Vyadhita Rupiya Vimana
|Section/Chapter||Vimana Sthana Chapter 7|
|Preceding Chapter||Roganika Vimana|
|Succeeding Chapter||Rogabhishagjitiya Vimana|
|Other Sections||Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana|
In this Chapter two types of different subjects are described,
- Two types of patients, based on the psychological types and physical strength are seen. One type exegerate their symptoms (guruvyadhita) and others understate their symptoms (laghuvyadhita). It is important to make correct assessment of their condition to know the prognosis for proper treatment.
- Knowledge of micro and macro organisms affecting the body, their etiological factors, site (location), classification, morphology, pathology, nomenclature and treatment is described. These organisms termed as krimi have both internal and external manifestations. Three internal types explained on the basis of their origin are raktaja (originating in blood), shleshmika (originating due to kapha predominant factors), and purishaja (originating in feces). Three step treatment protocol has been mentioned i.e., nidana parivarjana (giving up etiological factors), apakarshana (extraction) and prakriti vighata (creating unsuitable envioronment for parasites). Thus the chapter narrates in detail about the methodology of analysis of krimis, their origin and ill effects and also the modes and medicaments to treat them.
Keywords: Vyadhita Roopiya, Guru Vyadhita, Sattvabala, Laghu Vyadhita, Krimi, Shleshmika, Purishaja, Raktaja, Nidana Parivarjan, Apakarshan, Prakritivighta, Parasites, worms.
The chapter deals with importance of dehabala (physical strength) and sattvabala (psychological strength) in assessing the severity and prognosis of diseases. If a physician masters the art of assessing properly the physical and psychological strength, he never fails in proper prognosis and management of patients.
- Parasitology and Bacteriolgy in Ayurveda –Oldest recording of classification and treatment of krimi (parasites and microbes) is found in Charaka Samhita. It is obvious that they had knowledge of parasites and invisible microorganisms and their role in pathogenesis and symbiosis. Details of krimis is described under seven subheadings i.e., aetiology, nomenclature, site, morphology, colour, pathogenesis and treatment, in the text total number of krimi is mentioned as twenty.
- Classification – The krimis are classified as external and internal. Internal type has been further classified under three subtypes i.e. raktaja (originating in blood), shleshmika (originating due to kapha predominant factors), and purishaja (originating in feces).
- Morphology – Charaka has described three morphological types of shlaishmika krimi which is consistent with present day parasitology, three types include platy helminths, large nematodes and small nematodes.
- Pathogenesis – Raktaja krimi are invisible and produce the symptomatology like kushtha hence they are to be treated like the disease kushtha. However, The shleshmika and purishaja variety has more academic importance than therapeutic as their etiological factor and treatment are the same but the presenting symptomatology is different.
- Treatment - In this section the management principle has been described which is unique and applicable to the management of most diseases. Treatment is described predominantly for intestinal parasites. Long list of plants is mentioned for the treatment of parasites and their expulsion from the body. Per the advancement in technology and pharmaceuticals, the parasites and micro-organisms are studied in detail in modern medicine. Specific ante-helminthics and anti-microbial drugs with good clinical efficacy are available. The description of methods of removal of parasites in Ayurveda seems to be inconvenient in today’s era, where convenient therapeutic modalities are developed by modern science. The ayurvedic drugs also need to be used in larger doses. Modern medicine drugs, for removal of common parasites are effective with convenient dosage schedule. However, these drugs are potentially toxic and are to be used with careful watch of physician.
Sanskrit Text, Transliteration and English Translation
अथातो व्याधितरूपीयं विमानं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||
इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||athātō vyādhitarūpīyaṁ vimānaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||
iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||
athAto vyAdhitarUpIyaM vimAnaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||
iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||
We shall now expound the chapter on “Determination of the specific characteristics of different types of patients”. Thus said Lord Atreya. [1-2]
Two types of patients based on severity of disease and clinical presentation
iha khalu dvau puruṣau vyādhitarūpau bhavataḥ- guruvyādhitaḥ, laghuvyādhitaśca| tatra- guruvyādhita ēkaḥ sattvabalaśarīrasampadupētatvāllaghuvyādhita iva dr̥śyatē, laghuvyādhitō'paraḥsattvādīnāmadhamatvādguruvyādhita iva dr̥śyatē| tayōrakuśalāḥ kēvalaṁ cakṣuṣaiva rūpaṁ dr̥ṣṭvā'dhyavasyantō vyādhigurulāghavē vipratipadyantē||3||
Consequence of improper diagnosis
nahi jñānāvayavēna kr̥tsnē jñēyē vijñānamutpadyatē| vipratipannāstu khalu rōgajñānē upakramayuktijñānē cāpi vipratipadyantē| tē yadā guruvyādhitaṁ laghuvyādhitarūpamāsādayanti, tadā tamalpadōṣaṁ matvā saṁśōdhanakālē'smaimr̥du saṁśōdhanaṁ prayacchantō bhūya ēvāsya dōṣānudīrayanti| yadā tu laghuvyādhitaṁ guruvyādhitarūpamāsādayanti, tadā taṁ mahādōṣaṁ matvāsaṁśōdhanakālē'smai tīkṣṇaṁ saṁśōdhanaṁ prayacchantō dōṣānatinirhr̥tya śarīramasya kṣiṇvanti| ēvamavayavēna jñānasya kr̥tsnē jñēyē jñānamabhimanyamānāḥ pariskhalanti| viditavēditavyāstu bhiṣajaḥ sarvaṁ sarvathā yathāsambhavaṁ parīkṣyaṁ parīkṣyādhyavasyantō nakvacidapi vipratipadyantē, yathēṣṭamarthamabhinirvartayanti cēti||4||
A partial knowledge of any subject does not provide thorough understanding of the entire scientific concept. Those who fail to diagnose a case properly, also fail to prescribe a rational remedy for the same. For instance, when they consider the severely ill person having mild disease and, administer mild evacuative drug which fails to expel (udeerana) out doshas. Similarly, when they consider mildly ill patient to have severe disease and administer strong evacuative drug which eliminates the doshas excessively causing weakness in the body. Thus those who regard the partial knowledge as sufficient to provide complete understanding of the entire object, fail in their pursuit. On the other hand, the physicians who have thorough knowledge from all aspects and take action after examining the entire situation by all means as far as possible they achieve the desired objective.
