruṣāvasthāntarēṣu viparītakāritvamupalabhāmaha iti||32||

evaMvAdinaM bhagavantamAtreyamagnivesha uvAca- kathamiha Bhagavan!

hitAhitAnAmAhArajAtAnAMlakShaNamanapavAdamabhijAnImahe; hitasamAkhyAtAnAmAhArajAtAnAmahitasamAkhyAtAnAM camAtrAkAlakriyAbhUmidehadoShapuruShAvasthAntareShu viparItakAritvamupalabhAmaha iti||32||

After listening to Lord Atreya, Agnivesha asked, “Sir, How shall we distinguish correctly between wholesome and unwholesome diets? Because, in practice, we find that the articles of diet that are described to be wholesome and unwholesome produce opposite results by variation of dose (quantity ), time (meal time, season), a method of preparation, location, constitution of the body, the predominant dosha and the age of an individual. [32].

Explanation by Atreya

तमुवाच भगवानात्रेयः- यदाहारजातमग्निवेश! समांश्चैव शरीरधातून् प्रकृतौ स्थापयति विषमांश्च समीकरोतीत्येतद्धितंविद्धि, विपरीतं त्वहितमिति; इत्येतद्धिताहितलक्षणमनपवादं भवति||३३||

tamuvāca bhagavānātrēyaḥ- yadāhārajātamagnivēśa! samāṁścaiva śarīradhātūn prakr̥tau sthāpayativiṣamāṁśca samīkarōtītyētaddhitaṁ viddhi, viparītaṁ tvahitamiti; ityētaddhitāhitalakṣaṇamanapavādaṁbhavati||33||

tamuvAca bhagavAnAtreyaH- yadAhArajAtamagnivesha! samAMshcaiva sharIradhAtUn prakRutausthApayati viShamAMshca samIkarotItyetaddhitaM viddhi, viparItaM tvahitamiti;ityetaddhitAhitalakShaNamanapavAdaM bhavati||33||

Lord Punarvasu Atreya replied, “Oh Agnivesha! Those food articles that maintain an equilibrium state in body elements (dhatu) and help in eliminating abnormalities or disturbances in the path to equilibrium can be considered as wholesome food articles, while those that act in the opposite manner are considered unwholesome. This would be the most accurate description of wholesome and unwholesome food articles. [33]

Query of Agnivesha

एवंवादिनं च भगवन्तमात्रेयमग्निवेश उवाच-

भगवन्! न त्वेतदेवमुपदिष्टं भूयिष्ठकल्पाः सर्वभिषजो विज्ञास्यन्ति||३४||

ēvaṁvādinaṁ ca bhagavantamātrēyamagnivēśa uvāca-

Bhagavan! na tvētadēvamupadiṣṭaṁbhūyiṣṭhakalpāḥ sarvabhiṣajō vijñāsyanti||34||

evaMvAdinaM ca bhagavantamAtreyamagnivesha uvAca-

Bhagavan! na tvetadevamupadiShTaMbhUyiShThakalpAH sarvabhiShajo vij~jAsyanti||34||

After Lord Atreya had stated this, Agnivesha said, "Sir, the definition which is thus propounded will not be comprehended by all kinds of physicians." [34]

Explanation by Lord Atreya

तमुवाच भगवानात्रेयः-

येषां हि विदितमाहारतत्त्वमग्निवेश! गुणतो द्रव्यतः कर्मतः सर्वावयवशश्च मात्रादयो भावाः, तएतदेवमुपदिष्टं विज्ञातुमुत्सहन्ते|

यथा तु खल्वेतदुपदिष्टं भूयिष्ठकल्पाः सर्वभिषजो विज्ञास्यन्ति, तथैतदुपदेक्ष्यामो मात्रादीन् भावाननुदाहरन्तः; तेषां हिबहुविधविकल्पा भवन्ति|

आहारविधिविशेषांस्तु खलु लक्षणतश्चावयवतश्चानुव्याख्यास्यामः||३५||

tamuvāca bhagavānātrēyaḥ-

yēṣāṁ hi viditamāhāratattvamagnivēśa! guṇatō dravyataḥ karmataḥsarvāvayavaśaśca mātrādayō bhāvāḥ, ta ētadēvamupadiṣṭaṁ vijñātumutsahantē|

yathā tu khalvētadupadiṣṭaṁ bhūyiṣṭhakalpāḥ sarvabhiṣajō vijñāsyanti, tathaitadupadēkṣyāmō mātrādīn bhāvānanudāharantaḥ; tēṣāṁ hi bahuvidhavikalpā bhavanti|

āhāravidhiviśēṣāṁstu khalu lakṣaṇataścāvayavataścānuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ||35||

tamuvAca bhagavAnAtreyaH-

yeShAM hi viditamAhAratattvamagnivesha! guNato dravyataH karmataHsarvAvayavashashca mAtrAdayo bhAvAH, ta etadevamupadiShTaM vij~jAtumutsahante|

yathA tu khalvetadupadiShTaM bhUyiShThakalpAH sarvabhiShajo vij~jAsyanti, tathaitadupadekShyAmomAtrAdIn bhAvAnanudAharantaH; teShAM hi bahuvidhavikalpA bhavanti|

AhAravidhivisheShAMstu khalu lakShaNatashcAvayavatashcAnuvyAkhyAsyAmaH||35||

Lord Atreya explained to him (to Agnivesha), “Oh Agnivesha! Those physicians only, who have the knowledge of the science of dietetics (or the knowledge of dravya) including the knowledge of properties, actions, contents of food articles, dosage, etc. would prefer to learn from instructions imparted in this (comprehensive) manner. We shall now explain the various specifications of food articles for the understanding of such physicians. It is not possible to explain the dosages of the food articles as their variations (preparations in various forms etc.) are too many according to specification. Variations in the specific rules related to diet and dietary articles utilized in them will be explained with relevant examples in detail and brief (as per the need).[35]

The classification of food

तद्यथा-

आहारत्वमाहारस्यैकविधमर्थाभेदात्; स पुनर्द्वियोनिः, स्थावरजङ्गमात्मकत्वात्; द्विविधप्रभावः,हिताहितोदर्कविशेषात्; चतुर्विधोपयोगः, पानाशनभक्ष्यलेह्योपयोगात्; षडास्वादः, रसभेदतः षड्विधत्वात्; विंशतिगुणः,गुरुलघुशीतोष्णस्निग्धरूक्षमन्दतीक्ष्णस्थिरसरमृदुकठिन- विशदपिच्छिलश्लक्ष्णखरसूक्ष्मस्थूलसान्द्रद्रवानुगमात्;अपरिसङ्ख्येयविकल्पः, द्रव्यसंयोगकरणबाहुल्यात्||३६||

tadyathā-

āhāratvamāhārasyaikavidhamarthābhēdāt; sa punardviyōniḥ, sthāvarajaṅgamātmakatvāt;dvividhaprabhāvaḥ, hitāhitōdarkaviśēṣāt; caturvidhōpayōgaḥ, pānāśanabhakṣyalēhyōpayōgāt;ṣaḍāsvādaḥ, rasabhēdataḥ ṣaḍvidhatvāt; viṁśatiguṇaḥ,gurulaghuśītōṣṇasnigdharūkṣamandatīkṣṇasthirasaramr̥dukaṭhina-viśadapicchilaślakṣṇakharasūkṣmasthūlasāndradravānugamāt; aparisaṅkhyēyavikalpaḥ,dravyasaṁyōgakaraṇabāhulyāt||36||

tadyathA-

AhAratvamAhArasyaikavidhamarthAbhedAt; sa punardviyoniH, sthAvaraja~ggamAtmakatvAt;dvividhaprabhAvaH, hitAhitodarkavisheShAt; caturvidhopayogaH, pAnAshanabhakShyalehyopayogAt;ShaDAsvAdaH, rasabhedataH ShaDvidhatvAt; viMshatiguNaH,gurulaghushItoShNasnigdharUkShamandatIkShNasthirasaramRudukaThina-vishadapicchilashlakShNakharasUkShmasthUlasAndradravAnugamAt; aparisa~gkhyeyavikalpaH,dravyasaMyogakaraNabAhulyAt||36||

The dietetic classification of food is as follows:

Food is all of one kind in the view of eatability as a common feature. According to the source, food articles are of two types – those based on vegetable sources and those that are based on animal products. It is also of two types based on specific action: actions that have a positive effect and actions that have an unhealthy, unwholesome, or negative effect. Food can also be classified into four groups by the way it is ingested: drinkables, eatables, chewables, and linctuses. Another method of classification categorizes food by taste – and these are six categories. Similarly, from the point of view of their texture or properties, food articles are twenty types : heavy, light, cold, hot, unctuous, dry, slow (dull), sharp, stable, fluidity, soft, hard, clear, viscid, refined, smooth, rough, subtle, gross, dense (or solid) and liquid.

Thus, classifications of food can be countless due to the sheer diversity of ingredients, combinations and their preparations. [36]

Two main classes of diet

तस्य खलु ये ये विकारावयवा भूयिष्ठमुपयुज्यन्ते, भूयिष्ठकल्पानां च मनुष्याणां प्रकृत्यैव हिततमाश्चाहिततमाश्च, तांस्तान्यथावदुपदेक्ष्यामः||३७||

tasya khalu yē yē vikārāvayavā bhūyiṣṭhamupayujyantē, bhūyiṣṭhakalpānāṁ ca manuṣyāṇāṁ prakr̥tyaivahitatamāścāhitatamāśca, tāṁstān yathāvadupadēkṣyāmaḥ||37||

tasya khalu ye ye vikArAvayavA bhUyiShThamupayujyante, bhUyiShThakalpAnAM ca manuShyANAMprakRutyaiva hitatamAshcAhitatamAshca, tAMstAn yathAvadupadekShyAmaH||37||

Nevertheless, we shall now delve upon certain classes of food articles that are mostly commonly used and are naturally the most wholesome and unwholesome to the majority of human beings. [37]

Wholesome(beneficial) food articles

तद्यथा- लोहितशालयः शूकधान्यानां पथ्यतमत्वे श्रेष्ठतमा भवन्ति, मुद्गाः शमीधान्यानाम्, आन्तरिक्षमुदकानां, सैन्धवंलवणानां, जीवन्तीशाकं शाकानाम्, ऐणेयं मृगमांसानां, लावः पक्षिणां, गोधा बिलेशयानां, रोहितो मत्स्यानां, गव्यं सर्पिःसर्पिषां, गोक्षीरं क्षीराणां, तिलतैलं स्थावरजातानां स्नेहानां, वराहवसा आनूपमृगवसानां, चुलुकीवसा मत्स्यवसानां,पाकहंसवसा जलचरविहङ्गवसानां, कुक्कुटवसा विष्किरशकुनिवसानां, अजमेदः शाखादमेदसां, शृङ्गवेरं कन्दानां, मृद्वीकाफलानां, शर्करेक्षुविकाराणाम्, इति प्रकृत्यैव हिततमानामाहारविकाराणां प्राधान्यतो द्रव्याणि व्याख्यातानि भवन्ति||३८||

tadyathā- lōhitaśālayaḥ śūkadhānyānāṁ pathyatamatvē śrēṣṭhatamā bhavanti, mudgāḥ śamīdhānyānām,āntarikṣamudakānāṁ, saindhavaṁ lavaṇānāṁ, jīvantīśākaṁ śākānām, aiṇēyaṁ mr̥gamāṁsānāṁ, lāvaḥpakṣiṇāṁ, gōdhā bilēśayānāṁ, rōhitō matsyānāṁ, gavyaṁ sarpiḥ sarpiṣāṁ, gōkṣīraṁ kṣīrāṇāṁ, tilatailaṁsthāvarajātānāṁ snēhānāṁ, varāhavasā ānūpamr̥gavasānāṁ, culukīvasā matsyavasānāṁ,pākahaṁsavasā jalacaravihaṅgavasānāṁ, kukkuṭavasā viṣkiraśakunivasānāṁ, ajamēdaḥśākhādamēdasāṁ, śr̥ṅgavēraṁ kandānāṁ, mr̥dvīkā phalānāṁ, śarkarēkṣuvikārāṇām, iti prakr̥tyaivahitatamānāmāhāravikārāṇāṁ prādhānyatō dravyāṇi vyākhyātāni bhavanti||38||

tadyathA- lohitashAlayaH shUkadhAnyAnAM pathyatamatve shreShThatamA bhavanti, mudgAHshamIdhAnyAnAm, AntarikShamudakAnAM, saindhavaM lavaNAnAM, jIvantIshAkaM shAkAnAm, aiNeyaMmRugamAMsAnAM, lAvaH pakShiNAM, godhA bileshayAnAM, rohito matsyAnAM, gavyaM sarpiHsarpiShAM, gokShIraM kShIrANAM, tilatailaM sthAvarajAtAnAM snehAnAM, varAhavasAAnUpamRugavasAnAM, culukIvasA matsyavasAnAM, pAkahaMsavasA jalacaraviha~ggavasAnAM,kukkuTavasA viShkirashakunivasAnAM, ajamedaH shAkhAdamedasAM, shRu~ggaveraM kandAnAM,mRudvIkA phalAnAM, sharkarekShuvikArANAm, iti prakRutyaiva hitatamAnAmAhAravikArANAMprAdhAnyato dravyANi vyAkhyAtAni bhavanti||38||

The most beneficial among food articles are thus:

Red rice (Oryza Sativa Linn.) is the best among all cereal crops having bristles, green gram (phascolus mungalim) among pulses, rain water (collected directly before falling on ground) among various types of drinking water, rock salt among salts, jiwanti (Leptadenia reticulate W.S.A.) among pot herbs, antelope (ena) among meat of animals, common quail (lava) among meat of birds, the iguana (godha) among meat of burrowing animals, rohita among fishes, cow ghee among ghee, cow milk among milk, the tila (sesame) oil among fats of vegetable sources, lard (hog's fat) among the fats of marshy animals, fat of chuluki (gangetic dolphin) among fish fat, the fat of pakahamsa (white swan) among fats of aquatic birds, the fat of hen among fats of gallinaceous types of birds, the fat of goat among fats of branch-eating animals, ginger among rhizomes and roots, grapes among fruits, and sugar among the products of sugarcane. In this manner, various natural food articles have been identified to be the most wholesome in their class. [38]

