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na caiShu sambhavej j~jAnaM na ca taiH syAt prayojanam||42||  
na caiShu sambhavej j~jAnaM na ca taiH syAt prayojanam||42||  
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While describing the reason for existence, Charaka says that for anyone not accepting ''purusha'' as the cause or reason for existence (of life), there will be no existence of knowledge, ignorance, truth or falsehood, the ''vedas'', auspicious and non-auspicious deeds, and the agents of action and knowledge. There would be no support, happiness, misery, movement, immobility, speech, knowledge, scriptures, birth, death, bondage or salvation. Thus, the ''purusha'' is recognized as a cause (of creation) by those well versed in the theory of causation. If ''purusha'' is not recognized as a chief cause, then everything mentioned above will be considered as causeless. Then the theory of cause and effect which is a fundamental tenet of Ayurveda will fail and no one will put any effort in understanding the cause of any effect. [39-42]
While describing the reason for existence, Charak says that for anyone not accepting ''purusha'' as the cause or reason for existence (of life), there will be no existence of knowledge, ignorance, truth or falsehood, the ''vedas'', auspicious and non-auspicious deeds, and the agents of action and knowledge. There would be no support, happiness, misery, movement, immobility, speech, knowledge, scriptures, birth, death, bondage or salvation. Thus, the ''purusha'' is recognized as a cause (of creation) by those well versed in the theory of causation. If ''purusha'' is not recognized as a chief cause, then everything mentioned above will be considered as causeless. Then the theory of cause and effect which is a fundamental tenet of Ayurveda will fail and no one will put any effort in understanding the cause of any effect. [39-42]
कृतं मृद्दण्डचक्रैश्च कुम्भकारादृते घटम्|  
कृतं मृद्दण्डचक्रैश्च कुम्भकारादृते घटम्|  
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# ''Purusha'' represents the element of consciousness, i.e. the soul, different from the body. This ''purusha'' plays an important role in formulating treatments for the eradication of miseries and attainment of salvation.  
# ''Purusha'' represents the element of consciousness, i.e. the soul, different from the body. This ''purusha'' plays an important role in formulating treatments for the eradication of miseries and attainment of salvation.  
# The mind analyses sense objects on the basis of merits and demerits, their acceptability or otherwise, while ''ahamkara'' causes self attachment and finally ''buddhi'' takes decision whether they are acceptable or not. Charaka describes senses composed of ''bhutas'' whereas ''samkhya'' mentions them as evolved from ''ahamkara''. This is the different view of Ayurveda based on its application in management. (21-24)
# The mind analyses sense objects on the basis of merits and demerits, their acceptability or otherwise, while ''ahamkara'' causes self attachment and finally ''buddhi'' takes decision whether they are acceptable or not. Charak describes senses composed of ''bhutas'' whereas ''samkhya'' mentions them as evolved from ''ahamkara''. This is the different view of Ayurveda based on its application in management. (21-24)
# Mind is an important entity involved in the process of knowledge. Knowledge of objects cannot be perceived if the mind is absent in the process. Atomicity and oneness are the two properties of mind. Mind controls itself as well as the five senses. The different objects of the mind are thought, consideration, hypothesis, attention and determination. The knowledge of the objects is perceived through the five senses in connection with mind. The advantages and disadvantages of the perceived objects are ascertained thereafter. Then the intellect decides the specific properties of the objects and individual acts accordingly. The chain of perception starts from the desire that arises with the ''purusha''. The important components of this chain are atma, mind, five senses and objects. Any abnormality in this chain leads to nonperception or false knowledge. (18-25)
# Mind is an important entity involved in the process of knowledge. Knowledge of objects cannot be perceived if the mind is absent in the process. Atomicity and oneness are the two properties of mind. Mind controls itself as well as the five senses. The different objects of the mind are thought, consideration, hypothesis, attention and determination. The knowledge of the objects is perceived through the five senses in connection with mind. The advantages and disadvantages of the perceived objects are ascertained thereafter. Then the intellect decides the specific properties of the objects and individual acts accordingly. The chain of perception starts from the desire that arises with the ''purusha''. The important components of this chain are atma, mind, five senses and objects. Any abnormality in this chain leads to nonperception or false knowledge. (18-25)
# ''Purusha'' is considered as the main causative factor. Occurrence of intelligence, ignorance, support, movement etc. is not possible without existence of ''purusha''. ''Purusha'' is the supporting element for truth, falsehood, food and bad actions. ''Purusha'' i.e. conscious element provides the utility value to other things. The cause of ''purusha'' can be proved by all ''pramanas''. The organs of living beings are different but the entity responsible for their action is one and the same and that is the soul. Therefore, apart from the body which is in the constant process of decay, soul is eternal and responsible for all the actions and also experiences the results of such deeds. (49-62)
# ''Purusha'' is considered as the main causative factor. Occurrence of intelligence, ignorance, support, movement etc. is not possible without existence of ''purusha''. ''Purusha'' is the supporting element for truth, falsehood, food and bad actions. ''Purusha'' i.e. conscious element provides the utility value to other things. The cause of ''purusha'' can be proved by all ''pramanas''. The organs of living beings are different but the entity responsible for their action is one and the same and that is the soul. Therefore, apart from the body which is in the constant process of decay, soul is eternal and responsible for all the actions and also experiences the results of such deeds. (49-62)
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In addition to functions, the objects of mind are also described (Cha.Sha.1/20) viz. ''Chintya'' (cogitation), ''Vicharya'' (consideration of discrimination), ''Uhya'' (speculation and logical reasoning), ''Dhyeya'' (aiming), ''Sankalpya'' (conviction and determination).  
In addition to functions, the objects of mind are also described (Cha.Sha.1/20) viz. ''Chintya'' (cogitation), ''Vicharya'' (consideration of discrimination), ''Uhya'' (speculation and logical reasoning), ''Dhyeya'' (aiming), ''Sankalpya'' (conviction and determination).  
[[Charaka Samhita]] has described three reasons for occurrence of disease:
[[Charak Samhita]] has described three reasons for occurrence of disease:
# Mistake of the intellect (''prajnaparadha'') by losing connection to the source (consciousness).
# Mistake of the intellect (''prajnaparadha'') by losing connection to the source (consciousness).
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=== Further reading ===
=== Further reading ===
#Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Edited by Jadavaji Trikamji, Fifth Edition Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthana, Varanasi, 2001.
#Agnivesha, Charak, Dridhabala, Charak Samhita, Edited by Jadavaji Trikamji, Fifth Edition Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthana, Varanasi, 2001.
#Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Edited by Dr Ramkaran Sharma and Dr Bhagvan Dash, Reprint Edition, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series, Varanasi, 2011.
#Agnivesha, Charak, Dridhabala, Charak Samhita, Edited by Dr Ramkaran Sharma and Dr Bhagvan Dash, Reprint Edition, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series, Varanasi, 2011.
#Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samajna, Edited by P V Sharma, Second Edition Chaukhambha Orientalia, Delhi, 2005.
#Agnivesha, Charak, Dridhabala, Charak Samajna, Edited by P V Sharma, Second Edition Chaukhambha Orientalia, Delhi, 2005.
#Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Edited by P V Sharma, Reprint Ninth Edition, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2007.
#Agnivesha, Charak, Dridhabala, Charak Samhita, Edited by P V Sharma, Reprint Ninth Edition, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2007.
#Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Vol. 5, Reprint Edition, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2008.
#Agnivesha, Charak, Dridhabala, Charak Samhita, Vol. 5, Reprint Edition, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2008.
#Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Vol. 2, Fourth Edition, Sastu Sahitya Vardhak Karyalaya, Ahmedabad, 1999.
#Agnivesha, Charak, Dridhabala, Charak Samhita, Vol. 2, Fourth Edition, Sastu Sahitya Vardhak Karyalaya, Ahmedabad, 1999.
=== Glossary ===
=== Glossary ===

Revision as of 03:43, 6 March 2019

Katidhapurusha Sharira
Section/Chapter Sharira Sthana Chapter 1
Preceding Chapter None
Succeeding Chapter Atulyagotriya Sharira
Other Sections Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana

Sharira Sthana Chapter 1, Katidhapurusha Sharira adhyaya (Chapter on Knowledge of Purusha)


Sharira Sthana is the study of human physiology and anatomy in Ayurveda, and follows the Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana and Vimana Sthana sections while preceding Indriya Sthana and Chikitsa Sthana. A healthcare provider cannot treat a patient unless he is familiar with the entire physical constitution of the patient. A study of human sharira, or physiology, cannot be initiated without understanding purusha, a concept that could mean the self (atma), consciousness, the cosmic man, etc., depending upon the context.

Hence this first chapter of this section, Katidhapurusha Sharira, defines purusha. As mentioned already, the purusha is a complex concept integral to the study of the sharira. Purusha could mean atma, or the Self, which is distinct from the physical body and the senses (indriya). The second use of the term purusha is in the context of samyoga purusha that could mean a logical body of six constituents (shaddhatuja), of twenty-four constituents (chaturvimshati dhatuja), or that which is ideal for treatment (chikitsya purusha). The third meaning of purusha is in the context of ativahika purusha, a subtle body that passes on from one body to the next along with the soul. Besides these, there are several other forms or connotations described here in this text.

This chapter, like many in this treatise, is in the form of a dialogue between Agnivesha and Lord Punarvasu Atreya, where the former asks specific questions around the soul, its origin, proof of existence, types of miseries and their causes, etc.


An aspiring Ayurveda practitioner who has obtained thorough knowledge about diseases, and their signs and symptoms from Nidana Sthana and studied rasa prabhava and dosha prabhava in the context of dravya and vyadhi from Vimana Sthana may have built a foundation in disease management, but cannot initiate treatment until he has a thorough knowledge of the human body. Therefore, a logical continuation from the preceding sections is this section on the human physiology and anatomy especially body’s connection to the universe. As mentioned earlier, the concept of purusha is integral to understanding sharira, and therefore understanding Sharira Sthana. This chapter therefore deals with various topics related to purusha such as its types, origin, constituents, details about mind and soul, the process of knowledge, the theory of evolution and destruction, types of diseases and their causative factors, treatment of the diseases of past, present and future, desire as the ultimate cause of sorrow, the method by which an individual can get the permanent relief from pain, role of yoga in achieving salvation, and the means of salvation.

This chapter also deals with a philosophical approach to human body and mind (apparent, since the chapter deals with a complex concept like the purusha). All eastern philosophies consider the atma (soul) as the entity that is responsible for all actions and therefore the recipient of the consequences of those actions. The ultimate reason for all kinds of pain and sufferings is that human beings do not realize or consider the body and the soul to be two distinct entities. The relationship between the soul and the mind is complex and subtle. One has to “rein in” the mind and also strive to stay detached from all the actions performed by him to liberate himself from this material world. A person who is detached from worldly possessions and actions is free from the karmic cycle of actions and consequences, and birth and death. Thus the chapter describes some of the basic physical and meta-physical aspects of the human entity.

Sanskrit text, Transliteration and English Translation

अथातः कतिधापुरुषीयं शारीरं व्याख्यास्यामः||१|| इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||

athātaḥ katidhāpuruṣīyaṁ śārīraṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1|| iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

athAtaH katidhApuruShIyaM shArIraM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1|| iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

We shall now expound the chapter dealing with the various divisions of the sharira and the purusha.

Thus said Lord Atreya [1-2]

Questions by Agnivesha

कतिधा पुरुषो धीमन्! धातुभेदेन भिद्यते| पुरुषः कारणं कस्मात्, प्रभवः पुरुषस्य कः||३||

katidhā puruṣō dhīman! dhātubhēdēna bhidyatē| puruṣaḥ kāraṇaṁ kasmāt, prabhavaḥ puruṣasya kaḥ||3||

katidhA puruSho dhIman! dhAtubhedena bhidyate| puruShaH kAraNaM kasmAt, prabhavaH puruShasya kaH||3||

किमज्ञो ज्ञः, स नित्यः किं किमनित्यो निदर्शितः| प्रकृतिः का, विकाराः के, किं लिङ्गं पुरुषस्य च||४||

kimajñō jñaḥ, sa nityaḥ kiṁ kimanityō nidarśitaḥ| prakr̥tiḥ kā, vikārāḥ kē, kiṁ liṅgaṁ puruṣasya ca||4||

kimaj~jo j~jaH, sa nityaH kiM kimanityo nidarshitaH| prakRutiH kA, vikArAH ke, kiM li~ggaM puruShasya ca||4||

निष्क्रियं च स्वतन्त्रं च वशिनं सर्वगं विभुम्| वदन्त्यात्मानमात्मज्ञाः क्षेत्रज्ञं साक्षिणं तथा||५||

niṣkriyaṁ ca svatantraṁ ca vaśinaṁ sarvagaṁ vibhum| vadantyātmānamātmajñāḥ kṣētrajñaṁ sākṣiṇaṁ tathā||5||

niShkriyaM ca svatantraM ca vashinaM sarvagaM vibhum| vadantyAtmAnamAtmaj~jAH kShetraj~jaM sAkShiNaM tathA||5||

निष्क्रियस्य क्रिया तस्य भगवन्! विद्यते कथम्| स्वतन्त्रश्चेदनिष्टासु कथं योनिषु जायते||६||

niṣkriyasya kriyā tasya bhagavan! vidyatē katham| svatantraścēdaniṣṭāsu kathaṁ yōniṣu jāyatē||6||

niShkriyasya kriyA tasya bhagavan! vidyate katham| svatantrashcedaniShTAsu kathaM yoniShu jAyate||6||

वशी यद्यसुखैः कस्माद्भावैराक्रम्यते बलात्| सर्वाः सर्वगतत्वाच्च वेदनाः किं न वेत्ति सः||७||

vaśī yadyasukhaiḥ kasmādbhāvairākramyatē balāt| sarvāḥ sarvagatatvācca vēdanāḥ kiṁ na vētti saḥ||7||

vashI yadyasukhaiH kasmAdbhAvairAkramyate balAt| sarvAH sarvagatatvAcca vedanAH kiM na vetti saH||7||

न पश्यति विभुः कस्माच्छैलकुड्यतिरस्कृतम्| क्षेत्रज्ञः क्षेत्रमथवा किं पूर्वमिति संशयः||८||

na paśyati vibhuḥ kasmācchailakuḍyatiraskr̥tam| kṣētrajñaḥ kṣētramathavā kiṁ pūrvamiti saṁśayaḥ||8||

na pashyati vibhuH kasmAcchailakuDyatiraskRutam| kShetraj~jaH kShetramathavA kiM pUrvamiti saMshayaH||8||

ज्ञेयं क्षेत्रं विना पूर्वं क्षेत्रज्ञो हि न युज्यते| क्षेत्रं च यदि पूर्वं स्यात् क्षेत्रज्ञः स्यादशाश्वतः||९||

jñēyaṁ kṣētraṁ vinā pūrvaṁ kṣētrajñō hi na yujyatē| kṣētraṁ ca yadi pūrvaṁ syāt kṣētrajñaḥ syādaśāśvataḥ||9||

j~jeyaM kShetraM vinA pUrvaM kShetraj~jo hi na yujyate| kShetraM ca yadi pUrvaM syAt kShetraj~jaH syAdashAshvataH||9||

साक्षिभूतश्च कस्यायं कर्ता ह्यन्यो न विद्यते| स्यात् कथं चाविकारस्य विशेषो वेदनाकृतः||१०||

sākṣibhūtaśca kasyāyaṁ kartā hyanyō na vidyatē| syāt kathaṁ cāvikārasya viśēṣō vēdanākr̥taḥ||10||

sAkShibhUtashca kasyAyaM kartA hyanyo na vidyate| syAt kathaM cAvikArasya visheSho vedanAkRutaH||10||

