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'Sattva' literally means essence. The term is applied to denote purity, the optimum psychological strength of an individual. It is also one of the three fundamental guna responsible in the evolution process of the universe.  
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The term 'sattva' literally means essence, purity, and character of mind. It is one of the three fundamental qualities ([[triguna]]). [A.S.Sutra Sthana 1/29]<ref name= Sangraha> Vridha Vagbhata, Ashtanga Sangraha. Edited by Shivaprasad Sharma. 3rd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba sanskrit series office;2012.</ref> It is characterized by lightness, knowledge, and enlightenment.<ref>NAMASTE - Portal [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jul 9]. Available from: http://namstp.ayush.gov.in/#/sat</ref> Psychological constitution, bio typology or body mind typology is an important concept of [[Ayurveda]]. Every individual has distinct physical, physiological, and psychological characteristics. [[Ayurveda]] classical texts provide a framework to help to understand an individual's mental constitution. The concept of [[sharira]] and [[manasa]] [[prakriti]] (somatic and psychic constitution) help to explain differences across individuals. The concept of the [[manas]] includes aspects of psychology, mind, and mental health. There are three characteristics of mind ([[mana]]) viz. sattva, [[rajas]], and [[tamas]]. These represent awareness, activity, and inertia, respectively. When one of these three is dominant in a person, that reflects in his or her personality. In Shreemadbhagwat Geeta, three attributes of nature are described: Sattva, rajas, and tamas.<ref>A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda, 1972. Bhagavad-gītā as it is. Gunatrayavibhaga Yoga, Chapter 14, Shloka No. 5-8, New York: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, Page No.488-492</ref>
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1) Sattva guna is the attribute of light or intelligence, which is the state of complete balance.
  