Unwholesome (harmful) food articles

अहिततमानप्युपदेक्ष्यामः-

यवकाः शूकधान्यानामपथ्यतमत्वेन प्रकृष्टतमा भवन्ति, माषाः शमीधान्यानां,वर्षानादेयमुदकानाम्, ऊषरं लवणानां, सर्षपशाकं शाकानां, गोमांसं मृगमांसानां, काणकपोतः पक्षिणां, भेको बिलेशयानां,चिलिचिमो मत्स्यानाम्, आविकं सर्पिः सर्पिषाम्, अविक्षीरं क्षीराणां, कुसुम्भस्नेहः स्थावरस्नेहानां, महिषवसाआनूपमृगवसानां, कुम्भीरवसा मत्स्यवसानां, काकमद्गुवसा जलचरविहङ्गवसानां, चटकवसा विष्किरशुकनिवसानां,हस्तिमेदः शाखादमेदसां, निकुचं फलानाम्, आलुकं कन्दानां, फाणितमिक्षुविकाराणाम्, इतिप्रकृत्यैवाहिततमानामाहारविकाराणां प्रकृष्टतमानि द्रव्याणि व्याख्यातानि भवन्ति; (इति) हिताहितावयवो व्याख्यातआहारविकाराणाम्||३९||

ahitatamānapyupadēkṣyāmaḥ-

yavakāḥ śūkadhānyānāmapathyatamatvēna prakr̥ṣṭatamā bhavanti,māṣāḥ śamīdhānyānāṁ, varṣānādēyamudakānām, ūṣaraṁ lavaṇānāṁ, sarṣapaśākaṁ śākānāṁ,gōmāṁsaṁ mr̥gamāṁsānāṁ, kāṇakapōtaḥ pakṣiṇāṁ, bhēkō bilēśayānāṁ, cilicimō matsyānām, āvikaṁsarpiḥ sarpiṣām, avikṣīraṁ kṣīrāṇāṁ, kusumbhasnēhaḥ sthāvarasnēhānāṁ, mahiṣavasāānūpamr̥gavasānāṁ, kumbhīravasā matsyavasānāṁ, kākamadguvasā jalacaravihaṅgavasānāṁ,caṭakavasā viṣkiraśukanivasānāṁ, hastimēdaḥ śākhādamēdasāṁ, nikucaṁ phalānām, ālukaṁ kandānāṁ,phāṇitamikṣuvikārāṇām, iti prakr̥tyaivāhitatamānāmāhāravikārāṇāṁ prakr̥ṣṭatamāni dravyāṇi vyākhyātānibhavanti; (iti) hitāhitāvayavō vyākhyāta āhāravikārāṇām||39||

ahitatamAnapyupadekShyAmaH-

yavakAH shUkadhAnyAnAmapathyatamatvena prakRuShTatamA [1]bhavanti, mAShAH shamIdhAnyAnAM, varShAnAdeyamudakAnAm, USharaM lavaNAnAM, sarShapashAkaMshAkAnAM, gomAMsaM mRugamAMsAnAM, kANakapotaH pakShiNAM, bheko bileshayAnAM, cilicimomatsyAnAm, AvikaM sarpiH sarpiShAm, avikShIraM kShIrANAM, kusumbhasnehaH sthAvarasnehAnAM,mahiShavasA AnUpamRugavasAnAM, kumbhIravasA matsyavasAnAM, kAkamadguvasAjalacaraviha~ggavasAnAM, caTakavasA viShkirashukanivasAnAM, hastimedaH shAkhAdamedasAM,nikucaM phalAnAm, AlukaM kandAnAM, phANitamikShuvikArANAm, itiprakRutyaivAhitatamAnAmAhAravikArANAM prakRuShTatamAni dravyANi vyAkhyAtAni bhavanti; (iti)hitAhitAvayavo vyAkhyAta AhAravikArANAm||39||

Now here are the most unwholesome of food articles:

Yavak (wild barley) is the most unwholesome among cereal crops with bristles, masha (phaseolus radiations linn) among pulses, river water in the rainy season among types of drinking water, ushara (saline soil salt) among salts, mustard leaf among pot herbs, beef among meat of animals, young dove (kapota) among meat of birds, frog meat among meat of burrowing animals, chilichima meat among meat of fishes, ghee made of sheep’s milk among ghee, sheep milk among milk, oil of kusumbha (Canthamus finctorious liom) among vegetable fats, fat of the water buffalo among fats of marshy animals, fat of gangetic gharial (kumbhira) among the fats of fishes, the fat of water foul among fats of aquatic animal, fat of the sparrow (chatak) among fats of gallinaceous types of bird, fat of elephant among fats of branch-eating animals, the nikucha (Atrocarpus nikucha Roxb.) among fruits, the aluka among the bulbs, phanita (treacle) among derivatives of sugarcane, etc. These above (mentioned food articles) have been enumerated, each of which is the most unwholesome of its class naturally. The wholesome food articles and unwholesome food articles have been explained in such context. [39]

Agrya samgraha (collections of best food articles, factors and drugs in various conditions)

अतो भूयः कर्मौषधानां च प्राधान्यतः सानुबन्धानि द्रव्याण्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः|

तद्यथा-

अन्नं वृत्तिकराणां श्रेष्ठम्, उदकमाश्वासकराणां (सुरा श्रमहराणां), क्षीरं जीवनीयानां, मांसं बृंहणीयानां,रसस्तर्पणीयानां, लवणमन्नद्रव्यरुचिकराणाम्, अम्लं हृद्यानां, कुक्कुटो बल्यानां, नक्ररेतो वृष्याणां, मधुश्लेष्मपित्तप्रशमनानां, सर्पिर्वातपित्तप्रशमनानां, तैलं वातश्लेष्मप्रशमनानां, वमनं श्लेष्महराणां, विरेचनं पित्तहराणां,बस्तिर्वातहराणां, स्वेदो मार्दवकराणां, व्यायामः स्थैर्यकराणां, क्षारः पुंस्त्वोपघातिनां, (तिन्दुकमनन्नद्रव्यरुचिकराणाम् ,)आमं कपित्थमकण्ठ्यानाम्, आविकं सर्पिरहृद्यानाम्, अजाक्षीरं शोषघ्नस्तन्यसात्म्यरक्तसाङ्ग्राहिकरक्तपित्तप्रशमनानाम्,अविक्षीरं श्लेष्मपित्तजननानां, महिषीक्षीरं स्वप्नजननानां, मन्दकं दध्यभिष्यन्दकराणां, गवेधुकान्नं कर्शनीयानाम्,उद्दालकान्नं विरूक्षणीयानाम्, इक्षुर्मूत्रजननानां, यवाः पुरीषजननानां, जाम्बवं वातजननानां, शष्कुल्यः श्लेष्मपित्तजननानां,कुलत्था अम्लपित्तजननानां, माषाः श्लेष्मपित्तजननानां, मदनफलं वमनास्थापनानुवासनोपयोगिनां, त्रिवृत् सुखविरेचनानां,चतुरङ्गुलो मृदुविरेचनानां, स्नुक्पयस्तीक्ष्णविरेचननां, प्रत्यक्पुष्पा शिरोविरेचनानां, विडङ्गं क्रिमिघ्नानां, शिरीषो विषघ्नानां,खदिरः कुष्ठघ्नानां, रास्ना वातहराणाम्, आमलकं वयःस्थापनानां, हरीतकी पथ्यानाम्, एरण्डमूलं वृष्यवातहराणां,पिप्पलीमूलं दीपनीयपाचनीयानाहप्रशमनानां, चित्रकमूलं दीपनीयपाचनीयगुदशोथार्शःशूलहराणां, पुष्करमूलंहिक्काश्वासकासपार्श्वशूलहराणां, मुस्तं साङ्ग्राहिकदीपनीयपाचनीयानाम्, उदीच्यंनिर्वापणदीपनीयपाचनीयच्छर्द्यतीसारहराणां, कट्वङ्गं साङ्ग्राहिकपाचनीयदीपनीयानाम्, अनन्तासाङ्ग्राहिकरक्तपित्तप्रशमनानाम्, अमृता साङ्ग्राहिकवातहरदीपनीयश्लेष्मशोणितविबन्धप्रशमनानां, बिल्वंसाङ्ग्राहिकदीपनीयवातकफप्रशमनानाम्, अतिविषा दीपनीयपाचनीयसाङ्ग्राहिकसर्वदोषहराणाम्,उत्पलकुमुदपद्मकिञ्जल्कः साङ्ग्राहिकरक्तपित्तप्रशमनानां, दुरालभा पित्तश्लेष्मप्रशमनानां, गन्धप्रियङ्गुःशोणितपित्तातियोगप्रशमनानां, कुटजत्वक् श्लेष्मपित्तरक्तसाङ्ग्राहिकोपशोषणानां, काश्मर्यफलंरक्तसाङ्ग्राहिकरक्तपित्तप्रशमनानां, पृश्निपर्णी साङ्ग्राहिकवातहरदीपनीयवृष्याणां, विदारिगन्धा वृष्यसर्वदोषहराणां, बलासाङ्ग्राहिकबल्यवातहराणां, गोक्षुरको मूत्रकृच्छ्रानिलहराणां, हिङ्गुनिर्यासश्छेदनीयदीपनीयानुलोमिकवातकफप्रशमनानाम्,अम्लवेतसो भेदनीयदीपनीयानुलोमिकवातश्लेष्महराणां, यावशूकः स्रंसनीयपाचनीयार्शोघ्नानां, तक्राभ्यासोग्रहणीदोषशोफार्शोघृतव्यापत्प्रशमनानां, क्रव्यान्मांसरसाभ्यासो ग्रहणीदोषशोषार्शोघ्नानां, क्षीरघृताभ्यासो रसायनानां,समघृतसक्तुप्राशाभ्यासो वृष्योदावर्तहराणां, तैलगण्डूषाभ्यासो दन्तबलरुचिकराणां, चन्दनं दुर्गन्धहरदाहनिर्वापणलेपनानां,रास्नागुरुणी शीतापनयनप्रलेपनानां, लामज्जकोशीरं दाहत्वग्दोषस्वेदापनयनप्रलेपनानां, कुष्ठंवातहराभ्यङ्गोपनाहोपयोगिनां, मधुकं चक्षुष्यवृष्यकेश्यकण्ठ्यवर्ण्यविरजनीयरोपणीयानां, वायुः प्राणसञ्ज्ञाप्रदानहेतूनाम्,अग्निरामस्तम्भशीतशूलोद्वेपनप्रशमनानां, जलं स्तम्भनीयानां, मृद्भृष्टलोष्ट्रनिर्वापितमुदकंतृष्णाच्छर्द्यतियोगप्रशमनानाम्, अतिमात्राशनमामप्रदोषहेतूनां, यथाग्न्यभ्यवहारोऽग्निसन्धुक्षणानां, यथासात्म्यंचेष्टाभ्यवहारौ सेव्यानां, कालभोजनमारोग्यकराणां, तृप्तिराहारगुणानां, वेगसन्धारणमनारोग्यकराणां, मद्यंसौमनस्यजननानां, मद्याक्षेपो धीधृतिस्मृतिहराणां, गुरुभोजनं दुर्विपाककराणाम्, एकाशनभोजनं सुखपरिणामकराणां,स्त्रीष्वतिप्रसङ्गः शोषकराणां, शुक्रवेगनिग्रहः षाण्ड्यकराणां, पराघातनमन्नाश्रद्धाजननानाम्, अनशनमायुषो ह्रासकराणां,प्रमिताशनं कर्शनीयानाम्, अजीर्णाध्यशनं ग्रहणीदूषणानां, विषमाशनमग्निवैषम्यकराणां, विरुद्धवीर्याशनंनिन्दितव्याधिकराणां, प्रशमः पथ्यानां, आयासः सर्वापथ्यानां, मिथ्यायोगो व्याधिकराणां, रजस्वलाभिगमनमलक्ष्मीमुखानां,ब्रह्मचर्यमायुष्याणां, परदाराभिगमनमनायुष्याणां, सङ्कल्पो वृष्याणां, दौर्मनस्यमवृष्याणाम्, अयथाबलमारम्भःप्राणोपरोधिनां, विषादो रोगवर्धनानां, स्नानं श्रमहराणां, हर्षः प्रीणनानां, शोकः शोषणानां, निवृत्तिः पुष्टिकराणां,पुष्टिःस्वप्नकराणाम्, अतिस्वप्नस्तन्द्राकराणां, सर्वरसाभ्यासो बलकराणाम्, एकरसाभ्यासो दौर्बल्यकराणां,गर्भशल्यमाहार्याणाम्, अजीर्णमुद्धार्याणां, बालो मृदुभेषजीयानां, वृद्धो याप्यानां, गर्भिणीतीक्ष्णौषधव्यवायव्यायामवर्जनीयानां, सौमनस्यं गर्भधारणानां, सन्निपातो दुश्चिकित्स्यानाम्, आमो विषमचिकित्स्यानां ,ज्वरो रोगाणां, कुष्ठं दीर्घरोगाणां, राजयक्ष्मा रोगसमूहानां, प्रमेहोऽनुषङ्गिणां, जलौकसोऽनुशस्त्राणां, बस्तिस्तन्त्राणां,हिमवानौषधिभूमीनां, सोम ओषधीनां, मरुभूमिरारोग्यदेशानाम्, अनूपोऽहितदेशानाम्, निर्देशकारित्वमातुरगुणानां, भिषक्चिकित्साङ्गानां, नास्तिकोवर्ज्यानां, लौल्यं क्लेशकराणाम्, अनिर्देशकारित्वमरिष्टानां, अनिर्वेदो वार्तलक्षणानां, वैद्यसमूहोनिःसंशयकराणं, योगो वैद्यगुणानां, विज्ञानमौषधीनां, शास्त्रसहितस्तर्कः साधनानां, सम्प्रतिपत्तिः कालज्ञानप्रयोजनानाम्,अव्यवसायः कालातिपत्तिहेतूनां, दृष्टकर्मता निःसंशयकराणाम्, असमर्थता भयकराणां, तद्विद्यसम्भाषा बुद्धिवर्धनानाम्,आचार्यः शास्त्राधिगमहेतूनाम्, आयुर्वेदोऽमृतानां, सद्वचनमनुष्ठेयानाम्, असद्ग्रहणं सर्वाहितानां, सर्वसन्न्यासःसुखानामिति||४०||

atō bhūyaḥ karmauṣadhānāṁ ca prādhānyataḥ sānubandhāni dravyāṇyanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ|