अथ चार्तस्य भगवंस्तिसृणां कां चिकित्सति| अतीतां वेदनां वैद्यो वर्तमानां भविष्यतीम्||११||

atha cārtasya bhagavaṁstisr̥ṇāṁ kāṁ cikitsati| atītāṁ vēdanāṁ vaidyō vartamānāṁ bhaviṣyatīm||11||

atha cArtasya bhagavaMstisRuNAM kAM cikitsati| atItAM vedanAM vaidyo vartamAnAM bhaviShyatIm||11||

भविष्यन्त्या असम्प्राप्तिरतीताया अनागमः| साम्प्रतिक्या अपि स्थानं नास्त्यर्तेः संशयो ह्यतः||१२||

bhaviṣyantyā asamprāptiratītāyā anāgamaḥ| sāmpratikyā api sthānaṁ nāstyartēḥ saṁśayō hyataḥ||12||

bhaviShyantyA asamprAptiratItAyA anAgamaH| sAmpratikyA api sthAnaM nAstyarteH saMshayo hyataH||12||

कारणं वेदनानां किं, किमधिष्ठानमुच्यते| क्व चैता वेदनाः सर्वा निवृत्तिं यान्त्यशेषतः||१३||

kāraṇaṁ vēdanānāṁ kiṁ, kimadhiṣṭhānamucyatē| kva caitā vēdanāḥ sarvā nivr̥ttiṁ yāntyaśēṣataḥ||13||

kAraNaM vedanAnAM kiM, kimadhiShThAnamucyate| kva caitA vedanAH sarvA nivRuttiM yAntyasheShataH||13||

सर्ववित् सर्वसन्न्यासी सर्वसंयोगनिःसृतः| एकः प्रशान्तो भूतात्मा कैर्लिङ्गैरुपलभ्यते||१४|| sarvavit sarvasannyāsī sarvasaṁyōganiḥsr̥taḥ| ēkaḥ praśāntō bhūtātmā kairliṅgairupalabhyatē||14||

sarvavit sarvasannyAsI sarvasaMyoganiHsRutaH| ekaH prashAnto bhUtAtmA kairli~ggairupalabhyate||14||

इत्यग्निवेशस्य [१] वचः श्रुत्वा मतिमतां वरः| सर्वं यथावत् प्रोवाच प्रशान्तात्मा पुनर्वसुः||१५||

ityagnivēśasya [1] vacaḥ śrutvā matimatāṁ varaḥ| sarvaṁ yathāvat prōvāca praśāntātmā punarvasuḥ||15||

ityagniveshasya [1] vacaH shrutvA matimatAM varaH| sarvaM yathAvat provAca prashAntAtmA punarvasuH||15||

Agnivesha requested Punarvasu to explain the following:

  1. What are the divisions of the purusha according to the division of the dhatus (elements)?
  2. Why is this purusha considered as the karana (karta/doer)? Is the purusha considered to be the cause of the body?
  3. What is the origin of purusha?
  4. Is the purusha a sentient or an insentient entity?
  5. Is the purusha eternal or ephemeral?
  6. What is the primordial source of creation and what are its byproducts?
  7. What is the proof of the existence of the purusha?
  8. Those proficient in spiritual science describe the purusha to be devoid of action, independent, absolutely free, all pervasive, knower of the body and a witness. When is the purusha devoid of action? How does action emanate from it?
  9. If the purusha is independent, how does it take birth among the undesirable species?
  10. If the purusha is absolutely free, how does it get overpowered by miserable ideas?
  11. Being omnipresent, why is it not aware of all miseries in its surroundings?
  12. If it is ubiquitous, how does it not visualize things interrupted by hills and walls?
  13. Which comes first – the body or the knower of the body (soul)? In the absence of the body, the object that perceives, emergence of the purusha does not appear to be appropriate. But then if the body comes first, the purusha would not be deemed eternal.
  14. What is it of which the purusha is considered to be a witness?
  15. Can the same purusha be a creator as well as a witness at the same time?
  16. If the purusha is derived from any modification, how does it subject itself to specific situations arising out of miseries (diseases)?
  17. Out of the three types of miseries of a patient, which one is treatable by the physician – the past one, the present one or the future one?
    1. The future one is in fact not in existence;
    2. the past one has already ceased to exist; and
    3. even the present one is, in a sense, momentary and so in the absence of continuity, it is non manageable to any treatment. Hence the dilemma.
  18. What are the common causative factors of all miseries (diseases)?
  19. What are the sites of their manifestation?
  20. Where do all these miseries completely get merged after their cure?
  21. What are the signs that help in recognizing the purusha which is omnipresent, all renouncing, devoid of all contacts, only one and tranquil? [3-15]

Details about Purusha

खादयश्चेतनाषष्ठा [१] धातवः पुरुषः स्मृतः| चेतनाधातुरप्येकः स्मृतः पुरुषसञ्ज्ञकः||१६||

khādayaścētanāṣaṣṭhā [1] dhātavaḥ puruṣaḥ smr̥taḥ| cētanādhāturapyēkaḥ smr̥taḥ puruṣasañjñakaḥ||16||

khAdayashcetanAShaShThA [1] dhAtavaH puruShaH smRutaH| cetanAdhAturapyekaH smRutaH puruShasa~jj~jakaH||16||

Purusha comprises of six dhatus (elements), viz. five mahabhutas (in their subtle form) and consciousness. The element of consciousness alone could also be considered purusha. [16]

पुनश्च धातुभेदेन चतुर्विंशतिकः स्मृतः| मनो दशेन्द्रियाण्यर्थाः प्रकृतिश्चाष्टधातुकी||१७||

punaśca dhātubhēdēna caturviṁśatikaḥ smr̥taḥ| manō daśēndriyāṇyarthāḥ prakr̥tiścāṣṭadhātukī||17||

punashca dhAtubhedena caturviMshatikaH smRutaH| mano dashendriyANyarthAH prakRutishcAShTadhAtukI||17||

According to another classification, purusha comprises of twenty four dhatus, i.e. mind, ten indriyas (sensory and motor organs), five objects of sense organs and prakriti (consisting of eight dhatus, viz. five mahabhutas (in their subtle form), ahamkara (ego), mahan (intellect) and avyakta (primordial element) [17]

Details about Mana (mind)

लक्षणं मनसो ज्ञानस्याभावो भाव एव च| सति ह्यात्मेन्द्रियार्थानां सन्निकर्षे न वर्तते||१८||

lakṣaṇaṁ manasō jñānasyābhāvō bhāva ēva ca| sati hyātmēndriyārthānāṁ sannikarṣē na vartatē||18||

lakShaNaM manaso j~jAnasyAbhAvo bhAva eva ca| sati hyAtmendriyArthAnAM sannikarShe na vartate||18||

वैवृत्त्यान्मनसो ज्ञानं सान्निध्यात्तच्च वर्तते| अणुत्वमथ चैकत्वं द्वौ गुणौ मनसः स्मृतौ||१९||

vaivr̥ttyānmanasō jñānaṁ sānnidhyāttacca vartatē| aṇutvamatha caikatvaṁ dvau guṇau manasaḥ smr̥tau||19||

vaivRuttyAnmanaso j~jAnaM sAnnidhyAttacca vartate| aNutvamatha caikatvaM dvau guNau manasaH smRutau||19||

Sometimes one understands a thing and sometimes one does not. This proves the existence of the mind as a separate sense organ. That is why, when there is no contact of the mind with sense organs and their objects, no understanding of things can occur. It is only when the required mental contact is there that one can understand things. Atomicity and oneness are considered to be the two characteristic features of the mind. [18-19]

चिन्त्यं विचार्यमूह्यं च ध्येयं सङ्कल्प्यमेव च| यत्किञ्चिन्मनसो ज्ञेयं तत् सर्वं ह्यर्थसञ्ज्ञकम्||२०||

cintyaṁ vicāryamūhyaṁ ca dhyēyaṁ saṅkalpyamēva ca| yatkiñcinmanasō jñēyaṁ tat sarvaṁ hyarthasañjñakam||20||

cintyaM vicAryamUhyaM ca dhyeyaM sa~gkalpyameva ca| yatki~jcinmanaso j~jeyaM tat sarvaM hyarthasa~jj~jakam||20||

इन्द्रियाभिग्रहः कर्म मनसः स्वस्य निग्रहः| ऊहो विचारश्च, ततः परं बुद्धिः प्रवर्तते||२१||

indriyābhigrahaḥ karma manasaḥ svasya nigrahaḥ| ūhō vicāraśca, tataḥ paraṁ buddhiḥ pravartatē||21||

indriyAbhigrahaH karma manasaH svasya nigrahaH| Uho vicArashca, tataH paraM buddhiH pravartate||21||

Things requiring thought, consideration, hypothesis, attention, determination or whatever can be perceived by the mind, are regarded as its objects. Control of sense organs, self restraint, hypothesis and consideration represent the action of the mind. Beyond that flourishes the domain and intellect [20-21]

इन्द्रियेणेन्द्रियार्थो हि समनस्केन गृह्यते| कल्प्यते मनसा तूर्ध्वं गुणतो दोषतोऽथवा||२२||

indriyēṇēndriyārthō hi samanaskēna gr̥hyatē| kalpyatē manasā tūrdhvaṁ guṇatō dōṣatō'thavā||22||

indriyeNendriyArtho hi samanaskena gRuhyate| kalpyate manasA tUrdhvaM guNato doShato~athavA||22||

Role of buddhi (intellect)

जायते विषये तत्र या बुद्धिर्निश्चयात्मिका| व्यवस्यति तया वक्तुं कर्तुं वा बुद्धिपूर्वकम्||२३||

jāyatē viṣayē tatra yā buddhirniścayātmikā| vyavasyati tayā vaktuṁ kartuṁ vā buddhipūrvakam||23||

jAyate viShaye tatra yA buddhirnishcayAtmikA| vyavasyati tayA vaktuM kartuM vA buddhipUrvakam||23||

Objects are perceived with the help of sense organs and the mind. This perception is purely mental in the beginning, while the practical advantages or disadvantages are ascertained thereafter. The intellect which determines the specific properties of the object impels the (same) individual to speak or act intelligently. [22-23]

एकैकाधिकयुक्तानि खादीनामिन्द्रियाणि तु| पञ्च कर्मानुमेयानि येभ्यो बुद्धिः प्रवर्तते||२४||

ēkaikādhikayuktāni khādīnāmindriyāṇi tu| pañca karmānumēyāni yēbhyō buddhiḥ pravartatē||24||

ekaikAdhikayuktAni khAdInAmindriyANi tu| pa~jca karmAnumeyAni yebhyo buddhiH pravartate||24||

The five sense faculties, made of the five mahabhutas (each sense faculty has one dominant mahabhuta), are inferred from their five respective actions which serve as agents for the manifestation of the intellect [24]

Functions of karmendriya (motor organs)

हस्तौ पादौ [२] गुदोपस्थं वागिन्द्रियमथापि च| कर्मेन्द्रियाणि पञ्चैव पादौ गमनकर्मणि||२५||

hastau pādau [2] gudōpasthaṁ vāgindriyamathāpi ca| karmēndriyāṇi pañcaiva pādau gamanakarmaṇi||25||

hastau pAdau [2] gudopasthaM vAgindriyamathApi ca| karmendriyANi pa~jcaiva pAdau gamanakarmaNi||25||

पायूपस्थं विसर्गार्थं हस्तौ ग्रहणधारणे| जिह्वा वागिन्द्रियं वाक् च सत्या ज्योतिस्तमोऽनृता||२६||

pāyūpasthaṁ visargārthaṁ hastau grahaṇadhāraṇē| jihvā vāgindriyaṁ vāk ca satyā jyōtistamō'nr̥tā||26||

pAyUpasthaM visargArthaM hastau grahaNadhAraNe| jihvA vAgindriyaM vAk ca satyA jyotistamo~anRutA||26||

Motor organs are of five categories, viz. hands, feet, anus, phallus and the organ of speech (tongue). Feet are useful in locomotion, anus and phallus for passing body waste while the hands are for collecting and holding. The tongue represents the organ of speech which is of two kinds, viz. true and false. The former can be compared to light which illuminates the worldly life and life after death, and the later to darkness which creates confusion. [25-26]

Mahabhuta (five basic elements)

महाभूतानि खं वायुरग्निरापः क्षितिस्तथा| शब्दः स्पर्शश्च रूपं च रसो गन्धश्च तद्गुणाः||२७||

mahābhūtāni khaṁ vāyuragnirāpaḥ kṣitistathā| śabdaḥ sparśaśca rūpaṁ ca rasō gandhaśca tadguṇāḥ||27||

mahAbhUtAni khaM vAyuragnirApaH kShitistathA| shabdaH sparshashca rUpaM ca raso gandhashca tadguNAH||27||

The five mahabhutas are akasha, vayu, agni, jala and prithvi (in this order). Their attributes are sound, touch, vision, taste and smell respectively. [27]

तेषामेकगुणः पूर्वो [२] गुणवृद्धिः परे परे| पूर्वः पूर्वगुणश्चैव [३] क्रमशो गुणिषु स्मृतः||२८||

tēṣāmēkaguṇaḥ pūrvō [2] guṇavr̥ddhiḥ parē parē| pūrvaḥ pūrvaguṇaścaiva [3] kramaśō guṇiṣu smr̥taḥ||28||

teShAmekaguNaH pUrvo [2] guNavRuddhiH pare pare| pUrvaH pUrvaguNashcaiva [3] kramasho guNiShu smRutaH||28||

The order of mahabhutas mentioned above is important because, starting with akasha, the number of attributes per mahabhuta increases in the above order. This increase in number of attributes is cumulative, i.e., the attribute of the preceding mahabhutas is added to the succeeding one. This process of gunantara vriddhi in mahabhutas is aiso known as bhutanipravesha [28]

खरद्रवचलोष्णत्वं भूजलानिलतेजसाम्| आकाशस्याप्रतीघातो दृष्टं लिङ्गं यथाक्रमम्||२९||

kharadravacalōṣṇatvaṁ bhūjalānilatējasām| ākāśasyāpratīghātō dr̥ṣṭaṁ liṅgaṁ yathākramam||29||

kharadravacaloShNatvaM bhUjalAnilatejasAm| AkAshasyApratIghAto dRuShTaM li~ggaM yathAkramam||29||

लक्षणं सर्वमेवैतत् स्पर्शनेन्द्रियगोचरम्| स्पर्शनेन्द्रियविज्ञेयः स्पर्शो हि सविपर्ययः||३०||

lakṣaṇaṁ sarvamēvaitat sparśanēndriyagōcaram| sparśanēndriyavijñēyaḥ sparśō hi saviparyayaḥ||30||

lakShaNaM sarvamevaitat sparshanendriyagocaram| sparshanendriyavij~jeyaH sparsho hi saviparyayaH||30||

Prithvi, jala, agni/tejas, vayu and akasha are characterized by kharatva (roughness), dravatva (liquidity), ushnatva (heat), chalatva (mobility) and apratighatatva (unobstructibility) respectively. All these attributes are perceptible by the tactile sense organ. Touch, together with its absence, is perceived by the tactile sense organ. [29-30]

गुणाः शरीरे गुणिनां निर्दिष्टाश्चिह्नमेव च|३१|

guṇāḥ śarīrē guṇināṁ nirdiṣṭāścihnamēva ca|31|

guNAH sharIre guNinAM nirdiShTAshcihnameva ca|31|

Thus the attributes and characteristics of the five physical elements are described. [31-1]

The objects of sense organs are sound, touch, vision, taste and smell, which constitute the attributes of gross mahabhutas. [31]

Process of perception

या यदिन्द्रियमाश्रित्य जन्तोर्बुद्धिः प्रवर्तते| याति सा तेन निर्देशं मनसा च मनोभवा||३२||

yā yadindriyamāśritya jantōrbuddhiḥ pravartatē| yāti sā tēna nirdēśaṁ manasā ca manōbhavā||32||

yA yadindriyamAshritya jantorbuddhiH pravartate| yAti sA tena nirdeshaM manasA ca manobhavA||32||

भेदात् कार्येन्द्रियार्थानां बह्व्यो वै बुद्धयः स्मृताः| आत्मेन्द्रियमनोर्थानामेकैका [१] सन्निकर्षजा||३३||

bhēdāt kāryēndriyārthānāṁ bahvyō vai buddhayaḥ smr̥tāḥ| ātmēndriyamanōrthānāmēkaikā [1] sannikarṣajā||33||

bhedAt kAryendriyArthAnAM bahvyo vai buddhayaH smRutAH| AtmendriyamanorthAnAmekaikA [1] sannikarShajA||33||

अङ्गुल्यङ्गुष्ठतलजस्तन्त्रीवीणानखोद्भवः| दृष्टः शब्दो यथा बुद्धिर्दृष्टा संयोगजा तथा||३४||

aṅgulyaṅguṣṭhatalajastantrīvīṇānakhōdbhavaḥ| dr̥ṣṭaḥ śabdō yathā buddhirdr̥ṣṭā saṁyōgajā tathā||34||

a~ggulya~gguShThatalajastantrIvINAnakhodbhavaH| dRuShTaH shabdo yathA buddhirdRuShTA saMyogajA tathA||34||

The perceptual faculty of living beings shapes itself depending upon the contact it has with the various sense faculties. Mental perception like anxiety or sorrow is also based on the contact of perceptual faculty with the mental faculty.

