Rasayana

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The term ‘Rasayana’ means elixir or a medicine to prevent old age and prolong life.[1] It is one of the eight specialties of Ayurveda that aims to preserve health. [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 30/28] It aims at proper nourishment and transportation of nutritive fluid (rasa), blood (rakta) etc. [Dalhana on Su.Sa.Sutra Sthana 1/7][2] The primary objectives of knowledge of life (Ayurveda) are preserving health and preventing diseases. Rasayana treatments are important in the preservation of health, prevention of diseases, speedy recovery and rehabilitation from disease conditions. In current practices, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, adaptogenic, anabolic, nutraceuticals, anti-ageing therapies are considered forms of rasayana therapy. Ayurveda advises body purification before administration of rasayana therapy to achieve optimum benefits.

Contributors
Section/Chapter Chikitsa / Rasayana
Authors Deole Y.S.,Aneesh E.G.
Reviewed by Basisht G.
Affiliations Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre, I..T.R.A., Jamnagar
Correspondence email: carakasamhita@gmail.com
Date of publication May 13, 2021
DOI Awaited

Importance

Benefits of rasayana therapy in the preservation of health and prevention

Rasayana therapy provides longevity, good memory, intellect, proper health and youthfulness. It also provides excellent luster, complexion and voice. The strength of body and sense organs is increased. Perfection in deliberation, respectability and brilliance are also achieved by rasayana therapy. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/1/7-8] This therapy relieves excessive sleep, drowsiness, exertion, exhaustion, lassitude and emaciation. It restores dosha balance, brings stability, alleviates laxity of muscles and kindles internal digestion. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/2/3] The person can achieve blissful health. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/1/78-80]

Thus rasayana therapy can promote health and prevent diseases of mind and body. [Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 27/3][2] It is indicated to prevent recurrence of disease by restoring equilibrium of body constituents. [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 7/48-49]

Importance in management of disease

Rasayana therapy is helpful in the management of diseases. It promotes the defense mechanism of body. The rasayana medicines with specific actions of affected tissues and organs are indicted in managing respective diseases. This article describes the concept and practices of rasayana therapy in detail.

Etymology and derivation

The Sanskrit term Rasayana is a combination of two terms. Rasa means the best or finest part or constituent fluid or essential juice of body.[3] Ayana means going, circulating etc.[4] Thus, Rasayana means the best constituent fluid circulating in the body.

Definition

Rasayana is the treatment that delays the ageing process, increases life span, memory, strength and is capable of pacifying diseases. [Su.Sa.Sutra Sthana 1/15][2] It is aimed to achieve optimum quality of body constituents (dhatu). [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/1/8]

Classification

Based on the method of administration:

  1. Indoor admission regimen (kutipraveshika)
  2. Outdoor regimen (vataatapika)

1. Indoor admission regimen (kutipraveshika): The rasayana therapy is administered in a specially constructed chamber (kuti). The person is isolated in the chamber. Strict regulations in diet, mental and physical activities are prescribed with a suitably controlled atmosphere.[Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/1/17-23] The therapy is wholly focused on physical, mental and spiritual upliftment of the person avoiding all external factors that can affect health. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana1/3/8]

2. Outdoor regimen (vataatapika): In this type, the rasayana therapy is administered in the outdoor regimen. The person is exposed to the external atmosphere (vata) and sunlight (atapa). The person can live everyday social life with rasayana therapy. The restrictions are comparatively less.

In terms of efficacy, the indoor regimen (kutipraveshika) is superior to the outdoor regimen (vataatapika). [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana1/4/28]

Classification based on effect:

1. Kamya rasayana: It is aimed to attain desirable specific benefits such as long life, great intelligence, wealth etc.

2. Naimittika Rasayana: It is a therapy aimed to treat specific diseases.

3. Ajasrikam: This therapy is advised to follow daily, and the person is habituated to the substance. [Dalhana on Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 27/2][2]

Classification based on treatment principle:

1. Attaining rasayana effect through purification therapies (samshodhana)

2. Attaining rasayana effect by pacifying the aggravated dosha or disease (samshamana) [Dalhana on Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 27/2][2]

Indications

Rasayana therapy is aimed at the preservation and promotion of health. Hence, a healthy person can follow rasayana therapy. It should be started from young or middle age to preserve optimum quality of body tissues. [Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 27/3][2] The indoor admission regimen of rasayana therapy (kutipraveshika) is advised to fit, disease free, wise, self-controlled, leisurely and can afford treatment. The outdoor method (vataatapika rasayana therapy) can be done in all persons.[Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/4/27-28]

The disease-specific rasayana, tissue-specific rasayana and organ-specific rasayana are administered to improve health based on underlying disease pathogenesis.