tadyathā- annaṁ vr̥ttikarāṇāṁ śrēṣṭham, udakamāśvāsakarāṇāṁ (surā śramaharāṇāṁ ), kṣīraṁjīvanīyānāṁ, māṁsaṁ br̥ṁhaṇīyānāṁ, rasastarpaṇīyānāṁ, lavaṇamannadravyarucikarāṇām, amlaṁhr̥dyānāṁ, kukkuṭō balyānāṁ, nakrarētō vr̥ṣyāṇāṁ, madhu ślēṣmapittapraśamanānāṁ,sarpirvātapittapraśamanānāṁ, tailaṁ vātaślēṣmapraśamanānāṁ, vamanaṁ ślēṣmaharāṇāṁ, virēcanaṁpittaharāṇāṁ, bastirvātaharāṇāṁ, svēdō mārdavakarāṇāṁ, vyāyāmaḥ sthairyakarāṇāṁ, kṣāraḥpuṁstvōpaghātināṁ, (tindukamanannadravyarucikarāṇām ,) āmaṁ kapitthamakaṇṭhyānām, āvikaṁsarpirahr̥dyānām, ajākṣīraṁ śōṣaghnastanyasātmyaraktasāṅgrāhikaraktapittapraśamanānām, avikṣīraṁślēṣmapittajananānāṁ, mahiṣīkṣīraṁ svapnajananānāṁ, mandakaṁ dadhyabhiṣyandakarāṇāṁ,gavēdhukānnaṁ karśanīyānām, uddālakānnaṁ virūkṣaṇīyānām, ikṣurmūtrajananānāṁ, yavāḥpurīṣajananānāṁ, jāmbavaṁ vātajananānāṁ, śaṣkulyaḥ ślēṣmapittajananānāṁ, kulatthāamlapittajananānāṁ, māṣāḥ ślēṣmapittajananānāṁ, madanaphalaṁvamanāsthāpanānuvāsanōpayōgināṁ, trivr̥t sukhavirēcanānāṁ, caturaṅgulō mr̥duvirēcanānāṁ,snukpayastīkṣṇavirēcananāṁ, pratyakpuṣpā śirōvirēcanānāṁ, viḍaṅgaṁ krimighnānāṁ, śirīṣōviṣaghnānāṁ, khadiraḥ kuṣṭhaghnānāṁ, rāsnā vātaharāṇām, āmalakaṁ vayaḥsthāpanānāṁ, harītakīpathyānām, ēraṇḍamūlaṁ vr̥ṣyavātaharāṇāṁ, pippalīmūlaṁ dīpanīyapācanīyānāhapraśamanānāṁ,citrakamūlaṁ dīpanīyapācanīyagudaśōthārśaḥśūlaharāṇāṁ, puṣkaramūlaṁhikkāśvāsakāsapārśvaśūlaharāṇāṁ, mustaṁ sāṅgrāhikadīpanīyapācanīyānām, udīcyaṁnirvāpaṇadīpanīyapācanīyacchardyatīsāraharāṇāṁ, kaṭvaṅgaṁ sāṅgrāhikapācanīyadīpanīyānām, anantāsāṅgrāhikaraktapittapraśamanānām, amr̥tāsāṅgrāhikavātaharadīpanīyaślēṣmaśōṇitavibandhapraśamanānāṁ, bilvaṁsāṅgrāhikadīpanīyavātakaphapraśamanānām, ativiṣā dīpanīyapācanīyasāṅgrāhikasarvadōṣaharāṇām,utpalakumudapadmakiñjalkaḥ sāṅgrāhikaraktapittapraśamanānāṁ, durālabhā pittaślēṣmapraśamanānāṁ,gandhapriyaṅguḥ śōṇitapittātiyōgapraśamanānāṁ, kuṭajatvak ślēṣmapittaraktasāṅgrāhikōpaśōṣaṇānāṁ,kāśmaryaphalaṁ raktasāṅgrāhikaraktapittapraśamanānāṁ, pr̥śniparṇīsāṅgrāhikavātaharadīpanīyavr̥ṣyāṇāṁ, vidārigandhā vr̥ṣyasarvadōṣaharāṇāṁ, balāsāṅgrāhikabalyavātaharāṇāṁ, gōkṣurakō mūtrakr̥cchrānilaharāṇāṁ,hiṅguniryāsaśchēdanīyadīpanīyānulōmikavātakaphapraśamanānām, amlavētasōbhēdanīyadīpanīyānulōmikavātaślēṣmaharāṇāṁ, yāvaśūkaḥ sraṁsanīyapācanīyārśōghnānāṁ,takrābhyāsō grahaṇīdōṣaśōphārśōghr̥tavyāpatpraśamanānāṁ, kravyānmāṁsarasābhyāsōgrahaṇīdōṣaśōṣārśōghnānāṁ, kṣīraghr̥tābhyāsō rasāyanānāṁ, samaghr̥tasaktuprāśābhyāsōvr̥ṣyōdāvartaharāṇāṁ, tailagaṇḍūṣābhyāsō dantabalarucikarāṇāṁ, candanaṁdurgandhaharadāhanirvāpaṇalēpanānāṁ, rāsnāguruṇī śītāpanayanapralēpanānāṁ, lāmajjakōśīraṁdāhatvagdōṣasvēdāpanayanapralēpanānāṁ, kuṣṭhaṁ vātaharābhyaṅgōpanāhōpayōgināṁ, madhukaṁcakṣuṣyavr̥ṣyakēśyakaṇṭhyavarṇyavirajanīyarōpaṇīyānāṁ, vāyuḥ prāṇasañjñāpradānahētūnām,agnirāmastambhaśītaśūlōdvēpanapraśamanānāṁ, jalaṁ stambhanīyānāṁ,mr̥dbhr̥ṣṭalōṣṭranirvāpitamudakaṁ tr̥ṣṇācchardyatiyōgapraśamanānām,atimātrāśanamāmapradōṣahētūnāṁ, yathāgnyabhyavahārō'gnisandhukṣaṇānāṁ, yathāsātmyaṁcēṣṭābhyavahārau sēvyānāṁ, kālabhōjanamārōgyakarāṇāṁ, tr̥ptirāhāraguṇānāṁ,vēgasandhāraṇamanārōgyakarāṇāṁ, madyaṁ saumanasyajananānāṁ, madyākṣēpōdhīdhr̥tismr̥tiharāṇāṁ, gurubhōjanaṁ durvipākakarāṇām, ēkāśanabhōjanaṁ sukhapariṇāmakarāṇāṁ,strīṣvatiprasaṅgaḥ śōṣakarāṇāṁ, śukravēganigrahaḥ ṣāṇḍyakarāṇāṁ,parāghātanamannāśraddhājananānām, anaśanamāyuṣō hrāsakarāṇāṁ, pramitāśanaṁ karśanīyānām,ajīrṇādhyaśanaṁ grahaṇīdūṣaṇānāṁ, viṣamāśanamagnivaiṣamyakarāṇāṁ, viruddhavīryāśanaṁninditavyādhikarāṇāṁ, praśamaḥ pathyānāṁ, āyāsaḥ sarvāpathyānāṁ, mithyāyōgō vyādhikarāṇāṁ,rajasvalābhigamanamalakṣmīmukhānāṁ, brahmacaryamāyuṣyāṇāṁ,paradārābhigamanamanāyuṣyāṇāṁ, saṅkalpō vr̥ṣyāṇāṁ, daurmanasyamavr̥ṣyāṇām,ayathābalamārambhaḥ prāṇōparōdhināṁ, viṣādō rōgavardhanānāṁ, snānaṁ śramaharāṇāṁ, harṣaḥprīṇanānāṁ, śōkaḥ śōṣaṇānāṁ, nivr̥ttiḥ puṣṭikarāṇāṁ, puṣṭiḥsvapnakarāṇām, atisvapnastandrākarāṇāṁ,sarvarasābhyāsō balakarāṇām, ēkarasābhyāsō daurbalyakarāṇāṁ, garbhaśalyamāhāryāṇām,ajīrṇamuddhāryāṇāṁ, bālō mr̥dubhēṣajīyānāṁ, vr̥ddhō yāpyānāṁ, garbhiṇītīkṣṇauṣadhavyavāyavyāyāmavarjanīyānāṁ, saumanasyaṁ garbhadhāraṇānāṁ, sannipātōduścikitsyānām, āmō viṣamacikitsyānāṁ , jvarō rōgāṇāṁ, kuṣṭhaṁ dīrgharōgāṇāṁ, rājayakṣmārōgasamūhānāṁ, pramēhō'nuṣaṅgiṇāṁ, jalaukasō'nuśastrāṇāṁ, bastistantrāṇāṁ,himavānauṣadhibhūmīnāṁ, sōma ōṣadhīnāṁ, marubhūmirārōgyadēśānām, anūpō'hitadēśānām,nirdēśakāritvamāturaguṇānāṁ, bhiṣak cikitsāṅgānāṁ, nāstikōvarjyānāṁ, laulyaṁ klēśakarāṇām,anirdēśakāritvamariṣṭānāṁ, anirvēdō vārtalakṣaṇānāṁ, vaidyasamūhō niḥsaṁśayakarāṇaṁ, yōgōvaidyaguṇānāṁ, vijñānamauṣadhīnāṁ, śāstrasahitastarkaḥ sādhanānāṁ, sampratipattiḥkālajñānaprayōjanānām, avyavasāyaḥ kālātipattihētūnāṁ, dr̥ṣṭakarmatā niḥsaṁśayakarāṇām,asamarthatā bhayakarāṇāṁ, tadvidyasambhāṣā buddhivardhanānām, ācāryaḥ śāstrādhigamahētūnām,āyurvēdō'mr̥tānāṁ, sadvacanamanuṣṭhēyānām, asadgrahaṇaṁ [5] sarvāhitānāṁ, sarvasannyāsaḥsukhānāmiti||40||

ato bhUyaH karmauShadhAnAM ca prAdhAnyataH sAnubandhAni dravyANyanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH|

tadyathA-

annaM vRuttikarANAM shreShTham, udakamAshvAsakarANAM (surA shramaharANAM ),kShIraM jIvanIyAnAM, mAMsaM bRuMhaNIyAnAM, rasastarpaNIyAnAM,lavaNamannadravyarucikarANAm, amlaM hRudyAnAM, kukkuTo balyAnAM, nakrareto vRuShyANAM,madhu shleShmapittaprashamanAnAM, sarpirvAtapittaprashamanAnAM, tailaMvAtashleShmaprashamanAnAM, vamanaM shleShmaharANAM, virecanaM pittaharANAM,bastirvAtaharANAM, svedo mArdavakarANAM, vyAyAmaH sthairyakarANAM, kShAraHpuMstvopaghAtinAM, (tindukamanannadravyarucikarANAm ,) AmaM kapitthamakaNThyAnAm, AvikaMsarpirahRudyAnAm, ajAkShIraM shoShaghnastanyasAtmyaraktasA~ggrAhikaraktapittaprashamanAnAm,avikShIraM shleShmapittajananAnAM, mahiShIkShIraM svapnajananAnAM, mandakaMdadhyabhiShyandakarANAM, gavedhukAnnaM karshanIyAnAm, uddAlakAnnaM virUkShaNIyAnAm,ikShurmUtrajananAnAM, yavAH purIShajananAnAM, jAmbavaM vAtajananAnAM, shaShkulyaHshleShmapittajananAnAM, kulatthA amlapittajananAnAM, mAShAH shleShmapittajananAnAM,madanaphalaM vamanAsthApanAnuvAsanopayoginAM, trivRut sukhavirecanAnAM, catura~ggulomRuduvirecanAnAM, snukpayastIkShNavirecananAM, pratyakpuShpA shirovirecanAnAM, viDa~ggaMkrimighnAnAM, shirISho viShaghnAnAM, khadiraH kuShThaghnAnAM, rAsnA vAtaharANAm, AmalakaMvayaHsthApanAnAM, harItakI pathyAnAm, eraNDamUlaM vRuShyavAtaharANAM, pippalImUlaMdIpanIyapAcanIyAnAhaprashamanAnAM, citrakamUlaMdIpanIyapAcanIyagudashothArshaHshUlaharANAM, puShkaramUlaMhikkAshvAsakAsapArshvashUlaharANAM, mustaM sA~ggrAhikadIpanIyapAcanIyAnAm, udIcyaMnirvApaNadIpanIyapAcanIyacchardyatIsAraharANAM, kaTva~ggaM sA~ggrAhikapAcanIyadIpanIyAnAm,anantA sA~ggrAhikaraktapittaprashamanAnAm, amRutAsA~ggrAhikavAtaharadIpanIyashleShmashoNitavibandhaprashamanAnAM, bilvaMsA~ggrAhikadIpanIyavAtakaphaprashamanAnAm, ativiShAdIpanIyapAcanIyasA~ggrAhikasarvadoShaharANAm, utpalakumudapadmaki~jjalkaHsA~ggrAhikaraktapittaprashamanAnAM, durAlabhA pittashleShmaprashamanAnAM, gandhapriya~gguHshoNitapittAtiyogaprashamanAnAM, kuTajatvak shleShmapittaraktasA~ggrAhikopashoShaNAnAM,kAshmaryaphalaM raktasA~ggrAhikaraktapittaprashamanAnAM, pRushniparNIsA~ggrAhikavAtaharadIpanIyavRuShyANAM, vidArigandhA vRuShyasarvadoShaharANAM, balAsA~ggrAhikabalyavAtaharANAM, gokShurako mUtrakRucchrAnilaharANAM,hi~gguniryAsashchedanIyadIpanIyAnulomikavAtakaphaprashamanAnAm, amlavetasobhedanIyadIpanIyAnulomikavAtashleShmaharANAM, yAvashUkaH sraMsanIyapAcanIyArshoghnAnAM,takrAbhyAso grahaNIdoShashophArshoghRutavyApatprashamanAnAM, kravyAnmAMsarasAbhyAsograhaNIdoShashoShArshoghnAnAM, kShIraghRutAbhyAso rasAyanAnAM, samaghRutasaktuprAshAbhyAsovRuShyodAvartaharANAM, tailagaNDUShAbhyAso dantabalarucikarANAM, candanaMdurgandhaharadAhanirvApaNalepanAnAM, rAsnAguruNI shItApanayanapralepanAnAM, lAmajjakoshIraMdAhatvagdoShasvedApanayanapralepanAnAM, kuShThaM vAtaharAbhya~ggopanAhopayoginAM,madhukaM cakShuShyavRuShyakeshyakaNThyavarNyavirajanIyaropaNIyAnAM, vAyuHprANasa~jj~jApradAnahetUnAm, agnirAmastambhashItashUlodvepanaprashamanAnAM, jalaMstambhanIyAnAM, mRudbhRuShTaloShTranirvApitamudakaM tRuShNAcchardyatiyogaprashamanAnAm,atimAtrAshanamAmapradoShahetUnAM, yathAgnyabhyavahAro~agnisandhukShaNAnAM, yathAsAtmyaMceShTAbhyavahArau sevyAnAM, kAlabhojanamArogyakarANAM, tRuptirAhAraguNAnAM,vegasandhAraNamanArogyakarANAM, madyaM saumanasyajananAnAM, madyAkShepodhIdhRutismRutiharANAM, gurubhojanaM durvipAkakarANAm, ekAshanabhojanaMsukhapariNAmakarANAM, strIShvatiprasa~ggaH shoShakarANAM, shukraveganigrahaHShANDyakarANAM, parAghAtanamannAshraddhAjananAnAm, anashanamAyuSho hrAsakarANAM,pramitAshanaM karshanIyAnAm, ajIrNAdhyashanaM grahaNIdUShaNAnAM,viShamAshanamagnivaiShamyakarANAM, viruddhavIryAshanaM ninditavyAdhikarANAM, prashamaHpathyAnAM, AyAsaH sarvApathyAnAM, mithyAyogo vyAdhikarANAM,rajasvalAbhigamanamalakShmImukhAnAM, brahmacaryamAyuShyANAM,paradArAbhigamanamanAyuShyANAM, sa~gkalpo vRuShyANAM, daurmanasyamavRuShyANAm,ayathAbalamArambhaH prANoparodhinAM, viShAdo rogavardhanAnAM, snAnaM shramaharANAM,harShaH prINanAnAM, shokaH shoShaNAnAM, nivRuttiH puShTikarANAM, puShTiHsvapnakarANAm,atisvapnastandrAkarANAM, sarvarasAbhyAso balakarANAm, ekarasAbhyAso daurbalyakarANAM,garbhashalyamAhAryANAm, ajIrNamuddhAryANAM, bAlo mRudubheShajIyAnAM, vRuddho yApyAnAM,garbhiNI tIkShNauShadhavyavAyavyAyAmavarjanIyAnAM, saumanasyaM garbhadhAraNAnAM, sannipAtodushcikitsyAnAm, Amo viShamacikitsyAnAM , jvaro rogANAM, kuShThaM dIrgharogANAM, rAjayakShmArogasamUhAnAM, prameho~anuSha~ggiNAM, jalaukaso~anushastrANAM, bastistantrANAM,himavAnauShadhibhUmInAM, soma oShadhInAM, marubhUmirArogyadeshAnAm, anUpo~ahitadeshAnAm,nirdeshakAritvamAturaguNAnAM, bhiShak cikitsA~ggAnAM, nAstikovarjyAnAM, laulyaM kleshakarANAm,anirdeshakAritvamariShTAnAM, anirvedo vArtalakShaNAnAM, vaidyasamUho niHsaMshayakarANaM, yogovaidyaguNAnAM, vij~jAnamauShadhInAM, shAstrasahitastarkaH sAdhanAnAM, sampratipattiHkAlaj~jAnaprayojanAnAm, avyavasAyaH kAlAtipattihetUnAM, dRuShTakarmatA niHsaMshayakarANAm,asamarthatA bhayakarANAM, tadvidyasambhAShA buddhivardhanAnAm, AcAryaHshAstrAdhigamahetUnAm, Ayurvedo~amRutAnAM, sadvacanamanuShTheyAnAm, asadgrahaNaM sarvAhitAnAM, sarvasannyAsaH sukhAnAmiti||40||