Perceptual faculties are of several types, depending upon the variations in action and objects of sense organs.

Just as the same sound differs according to how it is produced out of friction in the finger and the thumb, and the guitar and nail, so does the perceptual faculty differ according to its production from out of the mutual contacts with the soul, sense organs and objects of sense organs. [32-34]

Rashipurusha(Holistic human being)

बुद्धीन्द्रियमनोर्थानां विद्याद्योगधरं परम्| चतुर्विंशतिको ह्येष राशिः पुरुषसञ्ज्ञकः||३५||

buddhīndriyamanōrthānāṁ vidyādyōgadharaṁ param| caturviṁśatikō hyēṣa rāśiḥ puruṣasañjñakaḥ||35||

buddhIndriyamanorthAnAM vidyAdyogadharaM param| caturviMshatiko hyeSha rAshiH puruShasa~jj~jakaH||35||

Among the various types of purusha described in the first few verses of this chapter, rashipurusha is one form that consists of 24 tattvas i.e. avyakata, mahat, ahankara, five tanmatras, five mahabhutas and ten indriyas and manas. Since this specific combination is considered superior, a purusha of this type is called rashipurusha in Ayurvedic science. Of these tattvas, avyakta serves as an excellent coordinator of perceptual faculties, sense organs, mind and the objects of the senses. Thus a combination of the above mentioned (verses 17-35) twenty four elements is known as purusha. [35]

रजस्तमोभ्यां युक्तस्य संयोगोऽयमनन्तवान्| ताभ्यां निराकृताभ्यां तु सत्त्ववृद्ध्या [२] निवर्तते||३६||

rajastamōbhyāṁ yuktasya saṁyōgō'yamanantavān| tābhyāṁ nirākr̥tābhyāṁ tu sattvavr̥ddhyā [2] nivartatē||36||

rajastamobhyAM yuktasya saMyogo~ayamanantavAn| tAbhyAM nirAkRutAbhyAM tu sattvavRuddhyA [2] nivartate||36||

The association of purusha with the 24 tattvas continues so long as it is influenced by rajas and tamas. If freed from the influence of rajas and tamas, the purusha is free from its association with the tattvas and is said to be liberated. [36]

अत्र कर्म फलं चात्र ज्ञानं चात्र प्रतिष्ठितम्| अत्र मोहः सुखं दुःखं जीवितं मरणं स्वता||३७||

atra karma phalaṁ cātra jñānaṁ cātra pratiṣṭhitam| atra mōhaḥ sukhaṁ duḥkhaṁ jīvitaṁ maraṇaṁ svatā||37||

atra karma phalaM cAtra j~jAnaM cAtra pratiShThitam| atra mohaH sukhaM duHkhaM jIvitaM maraNaM svatA||37||

एवं [३] यो वेद तत्त्वेन स वेद प्रलयोदयौ| पारम्पर्यं चिकित्सां च ज्ञातव्यं [४] यच्च किञ्चन||३८||

ēvaṁ [3] yō vēda tattvēna sa vēda pralayōdayau| pāramparyaṁ cikitsāṁ ca jñātavyaṁ [4] yacca kiñcana||38||

evaM [3] yo veda tattvena sa veda pralayodayau| pAramparyaM cikitsAM ca j~jAtavyaM [4] yacca ki~jcana||38||

It is within this combination of 24 elements (known as the purusha), that action, fruit or consequence of the action, knowledge, ignorance, happiness, misery, life, death and ownership are established. One who duely knows this, knows life, death, continuity of the body, treatment (physical and spiritual) and all other knowable objects. [37-38]

Ayurveda believes that this rashipurusha is responsible for all deeds in life and has to face the consequences of these deeds. It is also responsible for the (creation/gaining of) knowledge, pleasure, sorrow, and joy. A term for the rashipurusha is karma purusha and physicians call it chikitsa adhikrita purusha. The person who knows this rashipurusha in its true sense also understands the whole process of the genesis and destruction of life. Such an intellectual person becomes well aware of chikitsa and nothing else remains for him to be learnt.

भास्तमः सत्यमनृतं वेदाः कर्म शुभाशुभम्| न स्युः कर्ता [१] च बोद्धा च पुरुषो न भवेद्यदि||३९||

bhāstamaḥ satyamanr̥taṁ vēdāḥ karma śubhāśubham| na syuḥ kartā [1] ca bōddhā ca puruṣō na bhavēdyadi||39||

bhAstamaH satyamanRutaM vedAH karma shubhAshubham| na syuH kartA [1] ca boddhA ca puruSho na bhavedyadi||39||

नाश्रयो न सुखं नार्तिर्न गतिर्नागतिर्न वाक्| न विज्ञानं न शास्त्राणि न जन्म मरणं न च||४०||

nāśrayō na sukhaṁ nārtirna gatirnāgatirna vāk| na vijñānaṁ na śāstrāṇi na janma maraṇaṁ na ca||40||

nAshrayo na sukhaM nArtirna gatirnAgatirna vAk| na vij~jAnaM na shAstrANi na janma maraNaM na ca||40||

न बन्धो न च मोक्षः स्यात् पुरुषो न भवेद्यदि| कारणं पुरुषस्तस्मात् कारणज्ञैरुदाहृतः||४१||

na bandhō na ca mōkṣaḥ syāt puruṣō na bhavēdyadi| kāraṇaṁ puruṣastasmāt kāraṇajñairudāhr̥taḥ||41||

na bandho na ca mokShaH syAt puruSho na bhavedyadi| kAraNaM puruShastasmAt kAraNaj~jairudAhRutaH||41||

न चेत् कारणमात्मा स्याद्भादयः [२] स्युरहेतुकाः| न चैषु सम्भवेज् ज्ञानं न च तैः स्यात् प्रयोजनम्||४२||

na cēt kāraṇamātmā syādbhādayaḥ [2] syurahētukāḥ| na caiṣu sambhavēj jñānaṁ na ca taiḥ syāt prayōjanam||42||

na cet kAraNamAtmA syAdbhAdayaH [2] syurahetukAH| na caiShu sambhavej j~jAnaM na ca taiH syAt prayojanam||42||

While describing the reason for existence, Charak says that for anyone not accepting purusha as the cause or reason for existence (of life), there will be no existence of knowledge, ignorance, truth or falsehood, the vedas, auspicious and non-auspicious deeds, and the agents of action and knowledge. There would be no support, happiness, misery, movement, immobility, speech, knowledge, scriptures, birth, death, bondage or salvation. Thus, the purusha is recognized as a cause (of creation) by those well versed in the theory of causation. If purusha is not recognized as a chief cause, then everything mentioned above will be considered as causeless. Then the theory of cause and effect which is a fundamental tenet of Ayurveda will fail and no one will put any effort in understanding the cause of any effect. [39-42]

कृतं मृद्दण्डचक्रैश्च कुम्भकारादृते घटम्| कृतं मृत्तृणकाष्ठैश्च गृहकाराद्विना गृहम्||४३||

kr̥taṁ mr̥ddaṇḍacakraiśca kumbhakārādr̥tē ghaṭam| kr̥taṁ mr̥ttr̥ṇakāṣṭhaiśca gr̥hakārādvinā gr̥ham||43||

kRutaM mRuddaNDacakraishca kumbhakArAdRute ghaTam| kRutaM mRuttRuNakAShThaishca gRuhakArAdvinA gRuham||43||

यो वदेत् स वदेद्देहं सम्भूय करणैः कृतम्| विना कर्तारमज्ञानाद्युक्त्यागमबहिष्कृतः||४४||

yō vadēt sa vadēddēhaṁ sambhūya karaṇaiḥ kr̥tam| vinā kartāramajñānādyuktyāgamabahiṣkr̥taḥ||44||

yo vadet sa vadeddehaM sambhUya karaNaiH kRutam| vinA kartAramaj~jAnAdyuktyAgamabahiShkRutaH||44||

In support of the causativity of purusha, author has given few practical examples of world where existence of karta (doer) becomes mandatory.

Without a potter, can a pitcher be constructed with materials like earth, rod, and wheel alone? Can a house be constructed with earth, straw, and beams, if there is no mason? If the answer is “no” in both these cases, how can we expect the body to be created just by virtue of the combination of different sense organs, without a conscious agent? It is only an ignorant person devoid of rational outlook and scriptural knowledge who can assume otherwise. [43-44]

कारणं पुरुषः सर्वैः प्रमाणैरुपलभ्यते| येभ्यः प्रमेयं सर्वेभ्य आगमेभ्यः प्रमीयते||४५||

kāraṇaṁ puruṣaḥ sarvaiḥ pramāṇairupalabhyatē| yēbhyaḥ pramēyaṁ sarvēbhya āgamēbhyaḥ pramīyatē||45||

kAraNaM puruShaH sarvaiH pramANairupalabhyate| yebhyaH prameyaM sarvebhya AgamebhyaH pramIyate||45||

All the sources of knowledge, including scriptures that serve as an instrument for acquiring knowledge of various kinds, establish the causality of purusha. [45]

न ते तत्सदृशास्त्वन्ये पारम्पर्यसमुत्थिताः| सारूप्याद्ये त एवेति निर्दिश्यन्ते नवा नवाः||४६||

na tē tatsadr̥śāstvanyē pāramparyasamutthitāḥ| sārūpyādyē ta ēvēti nirdiśyantē navā navāḥ||46||

na te tatsadRushAstvanye pAramparyasamutthitAH| sArUpyAdye ta eveti nirdishyante navA navAH||46||

भावास्तेषां समुदयो निरीशः सत्त्वसञ्ज्ञकः| कर्ता भोक्ता न स पुमानिति केचिद्व्यवस्थिताः||४७||

bhāvāstēṣāṁ samudayō nirīśaḥ sattvasañjñakaḥ| kartā bhōktā na sa pumāniti kēcidvyavasthitāḥ||47||

bhAvAsteShAM samudayo nirIshaH sattvasa~jj~jakaH| kartA bhoktA na sa pumAniti kecidvyavasthitAH||47||

Here, the author has given his opinion on other philosophies that do not accept the causality of purusha but rather believe that there is always a new doer with every birth. They opine that there is no permanent purusha as such. They believe that the purusha is merely a combination of ephemeral elements devoid of any permanent controlling agent or consciousness. Certain schools of thought, including schools within Buddhism share this view. In their opinion, it is sattva and not the atma (purusha) that becomes the doer and sufferer of its previous deeds. (This is also known as kshanabhangavada) [46-47]

तेषामन्यैः कृतस्यान्ये भावा [१] भावैर्नवाः फलम्| भुञ्जते सदृशाः प्राप्तं यैरात्मा नोपदिश्यते||४८||

tēṣāmanyaiḥ kr̥tasyānyē bhāvā [1] bhāvairnavāḥ phalam| bhuñjatē sadr̥śāḥ prāptaṁ yairātmā nōpadiśyatē||48||

teShAmanyaiH kRutasyAnye bhAvA [1] bhAvairnavAH phalam| bhu~jjate sadRushAH prAptaM yairAtmA nopadishyate||48||

Those who subscribe to the above theory do not accept the soul as the cause or reason for existence. To them, the results of actions performed by one would be enjoyed by some other similar (momentary) entities. [48]

करणान्यान्यता दृष्टा कर्तुः कर्ता स एव तु| कर्ता हि करणैर्युक्तः कारणं सर्वकर्मणाम्||४९||

karaṇānyānyatā dr̥ṣṭā kartuḥ kartā sa ēva tu| kartā hi karaṇairyuktaḥ kāraṇaṁ sarvakarmaṇām||49||

karaNAnyAnyatA dRuShTA kartuH kartA sa eva tu| kartA hi karaNairyuktaH kAraNaM sarvakarmaNAm||49||

The bodily organs of a living being might be different but the soul i.e. the agent of action (deeds) is one and the same. The agent (doer) of action (deed) like a sculptor is an efficient cause of all actions (viz. sculpture etc.) by virtue of his possession of the various karana (equipment). [49]

निमेषकालाद्भावानां कालः शीघ्रतरोऽत्यये| भग्नानां न [१] पुनर्भावः कृतं नान्यमुपैति च||५०||

nimēṣakālādbhāvānāṁ kālaḥ śīghratarō'tyayē| bhagnānāṁ na [1] punarbhāvaḥ kr̥taṁ nānyamupaiti ca||50||

nimeShakAlAdbhAvAnAM kAlaH shIghrataro~atyaye| bhagnAnAM na [1] punarbhAvaH kRutaM nAnyamupaiti ca||50||

मतं तत्त्वविदामेतद्यस्मात्तस्मात् स कारणम्| क्रियोपभोगे भूतानां नित्यः पुरुषसञ्ज्ञकः||५१||

mataṁ tattvavidāmētadyasmāttasmāt sa kāraṇam| kriyōpabhōgē bhūtānāṁ nityaḥ puruṣasañjñakaḥ||51||

mataM tattvavidAmetadyasmAttasmAt sa kAraNam| kriyopabhoge bhUtAnAM nityaH puruShasa~jj~jakaH||51||

Physical elements can get destroyed at a rate faster than the twinkling of an eye. Those destroyed do not come back to their original form again and the results of the deeds (like yagna) of one individual may not be enjoyable to another individual. The learned are, therefore, of the view that there is a permanent entity known as purusha (soul) who is the causative factor for the action as well as for the enjoyment of the result of deeds. [50-51]

अहङ्कारः फलं कर्म देहान्तरगतिः स्मृतिः| विद्यते सति भूतानां कारणे देहमन्तरा||५२||

ahaṅkāraḥ phalaṁ karma dēhāntaragatiḥ smr̥tiḥ| vidyatē sati bhūtānāṁ kāraṇē dēhamantarā||52||

aha~gkAraH phalaM karma dehAntaragatiH smRutiH| vidyate sati bhUtAnAM kAraNe dehamantarA||52||