भवन्ति चात्र- सत्त्वादीनां विकल्पेन व्याधिरूपमथातुरे| दृष्ट्वा विप्रतिपद्यन्ते बाला व्याधिबलाबले||५||
ते भेषजमयोगेन कुर्वन्त्यज्ञानमोहिताः | व्याधितानां विनाशाय क्लेशाय महतेऽपिवा||६||
प्राज्ञास्तु सर्वमाज्ञाय परीक्ष्यमिह सर्वथा | न स्खलन्ति प्रयोगेषु भेषजानां कदाचन ||७|
bhavanti cātra- sattvādīnāṁ vikalpēna vyādhirūpamathāturē  | dr̥ṣṭvā vipratipadyantē bālā vyādhibalābalē||5||
tē bhēṣajamayōgēna kurvantyajñānamōhitāḥ| vyādhitānāṁ vināśāya klēśāya mahatē'pi vā||6||
prājñāstu sarvamājñāya parīkṣyamiha sarvathā| na skhalanti prayōgēṣu bhēṣajānāṁ kadācana||7||
bhavanti cAtra- sattvAdInAM vikalpena vyAdhirUpamathAture  | dRuShTvA vipratipadyante bAlA vyAdhibalAbale ||5||
te bheShajamayogena kurvantyaj~jAnamohitAH | vyAdhitAnAM vinAshAya kleshAya mahate~api vA ||6||
prAj~jAstu sarvamAj~jAya parIkShyamiha sarvathA | na skhalanti prayogeShu bheShajAnAM kadAcana ||7||
Here are the verses,
After the proper knowledge regarding the classification of patients on the basis of their psychological and physical strength and its consequences in proper diagnosis and treatment resulting in success or failure of physician, bowing on the feet of worshipful Atreya, Agnivesha put query about all parasites inhabiting in the purisha (feces) of persons in respect of their etiology, habitat, morphological varieties, color, nomenclature, pathogenesis and treatment.
Types of krimi
Malaja krimi (parasites originating from excreta)
tatra malō bāhyaścābhyantaraśca| tatra bāhyamalajātān malajān sañcakṣmahē | tēṣāṁ samutthānaṁ- mr̥jāvarjanaṁ; sthānaṁ- kēśaśmaśrulōmapakṣmavāsāṁsi; saṁsthānam-aṇavastilākr̥tayō bahupādāśca; varṇaḥ- kr̥ṣṇaḥ, śuklaśca; nāmāni- yūkāḥ, pipīlikāśca; prabhāvaḥ-kaṇḍūjananaṁ, kōṭhapiḍakābhinirvartanaṁ ca; cikitsitaṁ tu khalvēṣāmapakarṣaṇaṁ, malōpaghātaḥ,malakarāṇāṁ ca bhāvānāmanupasēvanamiti||10||
Excreta are of two types-external and internal. Here the word malaja means parasites growing due to external excreta. Their etiological factor is lack of cleanliness of the body.
Habitat -hair, beard, moustaches, body hair, eyelashes and clothing.
Morphology –minute sesame seed shaped and multipedes.
Color- black or white;
Also known as- yuka (lice), pipilika(liksha, or nit).
Symptoms - itching, urticarial patches and papules.
Shonitaja krimi (parasites in blood)
Etiological factors for raktaja (growing due to the vitiation of blood) krimi are similar to those of kushtha;
Habitat- blood vessels;
Morphology -minute, round and having no feet and some of them are invisible due to their minuteness;
Also known as – keshada (destructing hair), lomada (destructing body hair), lomadwipa (residing in hair follicles of body), saurasa(insect infesting cartilages), audumbara(which appear like clusters of ficus racemosa/cluster fig tree) and jantumatarah(a kind of fly which produces worms);
They may produce pathogenesis like-falling of hair, beard and moustache, nails, body hair, eyelashes, when they infect a wound - (they cause) oversensitivity, itching, piercing pain and creeping sensation, when they are excessively grown - they eat away skin, blood vessels, ligaments, muscles and cartilage.
Their treatment is also similar to that for kushtha (variety of skin disorders) which will be described later on (in the chapter of kushtha). 
Shleshmaja krimi (parasites in mucus and other fluids)
shleShmajAH kShIraguDatilamatsyAnUpamAMsapiShTAnnaparamAnnakusumbhasneh- AjIrNapUti klinnasa~gkIrNaviruddhAsAtmyabhojanasamutthAnAH; teShAmAmAshayaH sthAnaM, te pravardhamAnAstUrdhvamadho vA visarpantyubhayato vA; saMsthAnavarNavisheShAstu- shvetAH pRuthubradhnasaMsthAnAH kecit, kecidvRuttapariNAhA gaNDUpadAkRutayaH shvetAstAmrAvabhAsAshca, kecidaNavo dIrghAstantvAkRutayaH shvetAH; teShAM trividhAnAM shleShmanimittAnAM krimINAM nAmAni- antrAdAH, udarAdAH, hRudayacarAH , curavaH, darbhapuShpAH, saugandhikAH, mahAgudAshceti; prabhAvo- hRullAsaH, AsyasaMsravaNam, arocakAvipAkau, jvaraH, mUrcchA, jRumbhA, kShavathuH, AnAhaH, a~ggamardaH, chardiH kArshyaM, pAruShyaM, ceti ||12||
The parasites growing due to the vitiation of shleshma may be caused due to food consisting of milk, jaggery, sesame, flesh of marshy animals, (rice) flour preparations, rice cooked in milk, oil of kusumbha (safflower-Schleichera oleosa), uncooked, putrefied, stale, infected, antagonistic and unsuitable items;
Their habitat is in amashaya (stomach and duodenum); when developed they move upwards or downwards or both ways;
These shlaishmika krimis on the basis of morphology and color are of three types-
- Those which are white, broad and like a tape.
- Those which are round like earthworms and white & coppery tinge in color;
- Others which are small, like long thread and white;
These three types of worms can have the names like -antrada (damaging intestines), udarada (damaging abdomen), hridayachara (moving in the cardiac area), curu, darbhapushpa (like the flowers of darbha), saugandhika (having specific smell), mahaguda(which reside in gastrointestinal tract);
Purishaja krimi (parasites in feces)
The parasites growing in feces grow due to the same etiological factor which cause shleshmaja krimi -
Their habitat is pakwashaya (large intestine and rectum); when developed they move downwards or both ways; however if they tend to move (upwards) towards stomach, eructation and breath of the patient may have fecal odor.
Their morphology and color- these purishaja krimi are morphologically of two types :
- some are minute round in circumference white in color and like hair of goat (wool);
- whereas others are big, round in circumference and may have the colors like blackish, blue, green and yellow;
These two types of worms can have the names like - kakeruka, makeruka, leliha(which lick), sashulaka(which cause pain), sausurada;
Thus these are the characteristics of the worms grown due to the vitiation of shleshma and purisha. 