In addition to the above mentioned food articles, the table below provides a ready reference of key food articles and Ayurvedic therapies and their superior qualities:

1. Food (anna) Sustenance of life (Vrittikara)
2.Water (udaka) Production of soothing effect/refreshing agent (ashwaskara)
3.Wine (sura) Dispelling fatigue/wine among acopics(shramahara)
4.Milk (ksheera) Invigorating/vitilizers (jivaniya)
5.Meat (mamsa) Nourishing (brihmana)
6.Meat soup (mamsa rasa) Refreshing/Demulcents (Tarpana)
7.Salt (lavana) Appetizers (ruchikaraka) for taste
8.Sour things (amla rasa) Tasty medication for the heart (hridya)
9.Meat of chicken (kukkuta mamsa) Strength promoting (balya)
10.Semen of crocodile (''nakraretasa'') Having aphrodisiac action/virility enhancers (vrishya)
11.Honey (madhu) Alleviating kapha and pitta (shlesma pitta prashamana)
12.Ghee (ghrita) Alleviating vata and pitta (vata pitta prashamana)
13. Sesame oil ( tila taila) Alleviating vata and kapha (vata shleshmana prashamana)
14. Emesis (vamana) Eliminating kapha (shlesmahara)
15.Purgation (virechana) Eliminating pitta (pittahara)
16.Enema (basti) Eliminating vata(vatahara)
17.Fomentation/sudation (sweda) Bringing about smoothness in body/soften the body(mardavakara)
18.Exercise (vyayama) Bringing about firmness/stability (sthairyakara)
19.Alkalies (kshara) Causing impotency/impair manhood (punsatvopaghata)
20.Tinduka (Diospyros Peregrina Gurke) Bringing about deliciousness in non-dietetic food articles. The false mangosteen among appetizers (annadravyaruchikara)
21.Unripe Kapittha (FeroniaLimonia Swingle) or unripe wood apple Producing harmful effect on throat (akanthyanam)
22.Ghee of sheep milk (Avika sarpi) Producing bad effect on heart/Non cardials (ahridryakara)
23.Goat milk (ajaksheera) Producing wholesome and galactogoque effect, and curing consumption, and raktapitta (A disease characterized by bleeding from different part of body)
24.Sheep milk (aviksheera) Vitiating kapha and pitta (shleshmana pitta janana)
25.Buffalo milk (mahishi ksheera) Inducing sleep (swapna janana)
26.Immature (incompletely formed) curd (mandak dadhi) Obstructing channels of circulation/viscidifying agents (abhishyandakara)
27.Food Prepared of boiled Job’s tears/gavedhuka [Tritium aestivum Linn.] Emaciating/depleters (karshaniya)
28.Food prepared of boiled uddalaka (Paspalum scrobiculatum) Drying/reduces unctuous element in body (virukshaniya)
29.Sugarcane (ikshu) Produces diuresis / increases quantity of urine (mutrajanana)
30.Barley (yava) Increasing quantity of feces (purishajanana)
31.Jambu [Syzygium cumini skeels] Aggreviating vata (vata janana)
32.Shashkuli (type of pastry) (or oils) Provoke kapha and pitta (shleshma pitta janana)
33.Kulattha (Dolichos biflorus Linn) or horse gram Causes amlapitta (acid dyspepsia)
34.Masha (Phaseolous radiates Linn or black gram) Increase of kapha and pitta(shleshmana pitta janana)
35.Fruit of madana [Randiadumetorun Lam.] or emetic Nut Used in emesis, and corrective and unctuous enema (Vamana asthapanaanuvasanopayogi)
36.Trivrita [Operculina turpethum R.B.] or turpeth Causes easy purgation (sukha virechana)
37.Aragvadha [Cassia fistula Linn] Causes mild purgation (mridu virechana)
38.Milk of Snuhi [Euphorbia nerifolia Linn.] thorny milk hedge plant Causing strong purgations (tikshna virechana)
39.Apamarga [Achyranthes aspera Linn.] Rough chaff Eliminating doshas from head/these are errhines (shiro virechana)
40.Vidanga [Embelia ribes Bur M.F.] Killing parasites/among all Anthelmintics (krimighna)
41.Shirisha [Albizzia lebbeck Benth.] Produces antitoxic effects/among all antidotes (vishaghna)
42.Khadira [Acacia catechu Willd.] Curing obstinate skin desease including leprosy/dermic remedics (kushtaghna)
43.Rasna [Pluchea lanceolata Oliver and Hiern] Alleviating vata (vatahara)
44.Amalaka [Emblica offiinalis Gaern] or Emblic Myrobalan Anti–ageing / causing rejuventation (vaya sthapana)
45.Haritaki [Terminalia Chebula] or Chebulic Myrobalan Producing wholesome effect (pathya)
46.Root of Eranda [Ricinus communis Linn] or castor oil Increasing virility and alleviating vata (vrishya vatahara)
47.Root of pippali [Piper longum Linn] or long pepper Digestive stimulant, carminative, relieves abdominal distension (Deepaniya pachaniya anahprasamana)
48.Root of chitraka [Plumbago Zeylanica] or white flowered lead wort Promotes digestion, carmination,inflammation in anal region, curing of piles, subside colic pain [Deepaniya pachaniya gudashotha arshashula haranam]
49.Pushkaramula [Inula racemosa] or orris root Curtive of hiccups, dyspnea, pleurodynea, cough (Hikka shwasa kasa parshvashulahara)
50.Musta [Cyperus rotundus Linn.] or Nut grass Causing astringent effect, promoting digestion & carmination (Sangrahika deepaniya pachaniya)
51.Udichya (Pavonia adorata Willd.) or fragrant Sticky Mallow Producing cooling effect (refrigerant), promoting digestion and carmination curing vomiting and diarrhea (Nirvapana dipaniya pachaniya chhardi atisarahara)
52.Shyonaka [Oroxylum indicun Vent.] or free of heaven or katvanga Causing astringent effect, digestive stimulant, digestives (Sangrahika pachaniya dipaniyanam)
53.Ananta [Hemidesmus indicus R.B.] or Indian sarsaparilla Causing astringent, curing raktapitta/ (Sangrahika raktapitta prashama)
54.Guduchi [Tinospora Cordifolia miers] or amrita Act as astringent, curative of vata, promotes digestion, curative of vitiation of kapha and blood (sangrahika vataharadipaniya shleshma shonita vibandha prashamana).
55.Bilva [Aegle Marmelos Corr] or bael Causing astringent effect, promote digestion, alleviating vata and kapha (sangrahika dipaniya vata kapha prashamana)
56.Ativisha (Aconitum Heterophylum wall] or atips Causing astringent effect, promote digestion, carmination and alleviating all the dosha or curative of all the disorders. (dipaniya pachaniya sangrahika sarvadoshaharanam)
57.Pollens of utpala [Nymphaca alba Linn.], kumuda (a variety of utpala) and padma [Nelumbo nucifera gaertn.] or pollen of blue and white water lilies Astringent effect, alleviating raktapitta (sangrahika raktapitta prashamana).
58.Duralabha [Fagonia Cretica Linn.] or cretsn prickly clover Curative of pitta and kapha (pitta shleshma prashamana)
59.Priyangu [Callicarpa macrophylla Vahi.] or the perfumed cherry Alleviate the plethoric condition of blood and pitta (shonita pittatiyoga prashamana)
60.Bark of kutaja [Holarrhena antidyscenterica wall.] or kurchi bark Among astringent and dessicant of kapha, pitta and the blood (shlesma pitta raktasangrahikopsosananam).
61.Fruit of kashmari (Gmelina arboria) or fruit of white teak Causing haemostasis and curing raktapitta (Rakta sangrahika raktapitta prashamana)
62.Prishniparni (Uraria picta Desv.) or painted leaved uraria Causing astringent effect, alleviating vata and promoting digestion and virility (aphrodisiac) (sangrahika vatahara dipaniya vrishyanam)
63.Shalaparni (Desmodium gangetium D.C.) or tick trefoil or vidarigandha Aphrodisiac effect and alleviating all the dosha. (Vrishya sarvadoshaharanam)
64.Bala (Sida Cordifolia Linn.) or the heart leaved sida Having astringent effect, promoting strength, curative of vata (sangrahikopshoshananam).
65.Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) or the small calatrops Curing dysuria & vata (mutrakrichchra anilahara)
66.Extract of hingu (Ferula narthex Boiss) or asafetida Causing excision or split up the morbid humours, digestive stimulant corrective of perislalsis or downword movement of vata. Alleviates of vata and kapha (chedaniya dipaniya anulomika vata kapha prashamananam)
67. Amlavetasa (Rheum emodi wall.) Causing purgation (laxatives) digestive stimulant, corrective of peristalsis and curative of vata and kapha (bhedaniya dipaniya anulomika vata shleshman haranam).
68. Yavasukah (barley ash) Having laxative effect causing carmination, curing piles, (stramsana pachana arshoghna)
69.Habitual use of buttermilk (Takrabhyasa) Curing grahani (gastrointestinal disorders) oedema, piles, and complication due to improper administration of oleation therapy) (grahanidosha shopha arshoghritvyapatprasaman)
70.Habitual use of meat soup of carnivorous animal (kravyad Mamsa rasaabhyas) Curing Grahani (gastrointestinal disorders) (or curing of assimilation disorders, consumption and piles (grahanidosha shosha arshoghnanam)
71.Habitual use of milk & ghee (kshiraghritabhyasa) Causing rejuvenation (vitilizers) (rasayananam)
72.Habitual use of diet consisting of equal part of ghee and roasted corn flour (samaghrutasaktuprashabhyas) Promoting virility (seminiferous) and cures misperistalsis (vrishya udavartaharanam)
73.Habitual gargling with tila oil (taila gandusha abhyas Promoting taste of food and strength of teeth. (danta bala ruchikaranam)
74.Application of sandlewood paste Removes foul odour and removes burning sensation of body (durgandhahar daha nirvapanlepananam)
75.Application of rasna (Pluchea lenciolata Oliver and Hiern.) or Indian groundsel and aguru [Aquilaria agalocha Roxb.) in ointment form or eagle wood Application of these dispel coldness of body (shita panayanpralepananam).
76. Lamajjaka or geranium grass (Cymbopogon Jivarancusa Schult) and ushira (Vetiveria Zizanioides Nash.) or cus-cus Cures burning sensation skin deseases and sweating (daha tvaga dosha swedapanayan).
77.Massage and poultice of kushtha (Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke) Alleviating vata (Vatahara) and useful in unctions and poultices (vatahara abhyangopanahopayoginan)
78.Madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.] or liquorice Beneficial for eye, virility, the hair, throat, completion and promote pigmentation and Healing (cakshushya vrishya keshya kanthya varnya viranjaniya)
79.Fresh air (vayu) Restores animation and consciousness (or gives life) (pranasajna pradana hetunam)
80.Heat (agni) Curative of ama disorder (or curing indigestion), stiffness, chill, colic pain and shivering (ama stambha shita shulodvepana prashamana)
81.Water (jala) Produces astringent effect (stambhaniyanam)
82.Water with a hot clod of earth plunged therein (Mrud bhrushta loshtra nirvapit udaka) Alleviates acute attack of thirst and vomiting (trishna chhardi atiyoga prashaman)
83.Intake of food in excess quantity (Atimatrashana) Causes serious indigestion or inductive ama disorders (Amapradosha hetunam)
84.Intake of food according to power of digestion (yatha agnya abhyavahara) Promoting digestion (agni sandhukshnanam)
85.Wholesome diet and regimen (Yatha satmya cheshtbhyavahara) or eating and working in conformity to one’s constitution Worth adopting regimen or among good practices (sevyanam)
86.Intake of food in time (kalabhojana) Healthy practices or promote health (arogyakaranam)
87.Contentment or satisfaction (trupti) Qualities of food or properties of food (ahara gunanam)
88.Suppression of natural urges (Vegasandharana) Unhealthy practices or causes ill health (anarogyakaranam)
89.Wine (madya) Exhilerating (saumanasyajananam)
90.Intoxication due to excessive drinking (madyaakshepa) Causes loss of intelligence, patience and memory (resolution) (dhi dhriti smriti haranam)
91.Heavy food eating (guru bhojana) Causes indigestion or misdigestion (durvipaka)
92.Intakeof food only once in 24 hours (ekashanbhojana) Bringing about happiness or that conduce to easy digestion and assimilation (sukha parinama karanam)
93.Excessive indulgence in sexual act (strishva atiprasanga) Causing consumption (shoshakaranam)
94.Suppression of urge of seminal ejaculation (shukraveganigraha) Causing impotency (shandhyakaranam)
95.The sight of a slaughtering place (paraghatanam) That destroy the inclination for food or causing aversion for food (anna ashraddhajanan)
96.Fasting or abstinence from food (anashana) That tend to curtail life or reduces longevity (ayusho hrasakaranan)
97.Under eating or intake of food in reduced quantity (pramitashanam) That tend to reduce a person or causing emaciation (karshaniyanam)
98.Predigestion meal or intake of meal before the digestion of previous meal (ajirna adhyashana) Induces the assimilation disorder or causes impairement of grahani (grahani dushana)
99.Intake of irregular meal (vishamashana) Causing irregularity in digestive power (agnivaishamyakaranam)
100.Intake of food having mutually contradictory property or antagonostic property (viruddha viryashana) Leads to eight censurable diseases

(nindita vyadhikaranam)