In living beings, a factor other than the body (i.e. the soul) is responsible for ego, enjoyment of the result of deeds, engagement in deeds, transmigration from one body to another body, and keeping the memory of the individual alive. [52]

प्रभवो न ह्यनादित्वाद्विद्यते परमात्मनः| पुरुषो राशिसञ्ज्ञस्तु मोहेच्छाद्वेषकर्मजः||५३||

prabhavō na hyanāditvādvidyatē paramātmanaḥ| puruṣō rāśisañjñastu mōhēcchādvēṣakarmajaḥ||53||

prabhavo na hyanAditvAdvidyate paramAtmanaH| puruSho rAshisa~jj~jastu mohecchAdveShakarmajaH||53||

answering the question of Agnivesha about the origin of soul, teacher said:

As the supreme soul is without a beginning (i.e., is eternal), no birth can be ascribed to it. Of course, the purusha who represents the combination of 24 elements (rashipurusha) certainly has its origin born out of its deeds in the previous life due to its delusion, desire and aversion. [53]

आत्मा ज्ञः करणैर्योगाज् ज्ञानं त्वस्य प्रवर्तते| करणानामवैमल्यादयोगाद्वा न वर्तते||५४||

ātmā jñaḥ karaṇairyōgāj jñānaṁ tvasya pravartatē| karaṇānāmavaimalyādayōgādvā na vartatē||54||

AtmA j~jaH karaNairyogAj j~jAnaM tvasya pravartate| karaNAnAmavaimalyAdayogAdvA na vartate||54||

पश्यतोऽपि यथाऽऽदर्शे सङ्क्लिष्टे नास्ति दर्शनम्| तत्त्वं [१] जले वा कलुषे चेतस्युपहते तथा||५५||

paśyatō'pi yathādarśē saṅkliṣṭē nāsti darśanam| tattvaṁ [1] jalē vā kaluṣē cētasyupahatē tathā||55||

pashyato~api yathA~a~adarshe sa~gkliShTe nAsti darshanam| tattvaM [1] jale vA kaluShe cetasyupahate tathA||55||

The purusha is endowed with the power of perception. It perceives things when it is associated with the mind, intellect and sense faculties. If these instruments of perception are either absent (i.e., detached from the purusha or not associated with it) or impeded, then there will be no perception. One cannot get the true reflection of an image from a mirror that is covered with dirt or from dirty water. Similar is the case when the mind gets afflicted. [54-55]

करणानि मनो बुद्धिर्बुद्धिकर्मेन्द्रियाणि च| कर्तुः संयोगजं कर्म वेदना बुद्धिरेव च||५६||

karaṇāni manō buddhirbuddhikarmēndriyāṇi ca| kartuḥ saṁyōgajaṁ karma vēdanā buddhirēva ca||56||

karaNAni mano buddhirbuddhikarmendriyANi ca| kartuH saMyogajaM karma vedanA buddhireva ca||56||

नैकः प्रवर्तते कर्तुं भूतात्मा नाश्नुते फलम्| संयोगाद्वर्तते सर्वं तमृते नास्ति किञ्चन||५७||

naikaḥ pravartatē kartuṁ bhūtātmā nāśnutē phalam| saṁyōgādvartatē sarvaṁ tamr̥tē nāsti kiñcana||57||

naikaH pravartate kartuM bhUtAtmA nAshnute phalam| saMyogAdvartate sarvaM tamRute nAsti ki~jcana||57||

The instruments of knowledge are mind, intellect and cognitive and conative organs. Their association with the doer (purusha) results in action, sensation and understanding. The purusha alone (soul in the absence of mana and indriyas) does neither initiate deeds nor enjoy the result of deeds. Combination of all these factors is responsible for the manifestation of every effect and without that nothing exists nor happens. [56-57]

न ह्येको वर्तते भावो वर्तते नाप्यहेतुकः| शीघ्रगत्वात्स्वभावात्त्वभावो [४] न व्यतिवर्तते||५८||

na hyēkō vartatē bhāvō vartatē nāpyahētukaḥ| śīghragatvātsvabhāvāttvabhāvō [4] na vyativartatē||58||

na hyeko vartate bhAvo vartate nApyahetukaH| shIghragatvAtsvabhAvAttvabhAvo [4] na vyativartate||58||

The purusha, not alone but accompanied with mana and indriyas, is responsible for the manifestation of things. The process of decay on the other hand being too quick in succession does not need any cause as such. [58]

अनादिः पुरुषो नित्यो विपरीतस्तु हेतुजः| सदकारणवन्नित्यं दृष्टं हेतुजमन्यथा||५९||

anādiḥ puruṣō nityō viparītastu hētujaḥ| sadakāraṇavannityaṁ dr̥ṣṭaṁ hētujamanyathā||59||

anAdiH puruSho nityo viparItastu hetujaH| sadakAraNavannityaM dRuShTaM hetujamanyathA||59||

Thus, the absolute soul is without a beginning or an end, but the purusha (i.e. the combination of 24 elements) being caused by something is not so i.e. it has a beginning and is ephemeral.

All that exists without cause is eternal. Anything produced from a cause is ephemeral. [59]

तदेव भावादग्राह्यं नित्यत्व [१] न कुतश्चन| भावाज्ज्ञेयं तदव्यक्तमचिन्त्यं व्यक्तमन्यथा||६०||

tadēva bhāvādagrāhyaṁ nityatva [1] na kutaścana| bhāvājjñēyaṁ tadavyaktamacintyaṁ vyaktamanyathā||60||

tadeva bhAvAdagrAhyaM nityatva [1] na kutashcana| bhAvAjj~jeyaM tadavyaktamacintyaM vyaktamanyathA||60||

अव्यक्तमात्मा क्षेत्रज्ञः शाश्वतो विभुरव्ययः| तस्माद्यदन्यत्तद्व्यक्तं, वक्ष्यते चापरं द्वयम्||६१||

avyaktamātmā kṣētrajñaḥ śāśvatō vibhuravyayaḥ| tasmādyadanyattadvyaktaṁ, vakṣyatē cāparaṁ dvayam||61||

avyaktamAtmA kShetraj~jaH shAshvato vibhuravyayaH| tasmAdyadanyattadvyaktaM, vakShyate cAparaM dvayam||61||

व्यक्तमैन्द्रियकं चैव गृह्यते तद्यदिन्द्रियैः| अतोऽन्यत् पुनरव्यक्तं लिङ्गग्राह्यमतीन्द्रियम्||६२||

vyaktamaindriyakaṁ caiva gr̥hyatē tadyadindriyaiḥ| atō'nyat punaravyaktaṁ liṅgagrāhyamatīndriyam||62||

vyaktamaindriyakaM caiva gRuhyate tadyadindriyaiH| ato~anyat punaravyaktaM li~ggagrAhyamatIndriyam||62||

The absolute soul cannot be perceived by anything, for eternity is not caused by anything. So, the absolute soul is unmanifested and imperceptible. The manifested creation is, of course, otherwise.

The absolute soul is unmanifested, knower of creation, eternal, universal and indestructible. The manifested creation (purusha) is, of course, otherwise. Another way of distinguishing manifested things from the unmanifested ones is that the former can be perceived by sense faculties. The latter is transcendental in nature and is not perceptible with the senses. It can only be inferred (rather than perceived). [60-62]

Shodash vikara (sixteen elements)

खादीनि बुद्धिरव्यक्तमहङ्कारस्तथाऽष्टमः| भूतप्रकृतिरुद्दिष्टा विकाराश्चैव षोडश||६३||

khādīni buddhiravyaktamahaṅkārastathā'ṣṭamaḥ| bhūtaprakr̥tiruddiṣṭā vikārāścaiva ṣōḍaśa||63||

khAdIni buddhiravyaktamaha~gkArastathA~aShTamaH| bhUtaprakRutiruddiShTA vikArAshcaiva ShoDasha||63||

बुद्धीन्द्रियाणि पञ्चैव पञ्च कर्मेन्द्रियाणि च| समनस्काश्च पञ्चार्था विकारा इति सञ्ज्ञिताः||६४||

buddhīndriyāṇi pañcaiva pañca karmēndriyāṇi ca| samanaskāśca pañcārthā vikārā iti sañjñitāḥ||64||

buddhIndriyANi pa~jcaiva pa~jca karmendriyANi ca| samanaskAshca pa~jcArthA vikArA iti sa~jj~jitAH||64||

The five subtle elements (viz. shabdatanmantra, sparshatanmantra, rupatanmantra, rasatanmatra and gandhatanmatra), buddhi (intellect), avyakta (prakriti or nature) and ahamkara (ego) are the eight sources of creation. Transformed and bio-transformed elements (vikara) are sixteen in number, viz. five sense faculties, five motor faculties, mind and five mahabhutas. [63-64]

इति क्षेत्रं समुद्दिष्टं सर्वमव्यक्तवर्जितम्| अव्यक्तमस्य क्षेत्रस्य क्षेत्रज्ञमृषयो विदुः||६५||

iti kṣētraṁ samuddiṣṭaṁ sarvamavyaktavarjitam| avyaktamasya kṣētrasya kṣētrajñamr̥ṣayō viduḥ||65||

iti kShetraM samuddiShTaM sarvamavyaktavarjitam| avyaktamasya kShetrasya kShetraj~jamRuShayo viduH||65||

All this taken together, except the unmanifested one (avyakta), is known as kshetra i.e. corpus (body). The unmanifested (soul) one is known as kshetragna (knower of the corpus) which adjoins the body. [65]

जायते बुद्धिरव्यक्ताद्बुद्ध्याऽहमिति मन्यते| परं खादीन्यहङ्कारादुत्पद्यन्ते [१] यथाक्रमम्||६६||

jāyatē buddhiravyaktādbuddhyā'hamiti manyatē| paraṁ khādīnyahaṅkārādutpadyantē [1] yathākramam||66||

jAyate buddhiravyaktAdbuddhyA~ahamiti manyate| paraM khAdInyaha~gkArAdutpadyante [1] yathAkramam||66||

ततः सम्पूर्णसर्वाङ्गो जातोऽभ्युदित उच्यते|

tataḥ sampūrṇasarvāṅgō jātō'bhyudita ucyatē| puruShaH pralaye ceShTaiH punarbhAvairviyujyate||67||

Buddhi originates from avyakta, ahamkara from buddhi, and the five subtle mahabhutas (Tanmatras), viz. akashatanmatra etc. from ahamkara. These, along with the five gross mahabhutas (in the right sequence) and the bio-transformed five indriyas, constitute the purusha. Thus, with this purusha manifested in its entirety, the body (life) with its all constituents is said to be born (living life). [66-67]

पुरुषः प्रलये चेष्टैः पुनर्भावैर्वियुज्यते||६७||

puruṣaḥ pralayē cēṣṭaiḥ punarbhāvairviyujyatē||67|| tataH sampUrNasarvA~ggo jAto~abhyudita ucyate|

अव्यक्ताद्व्यक्ततां याति व्यक्तादव्यक्ततां पुनः| रजस्तमोभ्यामाविष्टश्चक्रवत् परिवर्तते||६८||

avyaktādvyaktatāṁ yāti vyaktādavyaktatāṁ punaḥ| rajastamōbhyāmāviṣṭaścakravat parivartatē||68||

avyaktAdvyaktatAM yAti vyaktAdavyaktatAM punaH| rajastamobhyAmAviShTashcakravat parivartate||68||

येषां द्वन्द्वे परा सक्तिरहङ्कारपराश्च ये| उदयप्रलयौ तेषां न तेषां ये त्वतोऽन्यथा||६९||

yēṣāṁ dvandvē parā saktirahaṅkāraparāśca yē| udayapralayau tēṣāṁ na tēṣāṁ yē tvatō'nyathā||69||

yeShAM dvandve parA saktiraha~gkAraparAshca ye| udayapralayau teShAM na teShAM ye tvato~anyathA||69||

At the time of destruction of life, the purusha (soul) again dissociates itself from all the manifestations meant for its enjoyment, viz. buddhi etc. The universe accompanied with rajas and tamas cycles between the unmanifested and the manifested stages. Those who are attached to rajas and tamas and those who are egoistic undergo the process of birth and rebirth. Others that are not, get liberation. [67-69]

प्राणापानौ निमेषाद्या जीवनं मनसो गतिः| इन्द्रियान्तरसञ्चारः प्रेरणं धारणं च यत्||७०||

prāṇāpānau nimēṣādyā jīvanaṁ manasō gatiḥ| indriyāntarasañcāraḥ prēraṇaṁ dhāraṇaṁ ca yat||70||

prANApAnau nimeShAdyA jIvanaM manaso gatiH| indriyAntarasa~jcAraH preraNaM dhAraNaM ca yat||70||

देशान्तरगतिः स्वप्ने पञ्चत्वग्रहणं तथा| दृष्टस्य दक्षिणेनाक्ष्णा सव्येनावगमस्तथा||७१||

dēśāntaragatiḥ svapnē pañcatvagrahaṇaṁ tathā| dr̥ṣṭasya dakṣiṇēnākṣṇā savyēnāvagamastathā||71||

deshAntaragatiH svapne pa~jcatvagrahaNaM tathA| dRuShTasya dakShiNenAkShNA savyenAvagamastathA||71||

इच्छा द्वेषः सुखं दुःखं प्रयत्नश्चेतना धृतिः| बुद्धिः स्मृतिरहङ्कारो लिङ्गानि परमात्मनः||७२||

icchā dvēṣaḥ sukhaṁ duḥkhaṁ prayatnaścētanā dhr̥tiḥ| buddhiḥ smr̥tirahaṅkārō liṅgāni paramātmanaḥ||72||

cchA dveShaH sukhaM duHkhaM prayatnashcetanA dhRutiH| buddhiH smRutiraha~gkAro li~ggAni paramAtmanaH||72||

यस्मात् समुपलभ्यन्ते लिङ्गान्येतानि जीवतः| न मृतस्यात्मलिङ्गानि तस्मादाहुर्महर्षयः||७३||

yasmāt samupalabhyantē liṅgānyētāni jīvataḥ| na mr̥tasyātmaliṅgāni tasmādāhurmaharṣayaḥ||73||

yasmAt samupalabhyante li~ggAnyetAni jIvataH| na mRutasyAtmali~ggAni tasmAdAhurmaharShayaH||73||

शरीरं हि गते तस्मिञ् शून्यागारमचेतनम्| पञ्चभूतावशेषत्वात् पञ्चत्वं गतमुच्यते||७४||

śarīraṁ hi gatē tasmiñ śūnyāgāramacētanam| pañcabhūtāvaśēṣatvāt pañcatvaṁ gatamucyatē||74||

sharIraM hi gate tasmi~j shUnyAgAramacetanam| pa~jcabhUtAvasheShatvAt pa~jcatvaM gatamucyate||74||

In response to the question on the signs and symptoms of a soul in the living body, as well as the proofs of existence of the soul in living animates, Lord Atreya mentions the following as proof:

  1. Inspiration and expiration;
  2. Twinkling of the eye;
  3. Sign and symptoms of living life;
  4. Ability to mentally teleport oneself (e.g. arriving at a distant place like Pataliputra in imagination or dream);
  5. Shift from one object of sense organ to another (e.g. shift from visual perception to tactile perception);
  6. Inspiration and controlling mind and indriyas
  7. Journey to another country in dreams;
  8. Anticipation of death;
  9. Knowledge of something visualized in right eye by the left eye;
  10. Desire, envy, happiness, misery, effort, consciousness, stability, intellect, memory and ego.