Principles of management
cikitsitaṁ tu khalvēṣāṁ samāsēnōpadiśya paścādvistarēṇōpadēkṣyāmaḥ| tatra sarvakrimīṇāmapakarṣaṇamēvāditaḥ kāryaṁ, tataḥ prakr̥tivighātaḥ, anantaraṁ nidānōktānāṁbhāvānāmanupasēvanamiti||14||
tatrāpakarṣaṇaṁ- hastēnābhigr̥hya vimr̥śyōpakaraṇavatā'panayanamanupakaraṇēna vā; sthānagatānāṁtu krimīṇāṁ bhēṣajēnāpakarṣaṇaṁ nyāyataḥ, taccaturvidhaṁ; tadyathā- śirōvirēcanaṁ, vamanaṁ,virēcanam, āsthāpanaṁ ca; ityapakarṣaṇavidhiḥ| prakr̥tivighātastvēṣāṁ kaṭutiktakaṣāyakṣārōṣṇānāṁ dravyāṇāmupayōgaḥ, yaccānyadapikiñcicchlēṣmapurīṣapratyanīkabhūtaṁ tat syāt; hati prakr̥tivighātaḥ| anantaraṁ nidānōktānāṁ bhāvānāmanupasēvanaṁ- yaduktaṁ nidānavidhau tasya vivarjanaṁtathāprāyāṇāṁ cāparēṣāṁ dravyāṇām| iti lakṣaṇataścikitsitamanuvyākhyātam| ētadēva punarvistarēṇōpadēkṣyatē||15||
Apakarshana: Extraction (removal) can be done by hands with or without the help of instruments as may be the requirement.
- Parasites located inside the organs are extricated, as a rule, by the (eliminative) therapy. These are of four types such as nasal errhines - nasya, emesis, purgation and non-unctuous enema.
Prakritivighata: Destruction of the source of their origin and development consists of the use of pungent, bitter, astringent, alkaline and hot drugs, and other measures which are contrary to kapha and feces.
Nidanaparivarjana: Thereafter abstinence from the etiological factors-whatever is mentioned as causative factor and similar other substances should be avoided. Thus the principle of treatment is said, which will be further described in detail. 
Various therapeutic modalities
athainaṁ krimikōṣṭhamāturamagrē ṣaḍrātraṁ saptarātraṁ vā snēhasvēdābhyāmupapādya śvōbhūtē ēnaṁsaṁśōdhanaṁ pāyayitā'smītikṣīraguḍadadhitilamatsyānūpamāṁsapiṣṭānnaparamānnakusumbhasnēhasamprayuktairbhōjyaiḥ sāyaṁprātaścōpapādayēt samudīraṇārthaṁ krimīṇāṁ kōṣṭhābhisaraṇārthaṁ ca bhiṣak| atha vyuṣṭāyāṁ rātryāṁ sukhōṣitaṁ suprajīrṇabhaktaṁ cavijñāyāsthāpanavamanavirēcanaistadaharēvōpapādayēdupapādanīyaścēt syāt sarvān parīkṣyaviśēṣānparīkṣya samyak||16||
The patient infested with worms should be first treated with oleation and fomentation for six or seven nights and a day before administration of evacuative therapy he should be given diet consisting mainly of milk, jaggery, curd, sesame, fish, meat of marshy animals, (rice) flour preparation, rice cooked in milk and kusumbha oil in morning and evening, in order to stimulate the worms and bring them to the alimentary tract. Next morning, when the patient is comfortably seated and his previous meal properly digested, the evacuative therapy-non unctuous enema, emesis and purgation- should be administered to him on the same day after examining all the aspects properly. 
athāharēti brūyāt- mūlakasarṣapalaśunakarañjaśigrumadhuśigrukharapuṣpābhūstr̥ṇasumukhasurasakuṭhērakagaṇḍīrakālamālakaparṇāsakṣavakaphaṇijjhakānisarvāṇyathavā yathālābhaṁ; tānyāhr̥tānyabhisamīkṣya khaṇḍaśaśchēdayitvā prakṣālya pānīyēna suprakṣālitāyāṁ sthālyāṁ samāvāpyagōmūtrēṇārdhōdakēnābhiṣicya sādhayēt satatamavaghaṭṭayan darvyā, tamupayuktabhūyiṣṭhē'mbhasi  gatarasēṣvauṣadhēṣusthālīmavatārya suparipūtaṁ kaṣāyaṁ sukhōṣṇaṁ madanaphalapippalīviḍaṅgakalkatailōpahitaṁ svarjikālavaṇitamabhyāsicya bastauvidhivadāsthāpayēdēnaṁ; tathā'rkālarkakuṭajāḍhakīkuṣṭhakaiḍaryakaṣāyēṇa vā, tathā śigrupīlukustumburukaṭukāsarṣapakaṣāyēṇa,tathāmalakaśr̥ṅgavēradāruharidrāpicumardakaṣāyēṇa madanaphalādisaṁyōgasampāditēna, trivāraṁ saptarātraṁ vāsthāpayēt||17||
Now the patient should be asked to bring the drugs-
Mulaka (radish), sarshapa (mustard), lashuna (garlic), karanja (pongamia), shigru (drum stick), madhu shigru (a kind of drumstick), kharapushpa(katphala or vana tulasi), bhustruna, sumukha(a type of tulasi), surasa(type of tulasi), kutheraka(type of tulasi), gandira(Canthium parviflorum Lamk), kalamalaka(type of tulasi), parnasa(type of tulasi), kshavka(type of tulasi), phaninjaka(type of tulasi)- all or whichever are available, should be cut into pieces, washed well with water, put in well-cleaned cooking pot and after dipping them in cow urine diluted with half water they are cooked being stirred constantly with a ladle. When the water is mostly consumed and the drugs well-extracted the cooking pot should be brought down and the extract be taken by filtering it properly.
The tolerably warm decoction is added with the paste of the madanaphala pulp, vidanga oil, and swarjika kshara and put into the enema pot and with this non-unctuous enema should be administered to the patient properly. This enema may also be prepared with the decoction of arka, alarka, kulaja, adhaki, kushtha, kaidarya, shigru, pilu, dhanyaka, katuka and sarshapa, amalaka, shringabera, daruharidra and nimba, in combination with madanaphala etc. and is administered to the patient for three or seven days. 