101.Self restraint or tranquility (prashamah) That are wholesome or healthy regimen (pathyanam)
102.Exertion/straining on self (ayasa) Unwholesome/unhealthy regimen (sarva apathyanam)
103.Wrong indulgence/improper utilization (of object of sense) (mithya yoga) Generate diseases (Vyadhikaranam)
104.Sex with a menstruating woman (rajaswala abhigamana) That is inauspiscious (alaksmimukhanam)
105.Celibacy/continence (brahmacharya) Promote longevity (ayushyanam)
106.Adultery (paradara abhigamana) Reducing longevity (anayushyanam)
107.Determnation (sankalpa) Aphrodisiacs/virility enhancer (vrushyanam)
108.Unhappiness/Disgust (daurmanasya) Loss of virility (avrushyanam)
109.Strenuous efforts exceeding the limit’s of one’s own capacity (ayathabalamarambha) Shortening of lifespan (pranoparodhinam)
110.Grief (vishada) Aggravation of diseases (rogavardhananam)
111.Bath (snana) Removes fatigue (shramaharanam)
112.Cheerfulness/joy (harsha) Gives delight (prinananam)
113.Worrry/grief (shoka) Emaciating/wasting (shoshananam)
114.Nourishment (pushti) Causing good sleep (swapnakaranam)
115.Excessive sleep (atiswapna) Causing drowsiness (tandrakaranam)
116.Detachment/inactivity (nivrutti) Promote corpulence/nourishing (pushtikaranam)
117.Regular intake of diet of all taste/habitual use of food (sarvarasa abhyasa) Promote strength (balakaranam)
118.Regular intake of food having only one taste (eka rasabhyas) Causing weakness (daurbalyakaranam)
119.Dead or obstructing foetus (garbhashalya) Required to be extracted (aharyanam)
120.Indigestion (ajirna) Requiring to be expelled out (by emesis) (uddharyanam).
121.Child/infant (bala) Requires mild drug/medicatives (mrudu bheshajiyanam)
122.Old person (vriddha) Who requires palliative treatment (yapyanam)
123.Pregnant woman (garbhini) Requiring abstinence from the intake of strong medicines, resorting to sexual act and excess physical exercise (tikshna aushadha vyavaya vyayama varjaniyanam)
124.Happiness or cheerful spirit (saumanasya) Helping retention of conception (garbhadharanam).
125.Disease due to vitiation of all the three dosha (sannipata) Causing difficulty in cure (dushchikitsya)
126.Poisining due to amavisham (Product of improper Metabolism) and digestion Causing incurable disease or irremediable (achikitsya)
127.Fever (jwara) Important disease (roganam)
128.Kushtha or dermatosis (Obstinate skin disease including leprosy (kushtha) Among chronic disease (dirgharoganam)
129.Rajayakshma (pthisis) Combination of diseases or among syndrome of disease (rogasamuhanam)
130.Prameha (obstinate urinary disorder including diabetis mellitus) Among relapsing diseases (anushamginam)
131.Leech (jalauka) Auxilliary surgical devices (anushastranam)
132.Enema (basti) Among those requiring practical technique or elimination therapies(tantranama)
133.The Himalayas (Himvanaushadhi) Habitats of medicinal plant (bhuminam)
134.Soma Among herbs (aushadhinama)
135.Desert/ arid region (marubhumi) Among sanatoria or healthy places (arogya deshanam)
136.Marshy land or wet region (anupa) Among unhealthy places (Ahita deshanam).
137.Compliance with the instruction of the physician (Nirdeshakaritva) Qualities of patients (Aturagunanam)
138.Physician (Bhishak) Among factors of therapeutics or Among aspects of treatment (chikitsa anganam)
139.An atheist/disbiliever (nastika) Among those who are to be avoided/boycott (varjyanam)
140.Greed or yielding to temptation (laulya) Troublesome practices or causes mortification (klesha karanam)
141.Disobedience to the instruction of physician (Anirdeshakaritva) Bad prognostic sign. (Arishtanam)
142.Self confidence or zest for life (anirveda) Signs of recovery or among attributes of health (vartalakshananam)
143.An assemblage of physicians (vaidyasamuha) Helps to resolve doubts (nihsamshaya karanam)
144.Sense of propriety or practical skill (yoga) Among qualities of physician (vaidyagunanam)
145.Applied scientific knowledge or proper understanding (vijnanam) In pharmacology or therapeutic devices (aushadhinam).
146.Reasoning based on scriptures (shastra sahitatarka) Among mean of knowledge or devices for success (sadhananam)
147.Presence of mind or sense of propriety (sampratipatti) Among the result accruing from a knowledge of time or timely grasp of situation (Kalajnanaprayojananam)
148.Inaction or Indolence (Adhyavasaya) Among the causes of procrastination or waste of time (kalatipattihetunam)
149.Practical experience (drushta karmata) Among those that resolve doubts (nihsamshayakaranam)
150.Incapability/Incompetency (asamarthata) Terrifying factors/phobia creating factors (bhayakaranam)
151.Clinical seminars/discussion (tadvidyasambhasha) Increasing wisdom or that broaden one’s understanding (buddhivardhananam)
152.The teacher/preceptors (acharya) Who helps in the acquisition of learning or providing scriptural knowledge (shastradhigamahetunam)
153. Knowlwdge of Ayurveda (Science of living being) Among elixirs or bringing about immortality (Amrutanam)
154.Good percepts or words of noble person (sadvachana) Among those that deserve to be practised or requiring to be complied with (anushtheyanam)
155.Words of wicked or misunderstanding (asadgrahana) Leading to harmful result or that is injurious (sarva ahitanam)
156.An absolute detachment from action or renunciation of all thing (sarva sanyasa) Giving happiness (sukhanam)

भवन्ति चात्र- अग्र्याणां शतमुद्दिष्टं यद्द्विपञ्चाशदुत्तरम्| अलमेतद्विकाराणां विघातायोपदिश्यते||४१||

bhavanti cātra- agryāṇāṁ śatamuddiṣṭaṁ yaddvipañcāśaduttaram| alamētadvikārāṇāṁ vighātāyōpadiśyatē||41||

bhavanti cAtra- agryANAM shatamuddiShTaM yaddvipa~jcAshaduttaram| alametadvikArANAM vighAtAyopadishyate||41||

Thus, it is said –

The foremost in their class, one hundred and fifty-two varieties of the best drug, regimen, etc. have been explained as enumerated above. These are sufficient for guiding treatment of various diseases. [41]

Use in therapeutics

समानकारिणो येऽर्थास्तेषां श्रेष्ठस्य लक्षणम्|

ज्यायस्त्वं कार्यकर्तृत्वे वरत्वं चाप्युदाहृतम्||४२||

वातपित्तकफानां च यद्यत् प्रशमने हितम्|

प्राधान्यतश्च निर्दिष्टं यद्व्याधिहरमुत्तमम्||४३||

एतन्निशम्य निपुणं चिकित्सां सम्प्रयोजयेत्|

एवं कुर्वन् सदा वैद्यो धर्मकामौ समश्नुते||४४||

pathyaṁ pathō'napētaṁ yadyaccōktaṁ manasaḥ priyam|

yaccāpriyamapathyaṁ ca niyataṁ tanna lakṣayēt||45||

mātrākālakriyābhūmidēhadōṣaguṇāntaram |

prāpya tattaddhi dr̥śyantē tē tē bhāvāstathā tathā||46||

tasmāt svabhāvō nirdiṣṭastathā mātrādirāśrayaḥ|

tadapēkṣyōbhayaṁ karma prayōjyaṁ siddhimicchatā||47||

samAnakAriNo ye~arthAsteShAM shreShThasya lakShaNam|

jyAyastvaM kAryakartRutve varatvaM cApyudAhRutam||42||

vAtapittakaphAnAM ca yadyat prashamane hitam|

prAdhAnyatashca nirdiShTaM yadvyAdhiharamuttamam||43||

etannishamya nipuNaM cikitsAM samprayojayet|

evaM kurvan sadA vaidyo dharmakAmau samashnute||44||

Thus,this chapter provided a detailed list of dietary preparations and therapies having superior qualities that keep a person healthy. The most effective medicines to pacify vata, pitta and kapha are described. A skillful physician should prescribe the right dietary regimen and therapy after gaining a thorough understanding of the qualities of these articles. Only then does he attain his dharma(duties) and kama(all desires) [42-44]

Pathya (wholesome regimen)

पथ्यं पथोऽनपेतं यद्यच्चोक्तं मनसः प्रियम्| यच्चाप्रियमपथ्यं च नियतं तन्न लक्षयेत्||४५||

मात्राकालक्रियाभूमिदेहदोषगुणान्तरम् | प्राप्य तत्तद्धि दृश्यन्ते ते ते भावास्तथा तथा||४६||

तस्मात् स्वभावो निर्दिष्टस्तथा मात्रादिराश्रयः| तदपेक्ष्योभयं कर्म प्रयोज्यं सिद्धिमिच्छता||४७||

pathyaṁ pathō'napētaṁ yadyaccōktaṁ manasaḥ priyam| yaccāpriyamapathyaṁ ca niyataṁ tanna lakṣayēt||45||

mātrākālakriyābhūmidēhadōṣaguṇāntaram | prāpya tattaddhi dr̥śyantē tē tē bhāvāstathā tathā||46||

tasmāt svabhāvō nirdiṣṭastathā mātrādirāśrayaḥ| tadapēkṣyōbhayaṁ karma prayōjyaṁ siddhimicchatā||47||

pathyaM patho~anapetaM yadyaccoktaM manasaH priyam| yaccApriyamapathyaM ca niyataM tanna lakShayet||45||

mAtrAkAlakriyAbhUmidehadoShaguNAntaram | prApya tattaddhi dRushyante te te bhAvAstathA tathA||46||

tasmAt svabhAvo nirdiShTastathA mAtrAdirAshrayaH| tadapekShyobhayaM karma prayojyaM siddhimicchatA||47||

The dietary articles and activities that do not adversely affect the body systems and are liked by the mind are regarded as pathya (wholesome). Likewise, dietary articles and activities that adversely affect the body system and are disliked by the mind are regarded as unwholesome. This is, however, not a cardinal rule, and food articles and drugs do have a variety of effects depending on the dosage, time, mode of preparation, geographical location, the body constitution of the patient, and dosha.

Hence, the physician who desires success in treatment shall consider effects of the natural properties of drugs and dietary articles, as well as the usage patterns associated with such articles. [45-47].

Agnivesha’s query regarding asava (self generated fermented alcoholic beverages)

तदात्रेयस्य भगवतो वचनमनुनिशम्य पुनरपि भगवन्तमात्रेयमग्निवेश उवाच-

यथोद्देशमभिनिर्दिष्टः केवलोऽयमर्थो भगवता श्रुतश्चास्माभिः|

आसवद्रव्याणामिदानीमनपवादं लक्षणमनतिसङ्क्षेपेणोपदिश्यमानं शुश्रूषामह इति||४८||

tadātrēyasya bhagavatō vacanamanuniśamya punarapi bhagavantamātrēyamagnivēśa uvāca-

yathōddēśamabhinirdiṣṭaḥkēvalō'yamarthō bhagavatā śrutaścāsmābhiḥ|

āsavadravyāṇāmidānīmanapavādaṁ lakṣaṇamanatisaṅkṣēpēṇōpadiśyamānaṁ śuśrūṣāmaha iti||48||

tadAtreyasya bhagavato vacanamanunishamya punarapi bhagavantamAtreyamagnivesha uvAca-

yathoddeshamabhinirdiShTaHkevalo~ayamartho [1] bhagavatA shrutashcAsmAbhiH|

AsavadravyANAmidAnImanapavAdaM lakShaNamanatisa~gkShepeNopadishyamAnaM shushrUShAmaha iti||48||

Having listened to this above statement of the Lord Atreya, Agnivesha once again asked Lord Atreya, “O Lord, this subject has been dealt with exhaustively as proposed and we have followed it too. Now we would like to hear from you a detailed and precise description of the ingredients that get into asava (alcoholic) preparations.”[48]

Explanation by Atreya about asava (self generated fermented alcoholic preparation)

तमुवाच भगवानात्रेयः-

धान्यफलमूलसारपुष्पकाण्डपत्रत्वचो भवन्त्यासवयोनयोऽग्निवेश! सङ्ग्रहेणाष्टौ शर्करानवमीकाः|

तास्वेव द्रव्यसंयोगकरणतोऽपरिसङ्ख्येयासु यथापथ्यतमानामासवानां चतुरशीतिं निबोध|

तद्यथा-

सुरासौवीरतुषोदकमैरेयमेदकधान्याम्लाः षड् धान्यासवा भवन्ति,मृद्वीकाखर्जूरकाश्मर्यधन्वनराजादनतृणशून्यपरूषकाभयामलकमृगलिण्डिकाजाम्बवकपित्थ-

कुवलबदरकर्कन्धुपीलुप्रियालपनसन्यग्रोधाश्वत्थप्लक्षकपीतनोदुम्बराजमोदशृङ्गाटकशाङ्खिनीफलासवाः षड्विंशतिर्भवन्ति,विदारिगन्धाश्वगन्धाकृष्णगन्धाशतावरीश्यामात्रिवृद्दन्तीद्रवन्तीबिल्वोरुबूकचित्रकमूलैरेकादश

मूलासवा भवन्ति,शालप्रियकाश्वकर्णचन्दनस्यन्दनखदिरकदरसप्तपर्णार्जुनासनारिमेदतिन्दुककिणिहीशमी-शुक्तिशिंशपाशिरीषवञ्जलधन्वनमधूकैः सारासवा

विंशतिर्भवन्ति,पद्मोत्पलनलिकुमुदसौगन्धिकपुण्डरीकशतपत्रमधूकप्रियङ्गुधातकीपुष्पैर्दश पुष्पासवा भवन्ति,इक्षुकाण्डेक्ष्विक्षुवालिकापुण्ड्रकचतुर्थाः काण्डासवा भवन्ति, पटोलताडकपत्रासवौ द्वौ

भवतः,तिल्वकलोध्रैलवालुकक्रमुकचतुर्थास्त्वगासवा भवन्ति, शर्करासव एक एवेति|

एवमेषामासवानां चतुरशीतिः परस्परेणासंसृष्टानामासवद्रव्याणामुपनिर्दिष्टा भवति|

एषामासवानामासुतत्वादासवसञ्ज्ञा|

द्रव्यसंयोगविभागविस्तारस्त्वेषां बहुविधकल्पः संस्कारश्च|

यथास्वं संयोगसंस्कारसंस्कृता ह्यासवाः स्वं कर्म कुर्वन्ति|

संयोगसंस्कारदेशकालमात्रादयश्च भावास्तेषां तेषामासवानां ते ते समुपदिश्यन्ते तत्तत्कार्यमभिसमीक्ष्येति||४९||

tamuvāca bhagavānātrēyaḥ-

dhānyaphalamūlasārapuṣpakāṇḍapatratvacō bhavantyāsavayōnayō'gnivēśa!saṅgrahēṇāṣṭau śarkarānavamīkāḥ|

tāsvēva dravyasaṁyōgakaraṇatō'parisaṅkhyēyāsu yathāpathyatamānāmāsavānāṁ caturaśītiṁ nibōdha|

tadyathā- surāsauvīratuṣōdakamairēyamēdakadhānyāmlāḥ ṣaḍ dhānyāsavā

bhavanti,mr̥dvīkākharjūrakāśmaryadhanvanarājādanatr̥ṇaśūnyaparūṣakābhayāmalakamr̥galiṇḍikājāmbavakapittha-

kuvalabadarakarkandhupīlupriyālapanasanyagrōdhāśvatthaplakṣakapītanōdumbarājamōdaśr̥ṅgāṭakaśāṅkhinīphalāsavāḥṣaḍviṁśatirbhavanti,vidā

rigandhāśvagandhākr̥ṣṇagandhāśatāvarīśyāmātrivr̥ddantīdravantībilvōrubūkacitrakamūlairēkādaśa mūlāsavābhavanti,

śālapriyakāśvakarṇacandanasyandanakhadirakadarasaptaparṇārjunāsanārimēdatindukakiṇihīśamī-

śuktiśiṁśapāśirīṣavañjaladhanvanamadhūkaiḥ

sārāsavā viṁśatirbhavanti,padmōtpalanalikumudasaugandhikapuṇḍarīkaśatapatramadhūkapriyaṅgudhātakīpuṣpairdaśa puṣpāsavā

bhavanti,ikṣukāṇḍēkṣvikṣuvālikāpuṇḍrakacaturthāḥ kāṇḍāsavā bhavanti, paṭōlatāḍakapatrāsavau dvau

bhavataḥ,tilvakalōdhrailavālukakramukacaturthāstvagāsavā bhavanti, śarkarāsava ēka ēvēti|

ēvamēṣāmāsavānāṁ caturaśītiḥ parasparēṇāsaṁsr̥ṣṭānāmāsavadravyāṇāmupanirdiṣṭā bhavati|