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2) [[Rajas]] guna represents motion, ignorance, or action.
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3) [[Tamas]] guna is representative of inertia and darkness.
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These are the three primary and omnipresent qualities that work behind all the material substances in the universe. Sattva is the initiator of the universe as per [[Ayurveda]] [Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana 1/9]<ref name= Susruta> Sushruta. Sushruta Samhita. Edited by Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya. 8th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia;2005.</ref> and Sankhya philosophy. It represents purity and authenticity. Hence it is quality of mind. [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.[[Sutra Sthana]] 1/57] [Cha.Sa.[[Sutra Sthana]] 8/5] This article describes the concept of [[sattva]] and its importance in healthcare practices.
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{{Infobox
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|title =  Sattva
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|label1 = Section/Chapter/topic
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|data1 = Concepts / [[Sattva]] 
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|label2 = Authors
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|data2 =Bhojani M.K.<sup>1</sup>, Sharma Raksha <sup>1</sup>, Joglekar A.A.<sup>2</sup>
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|label3 = Reviewer
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|data3 =  Basisht G.<sup>3</sup>
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|label4 = Editor
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|data4 = Deole Y.S.<sup>4</sup>
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|label5 = Affiliations
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|data5 = <sup>1</sup> Department of Kriya Sharira, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi, India , New Delhi, India
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<sup>2</sup>Department of Samhita Siddhant, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi, India, New Delhi, India
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<sup>3</sup> Rheumatologist, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A.
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<sup>4</sup>Department of Kayachikitsa, G.J. Patel Institute of Ayurvedic Studies and Research, New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat, India
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|label6 = Correspondence email
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|data6 = meera.samhita@aiia.gov.in, carakasamhita@gmail.com  
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|label7 = Publisher
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|data7 = [[Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre]], I.T.R.A., Jamnagar, India
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|label8 = Date of first publication:
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|data8 = August 18, 2022
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|label9 = DOI
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|data9 =  {{DoiWithLink}}
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}}
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==Synonyms of sattva==
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[[Mana]], shuddham, kalyanam
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==Etymology==
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The word sattva is derived from two terms, 'sat' and 'tva', satto bhava. Sattva refers to the existence of reality and truth. Shabdakalpadruma defines it as an attribute of [[prakriti]]. It represents light (prakasha), knowledge (dnyana) and happiness (sukha).<ref>SKD Cologne Scan [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jul 7]. Available from: https://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/csl-apidev/servepdf.php?dict=skd&page=5-224</ref>  Monnier Williams dictionary defines it as the quality of good will, purity, reality, knowledge, virtue, excellence and truth.<ref>MW72 Cologne Scan [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jul 7]. Available from: https://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/csl-apidev/servepdf.php?dict=mw72&page=1052</ref>
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==Characteristics==
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Sattva is buoyant/lighthearted (laghu) and illuminating (prakashaka) in nature.<ref>Ishwarkrishna, Sankhyakarika with Gaudapadabhashya, Sanskrit commentary by Guruprasadshashtri and Hindi commentary, First Edition, Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashana, Varanasi, 2019, Page No. 65</ref>
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'''Sattva as synonymous to mind:'''
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The mind ([[manas]]) is also termed as sattva. Sattva is the purest quality of mind, and sattva guna is the highest form of excellence of [[manas]] (sattva) guna. Sattva bala (mental strength) provides an adequate status of a person's wellbeing. Thus, giving a systematic and holistic approach to understanding an individual. The normal mind without any disorder (amala sattva) is dominated by sattva (sattvagunodreka). It can be assessed by the absence of negative emotions like affection (raga) and hatred (dvesha) and presence of absolute purity of mind.  [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.[[Vimana Sthana]] 4/8]) Three types of mental constitutions are described: shuddha/sattvika, rajasika and tamasika. [Cha.Sa.[[Sharira Sthana]] 3/13]
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'''Panchabhautika constitution:'''
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#Sattva :  [[Akasha mahabhuta]]
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#[[Rajas]]: [[Agni mahabhuta]] and [[Vayu mahabhuta]]
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#[[Tamas]]: [[Prithvi mahabhuta]] and [[Jala mahabhuta]] [Su.Sa.[[Sharira Sthana]] 1/20]<ref name=Susruta/>, [Sha.Sa. Purvakhanda 05]<ref name= Shargadara> Sharangadhara. Sharangadhara Samhita. Translated from Sanskrit by K.R. Srikantha Murthy. Reprint ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha orientalia;2016.</ref>, [A.S.Sharira Sthana 5/5]<ref name=Sangraha/>
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Sattva guna gives an experience of happiness (sukha). It becomes powerful by overcoming the [[rajas]] and [[tamas]]. The essence of sattva is the consolidation of knowledge.
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'''Relationship between the sattva guna and [[tridosha]]'''
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[[Pitta dosha]] is predominant in the Sattva guna. Due to the qualities of luminance, lightness, and purity, these two entities can be closely associated. [Bp.Purvakhanda 2/120]<ref name=Bhavaprakash> Bhavamishra. Bhavaprakasha. Translated from Sanskrit by K.R. Srikantha Murthy. 1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas academy;2000</ref>