One aksha (l0 gm. ) of the paste of trivrit mixed with half anjali ( 80 ml. ) decoction of the madanaphala pulp should be administered to the patient, this eliminates the noxious material from both upper and lower routes. In this way the emetics and purgatives mentioned in the Kalpa Sthana chapter may be administered after properly examining the patient from all aspects.
athainaṁ samyagviriktaṁ vijñāyāparāhṇē śaikharikakaṣāyēṇa sukhōṣṇēna pariṣēcayēt| tēnaiva ca kaṣāyēṇa bāhyābhyantarān sarvōdakārthān kārayēcchaśvat; tadabhāvēkaṭutiktakaṣāyāṇāmauṣadhānāṁ kvāthairmūtrakṣārairvā pariṣēcayēt| pariṣiktaṁ cainaṁ nivātamāgāramanupravēśya pippalīpippalīmūlacavyacitrakaśr̥ṅgavērasiddhēnayavāgvādinā kramēṇōpācarēt, vilēpīkramāgataṁ cainamanuvāsayēdviḍaṅgatailēnaikāntaraṁdvistrirvā||19||
When the patient is purged well, he should be bathed with the warm decoction of vidanga in afternoon and he should use this decoction for all purposes of external as well as internal use in place of water regularly; if it is not available, decoction of other pungent, bitter and astringent drugs or urine or alkalis may be used for bath. After bath patient should be taken into a room which is devoid of wind and should be managed with dietetic regimen starting with yavagu (liquid gruel) cooked with the drugs like pippali, pippalimula, chavya, chitraka and shunthi. In this way when he reaches the stage of vilepi (paste gruel) unctuous enema should be administered to him with vidanga taila twice or thrice on alternate days.
If the parasites affecting the head are too many and sometimes seen creeping on the head, then after applying oil and fomentation on the head the patient he should be administered with nasal evacuation therapy with the seeds of apamarga, etc. 
yastvabhyavahāryavidhiḥ prakr̥tivighātāyōktaḥ krimīṇāmatha tamanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ- mūlakaparṇīṁ samūlāgrapratānāmāhr̥tya khaṇḍaśaśchēdayitvōlū(dū)khalē kṣōdayitvā pāṇibhyāṁ pīḍayitvā rasaṁgr̥hṇīyāt, tēna rasēna lōhitaśālitaṇḍulapiṣṭaṁ samālōḍya pūpalikāṁ kr̥tvā vidhūmēṣvaṅgārēṣūpakuḍya viḍaṅgatailalavaṇōpahitāṁ krimikōṣṭhāya bhakṣayituṁ prayacchēt, anantaraṁ cāmlakāñjikamudaśvidvāpippalyādipañcavargasaṁsr̥ṣṭaṁ salavaṇamanupāyayēt| anēna kalpēnamārkavārkasahacaranīpanirguṇḍīsumukhasurasakuṭhērakagaṇḍīrakālamālakaparṇāsakṣavakaphaṇijjhaka-bakulakuṭajasuvarṇakṣīrīsvarasānāmanyatamasmin kārayēt pūpalikāḥ; tathākiṇihīkirātatiktakasuvahāmalakaharītakībibhītakasvarasēṣu kārayēt pūpalikāḥ; svarasāṁścaitēṣāmēkaikaśōdvandvaśaḥ sarvaśō vā madhuvilulitān prātaranannāya pātuṁ prayacchēt||21||
Now we shall describe some medicated food preparations for destroying the environment for growth of the parasites-the whole plant of mulakaparni along with root, top and branches should be collected and the juice should be extracted out of it after cutting it into pieces pounding in a mortar and pressing with the hands. Mixing the flour of the red rice (shali) with this juice pupalika (cake mantle) and cooked on smokeless charcoal. These cakes along with vidanga, oil and salt should be given to the patient infested with parasites for eating. Afterwards he should be given to drink the sour vinegar or diluted buttermilk mixed with five drugs of pippalyadi group (pippali, pippalimula, cavya, citraka, shunthi ) salt. In the same way, cake may be prepared with the juice of one of these drugs bhringaraja, arka, sahacara, nipa, nirgundi, sumukha, surasa, kutheraka, gandira, kalamalaka, parnasa, kshavaka, phanijjaka, bakula, kutaja and suvarnakshiri. Moreover, cake may be prepared from amalaka, haritaki and bibhitaka. The juice of kirlihi, kiratatikta, suvaha, drugs should also be administered alone, or in combination with another drug or all together mixed with honey to the patient on empty stomach in the morning. 
athāśvaśakr̥dāhr̥tya mahati kiliñjakē prastīryātapē śōṣayitvōdūkhalē kṣōdayitvā dr̥ṣadi punaḥsūkṣmacūrṇāni kārayitvā viḍaṅgakaṣāyēṇa triphalākaṣāyēṇa vā'ṣṭakr̥tvō daśakr̥tvō vātapē suparibhāvitāni bhāvayitvā dr̥ṣadi punaḥ sūkṣmāṇi cūrṇāni kārayitvā navē kalaśē samāvāpyānuguptaṁnidhāpayēt| tēṣāṁ tu khalu cūrṇānāṁ pāṇitalaṁ yāvadvā sādhu manyēta tat kṣaudrēṇa saṁsr̥jya krimikōṣṭhinē lēḍhuṁprayacchēt||22||
Collecting the horse dung, it is spread over a big mat and dried up in the sun. Then fine powder is made by pounding in a mortar and again grinding on stone slab it should be dipped well in the decoction of vidanga or triphala and dried well in the sun. This process is repeated eight or ten times. Finally grinding it on stone slab, fine powder is made and stored in a new jar in a protected place. This powder in the dose of l0 gm., or whatever is appropriate, mixed with honey should be administered to the patient. 