ēṣāmāsavānāmāsutatvādāsavasañjñā|

dravyasaṁyōgavibhāgavistārastvēṣāṁ bahuvidhakalpaḥ saṁskāraśca|

yathāsvaṁ saṁyōgasaṁskārasaṁskr̥tā hyāsavāḥ svaṁ karma kurvanti|

saṁyōgasaṁskāradēśakālamātrādayaśca bhāvāstēṣāṁ tēṣāmāsavānāṁ tē tē samupadiśyantētattatkāryamabhisamīkṣyēti||49||

tamuvAca bhagavAnAtreyaH- dhAnyaphalamUlasArapuShpakANDapatratvaco bhavantyAsavayonayo~agnivesha! sa~ggraheNAShTausharkarAnavamIkAH|

tAsveva dravyasaMyogakaraNato~aparisa~gkhyeyAsu [2] yathApathyatamAnAmAsavAnAM caturashItiM nibodha|

tadyathA- surAsauvIratuShodakamaireyamedakadhAnyAmlAH ShaD dhAnyAsavA [3]

bhavanti,mRudvIkAkharjUrakAshmaryadhanvanarAjAdanatRuNashUnyaparUShakAbhayAmalakamRugaliNDikAjAmbavakapittha-

kuvalabadarakarkandhupIlupriyAlapanasanyagrodhAshvatthaplakShakapItanodumbarAjamodashRu~ggATakashA~gkhinIphalAsavAHShaDviMshatirbhav

anti,vidArigandhAshvagandhAkRuShNagandhAshatAvarIshyAmAtrivRuddantIdravantIbilvorubUkacitrakamUlairekAdasha mUlAsavAbhavanti,

shAlapriyakAshvakarNacandanasyandanakhadirakadarasaptaparNArjunAsanArimedatindukakiNihIshamI-

shuktishiMshapAshirIShava~jjaladhanvanamadhUkaiH sArAsavA [4]

viMshatirbhavanti,padmotpalanalikumudasaugandhikapuNDarIkashatapatramadhUkapriya~ggudhAtakIpuShpairdasha puShpAsavA

bhavanti,ikShukANDekShvikShuvAlikApuNDrakacaturthAH kANDAsavA bhavanti, paTolatADakapatrAsavau [5] dvau

bhavataH,tilvakalodhrailavAlukakramukacaturthAstvagAsavA bhavanti, sharkarAsava eka eveti|

evameShAmAsavAnAM caturashItiH paraspareNAsaMsRuShTAnAmAsavadravyANAmupanirdiShTA bhavati|

eShAmAsavAnAmAsutatvAdAsavasa~jj~jA|

dravyasaMyogavibhAgavistArastveShAM [6] bahuvidhakalpaH saMskArashca|

yathAsvaM saMyogasaMskArasaMskRutA hyAsavAH svaM karma kurvanti|

saMyogasaMskAradeshakAlamAtrAdayashca bhAvAsteShAM teShAmAsavAnAM te te samupadishyantetattatkAryamabhisamIkShyeti||49||

Lord Atreya replied to him, “O Agnivesha! In brief there are eight types of ingredients that are used in alcoholic preparations: grains, fruits, roots, pith, flowers, branches, leaves, and barks. The ninth additive is sugar. Asava is innumerable because there could be innumerable combinations of ingredients and methods for preparation. However, 84 asavas are regarded very wholesome:

  • Dhanyasava (alcoholic preparation from grain): There are six alcoholic preparations made from grain (dhanyasava) viz. sura, sauvira, tushodaka, maireya, medaka, and dhanyamla.
  • Phalasava (alcoholic preparation from the following fruits): Grapes (draksha, vitis vinifera Linn), kharjura (phoerix sylvestrys Roxb), kashmarya (Fruit of white teak, Gmelina arborea Linn), dhanvana (Grewia tiliaefolia vohl.),rajadana (Indian ape flower, Mimusops hexanodra soland), parushaka (sweet falsah, Geusa asiatica soland, abhaya(Terminalia chebula Linn), amalaka (Emblica Officinalis Gaertn.), mṛigaliṇḍika (gooseberry, Terminalia belerica Roxb.], jambu (Syzygium cermini skills), kapittha (wood apple, Foronia limonia swingle), kuvala (jujube, zizyphus Sativa Gaertn), badara (small jujube, zizyphus jujube Lam.), karkandhu (Wild jujube, zizy phus nummularia W.A.), pilu (Salvadora Persica Linn.), priyāla (buchanan’s mango, Buchanania lanzen sreng.), panas (Indian Jack, Artocarpus hetero phyllus lam.), nyagrodha (banyan, ficus bengalensis Linn.), ashvattha (holy Fig, Ficus religiosa linn), plaksha (ficus lacor Buch-Nam), kapitana (Albizzia lebbeck Benth), udumbara (Ficus recemosa Linn.), ajmoda (Trachyspermum roxburghi anum), shringataka (Trapa bispinosa Roxb.), shankhini (Etenolepsis, cansocora decussate roem.). Thus, there are twenty-six fruits from which phalasava (alcoholic preparations using fruit) are prepared.
  • Mulasava (alcoholic preparation from roots): There are eleven mulasava (alcoholic preparations made by root). The roots are : vidarigandha (Shalaparṇi, Desmodium gangeticum DC), ashvagandha (Withania Somnifera Dunal), kṛiṣhnagandha (drumstick, Moringa Oleifera Lam.), shatavari (climbing asparagus, Asparagus racemosus wild), shyama (Black turpeth, Operculina turpethum), trivṛit (Red physic-nut), danti (physic-nut, Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg.), dravanti (Jatropha glandulifera Roxb), bilva (Aegle marmelos corr.), eranda (Castor-pil plant, Ricinus communis Linn) and chitraka (plumbago zeylanica Linn.).
  • Sarasava (alcoholic preparation from pith or tree-pulp):Shala (Shorea robusta gaertn.), priyaka (Buchanania Lanzan Spreng.) aśvakarna (small sala) ,chandana (Sandalwood, santalum albumlinn), syandana (timisa, oojein black wood), khadira (catechu, Acacia catechu willd), kadara (Gun arabiatree), saptaparna (Ditabark, Alstonia Scholaris R. Br.), arjuna (Terminalia arjuna), asana (aplnous Kino, Terminalia tometosa),arimeda, tinduka (False mangosteen, Diospyrus peregrine Gurke), kiṇihī (White Sirsa), shami (Thamee, prosopis spicigera Linn.), shukti (Badar, Ziyphus Jujuba Lann.), shimshapa (Dalbergia Sisso Roxb.), shirisha (Albizzia lebbeck Benth), vanjula, dhanvana (Common Indian lindem, Greusa ileaefolia vahl), madhuka (Madhuka Indica). The pulp or sara of these twenty trees are considered to be ideal for preparation of asava.
  • Pushpasava (alcoholic preparation from flowers): Padma (Red lotus, Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn), utpala (Blue water lily, Nymphaca alba), nalina (indigo lotus), kumuda (Night-flowering Lotus), sanghandhika (fragrant white lotus), pundarika (Nymphaea lotus linn), shatapatra (centripetal lotus), madhuka (Madhuka Indica), priyangu (perfumed cherry, Calliarpa macrophylla), and dhataki (Fulsee flower, woodfordia fruticosa kurz). These ten flowers are considered suitable for making pushpasava.
  • Kandasava (alcoholic preparation from stem): Ikshu (Sugar cane), kandeksu (big sugar lane, Saccharum Spontanium lim), iksuvallika (Asteracanth longifilia Ness), pundraka (white Sugercane). The kanda (stem) of these four plants are considered ideal for making kandasava (alcoholic preparation of stem).
  • Patrasava (alcoholic preparation from leaves): Patola (Wild Snake gourd, Trichosanthes culumerina Linn), and padaka (palmyra palm, Borassus flabellifer lin). The leaves of these two plants are considered best suited for preparation of patrasava (alcoholic preparation from leaves).
  • Twagasava (alcoholic preparation from bark): Tilvaka (Vibrunnum nervosum), lodhra (Symplocos racemosa Roxb.], elavaluka (cherry, Brunus cerasus),and karmuka (Aroca catchu linn.). The barks of these four trees are used for making twagasava (alcoholic preparations from barks).
  • Sharakarasava (alcoholic preparation from sugar): Sugar is the only one thing from which sharakarasava (sugar wine) is prepared.

Using each of these ingredients exclusively (i.e., without mixing or combining with any other additive or ingredient) results in eighty four varieties of alcoholic preparations. All these are known as asava (self generated alcoholic preparation) because of the process of fermentation involved in their preparation. The outcome or result of these asavas (alcoholic preparations) is based on the combination, properties of ingredients and the process or method of preparation. Thus, a skillful Ayurvedic practitioner proficient in the art of preparing asavas should be able to concoct a preparation with the right combination of ingredients, depending upon the doshas of the patient, his physical constitution, time, season, location, and other factors [48-49]

Beneficial effects of asava

भवति चात्र-

मनःशरीराग्निबलप्रदानामस्वप्नशोकारुचिनाशनानाम्|

संहर्षणानां प्रवरासवानामशीतिरुक्ता चतुरुत्तरैषा||५०||

bhavati cātra-

manaḥśarīrāgnibalapradānāmasvapnaśōkārucināśanānām|

saṁharṣaṇānāṁ pravarāsavānāmaśītiruktā caturuttaraiṣā||50||

bhavati cAtra-

manaHsharIrAgnibalapradAnAmasvapnashokArucinAshanAnAm|

saMharShaNAnAM pravarAsavAnAmashItiruktA caturuttaraiShA||50||

Here is the verse, again –

The eighty four types of best alcoholic preparations have been enumerated that strengthen the mind, body and digestive power. Such preparations dispel insomnia, depression, anorexia and induce exhilaration. [50]

Summary

तत्र श्लोकः

शरीररोगप्रकृतौ मतानि तत्त्वेन चाहारविनिश्चयं च| उवाच यज्जःपुरुषादिकेऽस्मिन् मुनिस्तथाऽग्र्याणि वरासवांश्च||५१||

tatra ślōkaḥ- śarīrarōgaprakr̥tau matāni tattvēna cāhāraviniścayaṁ ca| uvāca yajjaḥpuruṣādikē'smin munistathā'gryāṇi varāsavāṁśca||51||

tatra shlokaH- sharIrarogaprakRutau matAni tattvena cAhAravinishcayaM ca| uvAca yajjaHpuruShAdike~asmin munistathA~agryANi varAsavAMshca||51||

Here is the verse –

In this chapter titled Yajjah Purushiya (Origin of the Human Being), sages debated upon the origin of human being and diseases with different thoughts on the topic. Finally, Lord Atreya presented his view on the most wholesome and unwholesome food articles (eatables as well as beverages). [51]

Tattva Vimarsha (Fundamental Principles)

  • Multiple factors like atma (spirit), manas (mind), rasa (fluid), shad dhatu (six elements), matru-pitru (parents), karma (past deeds), swabhava (nature), prajapati (Creator), and kala (time) have been considered as the source of creation of the purusha (human beings). The same factors are considered responsible for origin of diseases.
  • In order to sustain health, one shall follow a wholesome diet and restrain from following unwholesome diets and activities.
  • The best things shall be used as first choice in various respective conditions (samgraha).
  • Those food articles that help maintain a state of equilibrium among body elements (dhatu) and also help in eliminating imbalances that could occur due to abnormalities are considered to be wholesome food articles, while those articles that act in an opposite manner are unwholesome articles.
  • Classification of food articles could be done by their suitability for consumption, source (vegetarian or non-vegetarian), effects on body (wholesome or unwholesome), mode of consumption (to eat, to drink, to chew or to lick), six tastes and twenty (guna) qualities. There could be innumerable combinations.
  • Dietary preparations and drugs that do not affect the body system adversely, and those that are liked by the mind are considered pathya (wholesome). Likewise, those that adversely affect the body system and are disliked by the mind are considered apathya (unwholesome).
  • Drugs and food articles are also considered wholesome or unwholesome depending upon the dose (measure), time, mode of preparation, habitat of the drugs or food articles, body constitution, and dosha.
  • Asava (alcoholic preparation, wine) are prepared by the process of fermentation. Combinations possible for preparing asava are unlimited.
  • The effect of asava depends upon the combination and properties of ingredients used, as well as the process or method of preparation, duration of fermentation (time), place of preparation, mode of preservation, quantity etc.
  • Asavas help in strengthening the mind, body and digestive power. Such preparations dispel insomnia, depression, anorexia and induce exhilaration.

Vidhi Vimarsha (Applied Inferences)

  • An Ayurvedic practitioner proficient in therapeutics, dietetics, or preparation of the various forms of asava should know the properties and attributes of all ingredients, as well as the expected effects of the preparation of the said drug.
  • Of the innumerable combinations of food articles and beverages, 152 forms of eatables and therapies, and 84 forms of alcoholic beverages are known to be wholesome. As per Lord Atreya, wholesome foods are the key source of creation of the purusha, and unwholesome food of diseases.
  • Food and physical regimen that are beneficial to the body and mind are called pathya and those that are harmful are called apathya.
  • A food or beverage’s therapeutic properties also depend upon quantity, season, way of preparation, soil, place and dosha.
  • 84 types of asava (fermented products), contain probiotics and have effect on body, mind and digestive power are listed indicating gut brain relationship. They help in regulation of sleep, appetite and mental activity.

Wholesome and unwholesome factors for holistic human being

Diet and lifestyle habits can favorably or adversely impact the development of holistic human being (purusha). Therefore, wholesome dietary and lifestyle factors are described in this chapter. A list of unwholesome dietary factors that can play role in etiopathogenesis of a disease is also given. Both are equally important in providing healthcare to an individual.

Classification of dietary articles and its utility

The best and worst food items in categories of cereals, pulses, milk, meat classes, oils, vegetables etc. are described based upon their beneficial and harmful effects on human biology. The beneficial food items can be used judiciously for health preservation and prevention of diseases.

Agrya sangraha: A ready to use index in healthcare

Agrya samgraha is an index of all items that are beneficial in healthcare management. It includes a description of actions of various food preparations (aharavikara), medicines (aushadha), and associated factors (anubandhini). It is imperative to note that when more than one action (karma) is attributed to one factor, it is describing the collective action and not each action separately. The pharmacological activity profiles of dietary, medicinal and lifestyle factors can be easily referred from the list. Vagbhata focuses on specific dravya and its action in a particular disease.[A.Hr. Uttara Tantra 40] [1]

Superiority attributed in the list is relative to other materials (dravya) having similar actions. Some examples are given below. The following table extends description of articles listed in agrya samgraha [Gangadhara on Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 25/40], their clinical utility referred in pathology and management of diseases and current evidences to support their activities.