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'''Food and sattva guna'''
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[[Ayurveda]] advocates an individualistic approach to maintaining health and treating diseases. So a categorization of diet (aahara) and lifestyle (vihara) according to their properties as sattvika, rajasika and tamasika is done. <ref>Behere PB, Das A, Yadav R, Behere AP. Ayurvedic concepts related to psychotherapy. Indian J Psychiatry. 2013 Jan;55(Suppl 2):S310-4. doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.105556.
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PMID: 23858273; PMCID: PMC3705701.</ref>
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Food that is delicious, slimy, nourishing, appetizing, and keeps the body healthy are liked by sattvika persons. In Upanishads, it is stated that the food we consume is divided into three parts. The gross part is converted into flesh and the subtle part nourishes the mind. Sattvika diet consists of fresh vegetables, fruits, grains, and dairies like milk and ghee. It keeps the lean body and minds calm and quiet.
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==Characteristics of sattvika individual==
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Individuals with sattva guna predominance worship God, like food which gives longevity ([[Ayu]]), promotes righteous tendencies and strengthens health and joy. These individuals are intelligent, have good memory and natural instincts for observing healthy lifestyles. They are polite and joyful and accept their status and wealth as it is. They are calm and quiet by nature. They react to pain and pleasure properly. The sattvika constitution is similar to that of the deities. Hence the nomenclature of auspicious beings or deities is given to such individuals. [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.[[Sharira Sthana]] 4/36]
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Sattvika is free from vanity of being an active person who has patience and enthusiasm for his action. However, he is neither too happy with success nor too sad with the failure of his action. It represents the kalyanansha or auspiciousness due to its qualities of purity and authenticity. [Cha.Sa.[[Sharira Sthana]] 4/36] The Bramha sattva is considered to be the best among all the sattvika constitutions.
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The attributes of sattvika person are purity of body and mind (shoucha), faith in the god (astikya), honesty (shukla dharma), devotion (ruchi), knowledge (mati). [A.H.Sharira Sthana 3/7]<ref name= Hridaya > Vagbhata. Ashtanga Hridayam. Edited by Harishastri Paradkar Vaidya. 1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy;2000.</ref>
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Sattvavana, or the individual with sattva predominance, has high tolerance toward physical and mental ailments. [Su.Sa.Sutra Sthana 35/38]<ref name=Susruta/> The sattva dominance is devoid of sorrow (vyasana/dukkha), happiness (abhyudaya/sukha), malaise (glani), and exhilaration (harsha). Hence they are considered supreme for the promotion of health. [Dalhana on Su.Sa.Sutra Sthana 35/38]<ref name=Susruta/>
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The Sattvika individual is characterised by qualities like avoidance of violent actions (anrushanshya), sharing (samvibhagaruchita), forgiveness (kshama), truthfulness (satya), righteousness (dharma), devotion (astikya), knowledge (dnyana), intellect ([[buddhi]]), wisdom (medha),  memory ([[smriti]]), detachment from the material world (anabhishanga). [Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana.1/18]<ref name=Susruta/> [A.S.Sharira Sthana 5/19]<ref name=Sangraha/> [Bp. Purvakhanda 2/95-96]<ref name=Bhavaprakash/>
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==Types of sattvika constitution==
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The sattvika [[manas]] [[prakriti]] is termed as the gunamayi [[prakriti]] as determined by the prominence of [[triguna]]. [A.H.Sharira Sthana. 3/104]<ref name=Hridaya/> The features of the sattvika [[prakriti]] are as below: [Cha.Sa.[[Sharira Sthana]] 4]
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#Brahma sattva: These types of people are free from negative emotions like anger, greed, ignorance, or jealousy. They possess sound knowledge and have excellent power of discrimination. They are highly righteous towards all beings.
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#Arsha sattva: They have a good memory and like purity, love, and good self-control. They are free from pride and ego. They possess good power of understanding and retention. They engage in pure and auspicious deeds like oblation (homa), vow ([[vrata]]), adhyayana etc.
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#Aindra sattva: These people have devotion to sacred books and God. Hence they study rituals and carry out oblations. They have devotion to virtuous acts and perform sacred rituals. Their behavior and speech are authoritative.
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#Yamyasattva: They are free from mean and conflicting desires and acts and emotional binds, hatred, ignorance, and envy. They have an excellent memory and good qualities of leadership. These are hardworking individuals.
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#Varuna sattva: They are also free from mean acts and exhibit emotion in the proper place. These love discipline and cleanliness and have hatred towards messiness.
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#Kubera sattva: These types have good courage, patience, and hatred of impure thoughts. They like virtuous acts and purity. They express their emotions like anger and pleasure at the right place and time.
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#Gandharva sattva: They possess good wealth and luxuries. However, they are not attached to it. They are experts in art forms or performing arts like poetry, singing, dance, etc.
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When true nature is aligned with the basic personality, there is less stress and more joy and happiness at the workplace, home, and in various formal and informal relationships. This also enables an individual to better handle ethical issues and dilemmas in the workplace and many aspects of life, making it more efficient and effective.<ref>Enhancing Workplace Well-Being Through Understanding the Three Personality Types: Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas According to Samkhya [Internet]. springerprofessional.de. [cited 2022 Jul 12]. Available from: https://www.springerprofessional.de/en/enhancing-workplace-well-being-through-understanding-the-three-p/18752332</ref>