All these are signs of a living person. These signs are not available in a dead body. So, they are considered to be proof of existence of the soul till the living life. When that soul, with all its associates (indriyas, manas and four subtle mahabhutas) departs, the body becomes vacant and is deprived of consciousness. Only the five mahabhutas remain. So, a dead body is said to have attained the state of five mahabhutas (panchtatva) [70-74]

अचेतनं क्रियावच्च मनश्चेतयिता परः| युक्तस्य मनसा तस्य निर्दिश्यन्ते विभोः क्रियाः||७५||

acētanaṁ kriyāvacca manaścētayitā paraḥ| yuktasya manasā tasya nirdiśyantē vibhōḥ kriyāḥ||75||

acetanaM kriyAvacca manashcetayitA paraH| yuktasya manasA tasya nirdishyante vibhoH kriyAH||75||

चेतनावान् यतश्चात्मा ततः कर्ता निरुच्यते| अचेतनत्वाच्च मनः क्रियावदपि नोच्यते||७६||

cētanāvān yataścātmā tataḥ kartā nirucyatē| acētanatvācca manaḥ kriyāvadapi nōcyatē||76||

cetanAvAn yatashcAtmA tataH kartA nirucyate| acetanatvAcca manaH kriyAvadapi nocyate||76||

Mind is active but devoid of consciousness, while the soul is conscious but not active and is considered a doer, or an actor, or an agent of deeds. The mind is not considered as actor. [75-76]

Thus, the ability to “cause” or “act” resides in the conscious and not in unconscious.

यथास्वेनात्मनाऽऽत्मानं सर्वः सर्वासु योनिषु| प्राणैस्तन्त्रयते प्राणी नह्यन्योऽस्त्यस्य तन्त्रकः||७७||

yathāsvēnātmanātmānaṁ sarvaḥ sarvāsu yōniṣu| prāṇaistantrayatē prāṇī nahyanyō'styasya tantrakaḥ||77||

yathAsvenAtmanA~a~atmAnaM sarvaH sarvAsu yoniShu| prANaistantrayate prANI nahyanyo~astyasya tantrakaH||77||

वशी तत् कुरुते कर्म यत् कृत्वा फलमश्नुते| वशी चेतः समाधत्ते वशी सर्वं निरस्यति||७८||

vaśī tat kurutē karma yat kr̥tvā phalamaśnutē| vaśī cētaḥ samādhattē vaśī sarvaṁ nirasyati||78||

vashI tat kurute karma yat kRutvA phalamashnute| vashI cetaH samAdhatte vashI sarvaM nirasyati||78||

The soul can independently enter any animate body. There is no other controller of soul, hence, it is considered a self controller. It is to said that the soul is free and independent to do its deeds but it is not free to get result of its deeds as per its own wish. Here it can be understood that the control of its activities and its entry into the body is governed by the result of its deeds. The soul is absolutely free to act as it pleases. It is however obliged to enjoy the results of its own deeds. It is also free to control the mind associated with it, and get rid of the results of good or bad acts of its own. [78]

देही सर्वगतोऽप्यात्मा [१] स्वे स्वे संस्पर्शनेन्द्रिये| सर्वाः सर्वाश्रयस्थास्तु नात्माऽतो वेत्ति वेदनाः||७९||

dēhī sarvagatō'pyātmā [1] svē svē saṁsparśanēndriyē| sarvāḥ sarvāśrayasthāstu nātmā'tō vētti vēdanāḥ||79||

dehI sarvagato~apyAtmA [1] sve sve saMsparshanendriye| sarvAH sarvAshrayasthAstu nAtmA~ato vetti vedanAH||79||

Even though the soul is all pervasive, it can perceive sensations in its associated physical body through the contact of sense organs with their respective objects. (Being limited by the contacts of the bodily sense organs with their objects), the soul cannot have all sensations [79]

विभुत्वमत एवास्य यस्मात् सर्वगतो महान्| मनसश्च समाधानात् पश्यत्यात्मा तिरस्कृतम्||८०||

vibhutvamata ēvāsya yasmāt sarvagatō mahān| manasaśca samādhānāt paśyatyātmā tiraskr̥tam||80||

vibhutvamata evAsya yasmAt sarvagato mahAn| manasashca samAdhAnAt pashyatyAtmA tiraskRutam||80||

नित्यानुबन्धं मनसा देहकर्मानुपातिना| सर्वयोनिगतं विद्यादेकयोनावपि स्थितम्||८१||

nityānubandhaṁ manasā dēhakarmānupātinā| sarvayōnigataṁ vidyādēkayōnāvapi sthitam||81||

nityAnubandhaM manasA dehakarmAnupAtinA| sarvayonigataM vidyAdekayonAvapi sthitam||81||

When the omnipresent, supreme soul gets combined with manas and other senses, it becomes kshetragya i.e., one that has the power to go anywhere in the universe and become a knower of that body. It can perceive objects inspite of (spatial, temporal or material) obstructions. Even though it is located in one body when associated with the mind through physical actions, it is still present in all other bodies. Conversely, in spite of it being present in all bodies, its field of action is limited to one body alone because of its contact with the mind. [80-81]

आदिर्नास्त्यात्मनः [१] क्षेत्रपारम्पर्यमनादिकम्| अतस्तयोरनादित्वात् किं पूर्वमिति नोच्यते||८२||

ādirnāstyātmanaḥ [1] kṣētrapāramparyamanādikam| atastayōranāditvāt kiṁ pūrvamiti nōcyatē||82||

AdirnAstyAtmanaH [1] kShetrapAramparyamanAdikam| atastayoranAditvAt kiM pUrvamiti nocyate||82||

ज्ञः साक्षीत्युच्यते नाज्ञः साक्षी त्वात्मा यतः स्मृतः| सर्वे भावा हि सर्वेषां भूतानामात्मसाक्षिकाः||८३||

jñaḥ sākṣītyucyatē nājñaḥ sākṣī tvātmā yataḥ smr̥taḥ| sarvē bhāvā hi sarvēṣāṁ bhūtānāmātmasākṣikāḥ||83||

j~jaH sAkShItyucyate nAj~jaH sAkShI tvAtmA yataH smRutaH| sarve bhAvA hi sarveShAM bhUtAnAmAtmasAkShikAH||83||

Atma (soul) does not have a beginning, and similarly, the corpus (combination of ayu elements) also does not have a beginning. The continuity of kshetra and kshetragya is so long that it is not possible to say which came earlier (kshetra or kshetragya) [82]

It is only he who knows things that can stand as a witness. So, all attributes, actions etc., of bhutas are witnessed by the soul (who alone is the knower of things). Things cannot be witnessed by unconscious objects like stone). [83]

नैकः कदाचिद्भूतात्मा लक्षणैरुपलभ्यते| विशेषोऽनुपलभ्यस्य तस्य नैकस्य विद्यते||८४||

naikaḥ kadācidbhūtātmā lakṣaṇairupalabhyatē| viśēṣō'nupalabhyasya tasya naikasya vidyatē||84||

naikaH kadAcidbhUtAtmA lakShaNairupalabhyate| visheSho~anupalabhyasya tasya naikasya vidyate||84||

संयोगपुरुषस्येष्टो विशेषो वेदनाकृतः| वेदना यत्र नियता विशेषस्तत्र तत्कृतः||८५||

saṁyōgapuruṣasyēṣṭō viśēṣō vēdanākr̥taḥ| vēdanā yatra niyatā viśēṣastatra tatkr̥taḥ||85||

saMyogapuruShasyeShTo visheSho vedanAkRutaH| vedanA yatra niyatA visheShastatra tatkRutaH||85||

The absolute soul is unity and singular. It does not have signs or symptoms. Since it is inaccessible, it has no sensation. It is only the purusha that has sensations. These sensations do not constitute the attributes of the soul as such, but arise out of contact (of the sense organs with their objects). [84-85]

चिकित्सति भिषक् सर्वास्त्रिकाला वेदना इति| यया युक्त्या वदन्त्येके सा युक्तिरुपधार्यताम्||८६||

cikitsati bhiṣak sarvāstrikālā vēdanā iti| yayā yuktyā vadantyēkē sā yuktirupadhāryatām||86||

cikitsati bhiShak sarvAstrikAlA vedanA iti| yayA yuktyA vadantyeke sA yuktirupadhAryatAm||86||

पुनस्तच्छिरसः शूलं ज्वरः स पुनरागतः| पुनः स कासो बलवांश्छर्दिः सा पुनरागता||८७||

punastacchirasaḥ śūlaṁ jvaraḥ sa punarāgataḥ| punaḥ sa kāsō balavāṁśchardiḥ sā punarāgatā||87|| punastacchirasaH shUlaM jvaraH sa punarAgataH| punaH sa kAso balavAMshchardiH sA punarAgatA||87||

एभिः प्रसिद्धवचनैरतीतागमनं मतम्| कालश्चायमतीतानामर्तीनां पुनरागतः||८८||

ēbhiḥ prasiddhavacanairatītāgamanaṁ matam| kālaścāyamatītānāmartīnāṁ punarāgataḥ||88||

ebhiH prasiddhavacanairatItAgamanaM matam| kAlashcAyamatItAnAmartInAM punarAgataH||88||

तमर्तिकालमुद्दिश्य भेषजं यत् प्रयुज्यते| अतीतानां प्रशमनं वेदनानां तदुच्यते||८९||

tamartikālamuddiśya bhēṣajaṁ yat prayujyatē| atītānāṁ praśamanaṁ vēdanānāṁ taducyatē||89||

tamartikAlamuddishya bheShajaM yat prayujyate| atItAnAM prashamanaM vedanAnAM taducyate||89||

आपस्ताः पुनरागुर्मा याभिः शस्यं पुरा हतम्| यथा प्रक्रियते सेतुः प्रतिकर्म तथाऽऽश्रये||९०||

āpastāḥ punarāgurmā yābhiḥ śasyaṁ purā hatam| yathā prakriyatē sētuḥ pratikarma tathāśrayē||90||

ApastAH punarAgurmA yAbhiH shasyaM purA hatam| yathA prakriyate setuH pratikarma tathA~a~ashraye||90||

पूर्वरूपं विकाराणां दृष्ट्वा प्रादुर्भविष्यताम्| या क्रिया क्रियते सा च वेदनां हन्त्यनागताम्||९१||

pūrvarūpaṁ vikārāṇāṁ dr̥ṣṭvā prādurbhaviṣyatām| yā kriyā kriyatē sā ca vēdanāṁ hantyanāgatām||91||

pUrvarUpaM vikArANAM dRuShTvA prAdurbhaviShyatAm| yA kriyA kriyate sA ca vedanAM hantyanAgatAm||91||

पारम्पर्यानबन्धस्तु दुःखानां विनिवर्तते| सुखहेतूपचारेण सुखं चापि प्रवर्तते||९२||

pāramparyānabandhastu duḥkhānāṁ vinivartatē| sukhahētūpacārēṇa sukhaṁ cāpi pravartatē||92||

pAramparyAnabandhastu duHkhAnAM vinivartate| sukhahetUpacAreNa sukhaM cApi pravartate||92||

न समा यान्ति वैषम्यं विषमाः समतां न च| हेतुभिः सदृशा नित्यं जायन्ते देहधातवः||९३||

na samā yānti vaiṣamyaṁ viṣamāḥ samatāṁ na ca| hētubhiḥ sadr̥śā nityaṁ jāyantē dēhadhātavaḥ||93||

na samA yAnti vaiShamyaM viShamAH samatAM na ca| hetubhiH sadRushA nityaM jAyante dehadhAtavaH||93||

युक्तिमेतां पुरस्कृत्य त्रिकालां वेदनां भिषक्| हन्तीत्युक्तं चिकित्सा तु नैष्ठिकी या विनोपधाम्||९४||

yuktimētāṁ puraskr̥tya trikālāṁ vēdanāṁ bhiṣak| hantītyuktaṁ cikitsā tu naiṣṭhikī yā vinōpadhām||94||

yuktimetAM puraskRutya trikAlAM vedanAM bhiShak| hantItyuktaM cikitsA tu naiShThikI yA vinopadhAm||94||

The following logic is given here while responding to the question on the management of illnesses of the past, the present and the future. Recurrence of headache, fever, cough and vomiting establishes the fact that diseases of the past do relapse. That is to say, the time of occurrence of the various diseases in the past repeats itself. The therapeutic devices meant for alleviating such recurring diseases verily take the past history (of such diseases) into consideration.

In order that flood waters may not damage crops as they did in the past, a dam is constructed as a preventive measure. So are some therapeutic devices prescribed to prevent certain diseases which are likely to attack living beings in future. This treatment relates to prevention of future diseases.

A continuity of ailments is checked by treatments that are conducive to the continuity of happiness. The state of equilibrium of dhatus is not disturbed nor is the imbalanced state brought to normalcy without some causative factors. It is the causative factors which determine the equilibrium or imbalance of the dhatus. So a physician treats the diseases pertaining to the past, present and future. [86-94]

उपधा हि परो हेतुर्दुःखदुःखाश्रयप्रदः| त्यागः सर्वोपधानां च सर्वदुःखव्यपोहकः||९५||

upadhā hi parō hēturduḥkhaduḥkhāśrayapradaḥ| tyāgaḥ sarvōpadhānāṁ ca sarvaduḥkhavyapōhakaḥ||95||

upadhA hi paro heturduHkhaduHkhAshrayapradaH| tyAgaH sarvopadhAnAM ca sarvaduHkhavyapohakaH||95||

कोषकारो यथा ह्यंशूनुपादत्ते वधप्रदान् [३] | उपादत्ते तथाऽर्थेभ्यस्तृष्णामज्ञः सदाऽऽतुरः||९६||

kōṣakārō yathā hyaṁśūnupādattē vadhapradān [3] | upādattē tathā'rthēbhyastr̥ṣṇāmajñaḥ sadāturaḥ||96||

koShakAro yathA hyaMshUnupAdatte vadhapradAn [3] | upAdatte tathA~arthebhyastRuShNAmaj~jaH sadA~a~aturaH||96||

यस्त्वग्निकल्पानर्थाञ् ज्ञो ज्ञात्वा तेभ्यो निवर्तते| अनारम्भादसंयोगात्तं दुःखं नोपतिष्ठते||९७||

yastvagnikalpānarthāñ jñō jñātvā tēbhyō nivartatē| anārambhādasaṁyōgāttaṁ duḥkhaṁ nōpatiṣṭhatē||97||

yastvagnikalpAnarthA~j j~jo j~jAtvA tebhyo nivartate| anArambhAdasaMyogAttaM duHkhaM nopatiShThate||97||

Absolute eradication of miseries is obtained by the elimination of desires. Desire is the root cause of all miseries. Elimination of desires leads to the eradication of all miseries. A silk worm provides for itself suicidal threads. So, does an ignorant person. Bound by worldly miseries, he provides for himself desires arising out of the various objects. A wise person who abstains from the objects of senses, considering them as dangerous as burning fire, does not subject himself to any wishful acts and attachments with the result that miseries never overcome him. [94-97]

Basic causes of miseries in life

धीधृतिस्मृतिविभ्रंशः सम्प्राप्तिः कालकर्मणाम्| असात्म्यार्थागमश्चेति ज्ञातव्या दुःखहेतवः||९८||

dhīdhr̥tismr̥tivibhraṁśaḥ samprāptiḥ kālakarmaṇām| asātmyārthāgamaścēti jñātavyā duḥkhahētavaḥ||98||

dhIdhRutismRutivibhraMshaH samprAptiH kAlakarmaNAm| asAtmyArthAgamashceti j~jAtavyA duHkhahetavaH||98||

Impairment of intellect (grasping and keeping power), dhriti (controlling power) and memory (recalling power), ageing/advent of maturity, unwholesome contact with objects of senses, and deeds could be counted as factors responsible for causing miseries. [98]