Rasayana treatment is indicated in the management of various diseases to strengthen the defense mechanism and prevent disease recurrence. Bacopa monnieri (brahmi), which promotes intellectual functions (medhya rasayana), is prescribed to treat mental disorders.[Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 10/62] In chronic epilepsy, if the conventional treatments are not yielding results, rasayana therapy should be used. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 10/65] Rasayana treatment is advised in the management of cardiac disorders caused by kapha [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 26/99], impotency and other reproductive fluid-related disorders [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 30/149-50] [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 30/193]. It is also used in the treatment of Alopacea areata (indralupta) [Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 20/25][2] and diseases of ear. [Su.Sa.Uttara Sthana 21/3][2]

Contraindications

The efficacy of rasayana therapy largely depends on the person’s ability to control his body and mind. Therefore, rejuvenation therapy is contraindicated for those who have addictions like alcohol and smoking; and those who can’t follow the physician’s advice.[Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 30/4][2]

Prerequisite for rejuvenation therapy (rasayana)

Body purification therapy is indicated before rasayana therapy. This treatment is intended to remove toxins and prepare the body for accepting the rasayana formulations for rejuvenation. A specific bowel cleansing formulation made from Terminalia chebula (haritaki), rock salt, Phyllanthus emblica (amalaki), jaggery, Acorus calamus (vacha), Embelia ribes (vidanga), Curcuma longa (haridra), long pepper, and dry ginger are prescribed. After the proper evacuation of bowels, the person shall take gruel prepared with barley for three to seven days. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/1/25-28] After this procedure, suitable rasayana formulations can be administered. The desired benefits cannot be obtained without proper purification of body and mind. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/4/38]

Food with rasayana effect

Milk [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 27/218], ghee.[Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/4/32] Daily intake of milk and ghee is the best food for attaining rasayana effect. [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 25/40], [A.S.Sutra Sthana 13/2][5]

Table 1: Dhatu specific rasayana herbs
Body tissues (dhatus) Rasayana herbs[6]
Nourishing fluid (rasa dhatu) Tinospora cordifolia
Blood (rakta dhatu) Piper longum
Muscles (mamsa dhatu) Asparagus racemosus
Adipose tissue (meda dhatu) Terminalia chebula
Bones (asthi dhatu) Commifora mukul
Marrow and nerves (majja dhatu) Bacopa monnirei
Reproductive elements, Sperm, Ovum (shukra dhatu) Withania somnifera

Herbs promoting intellect and memory functions (medhya rasayana)

1. Juice of Centella asiatica (mandukaparni)

2.Juice of Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi) with its root and flower

3. Powder of Glycyrrhiza glabra with milk

4. Paste of Convolvulus prostrates (shankhapushpi)

These herbs promote intellectual and memory functions. These rasayana herbs are life promoting, disease alleviating, promoters of strength, agni, complexion, voice. They promote intellectual functions. Shankhapushpi is known explicitly for promoting intellectual functions.[Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/3/30-31]]

Herbs with rasayana effect

The following herbs have rasayana effect.

Sida cordifolia (bala), Sida rhombifolia (atibala), Sida cordata (nagabala), Santalum album (chandana), Aquilaria malaccensis (aguru), Anogeisus latifolia (dhava), Desmodium oojeinense (tinisha), Acacia catechu (khadira), Dalbergia sissoo (shimshapa) [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/2/11-12], Semecarpus anacardium (bhallataka) [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/2/16], Terminalia chebula (haritaki) [Su.Sa.Sutra Sthana 44/63][2], rainwater [Su.Sa.Sutra Sthana 45/26][2],Gmelina arborea (kashmarya fruit) [Su.Sa.Sutra Sthana 46/184][2],Dioscorea bulbifera (varahikanda) [Su.Sa.Sutra Sthana 46/309][2],Solanum americanum (kakamachi) [A.S.Sutra Sthana 7/103][5], Allium sativum (lasuna) [A.S.Sutra Sthana 7/149][5], Asphaltum punjabianum (shilajatu) [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/3/49], Piper longum (pippali) [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/3/32-35] etc.