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Sushruta used the term Mahendra sattva to denote the Aindra sattva.[Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana 4/82]<ref name=Susruta/> Kashyapa described eight types of sattvika or kalyanajasattva. He has additionally explained the Prajapatyasattva. [Ka.Sa.Sutra Sthana 28/24]<ref name=Kashyapa> Kashyapa. Kashyapa Samhita. Edited by P. V. Tewari. Reprint. Varanasi: Chaukhambha vishvabharati;2008.</ref>
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==Importance of the concept of Sattva from a Philosophical point of view==
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[[Ayurveda]] imbibed different schools of thought principles and concepts to put forth a holistic and complete science. The process of evolution of the universe (srishtiutpatti) is of significant similarity between the two sciences. The [[triguna]] theory is essentially the basis of evolution as per both Sankhya Philosophy and [[Ayurveda]]. The [[prakriti]] is considered astrigunatmaka. Hence its vikara or manifestations are also trigunatmaka in nature.<ref>Ishwarkrishna, Sankhyakarika with Gaudapadabhashya, Sanskrit commentary by Guruprasadshashtri and Hindi commentary, First Edition, Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashana, Varanasi, 2019, Page No. 48</ref> Thus the entire universe is comprised of the derivatives of [[triguna]]. Therefore sattva guna also plays a significant role in understanding this philosophical aspect. It is therefore responsible for initiating the process of moksha or salvation. The association of [[Purusha]] with the twenty-four tattva continues so long as [[rajas]] and [[tamas]] influence it. The freedom from the influence (of [[rajas]] and [[tamas]]) by dominance of sattva leads to liberation of [[purusha]] (and free from its association with the tattva). [Cha.Sa.[[Sharira Sthana]] 1/36] [Cha.Sa.[[Sharira Sthana]] 1/142] The Sattva guna is responsible for sleeping during midnight. It occurs for a short time duration. [Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana 4/33)<ref name=Susruta/> The [[tamas]] is responsible for sleep, while sattva is responsible for the arousal from sleep (bodhanahetu). [Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana 4/35]<ref name=Susruta/> [[Triguna]] and [[Tridosha]] both form the eternal component of the [[marma]] which are exclusive seats of [[prana]] or vitality. [Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana 6/35]<ref name=Susruta/>
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==Importance of the concept of sattva in the promotion of health==
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The optimum level or functioning of the sattva guna is necessary to maintain health. [Cha.Sa.[[Sutra Sthana]] 29/38] Presence and union with sattva guna (sattvalakshanasamyoga) is one of the signs of health (aarogya). [Cha.Sa.[[Indriya Sthana]] 12/87] Hence, sattva sampat is an essential quality in rendering physical and mental health. [Cha.Sa.[[Siddhi Sthana]] 12/9] [Cha.Sa.[[Sharira Sthana]] 6/13]
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==Importance of sattva in the diagnosis of diseases==
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The examination of sattva (pariksha) is one of the ten factors mentioned for assessing the strength of the patient (aturabala) and the [[dosha]] of every individual. Here the sattva guna predominance is essential for optimum mental strength (pravarasattva). It facilitates the response of an individual to disease affliction. The optimum sattva level promotes physical strength irrespective of body morphology. Hence, the sattva pariksha plays an integral part in the diagnosis of any condition. [Cha.Sa.[[Vimana Sthana]] 8/119]
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The predominance of sattva or sattva-audarya is a factor for less sleep (nidranasha). [Cha.Sa.[[Sutra Sthana]] 21/56] Thus, the optimum level of sattva can contribute to reducing the prominence of [[tamas]] leading to increased alertness and reduced dizziness/sleepiness.
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The depletion of the sattva guna (alpa sattva) is an essential factor in the manifestation of disease condition like psychosis ([[unmada]]). [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.[[Chikitsa Sthana]] 8/5]
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In epilepsy ([[apasmara]]) vitiation of sattva (samplava) leads to excessive [[rajas]] and [[tamas]]. [Cha.Sa.[[Chikitsa Sthana]] 10/4]
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In alcoholic intoxication (madatyaya), hampering of sattva function and vitiation of [[rajas]] and [[tamas]] is seen leading to various conditions of madavibhrama. [Cha.Sa.[[Chikitsa Sthana]] 24/39] Due to the depletion of sattvika qualities, the person becomes addicted to the liquor, also hampering his/her decision power. [Cha.Sa.[[Chikitsa Sthana]] 24/55] The consumption of madya or alcohol should be done considering the sattva of the individual. [Cha.Sa.[[Chikitsa Sthana]] 24/68] If it is consumed in proper amount and manner, it can lead to the prominence of sattva guna in the individual (sattvochraya). [Cha.Sa.[[Chikitsa Sthana]] 24/70] Hence individuals with sattvika predominance are not affected by the ill effects or addiction tendencies related to alcohol (madya). [Cha.Sa.[[Chikitsa Sthana]] 24/85] The individuals with sattvika predominance can regularly consume madya also in more amount as compared to rajasika and tamasika individuals. [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.[[Chikitsa Sthana]] 24/68]
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==Importance in treatment of diseases==
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As mentioned earlier, the Sattva predominance is responsible for reducing sleep. Hence the facilitation of sattva guna is essential in the treatment of the conditions like drowsiness (tandra), excess sleep (atinidra) etc. The sattva guna should be qualitatively and quantitatively healthy to combat diseases like [[unmada]], [[apasmara]] and other mental health conditions. The therapy to conquer mind (sattvavajaya) is directed towards enhancing the sattva guna in an individual. It ultimately balances the [[triguna]] to maintain psychosomatic health.
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==Previous researches done on sattva guna==
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#Extensive work is done to study the critical appraisal of sattva and its significance in the management of the disease.[Yogesh Pandey, Pooja Sabharwal].<ref>Satpal, Gaur M, Yogesh K, Pandey Y, Sabharwal P, Khera. A critical appraisal of sattva and significance in the management of disease, World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2018 Jan 1;7:375–85.</ref>
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#Enhancing workplace wellbeing through understanding the three personality types; sattva, [[rajas]] and [[tamas]] according to samkhya is put forth by Dr.Modh. The researcher has considered these as important measures to ensure individuals' performance at their respective workplace.<ref>Modh S. Enhancing Workplace Well-Being Through Understanding the Three Personality Types: Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas According to Samkhya. In: Dhiman S, editor. The Palgrave Handbook of Workplace Well-Being [Internet]. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2020 [cited 2022 Jul 6]. p. 1–26. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02470-3_22-1</ref>