तथा भल्लातकास्थीन्याहृत्य कलशप्रमाणेन चापोथ्य स्नेहभाविते दृढे कलशे सूक्ष्मानेकच्छिद्रब्रध्ने शरीरमुपवेष्ट्य मृदावलिप्ते समावाप्योडुपेन पिधाय भूमावाकण्ठं निखातस्य स्नेहभावितस्यैवान्यस्य दृढस्य कुम्भस्योपरिसमारोप्य समन्ताद्गोमयैरुपचित्यदाहयेत्, स यदा जानीयात्साधुदग्धानि गोमयानि विगतस्नेहानि च भल्लातकास्थीनीति ततस्तं कुम्भमुद्धरेत् | अथ तस्माद्द्वितीयात्कुम्भात्स्नेहमादाय विडङ्गतण्डुलचूर्णैः स्नेहार्धमात्रैः प्रतिसंसृज्यातपे सर्वमहः स्थापयित्वा ततोऽस्मै मात्रां प्रयच्छेत्पानाय; तेन साधु विरिच्यते, विरिक्तस्य चानुपूर्वीयथोक्ता | एवमेव भद्रदारुसरलकाष्ठस्नेहानुपकल्प्य पातुं प्रयच्छेत् ||२३|| अनुवासयेच्चैनमनुवासनकाले ||२४||
tathā bhallātakāsthīnyāhr̥tya kalaśapramāṇēna cāpōthya snēhabhāvitē dr̥ḍhē kalaśēsūkṣmānēkacchidrabradhnē śarīramupavēṣṭya  mr̥dāvaliptē samāvāpyōḍupēna pidhāyabhūmāvākaṇṭhaṁ nikhātasya snēhabhāvitasyaivānyasya dr̥ḍhasya kumbhasyōpari samārōpyasamantādgōmayairupacitya dāhayēt, sa yadā jānīyāt sādhu dagdhāni gōmayāni vigatasnēhāni cabhallātakāsthīnīti tatastaṁ kumbhamuddharēt| atha tasmāddvitīyāt kumbhāt snēhamādāya viḍaṅgataṇḍulacūrṇaiḥ snēhārdhamātraiḥ pratisaṁsr̥jyātapēsarvamahaḥ sthāpayitvā tatō'smai mātrāṁ prayacchēt pānāya; tēna sādhu viricyatē, viriktasya cānupūrvīyathōktā| ēvamēva bhadradārusaralakāṣṭhasnēhānupakalpya pātuṁ prayacchēt||23||
tathA bhallAtakAsthInyAhRutya kalashapramANena cApothya snehabhAvite dRuDhe kalashe sUkShmAnekacchidrabradhne sharIramupaveShTya] mRudAvalipte samAvApyoDupena pidhAya bhUmAvAkaNThaM nikhAtasya snehabhAvitasyaivAnyasya dRuDhasya kumbhasyopari samAropya samantAdgomayairupacitya dAhayet, sa yadA jAnIyAt sAdhu dagdhAni gomayAni vigatasnehAni ca bhallAtakAsthInIti tatastaM kumbhamuddharet | atha tasmAddvitIyAt kumbhAt snehamAdAya viDa~ggataNDulacUrNaiH snehArdhamAtraiH pratisaMsRujyAtape sarvamahaH sthApayitvA tato~asmai mAtrAM prayacchet pAnAya; tena sAdhu viricyate, viriktasya cAnupUrvI yathoktA | evameva bhadradArusaralakAShThasnehAnupakalpya pAtuM prayacchet ||23|| anuvAsayeccainamanuvAsanakAle ||24||
Stony fruits of bhallataka taken in the quantity of a kalasha (10.24 kg. rushed and kept in a strong jar smeared inside with ghee having many fine holes in the bottom and wrapped all over with clay (and dried). This jar having been covered with a lid is put on another strong and ghee-smeared jar which is buried under ground up to neck. Now it should be covered with cow-dung from all sides and ignited. When it is observed that the cow dung is well-burnt and the stony fruits of bhallataka are free from oil, the (upper) jar is taken out. Now from the lower jar the oil is collected. It is mixed with double quantity of the powder of vidanga seeds and dried up in the sun for the whole day. A dose of it is administered to the patient by which he is purged well. The after-management should be as said above. By the same method, the oil obtained from the wood of devadaru and sarala may be administered. Then at the appropriate time, unctuous enema should be given. [23-24]
Now ask the patient to collect, sesame seeds endowed with all qualities and harvested in the autumn. After winnowing and cleaning these seeds, they should be immersed in the lukewarm decoction of vidanga till the noxious material comes out.
Then again cleaning them well, they should be dipped in the decoction of vidanga and dried in the sun. The process should be repeated for twenty one times. There after powdering it in a mortar and again grinding it finely on stone slab one should keep it in a tub and sprinkling the vidanga decoction over it again and again one should press it with hands. During this process, whatever oil comes out, should be collected by hands and kept in a clean and strong jar which should be stored in a protected place. 
athāharēti brūyāt- tilvakōddālakayōrdvau bilvamātrau piṇḍau ślakṣṇapiṣṭau viḍaṅgakaṣāyēṇa,tadardhamātrau śyāmātrivr̥tayōḥ, atō'rdhamātrau dantīdravantyōḥ, atō'rdhamātrau ca cavyacitrakayōriti| ētaṁ sambhāraṁ viḍaṅgakaṣāyasyārdhāḍhakamātrēṇa pratisaṁsr̥jya, tattailaprasthaṁ samāvāpya,sarvamālōḍya, mahati paryōgē samāsicyāgnāvadhiśrityāsanē sukhōpaviṣṭaḥ sarvataḥsnēhamavalōkayannajasraṁ mr̥dvagninā sādhayēddarvyā satatamavaghaṭṭayan| sa yadā jānīyādviramati śabdaḥ, praśāmyati ca phēnaḥ, prasādamāpadyatē snēhaḥ, yathāsvaṁ cagandhavarṇarasōtpattiḥ, saṁvartatē ca bhaiṣajyamaṅgulibhyāṁmr̥dyamānamanatimr̥dvanatidāruṇamanaṅguligrāhi cēti, sa kālastasyāvatāraṇāya| tatastamavatārya śītībhūtamahatēna vāsasā paripūya, śucau dr̥ḍhē kalaśē samāsicya, pidhānēna pidhāya,śuklēna vastrapaṭṭēnāvacchādya, sūtrēṇa subaddhaṁ suniguptaṁ nidhāpayēt| tatō'smai mātrāṁ prayacchēt pānāya, tēna sādhu viricyatē; samyagapahr̥tadōṣasya cānupūrvī yathōktā| tataścainamanuvāsayēdanuvāsanakālē| ētēnaiva ca pākavidhinā sarṣapātasīkarañjakōṣātakīsnēhānupakalpya pāyayēt sarvaviśēṣānavēkṣamāṇaḥ| tēnāgadō bhavati||26||
Now ask (the patient) to bring two boluses each of bilwa pramana (40 gm.) weight of the finely made paste of tilwaka and uddalaka with the decoction of vidanga, two similar boluses of shyama and trivrit in half quantity (20gm), boluses of danti and dravanti in further half quantity (l0 gm) and two boluses of chavya and chitraka in further half quantity (5 gm). Combining all the above material with vidanga decoction in quantity of 1.28 liter and vidanga taila in that of 640 ml. and mixing well ne should keep it in a big vessel which should be put over fire. A person sitting comfortably on a seat and keeping eye constantly on the oil from all sides should cook it on mild fire while stirring with a ladle constantly. When one observes that sound is stopped, foam is subsided, oil is clarified, proper smell, color and taste appear, the drug-paste pressed with the fingers is made into a wick, not adhering to the fingers and not being too soft or too hard. This is the time for bringing down the vessel. After the vessel is brought down and cooled, the content should be filtered through undamaged cloth and kept in a clean and strong jar closed with lid and covered with a piece of' white cloth and tied well with threads should be stored in a protected place. Appropriate dose of this should be administered to the patient to be purged well. After proper elimination of the noxious material he should be managed as said before. Then at appropriate time, unctuous enema should be administered to him. By the same method one should prepare oils of sarshapa, atasi, karanja and koshataki and administer to the patient considering all the aspects. Thus he becomes free from the disorders. 