Regimens and mental factors with rasayana effect

Being truthful, free from anger, calm, soft-spoken, relaxed, loving and compassionate; practicing meditation, brahmacharya, cleanliness, and proper sleep achieves the benefits similar to rejuvenating therapy. This ideal code of conduct and behavior is known as ‘achara rasayana’. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/4/30-35] These practices significantly influence psychological and spiritual wellbeing.

Contemporary views and current researches

Contemporary medical terms to indicate rasayana activities and their Ayurvedic view

Antioxidant

Antioxidant substance prevent free radical generation and scavenge them. Antioxidants are defined as 'substances whose presence in relatively low concentrations significantly inhibits the rate of oxidation of targets'. These are mainly cellular enzymes like Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase, and Glutathione peroxidase. These are capable of inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging the free radicals. This antioxidant defense system is basically of two types.

(i) Primary defense and (ii) Secondary defense

Primary defense:

(1) Antioxidant nutrients: Antioxidant defenses rely heavily on vitamins and minerals from the diet. These include beta carotene (precursor of Vit. A), Vitamin E (- tocopherol), Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), selenium, zinc, manganese and copper.

(2) Antioxidant scavenging enzymes: This include Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Heme peroxidases and Glutathione peroxidase.

Secondary Defense:

This includes small molecules- the ‘Scavengers’, that react with radicals to produce another radical compound. When these scavengers produce a lesser harmful radical species, they are called 'antioxidants'. The-tocopherol, ascorbate and reduced glutathione (GSH) may act in combination to act as cellular antioxidants. The -tocopherol, present in the cell membrane and plasma lipoproteins acts as a chain-breaking antioxidant.

From Ayurveda perspectives, this anti-oxidant system seems to be regulated by body constituents like the optimum quality of Rasa dhatu, Kaphadosha and Ojas. Rasayana therapy works to improve the quality of these three components. [7]

Rasayana as anti-oxidants:

Effect of rasayana therapy is assessed by its capacity to manage oxidative stress and prevent cellular damage. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed as a result of metabolism. They are highly reactive and can cause greater damage. Excessive accumulation initiates cellular damage and diseases. The anti-oxidants scavenge these free radicals and ROS, and make them harmless. [8] Malondialdehyde (MDA) is also a highly reactive compound and is considered as a marker for oxidative stress. These free radicals are neutralized usually by the antioxidant enzymes like Super oxide dismutase (SOD). In a study on 30 healthy individuals, Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) and Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi) showed a significant increase in the levels of SOD and a decrease in MDA levels. [9]

Devasagayam’s group at Bhabha Atomic Research Center studied the mechanism of actions of ayurvedic anti-oxidants. They reported that ayurvedic herbs can show anti-oxidant activity at different levels.

Level 1: Suppression of radical formation

Level 2: Scavenging of primary radicals

Level 3: Scavenging of secondary radicals

Level 4: Reconstitution of membranes

Level 5: Repair of damage.

Tinopsora is reported to work as anti-oxidant by suppressing the free radical formation, and reconstituting cell membrane and repair damage. Emblica is reported to work as anti-oxidant at all the five levels viz. suppress free radical formation, break chain initiation, break chain propagation, reconstitute membrane and repair damage. [10]

Adaptogenic activitiy

Adaptogenic substances are defined as "substances meant to put the organism into a state of nonspecific heightened resistance in order to resist stresses and adapt to extraordinary challenges". In ayurvedic perspectives, the adaptogenic activity can be due to stable (sthira), heavy (guru) and cold (sheeta) potency. These qualities lead to stability, increased endurance and can slow the responses. Kaphadosha possesses all the three qualities, while vatadosha shows the contrary characteristics. Adaptogens can be a drug with pro-kapha and vata stabilizer activity. [7] The substances that have similar properties can be used as rasayana with adaptogenic activities.

Nutraceutical effect

Rasayana therapy can promote digestion at the microcellular level and promote microcirculation. The rasayana herbs are rich in micronutrients. They provide optimal nutrition to the body tissues (dhatus). They can prevent ageing. [8] Rasayana herbs have shown tissue and disease specific immunomodulatory action and also help to promote or restore functional immunity. It may also help to develop a micro environment in which a cell or tissue can grow smoothly. [11]

Immunomodulatory

Rasayana therapy can improve immune response through immunomodulatory activity. Immune stimulants bring about a heightened resistance through the stimulation of non-specific defensive processes, largely independent of antigens. In ayurveda, immunity is dependent on status of ojas, kaphadosha and quality of rasa dhatu. Therefore, a rasayana herb that can improve rasa, kapha and ojas can act as an immunomodulator. Phyllanthus emblica (amalaki) and Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi) are proven for their immunomodulatory activity. [7]