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#Impact of sattva and [[rajas]] on transformational leadership and karma yoga is studied by Jayant Narayan and Venkant R. Krishnan.<ref>Narayanan J, Krishnan V. Impact of Sattva and Rajas Gunas on Transformational Leadership and Karma Yoga. Journal of Indian Psychology. 2003 Jul 1;21:1–11.</ref>
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#Aditi K and Venkant K discussed the impact of sattva guna on transformational leadership and its application in designing the training framework.<ref>Kejriwal A, Krishnan VR. Impact of Vedic Worldview and Gunas on Transformational Leadership. Vikalpa. 2004 Jan 1;29(1):29–40.</ref>
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#A randomized control trial of the effect of yogas on gunas (personality) and self-esteem in normal healthy volunteers is conducted by Sudheer Deshpande, HR Nagendra and Raghuram Nagarathna.<ref>Agarwal S, Seshadri B, Krishnan VR. Impact of Gunas and Karma Yoga on Transformational Leadership. Journal of Human Values. 2015 Apr 1;21(1):11–22.</ref>
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#Sattva Guna is observed as a predictor of wisdom and psychological wellbeing in the extensive research work by Suhani Sharma, Abha Singh, Sakshi Mehrotra.<ref>S Sharma, A Singh, S Mehrotra (2016), Sattva Guna as a Predictor of Wisdom and PWB, International Journal of Indian Psychology, Volume 3, Issue 4, No. 75, ISSN:2348-5396 (e), ISSN:2349-3429 (p), DIP:18.01.054/20160304, ISBN:978-1-365-50727-4</ref>
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#Verma Y, Tiwari G have studied the relative dominance of sattva and [[tamas]] in the domains of self-compassion and human flourishing.<ref>Verma Y, Tiwari G. Relative dominance of Sattva and Tamas Gunas (qualities) makes a difference in self-compassion and human flourishing. International Journal of Education and Psychological Research. 2017 Jul 13;6.</ref> 
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#Sharma M. et.al. assessed the effect of sattvika, rajasika and tamasika factors on anxiety levels in cases and controls. The rajasika and tamasika were linked to impaired quality of life in these individuals.<ref>Sharma MP, Salvi D, Sharma MK. Sattva, Rajas and Tamas Factors and Quality of Life in Patients with Anxiety Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation. Psychol Stud. 2012 Dec 1;57(4):388–91.</ref> 
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#Rajat Kumar Jain stated that the sattvika personality and risk-taking behavior are not correlated to each other significantly. This is observed in an observational study on correlation between [[triguna]] and risk-taking behavior.<ref>Kumar Yadav S, Prakash S, Kumar Jain R. Tri-gunas (Sattva, Rajas and Tamas) and risk taking behavior among undergraduate students. Int J Res Granthaalayah. 2016 Jan 31;4(1):138–45.</ref> 
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#Das G et.al. have mentioned the correlation between the [[Triguna]] and emotional problems and psychological wellbeing, stating the factor of sattva as stability.<ref>Das GMA, Gopal DVV. Trigunas and psychological problems. Journal of Indian Psychology. 2009;27(1–2):47–52.</ref>
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#Khanna et.al. have expressed a positive correlation between the [[triguna]] and psychological wellbeing, where sattva was found to be positively correlated with wellbeing.<ref>Khanna et.al. Relationship between Triguna theory and well-being indicators [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jul 6]. Available from: https://www.ijoyppp.org/article.asp?issn=2347-5633;year=2013;volume=1;issue=2;spage=69;epage=74;aulast=Khanna</ref>
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#Nedungotti C et.al. have explained the sattva and anasakti as general personality factors and compared the Indian school of thought regarding the concept with Big 5 personality assessment scale of western science.<ref>Nedungottil, C., Agrawal, J., Murthy, P., & Sharma, M. P. (2021, June 7). Sattva: The General Factor of Personality from Indian tradition. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/f79wh</ref> 
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#R Banerjee et.al stated the correlation between the sattva guna and job satisfaction.<ref>Banerjee R, Pathak R, Mathur G. Relationship between personality and job performance: Indian perspective of Triguna theory. International Journal of Business Excellence. 2020 Jan 1;20:122.</ref>
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#Patil S, Nagendra H have stated that the yogika development camps have positive effect on the sattva guna improvement in the school-going children.<ref>Patil SS, Nagendra HR. Effect of Yoga personality development camp on the Triguna in children [Internet]. Voice of Research; 2014 Dec [cited 2022 Jul 6]. Report No.: 2014-12–06. Available from: https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/vorissues/2014-12-06.htm</ref>
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#Maika Puta has explained the role of sattva in promoting health through the dissertation work on the subject.<ref>Puta M. Promoting Health by Sattva-Guna. 2017 May 24;</ref>
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#Kalpana Srivastava has considered individuals with Sattvika Guna dominance to be caring, having strength respect for Gurus, nonviolence, meditation, kindliness, silence, self-control, and purity of character.<ref>Srivastava K. Concept of personality: Indian perspective. Ind Psychiatry J. 2012;21(2):89–93.</ref>
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#Dr Nishi Arora has extensively studied the positive impact of sattva guna on the coping abilities of females of different ages.<ref>Arora DN. Impact of sattva, rajas and tamas factors on coping strategies among women. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 4(10):19.</ref>
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#Guru Tej has explored the role of sattva guna and sattvika personality in building and nurturing a positive leadership approach.<ref>Smba GT, Rebello FS. Sattvik Approach in Leadership–The Essence of Sattva and Values.</ref>
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==Assessment of sattva guna==
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#Trigunatmaka Assessment Inventory – Dr R.R. Tripathi in 2009
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#Vedic personality inventory
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#Mysore Triguna Scale<ref>Datar S, Murthy. Development and Standardization of Mysore Triguna Scale. Sage Open, Feb 8, 2012. 2012 Jan 1;</ref>
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==Related Chapters==
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Latest revision as of 10:20, 23 September 2022