विषमाभिनिवेशो यो नित्यानित्ये हिताहिते| ज्ञेयः स बुद्धिविभ्रंशः समं बुद्धिर्हि पश्यति||९९||

viṣamābhinivēśō yō nityānityē hitāhitē| jñēyaḥ sa buddhivibhraṁśaḥ samaṁ buddhirhi paśyati||99||

viShamAbhinivesho yo nityAnitye hitAhite| j~jeyaH sa buddhivibhraMshaH samaM buddhirhi pashyati||99||

If something eternal is viewed as ephemeral and something harmful as useful, and vice versa, this is indicative of the impairment of intellect. For, the normal intellect views things as they are. [99]

विषयप्रवणं सत्त्वं धृतिभ्रंशान्न शक्यते| नियन्तुमहितादर्थाद्धृतिर्हि नियमात्मिका||१००||

viṣayapravaṇaṁ sattvaṁ dhr̥tibhraṁśānna śakyatē| niyantumahitādarthāddhr̥tirhi niyamātmikā||100||

viShayapravaNaM sattvaM dhRutibhraMshAnna shakyate| niyantumahitAdarthAddhRutirhi niyamAtmikA||100||

A mind indulging in worldly enjoyments cannot be restrained from harmful objects due to the impairment of dhriti (controlling power). It is dhriti that can restrain the mind (from its harmful objects) [100]

तत्त्वज्ञाने स्मृतिर्यस्य रजोमोहावृतात्मनः| भ्रश्यते स स्मृतिभ्रंशः स्मर्तव्यं हि स्मृतौ स्थितम्||१०१||

tattvajñānē smr̥tiryasya rajōmōhāvr̥tātmanaḥ| bhraśyatē sa smr̥tibhraṁśaḥ smartavyaṁ hi smr̥tau sthitam||101|| tattvaj~jAne smRutiryasya rajomohAvRutAtmanaH| bhrashyate sa smRutibhraMshaH smartavyaM hi smRutau sthitam||101||

If the memory is impaired due to a person being overcome by rajas and tamas, this is known as the impairment of smriti. Normally smriti contains everything memorable. [101]

Prajnparadha (intellectual defect) and its consequences

धीधृतिस्मृतिविभ्रष्टः कर्म यत् कुरुतेऽशुभम्| प्रज्ञापराधं तं विद्यात् सर्वदोषप्रकोपणम्||१०२||

dhīdhr̥tismr̥tivibhraṣṭaḥ karma yat kurutē'śubham| prajñāparādhaṁ taṁ vidyāt sarvadōṣaprakōpaṇam||102||

dhIdhRutismRutivibhraShTaH karma yat kurute~ashubham| praj~jAparAdhaM taM vidyAt sarvadoShaprakopaNam||102||

उदीरणं गतिमतामुदीर्णानां च निग्रहः| सेवनं साहसानां च नारीणां चातिसेवनम्||१०३||

udīraṇaṁ gatimatāmudīrṇānāṁ ca nigrahaḥ| sēvanaṁ sāhasānāṁ ca nārīṇāṁ cātisēvanam||103||

udIraNaM gatimatAmudIrNAnAM ca nigrahaH| sevanaM sAhasAnAM ca nArINAM cAtisevanam||103||

कर्मकालातिपातश्च मिथ्यारम्भश्च कर्मणाम्| विनयाचारलोपश्च पूज्यानां चाभिधर्षणम्||१०४||

karmakālātipātaśca mithyārambhaśca karmaṇām| vinayācāralōpaśca pūjyānāṁ cābhidharṣaṇam||104||

karmakAlAtipAtashca mithyArambhashca karmaNAm| vinayAcAralopashca pUjyAnAM cAbhidharShaNam||104||

ज्ञातानां स्वयमर्थानामहितानां निषेवणम्| परमौन्मादिकानां च प्रत्ययानां निषेवणम्||१०५||

jñātānāṁ svayamarthānāmahitānāṁ niṣēvaṇam| paramaunmādikānāṁ ca pratyayānāṁ niṣēvaṇam||105||

j~jAtAnAM svayamarthAnAmahitAnAM niShevaNam| paramaunmAdikAnAM ca pratyayAnAM niShevaNam||105||

अकालादेशसञ्चारौ मैत्री सङ्क्लिष्टकर्मभिः| इन्द्रियोपक्रमोक्तस्य सद्वृत्तस्य च वर्जनम्||१०६||

akālādēśasañcārau maitrī saṅkliṣṭakarmabhiḥ| indriyōpakramōktasya sadvr̥ttasya ca varjanam||106||

akAlAdeshasa~jcArau maitrI sa~gkliShTakarmabhiH| indriyopakramoktasya sadvRuttasya ca varjanam||106||

ईर्ष्यामानभयक्रोधलोभमोहमदभ्रमाः| तज्जं वा कर्म यत् क्लिष्टं क्लिष्टं यद्देहकर्म च||१०७||

īrṣyāmānabhayakrōdhalōbhamōhamadabhramāḥ| tajjaṁ vā karma yat kliṣṭaṁ kliṣṭaṁ yaddēhakarma ca||107||

IrShyAmAnabhayakrodhalobhamohamadabhramAH| tajjaM vA karma yat kliShTaM kliShTaM yaddehakarma ca||107||

यच्चान्यदीदृशं कर्म रजोमोहसमुत्थितम्| प्रज्ञापराधं तं शिष्टा ब्रुवते व्याधिकारणम् [१] ||१०८||

yaccānyadīdr̥śaṁ karma rajōmōhasamutthitam| prajñāparādhaṁ taṁ śiṣṭā bruvatē vyādhikāraṇam [1] ||108||

yaccAnyadIdRushaM karma rajomohasamutthitam| praj~jAparAdhaM taM shiShTA bruvate vyAdhikAraNam [1] ||108||

When a person’s dhi (ability to comprehend), dhriti (controlling power), and smriti (power to recall memories, or reminisce) get impaired, he performs inauspicious deeds that lead to aggravation of all doshas. This is called pragyaparadha (mistake of the intellect, knowingly committing crime or unwholesome/sinful acts).

Forcible stimulation of natural urges and suppression of the manifested ones, exhibition of undue strength, over indulgence in sexual acts, negligence of the time and method of administering of treatment (i.e. non utilization, excessive utilization, and impaired utilization of therapies), initiation of action in improper time, loss of modesty and good conduct, disrespecting those that deserve respect, enjoyment of harmful objects, resorting to the factors that are responsible for the causation of madness, scant regard to temporal or local propriety (e.g., doing things that are out of place or out of season), friendship with persons of bad character, avoidance of healthy activities described in sadvritta or harboring malice, vanity, fear, anger, greed, ignorance, intoxication and bewilderment or bad actions arising out of any of them, and/or physical evil acts arising out of rajas and tamas constitute pragyaparadha, the root cause of several diseases told by learned seers of Ayurveda. [102-108]

बुद्ध्या विषमविज्ञानं विषमं च प्रवर्तनम्| प्रज्ञापराधं जानीयान्मनसो गोचरं हि तत्||१०९||

buddhyā viṣamavijñānaṁ viṣamaṁ ca pravartanam| prajñāparādhaṁ jānīyānmanasō gōcaraṁ hi tat||109||

buddhyA viShamavij~jAnaM viShamaM ca pravartanam| praj~jAparAdhaM jAnIyAnmanaso gocaraM hi tat||109||

Understanding the subjects in improper way due to the impairment of intellect and, at the same time, executing this improper knowledge in the wrong way is also termed as pragyaparadha which makes improper cognition of manasa, indriyas with their objects and subjects. [109]

Importance of Kala (time factor)

निर्दिष्टा कालसम्प्राप्तिर्व्याधीनां व्याधिसङ्ग्रहे| चयप्रकोपप्रशमाः पित्तादीनां यथा पुरा||११०||

nirdiṣṭā kālasamprāptirvyādhīnāṁ vyādhisaṅgrahē| cayaprakōpapraśamāḥ pittādīnāṁ yathā purā||110||

nirdiShTA kAlasamprAptirvyAdhInAM vyAdhisa~ggrahe| cayaprakopaprashamAH pittAdInAM yathA purA||110||

मिथ्यातिहीनलिङ्गाश्च वर्षान्ता रोगहेतवः| जीर्णभुक्तप्रजीर्णान्नकालाकालस्थितिश्च [१] या||१११||

mithyātihīnaliṅgāśca varṣāntā rōgahētavaḥ| jīrṇabhuktaprajīrṇānnakālākālasthitiśca [1] yā||111||

mithyAtihInali~ggAshca varShAntA rogahetavaH| jIrNabhuktaprajIrNAnnakAlAkAlasthitishca [1] yA||111||

पूर्वमध्यापराह्णाश्च रात्र्या यामास्त्रयश्च ये| एषु कालेषु नियता ये रोगास्ते च कालजाः||११२||

pūrvamadhyāparāhṇāśca rātryā yāmāstrayaśca yē| ēṣu kālēṣu niyatā yē rōgāstē ca kālajāḥ||112||

pUrvamadhyAparAhNAshca rAtryA yAmAstrayashca ye| eShu kAleShu niyatA ye rogAste ca kAlajAH||112||

Ailments due to the advent of the season are already described in Sutra 17:114. It has been explained there, how pitta and other doshas get accumulated, aggravated and alleviated (depending on seasonal variation).

This category includes causative factors of diseases marked by wrong manifestation, over manifestation and under manifestation of their symptoms during seasons ending with the rains; during various stages of digestion viz. time of final digestion, time of intake of food and time of initial digestion; during different times of the day, viz. forenoon, mid-day and afternoon and during different hours of the night, viz. pre-midnight, midnight and post mid night. Diseases which as a rule manifest themselves during these times are also known as kalaja diseases. [110-112]

अन्येद्युष्को द्व्यहग्राही तृतीयकचतुर्थकौ| स्वे स्वे काले प्रवर्तन्ते काले ह्येषां बलागमः||११३||

anyēdyuṣkō dvyahagrāhī tr̥tīyakacaturthakau| svē svē kālē pravartantē kālē hyēṣāṁ balāgamaḥ||113||

anyedyuShko dvyahagrAhI tRutIyakacaturthakau| sve sve kAle pravartante kAle hyeShAM balAgamaH||113||

Diseases like anyedyska (quotidian fever which occurs at a fixed time every day), dvyahagrahi (reverse quotidian fever), tritiyaka (tertian fever which occurs at an interval of one day) and chaturthaka (quartan fever which occurs at an interval of two days) manifest themselves at fixed hours in as much as they get strength only at such hours. [113]

एते चान्ये [६] च ये केचित् कालजा विविधा गदाः| अनागते चिकित्स्यास्ते बलकालौ विजानता||११४||

ētē cānyē [6] ca yē kēcit kālajā vividhā gadāḥ| anāgatē cikitsyāstē balakālau vijānatā||114||

ete cAnye [6] ca ye kecit kAlajA vividhA gadAH| anAgate cikitsyAste balakAlau vijAnatA||114||

A physician acquainted with the knowledge of dosha bala and kala bala should treat this and other similar diseases prior to their actual manifestations. [114]

कालस्य परिणामेन जरामृत्युनिमित्तजाः| रोगाः स्वाभाविका दृष्टाः स्वभावो निष्प्रतिक्रियः||११५||

kālasya pariṇāmēna jarāmr̥tyunimittajāḥ| rōgāḥ svābhāvikā dr̥ṣṭāḥ svabhāvō niṣpratikriyaḥ||115||

kAlasya pariNAmena jarAmRutyunimittajAH| rogAH svAbhAvikA dRuShTAH svabhAvo niShpratikriyaH||115||

The diseases arising out of temporal factors that bring about old age and death are to be considered as natural ones, which affect everyone, and these such natural manifestations are irremediable. [115]

Daiva (fate/destiny)

निर्दिष्टं दैवशब्देन कर्म यत् पौर्वदेहिकम्| हेतुस्तदपि कालेन रोगाणामुपलभ्यते||११६||

nirdiṣṭaṁ daivaśabdēna karma yat paurvadēhikam| hētustadapi kālēna rōgāṇāmupalabhyatē||116||

nirdiShTaM daivashabdena karma yat paurvadehikam| hetustadapi kAlena rogANAmupalabhyate||116||

The deeds performed in the previous life or past time are known as daiva (fate) also constitutes in due course causative factors for the manifestation of diseases. [116] In other words it could be also said that some causes do not produce disease at the same time because they have less strength (karmaja roga).

न हि कर्म महत् किञ्चित् फलं यस्य न भुज्यते| क्रियाघ्नाः कर्मजा रोगाः प्रशमं यान्ति तत्क्षयात्||११७||

na hi karma mahat kiñcit phalaṁ yasya na bhujyatē| kriyāghnāḥ karmajā rōgāḥ praśamaṁ yānti tatkṣayāt||117||

na hi karma mahat ki~jcit phalaM yasya na bhujyate| kriyAghnAH karmajA rogAH prashamaM yAnti tatkShayAt||117||

There is no such major action/deed (performed in the previous life/past time) which does not lead to the corresponding results. Diseases arising out of such actions/deeds are not amenable to any therapeutic measures. They are cured only after the effects of past actions/deeds are exhausted i.e. fully enjoyed. [117]

Asatmya indriyartha samyoga (improper use of senses)

अत्युग्रशब्दश्रवणाच्छ्रवणात् सर्वशो न च| शब्दानां चातिहीनानां भवन्ति श्रवणाज्जडाः||११८||

atyugraśabdaśravaṇācchravaṇāt sarvaśō na ca| śabdānāṁ cātihīnānāṁ bhavanti śravaṇājjaḍāḥ||118||

atyugrashabdashravaNAcchravaNAt sarvasho na ca| shabdAnAM cAtihInAnAM bhavanti shravaNAjjaDAH||118||

परुषोद्भीषणाशस्ताप्रियव्यसनसूचकैः| शब्दैः श्रवणसंयोगो मिथ्यासंयोग उच्यते||११९||

paruṣōdbhīṣaṇāśastāpriyavyasanasūcakaiḥ| śabdaiḥ śravaṇasaṁyōgō mithyāsaṁyōga ucyatē||119||

paruShodbhIShaNAshastApriyavyasanasUcakaiH| shabdaiH shravaNasaMyogo mithyAsaMyoga ucyate||119||

असंस्पर्शोऽतिसंस्पर्शो हीनसंस्पर्श एव च| स्पृश्यानां सङ्ग्रहेणोक्तः स्पर्शनेन्द्रियबाधकः||१२०||

asaṁsparśō'tisaṁsparśō hīnasaṁsparśa ēva ca| spr̥śyānāṁ saṅgrahēṇōktaḥ sparśanēndriyabādhakaḥ||120||

asaMsparsho~atisaMsparsho hInasaMsparsha eva ca| spRushyAnAM sa~ggraheNoktaH sparshanendriyabAdhakaH||120||

यो भूतविषवातानामकालेनागतश्च यः| स्नेहशीतोष्णसंस्पर्शो मिथ्यायोग स उच्यते||१२१||

yō bhūtaviṣavātānāmakālēnāgataśca yaḥ| snēhaśītōṣṇasaṁsparśō mithyāyōga sa ucyatē||121||

yo bhUtaviShavAtAnAmakAlenAgatashca yaH| snehashItoShNasaMsparsho mithyAyoga sa ucyate||121||