Nootropics (cognition enhancers)

The medhya rasayana herbs promoting intellectual and memory functions can act as nootropics. These can improve the higher integrative brain functions, such as memory, learning, understanding, thinking, and concentration capacity. It is assumed that nootropics stimulate existing neural synapses to optimum performance (adaptive capacity). This reduces damaging influences, such as disturbances of the energy and neurotransmitter metabolism or ischemia (protective capacity). [12] The rasayana diet, herbs and regimen that influence intellect (dhi), restraint (dhriti) and memory (smriti) are nootropics. This again indicate the vata-pitta stabilizer and pro-kapha profile of the rasayana. [7] Rasayana drugs might act at the level of stem cells also. When the stem cell is treated with medhya rasayana drugs, nestin is an early marker of neuronal stem cell differentiation. [6]

Anabolics

These substances, activate anabolism. They promote growth by synthesis of nucleic acids and protein metabolism. The rasayna herbs listed in vitalizer (jeevaniya), anti-aging (vayasthapana) category can promote strength (balya), bulk (pushti) and nourishment (brimhana).

Researches on specific rasayana

Amalaki rasayana

In a study conducted on 116 healthy males, administration of 45gms of amalaki rasayana daily for 45 days showed significant increase in telomerase activity. This study also reports no change in telomere length within 90 days of administration of amalaki rasayana. Cellular senescence induced by lack of telomerase activity and shortening of telomeres is one of the postulated theories of ageing. [13]

DNA damage is also considered as an indicator of ageing. In another study conducted on Wister rats fed with amalaki rasyana, the DNA damage in neurons and astrocytes of the brain is found significantly less than that of control animals. [14]So amalaki rasayana is able to delay the onset of ageing process.

Study on Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) fed with amalaki rasayana shows an increase in median life span, fecundity, thermotolerance, starvation tolerance, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) and faster development. The raised level of hnRNPs indicates a robust developmental gene expression. The improved thermotolerance may be due to the presence of abundant amounts of antioxidants in gooseberry (amalaki). [15] A 50% increase in lifespan is reported in a study where the Drosophila flies were treated with rasayana. The life span of flies treated with rasayana was 81-91 days while that of control group was 40-53 days. [16] A well-coordinated response to various cell stresses is required to maintain the homeostasis of the body. The inability of the body to respond to these stresses is one of the factors that bring ageing or age related debility. Study on Drosophila fly shows supplementation of amalaki rasayana improves the tolerance to various cell stresses. The oxidative stress tolerance was improved and remarkably reduced accumulation of ROS was reported. Reduced lipid peroxidation levels and improved SOD activity suggests lesser oxidative damage. This might be the cause for improved fecundity and life span. [17]

In a study conducted on 25 patients with iron deficiency anemia, amalaki rasayana is found to be effective in increasing the Hb%, RBC, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Transferrin saturation is found to be significantly increased. Symptoms like pallor, weakness, headache, fatigue, heaviness in body, anorexia and leg cramps were relieved significantly. Amalaki is a rich source of Ascorbic acid. Presence of Vit C in diet increases the absorption of nonheme iron up to six folds than normal. The antioxidant property of amalaki helps reduce the oxidative stress, which is one of the potent biochemical mechanisms involved in iron deficiency anemia. [18]

The immunomodulatory and cytoprotective effect of amalaki rasayana is reported in an experimental study. Rats treated with cyclophosphamide show 50% reduction in induced weight loss when treated with amalaki rasayana. It attenuated the weight loss observed in thymus, kidney and spleen. This suggests thymus stimulating and nephroprotective action of amalaki rasayana. Histopathological examination after administering amalaki rasayana reveals the reversal of hepatotoxicity produced by cyclophosphamide. Amalaki rasayana might have an action over various sets of cytokines like tumor necrosis factor alpha, causing tissue degeneration. [19]

Brahma rasayana

Antioxidant and immunostimulatory activity of Brahma rasayana is reported along with improvement in learning and memory in mice. Significant reduction in Factor VIII, pro-angiogenic factors like VEGF, MMP-9 and MMP-2 suggests the possible anti-angiogenic property of Brahma rasayana. Mice treated with Brahma rasayana shows a significant reduction in chromosomal aberrations and micro nuclei when exposed to mutagens. An increased anti-oxidant and detoxification enzymes like glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S transferase are also reported. It also shows excellent protection against sperm abnormalities along with an increase in sperm count. [20]