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The term 'sattva' literally means essence, purity, and character of mind. It is one of the three fundamental qualities (triguna). [A.S.Sutra Sthana 1/29][1] It is characterized by lightness, knowledge, and enlightenment.[2] Psychological constitution, bio typology or body mind typology is an important concept of Ayurveda. Every individual has distinct physical, physiological, and psychological characteristics. Ayurveda classical texts provide a framework to help to understand an individual's mental constitution. The concept of sharira and manasa prakriti (somatic and psychic constitution) help to explain differences across individuals. The concept of the manas includes aspects of psychology, mind, and mental health. There are three characteristics of mind (mana) viz. sattva, rajas, and tamas. These represent awareness, activity, and inertia, respectively. When one of these three is dominant in a person, that reflects in his or her personality. In Shreemadbhagwat Geeta, three attributes of nature are described: Sattva, rajas, and tamas.[3]

1) Sattva guna is the attribute of light or intelligence, which is the state of complete balance.

2) Rajas guna represents motion, ignorance, or action.

3) Tamas guna is representative of inertia and darkness.

These are the three primary and omnipresent qualities that work behind all the material substances in the universe. Sattva is the initiator of the universe as per Ayurveda [Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana 1/9][4] and Sankhya philosophy. It represents purity and authenticity. Hence it is quality of mind. [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 1/57] [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 8/5] This article describes the concept of sattva and its importance in healthcare practices.

Sattva
Section/Chapter/topic Concepts / Sattva
Authors Bhojani M.K.1, Sharma Raksha 1, Joglekar A.A.2
Reviewer Basisht G.3
Editor Deole Y.S.4
Affiliations

1 Department of Kriya Sharira, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi, India , New Delhi, India 2Department of Samhita Siddhant, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi, India, New Delhi, India 3 Rheumatologist, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A.

4Department of Kayachikitsa, G.J. Patel Institute of Ayurvedic Studies and Research, New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat, India
Correspondence email meera.samhita@aiia.gov.in, carakasamhita@gmail.com
Publisher Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre, I.T.R.A., Jamnagar, India
Date of first publication: August 18, 2022
DOI 10.47468/CSNE.2022.e01.s09.106

Synonyms of sattva

Mana, shuddham, kalyanam

Etymology

The word sattva is derived from two terms, 'sat' and 'tva', satto bhava. Sattva refers to the existence of reality and truth. Shabdakalpadruma defines it as an attribute of prakriti. It represents light (prakasha), knowledge (dnyana) and happiness (sukha).[5] Monnier Williams dictionary defines it as the quality of good will, purity, reality, knowledge, virtue, excellence and truth.[6]

Characteristics

Sattva is buoyant/lighthearted (laghu) and illuminating (prakashaka) in nature.[7]

Sattva as synonymous to mind:

The mind (manas) is also termed as sattva. Sattva is the purest quality of mind, and sattva guna is the highest form of excellence of manas (sattva) guna. Sattva bala (mental strength) provides an adequate status of a person's wellbeing. Thus, giving a systematic and holistic approach to understanding an individual. The normal mind without any disorder (amala sattva) is dominated by sattva (sattvagunodreka). It can be assessed by the absence of negative emotions like affection (raga) and hatred (dvesha) and presence of absolute purity of mind. [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.Vimana Sthana 4/8]) Three types of mental constitutions are described: shuddha/sattvika, rajasika and tamasika. [Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 3/13]

Panchabhautika constitution:

  1. Sattva : Akasha mahabhuta
  2. Rajas: Agni mahabhuta and Vayu mahabhuta
  3. Tamas: Prithvi mahabhuta and Jala mahabhuta [Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana 1/20][4], [Sha.Sa. Purvakhanda 05][8], [A.S.Sharira Sthana 5/5][1]

Sattva guna gives an experience of happiness (sukha). It becomes powerful by overcoming the rajas and tamas. The essence of sattva is the consolidation of knowledge.

Relationship between the sattva guna and tridosha

Pitta dosha is predominant in the Sattva guna. Due to the qualities of luminance, lightness, and purity, these two entities can be closely associated. [Bp.Purvakhanda 2/120][9]

Food and sattva guna

Ayurveda advocates an individualistic approach to maintaining health and treating diseases. So a categorization of diet (aahara) and lifestyle (vihara) according to their properties as sattvika, rajasika and tamasika is done. [10]

Food that is delicious, slimy, nourishing, appetizing, and keeps the body healthy are liked by sattvika persons. In Upanishads, it is stated that the food we consume is divided into three parts. The gross part is converted into flesh and the subtle part nourishes the mind. Sattvika diet consists of fresh vegetables, fruits, grains, and dairies like milk and ghee. It keeps the lean body and minds calm and quiet.

Characteristics of sattvika individual

Individuals with sattva guna predominance worship God, like food which gives longevity (Ayu), promotes righteous tendencies and strengthens health and joy. These individuals are intelligent, have good memory and natural instincts for observing healthy lifestyles. They are polite and joyful and accept their status and wealth as it is. They are calm and quiet by nature. They react to pain and pleasure properly. The sattvika constitution is similar to that of the deities. Hence the nomenclature of auspicious beings or deities is given to such individuals. [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 4/36]

Sattvika is free from vanity of being an active person who has patience and enthusiasm for his action. However, he is neither too happy with success nor too sad with the failure of his action. It represents the kalyanansha or auspiciousness due to its qualities of purity and authenticity. [Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 4/36] The Bramha sattva is considered to be the best among all the sattvika constitutions.