रूपाणां भास्वतां दृष्टिर्विनश्यत्यतिदर्शनात्| दर्शनाच्चातिसूक्ष्माणां सर्वशश्चाप्यदर्शनात्||१२२||

rūpāṇāṁ bhāsvatāṁ dr̥ṣṭirvinaśyatyatidarśanāt| darśanāccātisūkṣmāṇāṁ sarvaśaścāpyadarśanāt||122||

rUpANAM bhAsvatAM dRuShTirvinashyatyatidarshanAt| darshanAccAtisUkShmANAM sarvashashcApyadarshanAt||122||

द्विष्टभैरवबीभत्सदूरातिश्लिष्टदर्शनात् [१] | तामसानां च रूपाणां मिथ्यासंयोग उच्यते||१२३||

dviṣṭabhairavabībhatsadūrātiśliṣṭadarśanāt [1] | tāmasānāṁ ca rūpāṇāṁ mithyāsaṁyōga ucyatē||123||

dviShTabhairavabIbhatsadUrAtishliShTadarshanAt [1] | tAmasAnAM ca rUpANAM mithyAsaMyoga ucyate||123||

अत्यादानमनादानमोकसात्म्यादिभिश्च यत्| रसानां विषमादानमल्पादानं च दूषणम्||१२४||

atyādānamanādānamōkasātmyādibhiśca yat| rasānāṁ viṣamādānamalpādānaṁ ca dūṣaṇam||124||

atyAdAnamanAdAnamokasAtmyAdibhishca yat| rasAnAM viShamAdAnamalpAdAnaM ca dUShaNam||124||

अतिमृद्वतितीक्ष्णानां गन्धानामुपसेवनम्| असेवनं सर्वशश्च घ्राणेन्द्रियविनाशनम्||१२५||

atimr̥dvatitīkṣṇānāṁ gandhānāmupasēvanam| asēvanaṁ sarvaśaśca ghrāṇēndriyavināśanam||125||

atimRudvatitIkShNAnAM gandhAnAmupasevanam| asevanaM sarvashashca ghrANendriyavinAshanam||125||

पूतिभूतविषद्विष्टा गन्धा ये चाप्यनार्तवाः| तैर्गन्धैर्घ्राणसंयोगो मिथ्यायोगः स उच्यते||१२६||

pūtibhūtaviṣadviṣṭā gandhā yē cāpyanārtavāḥ| tairgandhairghrāṇasaṁyōgō mithyāyōgaḥ sa ucyatē||126||

pUtibhUtaviShadviShTA gandhA ye cApyanArtavAH| tairgandhairghrANasaMyogo mithyAyogaH sa ucyate||126||

इत्यसात्म्यार्थसंयोगस्त्रिविधो दोषकोपनः| असात्म्यमिति तद्विद्याद्यन्न याति सहात्मताम्||१२७||

ityasātmyārthasaṁyōgastrividhō dōṣakōpanaḥ| asātmyamiti tadvidyādyanna yāti sahātmatām||127||

ityasAtmyArthasaMyogastrividho doShakopanaH| asAtmyamiti tadvidyAdyanna yAti sahAtmatAm||127||

The auditory sense faculty is impaired by the hearing of excessively loud or low sound (even by not hearing excessively loud sound) or by the absolute non – utilization of this sense faculty. Auditory contact with sounds indicating roughness, terror, inauspiciousness, distate and misery constitute the wrong utilization of the auditory sense organ.

The tactual sense is impaired, briefly speaking by the nonutilization, excessive utilization, and inadequate utilization of the touchable (including massage, unction etc).

Untimely contact with poisonous germs, poisonous wind; unctuous, cold and hot substances constitute wrong utilization of tactual sensation. Vision gets impaired by the excessive contact with dazzling objects or by contact with extremely subtle elements or by absolute nonutilization of visual faculty.

Visual contact with undesirable, terrific, despicable objects and objects placed at a distance or in close proximity constitutes the wrong utilization of visual faculty. Vision is also impaired by the contact of the visual faculty with faint objects. Excessive intake, absence of intake, intake in utter disregard to the wholesomeness of addiction and inadequate intake of rasas (tastes) vitiate the gaustatory faculty.

Olfactory faculty also gets impaired by the enjoyment of smells too mild and too sharp or by absolute nonutilization of this faculty. Inhalation of the smell of putrified objects, germs and poisonous as well as unseasonal smells constitutes wrong utilization of olfactory faculty.

These are the three types of unwholesome contact of sense with their respective objects which aggravate the doshas. A thing which is not conducive to the body is regarded as asatmya or unwholesome and which becomes responsible to provoke all the doshas. [118-127]

मिथ्यातिहीनयोगेभ्यो यो व्याधिरुपजायते| शब्दादीनां स विज्ञेयो व्याधिरैन्द्रियको बुधैः||१२८||

mithyātihīnayōgēbhyō yō vyādhirupajāyatē| śabdādīnāṁ sa vijñēyō vyādhiraindriyakō budhaiḥ||128||

mithyAtihInayogebhyo yo vyAdhirupajAyate| shabdAdInAM sa vij~jeyo vyAdhiraindriyako budhaiH||128||

When a disease is caused by wrong utilization, excessive, utilization and inadequate utilization (non – utilization) of sense faculties, viz. auditory etc, it is known as Aindriyaka(sensorial diseases) i.e. a disease caused by the impairment of senses. [128]

वेदनानामशान्तानामित्येते [३] हेतवः स्मृताः| सुखहेतुः समस्त्वेकः समयोगः सुदुर्लभः||१२९||

vēdanānāmaśāntānāmityētē [3] hētavaḥ smr̥tāḥ| sukhahētuḥ samastvēkaḥ samayōgaḥ sudurlabhaḥ||129||

vedanAnAmashAntAnAmityete [3] hetavaH smRutAH| sukhahetuH samastvekaH samayogaH sudurlabhaH||129||

These are the causative factors of the diseases which do not subside easily. But for a blissful life or a life without misery i.e. samayoga i.e. very much proper contact of the sensory organ with their objects is needed though it is very difficult to keep in practice. These are the factors responsible for miseries. Equitable utilization (of time, intellect and objects of sense faculties) brings about happiness. This equitable utilization is difficult to attain. [129]

Causes of happiness and miseries

नेन्द्रियाणि न चैवार्थाः सुखदुःखस्य हेतवः| हेतुस्तु सुखदुःखस्य योगो दृष्टश्चतुर्विधः||१३०||

nēndriyāṇi na caivārthāḥ sukhaduḥkhasya hētavaḥ| hētustu sukhaduḥkhasya yōgō dr̥ṣṭaścaturvidhaḥ||130||

nendriyANi na caivArthAH sukhaduHkhasya hetavaH| hetustu sukhaduHkhasya yogo dRuShTashcaturvidhaH||130||

सन्तीन्द्रियाणि सन्त्यर्था योगो न [१] च न चास्ति रुक्| न सुखं, कारणं तस्माद्योग एव चतुर्वधः||१३१||

santīndriyāṇi santyarthā yōgō na [1] ca na cāsti ruk| na sukhaṁ, kāraṇaṁ tasmādyōga ēva caturvadhaḥ||131||

santIndriyANi santyarthA yogo na [1] ca na cAsti ruk| na sukhaM, kAraNaM tasmAdyoga eva caturvadhaH||131||

Neither the sense organs nor their objects alone can bring about happiness or miseries. The latter are in fact caused by the fourfold contacts mentioned above (viz., proper utilization, wrong utilization, excessive utilization and non-utilization). Even if there are sense organs and their objects present, there would be no disease, nor any happiness unless the fourfold combination is involved. So, this contact itself constitutes a causative factor for happiness and miseries. [130-131]

नात्मेन्द्रियं मनो बुद्धिं गोचरं [१] कर्म वा विना| सुखदुःखं, यथा यच्च बोद्धव्यं तत्तथोच्यते||१३२||

nātmēndriyaṁ manō buddhiṁ gōcaraṁ [1] karma vā vinā| sukhaduḥkhaṁ, yathā yacca bōddhavyaṁ tattathōcyatē||132||

nAtmendriyaM mano buddhiM gocaraM [1] karma vA vinA| sukhaduHkhaM, yathA yacca boddhavyaM tattathocyate||132||

As a matter of fact, no happiness or misery can be caused without the soul, the sense organs, mind, intellect, objects of sense organs and results of past action/deeds. But in the context of the science of medicine, it is only the fourfold contact which is relevant as a causative factor of happiness and miseries, that is to say the wholesome contact is required to be adhered to and the unwholesome one to be given up for the maintenance of good health. [132]

स्पर्शनेन्द्रियसंस्पर्शः स्पर्शो मानस एव च| द्विविधः सुखदुःखानां वेदनानां प्रवर्तकः||१३३||

sparśanēndriyasaṁsparśaḥ sparśō mānasa ēva ca| dvividhaḥ sukhaduḥkhānāṁ vēdanānāṁ pravartakaḥ||133||

sparshanendriyasaMsparshaH sparsho mAnasa eva ca| dvividhaH sukhaduHkhAnAM vedanAnAM pravartakaH||133||

Tactual contact and mental contact are two types of contacts which bring about happiness and miseries. [133]

इच्छाद्वेषात्मिका तृष्णा सुखदुःखात् प्रवर्तते| तृष्णा च सुखदुःखानां कारणं पुनरुच्यते||१३४||

icchādvēṣātmikā tr̥ṣṇā sukhaduḥkhāt pravartatē| tr̥ṣṇā ca sukhaduḥkhānāṁ kāraṇaṁ punarucyatē||134||

icchAdveShAtmikA tRuShNA sukhaduHkhAt pravartate| tRuShNA ca sukhaduHkhAnAM kAraNaM punarucyate||134||

उपादत्ते हि सा भावान् वेदनाश्रयसञ्ज्ञकान्| स्पृश्यते नानुपादाने नास्पृष्टो वेत्ति वेदनाः||१३५||

upādattē hi sā bhāvān vēdanāśrayasañjñakān| spr̥śyatē nānupādānē nāspr̥ṣṭō vētti vēdanāḥ||135||

upAdatte hi sA bhAvAn vedanAshrayasa~jj~jakAn| spRushyate nAnupAdAne nAspRuShTo vetti vedanAH||135||

Happiness and miseries bring about lust in the form of likes and dislikes respectively. Then again this lust is responsible cause for happiness and miseries. It is lust which gathers several factors, which serve as substrata for happiness and misery. Unless such factors are gathered, there will be no contact whatsoever and there can be no happiness or miseries without such contacts. [134-135] (Cause for such type of contact is again purusha)

वेदनानामधिष्ठानं मनो देहश्च सेन्द्रियः| केशलोमनखाग्रान्नमलद्रवगुणैर्विना||१३६||

vēdanānāmadhiṣṭhānaṁ manō dēhaśca sēndriyaḥ| kēśalōmanakhāgrānnamaladravaguṇairvinā||136||

vedanAnAmadhiShThAnaM mano dehashca sendriyaH| keshalomanakhAgrAnnamaladravaguNairvinA||136||

The mind and the body together with the sense organs exclusive of kesha (hair), loma (body hair), tip of the nail, ingested food, excreta, excretory fluids and objects of senses are the sites of manifestation of happiness and miseries. [136]

Importance of Yoga (union with self)

योगे मोक्षे च सर्वासां वेदनानामवर्तनम्| मोक्षे निवृत्तिर्निःशेषा योगो मोक्षप्रवर्तकः||१३७||

yōgē mōkṣē ca sarvāsāṁ vēdanānāmavartanam| mōkṣē nivr̥ttirniḥśēṣā yōgō mōkṣapravartakaḥ||137||

yoge mokShe ca sarvAsAM vedanAnAmavartanam| mokShe nivRuttirniHsheShA yogo mokShapravartakaH||137||

Recurrence of all sensation is checked through yoga and moksha. The absolute eradication of sensation is attained through moksha. The yoga is a means to attain moksha. [137]

आत्मेन्द्रियमनोर्थानां सन्निकर्षात् प्रवर्तते| सुखदुःखमनारम्भादात्मस्थे मनसि स्थिरे||१३८||

ātmēndriyamanōrthānāṁ sannikarṣāt pravartatē| sukhaduḥkhamanārambhādātmasthē manasi sthirē||138||

AtmendriyamanorthAnAM sannikarShAt pravartate| sukhaduHkhamanArambhAdAtmasthe manasi sthire||138||

निवर्तते तदुभयं वशित्वं चोपजायते| सशरीरस्य योगज्ञास्तं योगमृषयो विदुः||१३९||

nivartatē tadubhayaṁ vaśitvaṁ cōpajāyatē| saśarīrasya yōgajñāstaṁ yōgamr̥ṣayō viduḥ||139||

nivartate tadubhayaM vashitvaM copajAyate| sasharIrasya yogaj~jAstaM yogamRuShayo viduH||139||

Happiness and miseries are felt due to the contact of the soul with the sense organs, mind and the objects of senses. Both these types of sensations disappear when the mind is concentrated and contained in the soul and the super natural powers in the mind and body are attained. This state is known as yoga according to sages well versed in this science. [138-139]

आवेशश्चेतसो ज्ञानमर्थानां छन्दतः क्रिया| दृष्टिः श्रोत्रं स्मृतिः कान्तिरिष्टतश्चाप्यदर्शनम्||१४०||

āvēśaścētasō jñānamarthānāṁ chandataḥ kriyā| dr̥ṣṭiḥ śrōtraṁ smr̥tiḥ kāntiriṣṭataścāpyadarśanam||140||

Aveshashcetaso j~jAnamarthAnAM chandataH kriyA| dRuShTiH shrotraM smRutiH kAntiriShTatashcApyadarshanam||140||

इत्यष्टविधमाख्यातं योगिनां बलमैश्वरम्| शुद्धसत्त्वसमाधानात्तत् सर्वमुपजायते||१४१||

ityaṣṭavidhamākhyātaṁ yōgināṁ balamaiśvaram| śuddhasattvasamādhānāttat sarvamupajāyatē||141||

ityaShTavidhamAkhyAtaM yoginAM balamaishvaram| shuddhasattvasamAdhAnAttat sarvamupajAyate||141||

(1) Entering others body, (2) thought reading (3) doing things at will, (4) Super natural vision (5) super natural audition (6) miraculous memory (7) uncommon brilliance and (8) invisibility when so desired – these are the eight supernatural powers attained by those who practice yoga. All this is achieved through the purity of the mind. (free from rajas and tamas) [140-141]

Moksha (salvation) and means for its attainment

मोक्षो रजस्तमोऽभावात् बलवत्कर्मसङ्क्षयात्| वियोगः सर्वसंयोगैरपुनर्भव उच्यते||१४२||

mōkṣō rajastamō'bhāvāt balavatkarmasaṅkṣayāt| viyōgaḥ sarvasaṁyōgairapunarbhava ucyatē||142||

mokSho rajastamo~abhAvAt balavatkarmasa~gkShayAt| viyogaH sarvasaMyogairapunarbhava ucyate||142||

This is the stage of salvation in which there is detachment of sharira, mana, indriya and atma. Moksha or salvation is nothing but an absolute detachment of all contacts by virtue of absence of rajas and tamas in the mind and annihilation of effects of potent past actions/deeds. This is a state after which there is no more physical or mental contacts. Further there is no process of rebirth.[142]

सतामुपासनं सम्यगसतां परिवर्जनम्| व्रतचर्योपवासौ च नियमाश्च पृथग्विधाः||१४३||

satāmupāsanaṁ samyagasatāṁ parivarjanam| vratacaryōpavāsau ca niyamāśca pr̥thagvidhāḥ||143||

satAmupAsanaM samyagasatAM parivarjanam| vratacaryopavAsau ca niyamAshca pRuthagvidhAH||143||

धारणं धर्मशास्त्राणां विज्ञानं विजने रतिः| विषयेष्वरतिर्मोक्षे व्यवसायः परा धृतिः||१४४||

dhāraṇaṁ dharmaśāstrāṇāṁ vijñānaṁ vijanē ratiḥ| viṣayēṣvaratirmōkṣē vyavasāyaḥ parā dhr̥tiḥ||144||

dhAraNaM dharmashAstrANAM vij~jAnaM vijane ratiH| viShayeShvaratirmokShe vyavasAyaH parA dhRutiH||144||

कर्मणामसमारम्भः कृतानां च परिक्षयः| नैष्क्रम्यमनहङ्कारः [१] संयोगे भयदर्शनम्||१४५||

karmaṇāmasamārambhaḥ kr̥tānāṁ ca parikṣayaḥ| naiṣkramyamanahaṅkāraḥ [1] saṁyōgē bhayadarśanam||145||

karmaNAmasamArambhaH kRutAnAM ca parikShayaH| naiShkramyamanaha~gkAraH [1] saMyoge bhayadarshanam||145||

मनोबुद्धिसमाधानमर्थतत्त्वपरीक्षणम्| तत्त्वस्मृतेरुपस्थानात् सर्वमेतत् प्रवर्तते||१४६||

manōbuddhisamādhānamarthatattvaparīkṣaṇam| tattvasmr̥tērupasthānāt sarvamētat pravartatē||146||

manobuddhisamAdhAnamarthatattvaparIkShaNam| tattvasmRuterupasthAnAt sarvametat pravartate||146||

The following serve as means to the attainment of moksha.