ēvaṁ dvayānāṁ ślēṣmapurīṣasambhavānāṁ krimīṇāṁsamutthānasaṁsthānavarṇanāmaprabhāvacikitsitaviśēṣā vyākhyātāḥ sāmānyataḥ| viśēṣatastu svalpamātramāsthāpanānuvāsanānulōmaharaṇabhūyiṣṭhaṁ tēṣvēvauṣadhēṣu purīṣajānāṁkrimīṇāṁ cikitsitaṁ kartavyaṁ, mātrādhikaṁ punaḥ śirōvirēcanavamanōpaśamanabhūyiṣṭhaṁtēṣvēvauṣadhēṣu ślēṣmajānāṁ krimīṇāṁ cikitsitaṁ kāryam; ityēṣa krimighnō bhēṣajavidhiranuvyākhyātōbhavati| tamanutiṣṭhatā yathāsvaṁ hētuvarjanē prayatitavyam| yathōddēśamēvamidaṁ krimikōṣṭhacikitsitaṁ yathāvadanuvyākhyātaṁ bhavati||27||
भवन्तिचात्र- अपकर्षणमेवादौ क्रिमीणां भेषजं स्मृतम् | ततो विघातः प्रकृतेर्निदानस्य च वर्जनम् ||२८||
अयमेव विकाराणां सर्वेषामपिनिग्रहे | विधिर्दृष्टस्त्रिधा योऽयं क्रिमीनुद्दिश्य कीर्तितः ||२९||
संशोधनं संशमनं निदानस्य च वर्जनम् | एतावद्भिषजाकार्यं रोगे रोगे यथाविधि ||३०||
तत्रश्लोकौ- व्याधितौ पुरुषौ ज्ञाज्ञौ भिषजौ सप्रयोजनौ | विंशतिः क्रिमयस्तेषां हेत्वादिः सप्तकोगणः||३१||
उक्तो व्याधितरूपीये विमाने परमर्षिणा | शिष्यसम्बोधनार्थाय व्याधिप्रशमनाय च ||३२||
bhavanti cātra- apakarṣaṇamēvādau krimīṇāṁ bhēṣajaṁ smr̥tam| tatō vighātaḥ prakr̥tērnidānasya ca varjanam||28||
ayamēva  vikārāṇāṁ sarvēṣāmapi nigrahē| vidhirdr̥ṣṭastridhā yō'yaṁ krimīnuddiśya kīrtitaḥ||29||
saṁśōdhanaṁ saṁśamanaṁ nidānasya ca varjanam| ētāvadbhiṣajā kāryaṁ rōgē rōgē yathāvidhi||30||
tatra ślōkau- vyādhitau puruṣau jñājñau bhiṣajau saprayōjanau| viṁśatiḥ krimayastēṣāṁ hētvādiḥ saptakō gaṇaḥ||31||
uktō vyādhitarūpīyē vimānē paramarṣiṇā| śiṣyasambōdhanārthāya vyādhipraśamanāya ca||32||
bhavanti cAtra- apakarShaNamevAdau krimINAM bheShajaM smRutam | tato vighAtaH prakRuternidAnasya ca varjanam ||28||
ayameva vikArANAM sarveShAmapi nigrahe | vidhirdRuShTastridhA yo~ayaM krimInuddishya kIrtitaH ||29||
saMshodhanaM saMshamanaM nidAnasya ca varjanam | etAvadbhiShajA kAryaM roge roge yathAvidhi ||30||
tatra shlokau- vyAdhitau puruShau j~jAj~jau bhiShajau saprayojanau | viMshatiH krimayasteShAM hetvAdiH saptako gaNaH ||31||
ukto vyAdhitarUpIye vimAne paramarShiNA | shiShyasambodhanArthAya vyAdhiprashamanAya ca ||32||
Here are the verses -
इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृते विमानस्थाने व्याधितरूपीयविमानं नाम सप्तमोऽध्यायः ||७||
- The partial knowledge is not sufficient to have proper understanding of that subject. Thus, the knowledge of all aspects of the concept with all the possible tools is essential for complete understanding of that concept.
- Understanding of physical and mental strength is essential for assessing the proper diagnosis and the severity of disease.
- Krimis are classified as external and internal variety mainly. They are further sub classified based upon etiology, habitat, morphology, color, nomenclature, pathogenesis and treatment.
- The four categories based on their habitat are: purishaja (origin in fecal matter), shleshmaja (origin in shleshma including body fluids, mucosal layers), raktaja (origin in blood), malaja (origin in body impurities).
- Management principles given for krimi are nidana parivarjana (removal of causative factor), apakarshana (removal of krimi) and prakritivighata (eradicating favorable environment for growth of krimi). This is collectively a complete management principle (Chikitsa Sutra) in Charaka Samhita in all aspects, as all other principles are ekangika (pertaining only to one or two components of disease process).
In the era of clinical diagnosis it was very important that the physician should not do only proper diagnosis but should also assess the severity of disease so he is able to provide proper treatment without causing any harm to the patient. Hence patients should have thorough physical examination and appropriate diagnostic tests.Vimana Sthana predominantly contains the diagnostic tools. The ten point examination method of drugs is also mentioned.
Ayurveda describes two kinds of organisms, namely prakrita (non-pathogenic), and vaikrita (pathogenic). Also described are two categories of pathogens/parasites, namely, external and internal. The internal organisms are mainly of three categories in terms of their natural environments: those that thrive on mucus (shleshma), those thriving in fecal matter, and those thriving in blood. Some of these, particularly the ones thriving in fecal matter seem to be intestinal parasites while others simulate microbes. The texts repeatedly advocate protecting surgical wounds from these organisms. There is also a clear description of vector borne diseases and that diseases such as leprosy, tuberculosis, conjunctivitis and fever as contagious diseases spread by contact with other patients or vectors.
This recognition of the existence of these friendly prakrita (non-pathogenic organisms) by Ayurveda thousands of years ago is of great historical significance.
Management of krimi roga
Since Charaka Samhita was written, there has been enormous advancement in the field of infectious diseases, especially in the last one hundred years. This advancement is mainly in the field of Apakarshana (removal of micro-organisms and parasites) but old principles of prevention are still current. This edition of Charaka Samhita has brief mention of those and reader is referred to infectious disease books for detailed knowledge.