Ashwagandha

Adaptogenic and anti-stress properties of ashwagandha are reported in number of studies. It is effective in preventing stress induced ulcers in GIT, increases body weight and reduce leucocytosis. It has anti-tumor activity as it shows long term growth inhibition on Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells carcinoma. In neurodegenerative diseases, it shows preventive and curative effect. It removes or restores the neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss and might be having GABA mimetic activity. Anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of ashwagandha are also reported. [21]

Brahmi

Bacapo monneri and Centella aceatica are potent free radical scavengers and have reducing power activity. Reactive nitrogen species plays an important role in many pathological conditions including cancer. Nitric oxide quenching capacity is also reported for Bacopa monneri and Centella aceatica. Lipid peroxidation protection activity is also reported for these two plants. This helps to prevent the nerve damage due to oxidative stress. [22]

Pippali rasayana

Administration of Pippali rasayana in escalating dose pattern shows significant reduction in pain, stiffness and swelling of joints in 73 patients having rheumatoid arthritis (amavata). The range of motion of joints was improved along with a significant reduction in ESR levels. [23]

Kushmanda

The skin renewal and anti-oxidant property of Benincasa hispida (kusmanda) used as a topical application is reported in an in-vitro study which points out the possibility of its use as a topical anti ageing preparation.[24]

Rasayana formulation

A polyherbal compound, rasayanaghana (made from Tribulus terrestris, Tinospora cordifolia and Emblica officinalis), was studied for antidepressant and anxiolytic activity in experimental animals. The formulation showed mild anxiolytic activity, moderate significant anti-depressant activity comparable to Imipramine (standard antidepressant) and a significant increase in anti-oxidant activity at cellular level. It also showed significant gastro protective activity against forced swimming stress induced gastric ulcers. Tinospora cordifolia have a daptogenic and anti oxidant properties along with stress attenuating activity. The harmine content in Tribulus acts as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibiter leading to higher dopamine levels in brain, which elevates the mood.[25] In clinical study, the treatment with rasayanaghanavati (RGT) showed 8.62% increase in the level of DHEAs in a span of two months. De hydro epi aldosterone decreases with age. The formulation also showed significant improvement in parameters of quality of life scale.[7]

Bhrngarajadighrita rasayana

Bhringarajadighrita rasayana, a formulation which contains Eclipta alba, Sesamum orientale, Embelica officinalis, cow’s milk, ghee and sugar is found to be effective in reducing the general debility, graying of hairs, fatigue etc. associated with premature ageing.[8]

Rasayana as an adjuvant to chemotherapy

In a study on 36 cancer patients, effect of a polyherbal rasayana formulation was studied as an adjuvant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The rasayana preparation was made from Emblica officinalis (amalaki), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi), Glycirrhiza glabra (yashtimadhu), Leptadenia reticulata (jivanti), Ocimum sanctum (tulasi) and Piper longum (pippali), in electuary form. It effectively reduces the symptoms like vomiting, mucocitis, fatigue, xerostomia, alopecia, and tastelessness than those treated without rasayana. The weight loss associated with the cancer treatment was comparatively less in patients treated with rasayana compound. Flavonoids present in these herbs, are potent anti oxidant and provide protection against H2O2 cytotoxicity, created by radiotherapy. It also helps in the termination of lipid peroxidation chain reaction which is formed as a result of chemotherapeutic cytotoxic agents.[26]

Tuvaraka rasayana in psoriasis

Administration of tuvaraka rasayana (rasayana preparation made out of Hydnocarpus laurifolia) alternatively for 5 days in a patient with psoriasis vulgaris showed reduction in PASI score from 42 to 3.8. The rasayana was administered after purification procedures. Complete remission of the lesions making PASI score 0 was observed. The histopathological study also reveals the complete remission of psoriasis on follow-up.[27]

Triphala rasayana

Pre-treatment of mice with rasayana drug, triphala (Haritaki, vibitaki and amalaki) extract for 7 days showed protection against paracetamol-induced renal and hepatic toxicity. Triphala inhibited the raise of serum enzyme markers like ASP, ALP, ALT, bilirubin, creatinine, urea and uric acid. Histopathological study reveals protection of liver cells, central vein, and portal vein and maintains the normality of liver tissues. Triphala might have controlled the free radical formation and thereby prevents cellular damage.[28]