Best article (agrya) Indication & research reference Other article having similar action Examples of practical usage
1. Food (anna) Sustenance of life (vrittikara) -- Even in the context of langhana, light food (laghu asana) is advised for patient for sustenance of life, if the strength of the patient is too low.[Cha.Sa. Nidana Sthana 1/36], [A. Hr. Chikitsa Sthana 1/2] [1]
2.Water (udaka) Acts as soothing and refreshing agent (ashwaskara) Assurance therapy, soothing words, monetary support, etc. Washing face with cold water after any exertion like walking, purificatory procedures (shodhana) like vamana etc., surgical procedures.[Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 5/17] [2]
3.Wine (sura) Dispelling fatigue/wine among acopics (shramahara) Rest in comfortable position and suitable accommodation Citation needed
4.Milk (ksheera) Invigorating/vitalizers (jivaniya), milk and dairy product good for health[3] Cold air, water, herbal tonics, Crepidium acuminatum (jivaka), Malaxis muscifera (rishabhaka) like herbs Milk is advised for patients debilitated with fever as vitalizer [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 3/169]
5.Meat (mamsa) Nourishing (brimhana),Role of poultry meat in a balanced diet [4] Sweet substances, black gram (masha) Various meat preparations are advised for patients of debilitating disorders (rajayakshma) where there is severe depletion of strength and loss of muscles.[Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 8/149]
6.Meat soup (mamsa rasa) Refreshing/Demulcents (tarpana) Curd, substances with sour taste, Piper retrofractum (kola), Ziziphus jujube (badara) etc. Meat soup preparations in debilitating disorders (rajayakshma), fever (jwara) etc [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 8/149]
7.Salt (lavana) Appetizer (ruchikaraka) for taste Black pepper (maricha), Ginger (ardraka), substances with a sour taste Salt is a major ingredient in various medicines for anorexia (arocaka). [A.Hr.Chikitsa Sthana 1/71-72] [1]
8.Sour things (amla rasa) Tasty medication for the heart (hridya) Foods which are pleasing to the mind such as milk, curd, sugar, and other five tastes Formulations for virechana are made palatable using sour fruits like Punica granatum (dadima).
9.Meat of chicken (kukkutamamsa) Strength promoting (balya) Ghee, milk Meat of chicken is mentioned in various aphrodiasic medicines, in patients debilitated by fever (jwara) and in injuries to various vital points. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 2/1/44] (Vrishyakukkutamamsaprayoga)
10.Semen of crocodile (nakraretasa) Has aphrodisiac action/virility enhancers (vrishya) Milk, ghee Used in various aphrodisiac preparations.[Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 2/1/44] (Vrishya kukkuta mamsa prayoga)
11.Honey (madhu) Alleviates [[kapha] and pitta (shlesma pitta prashamana) Barley, wheat --
12.Ghee (ghrita) Alleviates vata and pitta (vata pitta prashamana) Milk --
13. Sesame oil (tila taila) Alleviates vata and kapha (vata shleshmana prashamana) Ripe tamarind (pakva tintidika) --
14. Emesis (vamana) Eliminates kapha (shlesmahara) Fasting (upavasa) --
15.Purgation (virechana) Eliminates pitta (pittahara) Drinks and foods which reduce pitta --
16.Enema (basti) Eliminates vata (vatahara) Unction therapy (snehana karma) --
17.Fomentation/sudation (swedana) Brings smoothness and soften the body tissues (mardavakara),Role of sweating in human health [5] Massage (mardana karma) swedana is used to bring softness to affected skin in skin diseases (kushtha) and in ulcers (vrana). [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 7/50]
18.Exercise (vyayama) Brings firmness of body and stability (sthairyakara),benefits of physical exercise[6] Other drinks and foods which brings about firmness/stability (sthairyakara) It is emphatically advised in diabetes (premeha) to bring back the firmness in the body. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 6/50]
19.Alkalies (kshara) Causing impotency/impair manhood (punsatvopaghata) Chikpea (Chanaka) Alkalies are mentioned as a causative factor for vitiation of reproductive system (sukravaha srotas). [Cha.Sa.Vimana Sthana 5/19]
20. Diospyros Peregrina Gurke (Tinduka) Provides deliciousness to non-dietetic food articles. The false mangosteen among appetizers (annadravyaruchikara) Jamun (Jambu) --
21.Unripe Feronia Limonia Swingle (kapittha) or unripe wood apple Causes harmful effect on the throat (akanthyanam) Substances of astringent (kashaya) taste like the fruit of Mimusops elengi (bakula) --
22.Ghee of sheep milk (avikasarpi) Produces bad effect on heart/Non-cordials (ahridryakara) Ghee of milk of camel --
23.Goat milk (ajaksheera) Produces wholesome and galactagogue effect, and cures consumption, and bleeding disorders (raktapitta),Advances in dairy goat products [7] -- Goat milk is used in bleeding disorders (raktapitta) where vata dosha is predominant. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 4/83] Goat milk is advised for various purposes in the treatment of consumption. [Su.Sa.Uttara Sthana 42/56] [2]
26.Immature (incompletely formed) curd (mandakdadhi) Obstructs channels of circulation/viscidifying agents (abhishyandakara) -- Immature curd is mentioned as a major causative factor for diseases like edema (shotha) and diabetes (prameha), erysipelas (visarpa) where obstruction of channels (abhisyandana) is a major pathogenesis. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 12/6], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 4/5], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 21/18]
27. Food Prepared of boiled Tritium aestivum Linn. (Job’s tears/gavedhuka) Emaciating/depleters (karshaniya),Properties of Wheat grass [8] -- Gruel recipe advised for emaciation is prepared out of food prepared of boiled Tritium aestivum (gavedhukaannam). [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 2/25]
28.Food prepared of boiled Paspalum scrobiculatum (uddalaka) Drying/reduces unctuous element in body (virukshaniya) -- Paspalum scrobiculatum (uddalaka) is mentioned where drying ([rukshana]]) is intended as a treatment, for example in treatment of Diabetes (prameha), skin diseases (kushtha) etc.[Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 11/6], [Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 9/5] [2] It is also mentioned in the treatment of complications of intake of unctuous materials (snehapana). [A.S.Sutra Sthana 25/39] [9]
29.Sugarcane (ikshu) Produces diuresis / increases the quantity of urine (mutrajanana), Health aspects of sugarcane [10] -- Sugarcane (ikshu) is described twice in treatment of dysuria caused by pitta. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 26/49] , [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 26/50]
30.Barley (yava) Increases fecal bulk (purishajanana), effect of barley on bowel movements[11] Effect of whole-grain barley on the human fecal microbiota.[12] -- Barley is used in the treatment of depletion of faeces. [Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 6/11]
37. Cassia fistula Linn (aragvadha) Causes mild purgation (mriduvirechana), Health benefits of Cassia fistula[13] -- Cassia fistula (aragvadha) used in various formulations for jaundice (kamala), where mild purgation is advised.[A.Hr.Chikitsa Sthana 16/41] [1]
38.Milk of Euphorbia nerifolia Linn.(snuhi/thorny milk hedge plant) Causes strong purgation (tikshnavirechana),health benefits of Euphorbia[14] -- --
39. Achyranthes aspera Linn. /Rough chaff (apamarga) Eliminate doshas from head/these are errhines (shirovirechana),Effect of Achyranthes aspera on inflammation[15] -- It is the first drug mentioned for nasal instillation (nasya) [[Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 2/3]
40. Embelia ribes (vidanga) Kills parasites/among all anthelmintics (krimighna), anthelmintic Herbs[16] -- Embelia ribes (vidanga) is described numerous times in Vyadhita Rupiya Vimana in the management of parasites/micro organisams (krimi) eg. [Cha.Sa.Vimana Sthana 7/17], [Cha.Sa.Vimana Sthana 7/19],[Cha.Sa.Vimana Sthana 7/21], [Cha.Sa.Vimana Sthana 7/22], [Cha. Sa.Vimana Sthana 7/23-24], [Cha.Sa.Vimana Sthana 7/25], [Cha.Sa.Vimana Sthana 7/26] etc.
41. Albizzia lebbeck (shirisha) Produces antitoxic effects/among all antidotes (vishaghna), anti-inflammatory activity of Albizzia lebbeck[17] -- Formulations like Shirishadi nasya and anjana, Panchashirisha agada, Gandhahasti agada, Mahagandhahasti agada, Amrita ghrita and numerous other descriptions in Visha Chikitsa [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 23/51-52], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 23/53], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 23/99], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 23/201-202], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 23/204], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 23/212-214]
42. Acacia catechu (khadira) Cures obstinate skin disease including leprosy/dermic remedies (kushtaghna), anti-bacterial activities of Acacia catechu[18] -- Formulations like Mahakhadiramghritam, Madhvasava, Kanakabinduarishta, and numerous other descriptions in Kushtha Chikitsa [[Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 7/96-97], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 7/100-101], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 7/119], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 7/129], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 7/158], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 7/159], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 7/166]
43. Pluchea lanceolata Oliver and Hiern (rasna) vata alleviating (vatahara), potential of Pluchea lanceolata [19] -- Formulations like Rasnaditaila, Bala taila, Amritadya taila, Vrishamuladi taila, Mulaka taila, Jivaniya ghrita, and other descriptions in Vatavyadhi Chikitsa as well as Vatarakta Chikitsa chapters [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 28/122], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 28/136-137], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 29/81]
44. Emblica offiinalis Gaern or Emblic Myrobalan (amalaka) Anti–ageing / causes rejuventation (vayasthapana), nutraceutical effects of Emblica officinalis [20] -- Numerous rasayana in Rasayana Chikitsa, Abhayamalakiya Rasayana Pada such as Amalaka Rasayana, Amalaki ghee, Amalaka avaleha, Amalaka powder, Amalakayasa Brahma Rasayana, Kevala Amalaka Rasayanam etc. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana.1/1]
45. Terminalia Chebula (haritaki) or Chebulic Myrobalan Produces wholesome effect (pathya), potential of Terminalia chebula [21] -- Terminalia Chebula (haritaki) is mentioned as the first rejuvenating drug (rasayana dravya) mentioned in the context of rasayana. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana1/1]
46.Root of Ricinus communis Linn (eranda) or castor oil Increases virility and alleviating vata (vrishyavatahara), antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis [22] -- Formulations like Amritadya taila
47.Root of Piper longum Linn or long pepper (pippali) Digestive stimulant, carminative, relieves abdominal distension (Deepaniyapachaniyaanahprasamana), anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of Piper [23] -- --
48.Root of Plumbago zeylanica (chitraka) or white flowered lead wort Promotes digestion, carminative action, inflammation in anal region, curing of piles, subside colic pain [Deepaniyapachaniyagudashothaarshashulaharanam] -- Formulations like takrarishta, pippalyadighrita, chavyadighrita, nagaradighrita used in the treatment of piles (arshachikitsa). [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana14]
49. Inula racemosa (pushkaramula) or orris root Curative of hiccups, dyspnea, pleural effusion, cough (hikka shwasa kasa parshvashulahara)[24] -- Formulations like hinguadiyavagu, dashamuladiyavagu, pushkaradiyavagu, shatyadichurna used in treatment of hiccups and dyspnea (hikka shwasa chikitsa) and forumlations like Duralabhadighrita, Jivantyadighrita and churna mentioned in Rajayakshma Chikitsa [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 8/101-102]
50. Cyperus rotundus Linn. (musta) or Nut grass Has astringent effect, promotes digestion & carminative action (Sangrahikadeepaniyapachaniya)[25] -- Digestive formulations (pachana yoga) in ama grahani [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 15/98-99] and other formulations like Chandanadyaghrita, Nagaradyachurna, Bhunimbadyachurna, Moolasava, Panchamakshara etc. described in Grahani Chikitsa, pramathya in diarrhea (atisara) [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 19/20-22], Shadangapaniya [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 19/50],[Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana19/52] etc.
51. Pavonia odorata Willd. (udichya) or fragrant Sticky mallow Produces cooling effect (refrigerant), promoting digestion and carminative actio curing vomiting and diarrhea (Nirvapanadipaniyapachaniyachhardiatisarahara), properties of Pavonia odorata [26] -- Pramathya in diarrhea (atisara) [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 19/20-22]
52. Oroxylum indicun Vent. or free of heaven (shyonaka or katvanga) Has astringent effect and digestive stimulant, (Sangrahikapachaniyadipaniyanam) [27] -- --
53. Hemidesmus indicus R.B. or Indian sarsaparilla (ananta) Has astringent effect, curing bleeding disorders (sangrahikaraktapittaprashama) -- Bhadrashriyadigana used in Raktapitta Chikitsa and other references like [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 4/76], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 4/82], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 4/101]
54. Tinospora Cordifolia miers (guduchi/amrita) Acts as astringent, curative of vata, promotes digestion, curative of vitiation of kapha and blood (sangrahikavataharadipaniyashleshmashonitavibandhaprashamana). Formulations like Amrutaditailam and various other references in Vatarakta Chikitsa such as [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 29/71], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 29/121] etc.
55. Aegle Marmelos Corr or bael (bilva) Has astringent effect, promote digestion, alleviating vata and kapha (sangrahikadipaniyavatakaphaprashamana),therapeutic potential of Aegle marmelos[28] -- --
56. Aconitum Heterophylum wall or atips (ativisha) Has astringent effect, promotes digestion, carminative action and alleviates all the dosha or curative of all the disorders. (dipaniyapachaniyasangrahikasarvadoshaharanam)[29] -- Gruel for diarrhoea [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 2/22] and numerous other references in Grahani Chikitsa and Atisara chikitsa and use as medicine for children due to its effect to reduce all dosha (sarvadoshaharatva) in formulations like balachaturbhadrachurna
57.Pollens of Nymphaca alba Linn. (utpala), kumuda (a variety of utpala) and Nelumbo nucifera gaertn. (padma) or pollen of blue and white water lilies Astringent effect, alleviating bleeding disorders (sangrahikaraktapittaprashamana) [30] -- Used in Raktapitta Chikitsa [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana]] 4/44], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana. 4/67]
58. Fagonia cretica Linn. (duralabha) or cretsn prickly clover Curative of pitta and kapha (pitta shleshmaprashamana),Medicinal significance of Fagonia cretica [31] -- Drulalabhasava [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 15/152-155] is indicated in bleeding disorders (raktapitta) and other disorders caused due to kapha.
59. Callicarpa macrophylla Vahi. or the perfumed cherry (priyangu) Alleviates the plethoric condition of blood and pitta (shonitapittatiyogaprashamana)[32] -- Callicarpa macrophylla (priyangu) is indicated as diet in treatment of bleeding disorders (Raktapitta Chikitsa) [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 4/36] as well as a medicine in bleeding disorders (raktapitta) [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 4/66], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 4/70], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 4/73], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 4/81], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 4/94] etc. It is included in Bhadrashriyadigana
60.Bark of Holarrhena antidyscenterica wall. or kurchi bark (kutaja) Is an astringent and dessicant of kapha, pitta, and the blood (shlesma pitta raktasangrahikopsosananam) [33] -- Formulations like Kutajadirasakriya [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 14/188-190], picchabasti, etc. Dalhana, commenting on [Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana.6/13] states that Kutajaphanita is indicated in bleeding piles associated with blood and pitta (kaphapittanubandharaktajaarshas)
61.Fruit of Gmelina arboria (kashmari) or fruit of white teak Causes haemostasis and cures bleeding disorders (raktapitta) (raktasangrahikaraktapittaprashamana) Gmelina arboria (kashmari) is indicated as diet in treatment of bleeding disorders [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 4/39]
62. Uraria picta Desv. (prishniparni) or painted leaved uraria Has astringent effect, alleviates vata, promotes digestion and is aphrodisiac (sangrahikavataharadipaniyavrishyanam)[34] --
63. Desmodium gangetium D.C. or tick trefoil (shalaparni / vidarigandha) Aphrodisiac and alleviates all doshas. (Vrishyasarvadoshaharanam)[35] -- --
64. Sida Cordifolia Linn. or the heart leaved sida (bala) Has astringent effect, promotes strength and curative of vata (sangrahikopshoshananam)[36] -- Formulations like Bala tailam, Amritadi tailam etc.
65. Tribulus terrestris Linn. or the small calatrops (gokshura) Cures dysuria & vata (mutrakrichchraanilahara)[37] -- Formulations like Sthiradighrita [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 26/23] and use in dysuria caused by vata (vatikamutrakrichra) [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 26/46]
66.Extract of Ferula narthex Boiss or asafoetida (hingu) Causes excision or splits up the morbid humours, digestive stimulant, corrective of peristalsis or downword movement of vata. Alleviates vata and kapha (chedaniyadipaniyaanulomikavatakaphaprashamananam), Medicinal properties of Asafoetida[38] -- Formulations like Hingvadi churna and gutika [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 5/79-84], Hingusauvarchaladya ghrita [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 5/69-70] etc described in treatment of abdomimal lumbs (Gulma Chikitsa)
67. Rheum emodi wall. (amlavetasa) Causes purgation (laxatives), digestive stimulant, corrective of peristalsis and curative of vata and kapha (bhedaniyadipaniyaanulomikavatashleshmanharanam), Therapeutic uses of Rheum emodi wall. [39] -- Formulations like Hingvadichurna and gutika [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 5/79-84], Shatyadichurna and gutika [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 5/86-90] and references like [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana5/162], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 5/166] etc described in treatment of abdomimal lumbs (Gulma Chikitsa)
68. Barley ash (yavasukah) Has laxative effect causing carmination, relieves piles, (stramsanapachanaarshoghna) -- Ingredient of Dashamooladyaghrita [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 15/82-86], Ksharaghrta [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 15/171-172] described in Grahani Chikitsa
69.Habitual use of buttermilk (takrabhyasa) Curative effect on gastrointestinal disorders (grahani), edema, piles, and complication due to improper administration of oleation therapy (grahanidoshashophaarshoghritvyapatprasaman), properties of buttermilk [40] -- Formulations like Takraishta [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 15/120-121], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 14/72-75], Panchamooladyaghrita and choorna [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 15/88-93], and references like [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 15/115-119], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana14/76-88] and [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 13/70-78]
70.Habitual use of meat soup of carnivorous animal (kravyadmamsarasaabhyas) Relieves gastrointestinal disorders (grahani), treatment of assimilation disorders, consumption and piles (grahanidoshashoshaarshoghnanam) -- References like [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 15/209-210], [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 8/149-155] etc.
71.Habitual use of milk & ghee (kshiraghritabhyasa) has rejuvenation properties (vitilizer) (rasayananam) -- Milk and ghee are advised to delay aging which indicates its rejuvenative effect. [A.Hr.Uttara Sthana 40/54] [1]
73.Habitual gargling with sesame (tila) oil (tailagandushaabhyasa) Promotes taste of food and strength of teeth. (dantabalaruchikaranam) It is advised in various disease conditions like sensitivity of teeth (danta harsha), loose teeth (chala danta) where strength of the teeth are to be restored.[A.S.Sutra Sthana 31/4]
74.Application of sandalwood paste Removes foul odour and removes burning sensation of body (durgandhahardahanirvapanlepananam)[41]h -- Shirishadipradeha [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 3/29], [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 6/31]
75.Application of Pluchea lenciolata Oliver and Hiern. (rasna) or Indian groundsel and Aquilaria agalocha Roxb. (aguru) in ointment form or eagle wood Application of these dispel coldness of body (shitapanayanpralepananam). -- [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 6/16]
76. Geranium grass (Cymbopogon JivarancusaSchult) (lamajjaka) and Vetiveria Zizanioides Nash. (ushira) or cuscus Cures burning sensation skin diseases and sweating (dahatvagadoshaswedapanayan), therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus[42] -- Shirishadipradeha [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 3/29]
77.Massage and poultice of Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke (kushtha) Alleviates vata (vatahara) and useful in unction and poultices (vataharaabhyangopanahopayoginan) -- --
78. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. or liquorice (madhuka) Beneficial for eye, virility, hair, throat, complexion and promote pigmentation and healing (cakshushyavrishyakeshyakanthyavarnyaviranjaniya) [43] --
79.Fresh air (vayu) Restores animation and consciousness (or gives life) (pranasajnapradanahetunam) -- In a patient of coma (sanyasa), blowing , needling which helps to stimulate vayu is done to bring back the counsciousness.[Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 24/46/47]
80.Heat (agni) Curative of indigestion (ama disorder), stiffness, chill, colic pain and shivering (ama stambhashitashulodvepanaprashamana) -- Fomentation using sand (valukasveda) used in Rhematoid disorders (amavata) to alleviate stiffness, chill, pain etc. [Cakra dutta, AmavataChikitsa] [44]
81.Water (jala) Produces astringent effect (stambhaniyanam) Intra nasal drug administration (nasya) of plain water is advised in bleeding disorders (raktapitta) so as to arrest bleeding. [A.S.Sutra Sthana.29/8] [9]
82.Water with a hot clod of earth plunged therein (mrudbhrushtaloshtranirvapitudaka) Alleviates acute attack of thirst and vomiting (trishnachhardiatiyogaprashaman) Water with a hot clod of earth plunged therein is advised in vomiting due to pitta (pittajachardi) [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 20/30] and in attack of thirst due to pitta (pittajatrishna) [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 22/45]