The management principles of krimi roga are unique and applicable for management of all diseases. The three components of treatment are:
- Nidana Parivarjana (removal of cause)
- Apakarshana (removal of krimi)
- Prakritivighata (eradication of favorable condition preventing recurrence)
- Enhancing yuktikrita bala or artificially-induced immunity.
Nidana Parivarjana (removal of cause)
The most important aspect of the management of any disease specifically krimi roga is the avoidance of aetiological factors by following good hygiene like clean water and food and avoid transmission from direct contact like clothing and physical contact etc. Infestation by parasites is common in people who eat food before the digestion of previous meals, excessive sweet and sour food prepared of flour, jaggery like cake/pastries etc. and sedentary lifestyle. Hence consumption of these items can be avoided for the proper treatment and prevention of re-infestation.
Apakarshana (removal of krimi)
- Embelia ribes - Vidanga
- Butea monospermem- Palasha
- Carum roxburghii –Ajamoda
- Trachysspermum amami – Yavani
- Cyperus rotundus – Mustak
- Malluctus philippinensis –Kampillaka
- Azadirecta indica – Nimba
- Holorrhena antidysentrica – Indrayava
- Piper longum - Pippali
- Artemisia obsinthiuum – Keetmari Yavani
- Hyocyamus reticulatus - Paribhadra
- Ailantus excelsa - Aralu
- Kaempferia galanga -Seeds/bark of Shigru (Twak/Beeja)
- Costus speciosus – Kebuk
- Leucas aspera Spreng (Dronapushpi)
One day Panchakarma has been used for removal of krimi but because of availability of effective oral anti-parasitic agents, it is seldom used.
In comparison to modern medicine, the removal of parasites in Ayurveda seems to be inconvenient to the patient. The drugs are to be used in larger doses with limited efficacy. Modern medicine drugs, for removal of common parasites are effective with convenient dosage schedule. However, these drugs are potentially toxic and are to be used with careful watch of physician.
Prakritivighata (creation of unfavorable condition preventing recurrence)- Prakritvighata means to create the environment so that dosha cannot lodge themselves in the dhatus/krimi. This includes measures promoting agni and nourishing dhatus with rasayana therapy. The role of the rasayana is to create the healthy tissues so that vitiated dosha cannot lodge (sthana samshraya). As per the Ayurvedic concept, increased dosha circulates in the body and on finding a weak and suitable tissue they lodge there causing the initiation of disease process. Use of certain herbs like Shigru, Paribhadra, etc. may create an environment to prevent growth of parasitic ova/cyst.
Enhancing yuktikrita bala or artificially-induced immunity
In case of recurrent worm infestations, emerging drug resistance to known anti-parasitic agents, together with the inability of these agents to prevent re-infection and relapse, further complicates the disease scenario. In such cases, nidana parivarjana and prakrityvighata becomes important to follow for prevention. Drug Resistance is a big problem in the field of infectious diseases.
The spread of such diseases can be prevented by observing personal hygiene and promoting vyadhiksamatva or immunity with the help of leading a healthy lifestyle, following good nutrition and through administration of rasayana therapy.
Ayurveda recognizes and describes a less-known concept of ojas (vital essence of the body) which gives biological strength (including immunity). Ojas is the final product of tissue nourishment and is the final product of all the seven dhatus namely rasa, rakta, mamsa, meda, asthi, majja, and shukra. Ojas is of two types called para ojas and apara ojas. Para ojas is subtle and present in very minute quantity in the heart while apara ojas is gross and amounts to handful in quantity, spread all over the body. Para ojas is vital to life and any damage or vitiation to it can result in sudden death. Apara ojas gives gross immune strength to the body and can be compared to immunity described by modern medical science. This immune strength is also called ojabala and is categorized to be of three kinds: sahaja bala or primary immunity, kalaja bala or acquired immunity through environmental factors and yuktikrita bala or artificially-induced immunity by rasayana, lifestyle and suitable diet. The classics prompt to utilize these three resources to enhance the bala/immunity in order to prevent all ailments especially chronic diseases and contagious diseases.
Three categories of bala-dosha or immune disorders are described in the Ayurvedic texts which are comparable to three categories of immune disorders described in modern medical system:
- Oja-vyapat (immune-aberrations and allergies),
- Oja-visransa (dislodged immunity and autoimmune disorders) and
- Oja-kshaya (immunodeficiency).
There are specific methods and approaches to tackle the categories of immune disorders. It is evident from the description of ojabala and bala-dosha that immunology was highly advanced in samhita period ofAyurveda and the knowledge in this field was comparable to the current knowledge of immunology.
Microbiology in Ayurveda
Even though microscopy became available in 17th century, microbiology and parasitology was known and described in Ayurvedic classics in the context of immunity and body resistance. For an individual to possess immunity adequate ojas, bala and vyadhiksamatva is necessary. Role of microbes in causing disease became known to modern medicine in the last two centuries and since then discovery of antibiotics and vaccination there has been rapid advancements in the field of infectious diseases and saved millions of lives. However, indiscriminate use of antibiotics has caused change in body microbiome with resultant increase in various chronic and autoimmune diseases. Use of vaccination is also under cloud these days. Ayurvedic knowledge of yuktikrit bala or artificially-induced immunity by rasayana, lifestyle and suitable diet can be very useful in prevention and treatment of microbial diseases.
- Seed oils of Gynandropsis gynandra, impatiens balsamina, Celastrus paniculata, Embelia ribes and Mucuna pruriens exhibited moderate to significant anhelminthic activity. Embelia ribes showed the best anthelminthic property in parameters of time of paralysis and death of the worm.(SS Jalalpure, KR Alagawadi, CS Mahajanashetti, MN Shah, Salahuddin, Vijay Singh, JK Patil; Dept of pharmacognocy and phytochemistry, KLESC Belgaum, 2007, vol-69-p158-160)
- Anthelminthic activity of fruits of Embelia ribes; Invitro study in comparision with the drugs Ivermectin and Levamisole done by GP Choudhary, School of pharmacy, Indore, MP, India.