The attributes of sattvika person are purity of body and mind (shoucha), faith in the god (astikya), honesty (shukla dharma), devotion (ruchi), knowledge (mati). [A.H.Sharira Sthana 3/7][11]

Sattvavana, or the individual with sattva predominance, has high tolerance toward physical and mental ailments. [Su.Sa.Sutra Sthana 35/38][4] The sattva dominance is devoid of sorrow (vyasana/dukkha), happiness (abhyudaya/sukha), malaise (glani), and exhilaration (harsha). Hence they are considered supreme for the promotion of health. [Dalhana on Su.Sa.Sutra Sthana 35/38][4]

The Sattvika individual is characterised by qualities like avoidance of violent actions (anrushanshya), sharing (samvibhagaruchita), forgiveness (kshama), truthfulness (satya), righteousness (dharma), devotion (astikya), knowledge (dnyana), intellect (buddhi), wisdom (medha), memory (smriti), detachment from the material world (anabhishanga). [Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana.1/18][4] [A.S.Sharira Sthana 5/19][1] [Bp. Purvakhanda 2/95-96][9]

Types of sattvika constitution

The sattvika manas prakriti is termed as the gunamayi prakriti as determined by the prominence of triguna. [A.H.Sharira Sthana. 3/104][11] The features of the sattvika prakriti are as below: [Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 4]

  1. Brahma sattva: These types of people are free from negative emotions like anger, greed, ignorance, or jealousy. They possess sound knowledge and have excellent power of discrimination. They are highly righteous towards all beings.
  2. Arsha sattva: They have a good memory and like purity, love, and good self-control. They are free from pride and ego. They possess good power of understanding and retention. They engage in pure and auspicious deeds like oblation (homa), vow (vrata), adhyayana etc.
  3. Aindra sattva: These people have devotion to sacred books and God. Hence they study rituals and carry out oblations. They have devotion to virtuous acts and perform sacred rituals. Their behavior and speech are authoritative.
  4. Yamyasattva: They are free from mean and conflicting desires and acts and emotional binds, hatred, ignorance, and envy. They have an excellent memory and good qualities of leadership. These are hardworking individuals.
  5. Varuna sattva: They are also free from mean acts and exhibit emotion in the proper place. These love discipline and cleanliness and have hatred towards messiness.
  6. Kubera sattva: These types have good courage, patience, and hatred of impure thoughts. They like virtuous acts and purity. They express their emotions like anger and pleasure at the right place and time.
  7. Gandharva sattva: They possess good wealth and luxuries. However, they are not attached to it. They are experts in art forms or performing arts like poetry, singing, dance, etc.

When true nature is aligned with the basic personality, there is less stress and more joy and happiness at the workplace, home, and in various formal and informal relationships. This also enables an individual to better handle ethical issues and dilemmas in the workplace and many aspects of life, making it more efficient and effective.[12]

Sushruta used the term Mahendra sattva to denote the Aindra sattva.[Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana 4/82][4] Kashyapa described eight types of sattvika or kalyanajasattva. He has additionally explained the Prajapatyasattva. [Ka.Sa.Sutra Sthana 28/24][13]

Importance of the concept of Sattva from a Philosophical point of view

Ayurveda imbibed different schools of thought principles and concepts to put forth a holistic and complete science. The process of evolution of the universe (srishtiutpatti) is of significant similarity between the two sciences. The triguna theory is essentially the basis of evolution as per both Sankhya Philosophy and Ayurveda. The prakriti is considered astrigunatmaka. Hence its vikara or manifestations are also trigunatmaka in nature.[14] Thus the entire universe is comprised of the derivatives of triguna. Therefore sattva guna also plays a significant role in understanding this philosophical aspect. It is therefore responsible for initiating the process of moksha or salvation. The association of Purusha with the twenty-four tattva continues so long as rajas and tamas influence it. The freedom from the influence (of rajas and tamas) by dominance of sattva leads to liberation of purusha (and free from its association with the tattva). [Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 1/36] [Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 1/142] The Sattva guna is responsible for sleeping during midnight. It occurs for a short time duration. [Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana 4/33)[4] The tamas is responsible for sleep, while sattva is responsible for the arousal from sleep (bodhanahetu). [Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana 4/35][4] Triguna and Tridosha both form the eternal component of the marma which are exclusive seats of prana or vitality. [Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana 6/35][4]

Importance of the concept of sattva in the promotion of health

The optimum level or functioning of the sattva guna is necessary to maintain health. [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 29/38] Presence and union with sattva guna (sattvalakshanasamyoga) is one of the signs of health (aarogya). [Cha.Sa.Indriya Sthana 12/87] Hence, sattva sampat is an essential quality in rendering physical and mental health. [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 12/9] [Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 6/13]

Importance of sattva in the diagnosis of diseases

The examination of sattva (pariksha) is one of the ten factors mentioned for assessing the strength of the patient (aturabala) and the dosha of every individual. Here the sattva guna predominance is essential for optimum mental strength (pravarasattva). It facilitates the response of an individual to disease affliction. The optimum sattva level promotes physical strength irrespective of body morphology. Hence, the sattva pariksha plays an integral part in the diagnosis of any condition. [Cha.Sa.Vimana Sthana 8/119]

The predominance of sattva or sattva-audarya is a factor for less sleep (nidranasha). [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 21/56] Thus, the optimum level of sattva can contribute to reducing the prominence of tamas leading to increased alertness and reduced dizziness/sleepiness.