Classification of Agrya Dravya

The 152 entities can be better understood by categorizing them into these 6 sets.

  1. Wholesome substances for both healthy and patients (swasthaturahita drayva).Eg: Food, Water, Milk, Meat, etc.
  2. Wholesome actions for both healthy and patients (swasthaturahita karma).Eg: Emesis, Purgation, Enema, etc.
  3. Unwholesome substances (swasthaturaahita dravya)Eg: Diospyros malabarica (tinduka), Limonia acidissima (kapittha), Ghee of sheep milk etc.
  4. Food articles that are wholesome for patients (aturahita anna).Eg: Milk of goat, Milk of Buffalo, Sugarcane juice, etc.
  5. Medicines that are wholesome for patients (aturahita aushadha).Eg: Randia dumetorum (madanaphala), Embelia ribes (vidanga), Pluchea lanceolata (rasna) etc.
  6. A group of actions which are either wholesome or unwholesome (hita/ ahita karma)Eg: Suppression of natural urges (vega sandharanam), timely intake of food (kalabhojanam) etc.

Pathyam (wholesomeness)

Pathyam is another term for wholesomeness (hitam). The definition of pathya encompasses both body and mind (good for the body and pleasing for the mind). The wholesomeness of a substance/activity is in terms of the final effect that it brings about in the body and not in its immediate or local effect. For example, the use of bitter medicines is not pleasing for the mind when advised in fever (jvara), but when it cures the fever (jvara), the final result becomes pleasing for the mind. Thus, while advising pathya, it is necessary to counsel the patient to ensure patient compliance. In healthy, the wholesomeness can definitely be attributed to certain articles, but in patients, the wholesomeness of a particular substance is to be evaluated against various factors like the state of the disease, season, the quantity, etc. For example, though water in moderate quantity is pathya in healthy, it is forbidden in diseases like anemia (pandu), ascites (udara), piles (arsha) etc.

Further research area

It is required here that some researches on scientific ground to support the views and concepts of this chapter, which is very unique and practical.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Vagbhata. Ashtanga Hridayam. Edited by Harishastri Paradkar Vaidya. 1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy;2000.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Sushruta. Sushruta Samhita. Edited by Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya. 8th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia;2005.
  3. Thorning TK, Raben A, Tholstrup T, Soedamah-Muthu SS, Givens I, Astrup A. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence. Food Nutr Res. 2016;60:32527. Published 2016 Nov 22. doi:10.3402/fnr.v60.32527
  4. Marangoni F, Corsello G, Cricelli C, et al. Role of poultry meat in a balanced diet aimed at maintaining health and wellbeing: an Italian consensus document. Food Nutr Res. 2015;59:27606. Published 2015 Jun 9. doi:10.3402/fnr.v59.27606
  5. Baker LB. Physiology of sweat gland function: The roles of sweating and sweat composition in human health. Temperature (Austin). 2019;6(3):211-259. Published 2019 Jul 17. doi:10.1080/23328940.2019.1632145
  6. Williamson J, Pahor M. Evidence regarding the benefits of physical exercise. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(2):124-125. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.491
  7. Sepe L, Argüello A. Recent advances in dairy goat products. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2019;32(8):1306-1320. doi:10.5713/ajas.19.0487
  8. Das P, Mandal S, Gangopadhyay S, Das K, Mitra AG, Dasgupta S, Mukhopadhyay S, Mukhopadhyay A. Antioxidative and anticarcinogenic activities of methylpheophorbide a, isolated from wheat grass (Triticum aestivum Linn.). Nat Prod Res. 2016;30(4):474-7. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2015.1022775. Epub 2015 Mar 18. PMID: 25782530.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Vridha Vagbhata, Ashtanga Sangraha. Edited by Shivaprasad Sharma. 3rd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba sanskrit series office;2012.
  10. Singh A, Lal UR, Mukhtar HM, Singh PS, Shah G, Dhawan RK. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects. Pharmacogn Rev. 2015;9(17):45-54. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.156340
  11. Taniguchi K, Komae K, Takahashi A, Yoshioka T, Sone Y. Effect of waxy barley, Kirarimochi, consumption on bowel movements of late-stage elderly residents at Roken nursing home. J Physiol Anthropol. 2017;36(1):17. Published 2017 Feb 20. doi:10.1186/s40101-017-0131-0
  12. De Angelis M, Montemurno E, Vannini L, et al. Effect of Whole-Grain Barley on the Human Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015;81(22):7945-7956. doi:10.1128/AEM.02507-15
  13. Rahmani AH. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management. Pharmacognosy Res. 2015;7(3):217-224. doi:10.4103/0974-8490.157956
  14. Salehi B, Iriti M, Vitalini S, et al. Euphorbia-Derived Natural Products with Potential for Use in Health Maintenance. Biomolecules. 2019;9(8):337. Published 2019 Aug 2. doi:10.3390/biom9080337
  15. Bhosale UA, Yegnanarayan R, Pophale P, Somani R. Effect of aqueous extracts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on experimental animal model for inflammation. Anc Sci Life. 2012;31(4):202-206. doi:10.4103/0257-7941.107362
  16. Venkatasubramanian, Padma. Evaluation of Traditional Anthelmintic Herbs as Substitutes for the Endangered Embelia Ribes, Using Caenorhabditis Elegans Model. Current Science, vol. 105, no. 11, 2013, pp. 1593–1598. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24098859. Accessed 22 Oct. 2020.
  17. Meshram GG, Kumar A, Rizvi W, Tripathi CD, Khan RA. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Albizzia lebbeck in rats. J Tradit Complement Med. 2015;6(2):172-175. Published 2015 Jan 30. doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2014.11.038
  18. Dashtdar M, Dashtdar MR, Dashtdar B, Shirazi MK, Khan SA. In-Vitro, Anti-Bacterial Activities of Aqueous Extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.)Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo Against Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria. J Pharmacopuncture. 2013;16(2):15-22. doi:10.3831/KPI.2013.16.014
  19. Srivastava P, Shanker K. Pluchea lanceolata (Rasana): Chemical and biological potential of Rasayana herb used in traditional system of medicine. Fitoterapia. 2012 Dec;83(8):1371-85. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2012.07.008. Epub 2012 Aug 2. PMID: 22877846.
  20. Nashine S, Kanodia R, Nesburn AB, Soman G, Kuppermann BD, Kenney MC. Nutraceutical effects of Emblicaofficinalis in age-related macular degeneration. Aging (Albany NY). 2019;11(4):1177-1188. doi:10.18632/aging.101820
  21. Bag A, Bhattacharyya SK, Chattopadhyay RR. The development of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) in clinical research. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013;3(3):244-252. doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60059-3
  22. Naz R, Bano A. Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012;2(12):944-947. doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60004-0
  23. Sireeratawong S, Itharat A, Lerdvuthisopon N, et al. Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, and Antipyretic Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn. ISRN Pharmacol. 2012;2012:480265. doi:10.5402/2012/480265
  24. Kapahi BK, Srivastava TN, Sarin YK. Traditional medicinal plants of gurez (kashmir) - an ethnobotanical study. Anc Sci Life. 1993;13(1-2):119-124.
  25. Kamala A, Middha SK, Karigar CS. Plants in traditional medicine with special reference to Cyperus rotundus L.: a review. 3 Biotech. 2018;8(7):309. doi:10.1007/s13205-018-1328-6
  26. Kashima Y, Nakaya S, Miyazawa M. Volatile composition and sensory properties of Indian herbal medicine-Pavonia odorata-used in Ayurveda. J Oleo Sci. 2014;63(2):149-58. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess13125. Epub 2014 Jan 17. PMID: 24441709.
  27. Begum, Mst & Islam, Azharul & Begum, Rayhana & Uddin, Md. Sahab & Rahman, Md. Sohanur & Alam, Sumiya & Akter, Wahida & Das, Munny & Imon, A.. (2019). Ethnopharmacological Inspections of Organic Extract of Oroxylum indicum in Rat Models: A Promising Natural Gift. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2019. 1-13. 10.1155/2019/1562038.
  28. Rahman S, Parvin R. Therapeutic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.)-An overview. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2014;4(1):71-77. doi:10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60318-2
  29. Turrini E, Catanzaro E, Muraro MG, et al. Hemidesmus indicus induces immunogenic death in human colorectal cancer cells. Oncotarget. 2018;9(36):24443-24456. Published 2018 May 11. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.25325
  30. Paudel, Keshav Raj, and Nisha Panth. “Phytochemical Profile and Biological Activity of Nelumbo nucifera.” Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine :eCAM vol. 2015 (2015): 789124. doi:10.1155/2015/789124
  31. Qureshi H, Asif S, Ahmed H, Al-Kahtani HA, Hayat K. Chemical composition and medicinal significance of Fagonia cretica: a review. Nat Prod Res. 2016;30(6):625-39. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2015.1036268. Epub 2015 Apr 29. PMID: 25921950.
  32. Wang ZH, Niu C, Zhou DJ, Kong JC, Zhang WK. Three New Abietane-Type Diterpenoids from Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. Molecules. 2017;22(5):842. Published 2017 May 19. doi:10.3390/molecules22050842
  33. Jamadagni PS, Pawar SD, Jamadagni SB, Chougule S, Gaidhani SN, Murthy SN. Review of Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall. ex A. DC.: Pharmacognostic, Pharmacological, and Toxicological Perspective. Pharmacogn Rev. 2017;11(22):141-144. doi:10.4103/phrev.phrev_31_16
  34. Jamadagni, Pallavi Shrirang et al. “Review of Holarrhenaantidysenterica (L.) Wall. ex A. DC.: Pharmacognostic, Pharmacological, and Toxicological Perspective.” Pharmacognosy reviews vol. 11,22 (2017): 141-144. doi:10.4103/phrev.phrev_31_16
  35. Chauhan NS, Sharma V, Dixit VK, Thakur M. A review on plants used for improvement of sexual performance and virility. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:868062. doi:10.1155/2014/868062
  36. Momin MA, Bellah SF, Rahman SM, Rahman AA, Murshid GM, Emran TB. Phytopharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Sida cordifolia L. roots. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2014;4(1):18-24. doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60202-1
  37. Chhatre S, Nesari T, Somani G, Kanchan D, Sathaye S. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris. Pharmacogn Rev. 2014;8(15):45-51. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.125530
  38. Amalraj A, Gopi S. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Asafoetida: A review. J Tradit Complement Med. 2016;7(3):347-359. Published 2016 Dec 20. doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2016.11.004
  39. Zargar BA, Masoodi MH, Ahmed B, Ganie SA. Phytoconstituents and therapeutic uses of Rheum emodi wall. ex Meissn. Food Chem. 2011;128(3):585-589. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.03.083
  40. Sodini I, Morin P, Olabi A, Jiménez-Flores R. Compositional and functional properties of buttermilk: a comparison between sweet, sour, and whey buttermilk. J Dairy Sci. 2006 Feb;89(2):525-36. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72115-4. PMID: 16428621.
  41. Rajsmita B, Keshavamurthy V. Re-discovering Sandalwood: Beyond Beauty and Fragrance. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2019;10(3):296-297. doi:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_357_18
  42. Shah G, Shri R, Panchal V, Sharma N, Singh B, Mann AS. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus, stapf (Lemon grass). J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2011;2(1):3-8. doi:10.4103/2231-4040.79796
  43. Pastorino G, Cornara L, Soares S, Rodrigues F, Oliveira MBPP. Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra): A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Phytother Res. 2018;32(12):2323-2339. doi:10.1002/ptr.6178
  44. Chakrapanidatta, Cakradatta (Chikitsasangraha). Edited by Priya Vrat Sharma. 3rd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha publishers; 2002