|Term in Sanskrit||Transliteration||Meaning in English|
|2.||रूपीय||RUpIya||Specific characteristic features, signs and symptoms, features, qualities|
|4.||गुरुव्याधित||guruvyAdhita||Person suffering from serious illness but having been possessed with good strength of mind and body, looks like suffering from a mild disease.|
|5.||लघुव्याधित||laghuvyAdhita||Person suffering from mild diseases but appearing to be having serious illness due to very less mental and physical strength.|
|6.||सत्वबल||Satvabala||Mental strength, psychological ability|
|7.||शरीरसंपत्||SarIrasampat||Physical strength, body constitution|
|8.||अधम||Adhama||Low, less in quality, bad, imperfect|
|9.||अकुशल||akuSala||Non skillful, non expert|
|11.||कृत्स्न||KRtsna||Complete, entire, full, perfect|
|13.||विप्रतिपन्न||Vipratipanna||Commit mistake, to err|
|14.||अल्पदोष||alpadoSha||Less morbid Doshas,|
|15.||संशोधन||saMSodhana||Purificatiry/ body cleansing procedures,|
|16.||उदीरण||udIraNa||Aggrevation, becoming morbid|
|17.||महादोष||mahAdoSha||Excessively morbid Doshas|
|19.||विदितवेदित||Viditavedita||Who has got the knowledge in its entirety|
|20.||क्रिमि||Krimi||Worms, parasites, micro/ macro organisms that are inhabitants of the body|
|21.||समुत्थान||samutthAna||Causative factor, etiology|
|22.||स्थान||SthAna||Place, location, habitat|
|25.||सहजक्रिमि||Sahajakrimi||Parasites present from birth, Inborn, native, saprophytes|
|26.||पुरीषज||purIShaja||Born out of feces|
|27.||श्लेष्मज||SleShmaja||Born out of kaphadosha|
|28.||मलज||Malaja||Born out of external excreta|
|30.||यूका||YUkA||Type of parasite found on scalp in people with low hygiene. They are minute, multipedes, having shape of sesame, either white or black in color.|
|31.||पिपीलिका||pipIlikA||Type of parasite found on scalp in people with low hygiene. They are minute, multipedes, having shape of sesame, either white or black in color|
|33.||कुष्ठ||kuShTha||Various kinds of skin manifestations|
|34.||शोणितवाहि धमनि||SoNitavAhi dhamani||Blood vessel|
|35.||केशाद लोमाद लोमद्वीपसौरस औडुम्बर जन्तुमातर||keSAda, lomAda, lomadvIpa, saurasa, auDumbara, jantumAtara||Names of the Krimis, present in blood vessels, minute, round, having no pedicle, caused due to the factors which manifest skin diseases, leading to destruction of hair from head, face, other parts of body, eyelashes and nails.Keshaada means that which eats away the hair on head.Lmaada means that which eats away the hair on body.|
|37.||ब्रध्न||Bradhna||Tape like /flat|
|38.||अन्त्रादा उदरादा हृदयचरा चुरु दर्भपुष्पा सौगन्धिका महागुदा||antrAdA udarAdA hRdayacarA curu darbhapushpA saugandhikA mahAgudA||These are the names of the parasites born out of SleSma inhabitant in AmASaya. When excessively aggrevated they move either upward or downward direction. They are caused due to excessive intake of milk, jiggery, meat of animals of marshy land, uncooked and putrified food, etc. they are big or flat, some are round like earth worm, minute and long, white in colour. Their infestations cause nausea, salivation, tastelessness, indigestion, fever, fainting, yawning, sneezing, constipation, malaise, vomiting, emaciation, dryness of the body.
antrAdA means that which eats away the intestines. udarAda means that eats away the abdomen. hRdayacara means that which moves in hRdaya. darbhapuShpa means that which resembles the flowers of darbhA grass (Desmostachia bipinnata) mahAguda means that which is having big anus.
|39.||ककेरुक मकेरुक लेलिह सशूलक सौसुराद||Kakeruka makeruka leliha saSUlaka sausurAda||The parasites born out of feces which are inhabitant of colon. These worms when grow excessively move downwards and upwards. When they are towards AmASaya, they produce eructation and fecal odour in the breath of the person. They are minute, cylindrical, long appearing like fibres of wool, white in colour. Some of them are thick, cylindrical, grey/ blue/ green/ yellow in colour. They produce features like diarrhea, emaciation, dryness, horripilation, itching in the oral cavity, crawling out of the anus etc.|
|40.||अपकर्षण||apakarShaNa||Extraction, removal, nonattractive|
|41.||पृकृतिविघात||prakRtivighAta||Counteraction to the normal habitat, opposite environment to growth of the parasites, damaging/ destructing the natural habitat.|
|42.||निदान||NidAna||Causative/ etiological factor|
|43.||शिरोविरेचनं||shirovirecanaM||Cleansing of head through nasal instillation of medicines- Nasya karma, one among Pancakarma procedures.|
|44.||वमनं||vamanaM||One among Pancakarma procedures where in the morbid Doshas are eliminated out through inducing emesis.|
|45.||विरेचनं||virecanaM||One among Pancakarma procedures where in the morbid Doshas are eliminated out through inducing purgation.|
|46.||आस्थापानं||AsthApanaM||One among Pancakarma procedures where in the medicaments are administered in the form of decoction added with honey, saindhava salt, paste of medicines, oil/ ghee and administered through anal route in order to eliminate the morbid Doshas.|
|47.||निदान परिवर्जन||NidAnaparivarjanaM||Giving up the causative factors of the disease. Giving up the factors which induce morbidity of Doshas/ production of parasites in the body.|
|48.||क्रिमिकोष्ठ||krimikoShTha||The person (abdomen) afflicted with parasites.|
|49.||संशमनं||saMSamanaM||Palliation/ subsiding the morbid Doshas.|
|50.||बस्ति||Basti||Administration of medicaments through anal route/ therapeutic enema.|
|51.||उभयतः||Ubhayatah||Through both upward route/ emesis and downward route/ purgation.|
|53.||चूर्ण||CUrNa||Medicines in the form of powder|
|54.||पाणितल||pANitala||Amount of medicine that can be accommodated on the palm (approximately 12 g)|
|55.||कलश||KalaSa||Approximately 12.3 Kg|
|56.||शारद||SArada||Grown in Sarad Rtu (ashwayuja and kArtIka mAsa)|
|57.||द्रोणि||DroNI||Stone slab/ a specially designed for conducting therapies.|
|58.||क्रिमिघ्न||Krimighna||That which kills/ eliminates/ reduces the parasites.|
|59.||प्रतिसंसर्जन||pratisaMsarjana||Regimen to be observed after conducting evacuation therapies to restore Agni and strength of the body.|
|60.||अनुवासन||anuvAsana||Form of therapeutic enema where in unctuous substance like oil, ghee, bone marrow or muscle fat are used.|
|61.||हेतुवर्जन||Hetuvarjana||Giving up the factors which induce disease/ lead to morbidity of Doshas/ leading to infestation of parasites.|
- Ahmad R, Khan T, Ahmad B, Misra A, Balapure AK. Neurocysticercosis: a review on status in India, management, and current therapeutic interventions. Parasitology Research, Jan;116(1):21-33. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
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