The depletion of the sattva guna (alpa sattva) is an essential factor in the manifestation of disease condition like psychosis (unmada). [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 8/5]

In epilepsy (apasmara) vitiation of sattva (samplava) leads to excessive rajas and tamas. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 10/4]

In alcoholic intoxication (madatyaya), hampering of sattva function and vitiation of rajas and tamas is seen leading to various conditions of madavibhrama. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 24/39] Due to the depletion of sattvika qualities, the person becomes addicted to the liquor, also hampering his/her decision power. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 24/55] The consumption of madya or alcohol should be done considering the sattva of the individual. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 24/68] If it is consumed in proper amount and manner, it can lead to the prominence of sattva guna in the individual (sattvochraya). [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 24/70] Hence individuals with sattvika predominance are not affected by the ill effects or addiction tendencies related to alcohol (madya). [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 24/85] The individuals with sattvika predominance can regularly consume madya also in more amount as compared to rajasika and tamasika individuals. [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 24/68]

Importance in treatment of diseases

As mentioned earlier, the Sattva predominance is responsible for reducing sleep. Hence the facilitation of sattva guna is essential in the treatment of the conditions like drowsiness (tandra), excess sleep (atinidra) etc. The sattva guna should be qualitatively and quantitatively healthy to combat diseases like unmada, apasmara and other mental health conditions. The therapy to conquer mind (sattvavajaya) is directed towards enhancing the sattva guna in an individual. It ultimately balances the triguna to maintain psychosomatic health.

Previous researches done on sattva guna

  1. Extensive work is done to study the critical appraisal of sattva and its significance in the management of the disease.[Yogesh Pandey, Pooja Sabharwal].[15]
  2. Enhancing workplace wellbeing through understanding the three personality types; sattva, rajas and tamas according to samkhya is put forth by Dr.Modh. The researcher has considered these as important measures to ensure individuals' performance at their respective workplace.[16]
  3. Impact of sattva and rajas on transformational leadership and karma yoga is studied by Jayant Narayan and Venkant R. Krishnan.[17]
  4. Aditi K and Venkant K discussed the impact of sattva guna on transformational leadership and its application in designing the training framework.[18]
  5. A randomized control trial of the effect of yogas on gunas (personality) and self-esteem in normal healthy volunteers is conducted by Sudheer Deshpande, HR Nagendra and Raghuram Nagarathna.[19]
  6. Sattva Guna is observed as a predictor of wisdom and psychological wellbeing in the extensive research work by Suhani Sharma, Abha Singh, Sakshi Mehrotra.[20]
  7. Verma Y, Tiwari G have studied the relative dominance of sattva and tamas in the domains of self-compassion and human flourishing.[21]
  8. Sharma M. et.al. assessed the effect of sattvika, rajasika and tamasika factors on anxiety levels in cases and controls. The rajasika and tamasika were linked to impaired quality of life in these individuals.[22]
  9. Rajat Kumar Jain stated that the sattvika personality and risk-taking behavior are not correlated to each other significantly. This is observed in an observational study on correlation between triguna and risk-taking behavior.[23]
  10. Das G et.al. have mentioned the correlation between the Triguna and emotional problems and psychological wellbeing, stating the factor of sattva as stability.[24]
  11. Khanna et.al. have expressed a positive correlation between the triguna and psychological wellbeing, where sattva was found to be positively correlated with wellbeing.[25]
  12. Nedungotti C et.al. have explained the sattva and anasakti as general personality factors and compared the Indian school of thought regarding the concept with Big 5 personality assessment scale of western science.[26]
  13. R Banerjee et.al stated the correlation between the sattva guna and job satisfaction.[27]
  14. Patil S, Nagendra H have stated that the yogika development camps have positive effect on the sattva guna improvement in the school-going children.[28]
  15. Maika Puta has explained the role of sattva in promoting health through the dissertation work on the subject.[29]
  16. Kalpana Srivastava has considered individuals with Sattvika Guna dominance to be caring, having strength respect for Gurus, nonviolence, meditation, kindliness, silence, self-control, and purity of character.[30]
  17. Dr Nishi Arora has extensively studied the positive impact of sattva guna on the coping abilities of females of different ages.[31]
  18. Guru Tej has explored the role of sattva guna and sattvika personality in building and nurturing a positive leadership approach.[32]

Assessment of sattva guna

  1. Trigunatmaka Assessment Inventory – Dr R.R. Tripathi in 2009
  2. Vedic personality inventory
  3. Mysore Triguna Scale[33]

Related Chapters

Manas, Manas Prakriti,Buddhi,Mahatigarbhavakranti Sharira, Rogabhishagjitiya Vimana, Unmada Chikitsa, Apasmara Chikitsa, Indriyopakramaniya Adhyaya

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