List of theses done

  1. Srikanth T (2002). A critical study on the effect of rasayana on different age groups- “ poorvevayasimadhyeva”. Department of Basic Principles.IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  1. Dodia Rajesh (2002): Clinical study on the aetio-pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (Sannipatika-pratishyaya) and role of rasayana in its management. Department of Roganidan and Vikritivigyan. IPGT&RA Jamnagar.
  2. Ami T Kataraia (2003). A comparative clinical study of medhyarasayana and shayyamootahara yoga in the management of shayyamootra. Department of Kaumarabrithya. IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  3. Parthiv Bhatt (2002): A comparative study of Rasayana therapy & shamana yoga in the management of Sheetapitta(urticaria). Department of Kayachikitsa. IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  4. Dalvi Prachi (2002): Role of Virechana and Amalakyadi rasayana in the management of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis). Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  5. Rajesh Dodia (2002): Clinical study on the aetiopathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (Sannipatika pratishyaya) and role of rasayana in its management. Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  6. Sejal Naik (2002): Study on the role of varahikanda rasayana in the management of akalaja-jara. Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  7. Nakum Sudha K (2003): Comparative study of the role of Shamana (Rasayana) and Shodhana therapy in Vicharchika.Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  8. Dhananjay Patel (2003): The role of manasika bhavas in the aetio-pathogenesis of uccha-rakta-cchapa (hypertension) & its management with medhyarasayana and shirodhara. Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  9. Yadav Ramdev (2003): A clinical study on the Rasayana effect of Tuvaraka Taila Nasya in the management of Dushta-Pratishyaya. Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  10. Ahuja Harish (2004): A clinical study on the efficacy of Virechana and Medohara Rasayana in the management of Madhumeha w.s.r. to Diabetes mellitus. Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  11. Purvi Vyas (2005): A clinical study on the role of gudoochyadi rasayana as a radio-protective and chemo-protective adjuvant in the management of carcinoma. Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  12. Basil Cardozo (2006): A clinical study on physo-somatic management of sukraavritavata (premature ejaculation) with rasayana yoga and shirodhara. Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  13. Hetal Dave (2006): A comparative study on the role of medhyarasayana yoga and dasamoolakwatha dhara in the management of vatika shirashoola (tension headache). Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  14. Zankhana N Mankad (2007): Clinical study of role of rasayan as a pre, adjuvant and post treatment of chemotherapy in the management of carcinoma. Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  15. Devangi Shukla (2007): The role of manasika bhavas in akalajajara (ageing) and comparative study of its management with guduchyadi and bhringarajadi rasayana. Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  16. Somarathna KIWK (2009): Evaluation of immunomodulatory effect of Ranahansarasayana( A Srilankan classical drug) on HIV positive patients. Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  17. Nakul A Jethva (2011): A Clinical Study on the Effect of Virechana Karma and Amalaki Rasayana in the Management of Kshina Shukra w.s.r. to Oligozoospermia. Department of Panchakarma, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  18. Monika N Solanki (2018): Efficacy of Shayyamutrahara yoga and medhyarasayana in the management of shayyamutra (Enuresis) – An open labeled, randomized study. Department of Kaumara Bhritya, IPGT&RA Jamnagar
  19. Chagole Akash Subhash (2016): Role of koshthasuddhi in augmenting effect of chandrashakaladivataka rasayana and chandamarutam W.S.R to Psoriasis. Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGT&RA Jamnagar

More information

Rasayana Adhyaya

Abbreviations

Cha. = Charak, Su. = Sushruta, A. = Ashtanga, S. = Sangraha, Sa. = Samhita

List of References

The list of references for Rasayana in Charak Samhita can be seen here

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References

  1. Monier-Williams, Monier-Williams Sanskrit- English Dictionary, 1st edition; Oxford University Press, Rasayana, Page 870
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 Sushruta. Sushruta Samhita. Edited by Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya. 8th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia;2005.
  3. Monier-Williams, Monier-Williams Sanskrit- English Dictionary, 1st edition; Oxford University Press, Rasa, Page 869
  4. Monier-Williams, Monier-Williams Sanskrit- English Dictionary, 1st edition; Oxford University Press, Ayana, Page 84
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Vridha Vagbhata, Ashtanga Sangraha. Edited by Shivaprasad Sharma. 3rd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba sanskrit series office;2012.
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