  1. Due devotion to noble person;
  2. Shunning of the company of the wicked;
  3. Observing sacred vows and fast;
  4. Pursuit of the rules of good conduct;
  5. Compliance with scriptural prescriptions;
  6. Scriptural knowledge;
  7. Liking for lonely living;
  8. Detachment from the objects of senses;
  9. Striving for moksha (salvation);
  10. Absolute mental control;
  11. Abstinence from performing the acts(leading to any effect);
  12. Annihilation of the effects of past actions/deeds;
  13. Desire to get away from the worldly trap;
  14. Absence of egoistic disposition;
  15. Being afraid of contacts of the soul, the mind and the body;
  16. Concentration of the mind and intellect in the soul; and
  17. Review of spiritual facts.

All this can be attained by virtue of the constant remembering of the fact that the soul is different from the body, mind and senses and the latter has nothing to do with the former. [143-146]

Smruti (memory)

स्मृतिः सत्सेवनाद्यैश्च धृत्यन्तैरुपजायते| स्मृत्वा स्वभावं भावानां स्मरन् दुःखात् प्रमुच्यते||१४७||

smr̥tiḥ satsēvanādyaiśca dhr̥tyantairupajāyatē| smr̥tvā svabhāvaṁ bhāvānāṁ smaran duḥkhāt pramucyatē||147||

smRutiH satsevanAdyaishca dhRutyantairupajAyate| smRutvA svabhAvaM bhAvAnAM smaran duHkhAt pramucyate||147||

वक्ष्यन्ते कारणान्यष्टौ स्मृतिर्यैरुपजायते| निमित्तरूपग्रहणात् सादृश्यात् सविपर्ययात्||१४८||

vakṣyantē kāraṇānyaṣṭau smr̥tiryairupajāyatē| nimittarūpagrahaṇāt sādr̥śyāt saviparyayāt||148||

vakShyante kAraNAnyaShTau smRutiryairupajAyate| nimittarUpagrahaNAt sAdRushyAt saviparyayAt||148||

सत्त्वानुबन्धादभ्यासाज्ज्ञानयोगात् पुनः श्रुतात्| दृष्टश्रुतानुभूतानां स्मारणात् स्मृतिरुच्यते||१४९||

sattvānubandhādabhyāsājjñānayōgāt punaḥ śrutāt| dr̥ṣṭaśrutānubhūtānāṁ smāraṇāt smr̥tirucyatē||149||

sattvAnubandhAdabhyAsAjj~jAnayogAt punaH shrutAt| dRuShTashrutAnubhUtAnAM smAraNAt smRutirucyate||149||

A memory is nothing but the remembrance of things directly perceived, heard (from scriptures) or experienced earlier.

The following are the eight factors that bring about a good memory:

  1. Knowledge of cause (of a thing and event etc.);
  2. Knowledge of form (e.g. after seeing gavaya in the forest one remembers a cow having a similar form);
  3. Knowledge of similarity (e.g. on seeing a son one remembers his father having similar form);
  4. Knowledge of contrast (e.g. having seen an ugly form one remembers a beautiful form);
  5. Concentration of mind;
  6. Practice;
  7. Attainment of metaphysical knowledge; and
  8. Subsequent partial communication of an event.

The regime prescribed in verses above, beginning with devotion to the noble persons and ending with absolute mental control (items 1-10) serve as an aid to good memory. If one only remembers the real nature of thing he gets rid of miseries. [147-149]

एतत्तदेकमयनं मुक्तैर्मोक्षस्य दर्शितम्| तत्त्वस्मृतिबलं, येन गता न पुनरागताः||१५०||

ētattadēkamayanaṁ muktairmōkṣasya darśitam| tattvasmr̥tibalaṁ, yēna gatā na punarāgatāḥ||150||

etattadekamayanaM muktairmokShasya darshitam| tattvasmRutibalaM, yena gatA na punarAgatAH||150||

अयनं पुनराख्यातमेतद्योगस्य योगिभिः| सङ्ख्यातधर्मैः साङ्ख्यैश्च मुक्तैर्मोक्षस्य चायनम्||१५१||

ayanaṁ punarākhyātamētadyōgasya yōgibhiḥ| saṅkhyātadharmaiḥ sāṅkhyaiśca muktairmōkṣasya cāyanam||151|

ayanaM punarAkhyAtametadyogasya yogibhiH| sa~gkhyAtadharmaiH sA~gkhyaishca muktairmokShasya cAyanam||151||

The power of metaphysical memory constitutes the best way of liberation, as shown by the liberated ones. Persons following this way do not get rebirth after death. This is again the best way to the attainment of yoga (communion with God) as well as moksha (salvation). This is what the yogins, the virtous ones, the followers of the Sankhya system, and the liberated ones say. [150-151]

सर्वं कारणवद्दुःखमस्वं चानित्यमेव च| न चात्मकृतकं तद्धि तत्र चोत्पद्यते स्वता||१५२||

sarvaṁ kāraṇavadduḥkhamasvaṁ cānityamēva ca| na cātmakr̥takaṁ taddhi tatra cōtpadyatē svatā||152||

sarvaM kAraNavadduHkhamasvaM cAnityameva ca| na cAtmakRutakaM taddhi tatra cotpadyate svatA||152||

यावन्नोत्पद्यते सत्या बुद्धिर्नैतदहं यया| नैतन्ममेति विज्ञाय ज्ञः सर्वमतिवर्तते||१५३||

yāvannōtpadyatē satyā buddhirnaitadahaṁ yayā| naitanmamēti vijñāya jñaḥ sarvamativartatē||153||

yAvannotpadyate satyA buddhirnaitadahaM yayA| naitanmameti vij~jAya j~jaH sarvamativartate||153||

Any thing that has a cause constitutes misery; it is alien and ephemeral. It is not produced by the soul (atman); but one has got a feeling of its ownership until one has got a real knowledge to the effect that this is something different from him; and is not his own. As soon as one knows it, he gets rid of all miseries. [152-153]

तस्मिंश्चरमसन्न्यासे समूलाः सर्ववेदनाः| ससञ्ज्ञाज्ञानविज्ञाना [४] निवृत्तिं यान्त्यशेषतः||१५४||

tasmiṁścaramasannyāsē samūlāḥ sarvavēdanāḥ| sasañjñājñānavijñānā [4] nivr̥ttiṁ yāntyaśēṣataḥ||154||

tasmiMshcaramasannyAse samUlAH sarvavedanAH| sasa~jj~jAj~jAnavij~jAnA [4] nivRuttiM yAntyasheShataH||154||

As soon as the final renunciation in respect of all subsequent actions is attained, the very consciousness together with its final causes in the form of intermediate, determinate or scriptural knowledge is completely eradicated. [154]

Process of knowledge of self

अतः परं ब्रह्मभूतो भूतात्मा नोपलभ्यते| निःसृतः सर्वभावेभ्यश्चिह्नं यस्य न विद्यते| ज्ञानं ब्रह्मविदां चात्र नाज्ञस्तज्ज्ञातुमर्हति||१५५||

ataḥ paraṁ brahmabhūtō bhūtātmā nōpalabhyatē| niḥsr̥taḥ sarvabhāvēbhyaścihnaṁ yasya na vidyatē| jñānaṁ brahmavidāṁ cātra nājñastajjñātumarhati||155||

ataH paraM brahmabhUto bhUtAtmA nopalabhyate| niHsRutaH sarvabhAvebhyashcihnaM yasya na vidyate| j~jAnaM brahmavidAM cAtra nAj~jastajj~jAtumarhati||155||

Thereafter, one identifies himself with supreme soul and the purusha ceases to exist. He is easily distinguishable form all other manifestations. He does not even leave any indication (inspiration, expiration etc.) of his existence. This is what those well versed in the bramajnana say. It is impossible for an ignorant person to know this. Later on when the soul (jivatma) attains the state of Brahma (supreme soul), then state of bhutatma get lost and this supreme soul gets detached by all associated factors and also gets freed from all those signs and symptoms of jeevatma (verses 70-72) . This is a state of bragyana which could be achieved by few intellectual one (brahmgyani) not by ignorant one. [155]


तत्र श्लोकः- प्रश्नाः पुरुषमाश्रित्य त्रयोविंशतिरुत्तमाः| कतिधापुरुषीयेऽस्मिन्निर्णीतास्तत्त्वदर्शिना||१५६|| m

tatra ślōkaḥ- praśnāḥ puruṣamāśritya trayōviṁśatiruttamāḥ| katidhāpuruṣīyē'sminnirṇītāstattvadarśinā||156||

tatra shlokaH- prashnAH puruShamAshritya trayoviMshatiruttamAH| katidhApuruShIye~asminnirNItAstattvadarshinA||156||

To sum up :

In this chapter, the various constituents of the purusha etc., conducive to the understanding of the human physiology, 23 important questions regarding the purusha and the supreme soul have been answered by the enlightened Seer. [156]

Tattva Vimarsha

  1. Purusha represents the element of consciousness, i.e. the soul, different from the body. This purusha plays an important role in formulating treatments for the eradication of miseries and attainment of salvation.
  2. The mind analyses sense objects on the basis of merits and demerits, their acceptability or otherwise, while ahamkara causes self attachment and finally buddhi takes decision whether they are acceptable or not. Charak describes senses composed of bhutas whereas samkhya mentions them as evolved from ahamkara. This is the different view of Ayurveda based on its application in management. (21-24)
  3. Mind is an important entity involved in the process of knowledge. Knowledge of objects cannot be perceived if the mind is absent in the process. Atomicity and oneness are the two properties of mind. Mind controls itself as well as the five senses. The different objects of the mind are thought, consideration, hypothesis, attention and determination. The knowledge of the objects is perceived through the five senses in connection with mind. The advantages and disadvantages of the perceived objects are ascertained thereafter. Then the intellect decides the specific properties of the objects and individual acts accordingly. The chain of perception starts from the desire that arises with the purusha. The important components of this chain are atma, mind, five senses and objects. Any abnormality in this chain leads to nonperception or false knowledge. (18-25)
  4. Purusha is considered as the main causative factor. Occurrence of intelligence, ignorance, support, movement etc. is not possible without existence of purusha. Purusha is the supporting element for truth, falsehood, food and bad actions. Purusha i.e. conscious element provides the utility value to other things. The cause of purusha can be proved by all pramanas. The organs of living beings are different but the entity responsible for their action is one and the same and that is the soul. Therefore, apart from the body which is in the constant process of decay, soul is eternal and responsible for all the actions and also experiences the results of such deeds. (49-62)
  5. The supreme soul is without a beginning, but the rashipurusha, which is a combination of 24 elements, is born due to the ignorant actions/deeds originated because of auspicious and inauspicious, and is therefore ephemeral. The twenty four elements are the combination of ashta prakriti and shodasha vikara. Ashta prakriti comprises of the five subtle mahabhutas, buddhi, avyakta, and ahamkara. Shodasha vikaras are five sense faculties (jnanendriya), five motor faculties (karmendriya), mind and five mahabhutas. The purusha along with the instruments of knowledge i.e. mana, buddhi, jnanendriya and karmendriya is responsible for the manifestation of things. (63-64)
  6. The process of evolution incorporates the chain of events which get originated from avyakta, avyakta produces buddhi, buddhi produces ahamkara, ahamkara produces five subtle and five gross mahabhutas and is called as born. Whereas during the process of dissolution the reverse changes take place. As a result of theses reverse changes the manifested one gets converted into the unmanifested one. Those who are afflicted with rajas, tamas and have ego undergo the process of birth and death and rebirth. Others who are free of rajas and tamas and does not have ego are free from the cycle of birth, death and rebirth. (65-69)
  7. The soul is the source of consciousness and along with mind is responsible for all actions. As the mind does not have consciousness in spite of its involvement in all actions it is not held responsible for the actions. All the living beings themselves are responsible for their transmigration from one species/body to another. Though the soul is free to act, it can control the mind and get rid of the results of the actions of his own. As this soul with controlled mind pervades the entire universe it is considered Omni-prescient. But its contact with the mind makes him restricted with one body only. This soul becomes the sole witness of all actions performed. (70-85)
  8. A physician treats the diseases of past, present and future by different methods. The causative factors are responsible for the equilibrium and imbalance of dhatus. (86)
  9. A person indulges in various activities due to his desires. He subjects himself to good and bad effects of his actions leading to miseries. The miseries can be checked if the desires are ignored. The impairment of dhi, dhriti, smriti, maturity of time and actions and unwholesome contact of senses with their objects leads to miseries. The diseases originated from temporal factors (kalaja) leads to geriatrics and death. These diseases are called as swabhavika roga and these diseases are irremediable. The other variety of roga is karmaja roga which are results of acts of past life. These disease, do not respond to any therapeutic measures. They are cured only after the results of past action are exhausted. One more variety of the disease is aindriyaka i.e. the diseases which are originated due to improper utilization of senses. So, proper utilization of time, intellect and senses bring about happiness, but this proper utilization is difficult to attain. (95-131)
  10. The ultimate cause of happiness and miseries is lust. All kinds of pain can be checked with the help of yoga and moksha. Yoga leads to temporary loss of pain where as moksha leads to absolute eradication of all kinds of pain. As soon as the stage of yoga is disturbed, there will be recurrence of pain. Yoga is one of the means to attain moksha. Both the sensations i.e. happiness and miseries disappear when mind is concentrated and contained in the soul. This stage is known as yoga and it gives eight super natural powers to the individual who has attained this stage. Absence of rajas and tamas in mind and reduction of the potent effects of past actions leads to absolute detachment i.e moksha. To achieve the salvation, one has to always remember that soul and body are two different entities. Until and unless one acquires the real knowledge, i.e., satya buddhi he can not get rid of all miseries. A Person who follows all the means to achieve salvation do not return to this world and is permantly set free from all kinds of miseries. (134-146)

Vidhi Vimarsha

Unlike the description of human anatomy in modern medical texts given as independent isolated structure, this chapter explains the anatomy and functioning of human mind and body in relation to the universe. Such connected relationship of humans with universe is the basis of pursuing the lifestyle to have disease free, productive and long life. The chapter directs to a lifestyle with connection to the source (consciousness), control of senses and conduciveness to the seasons by practicing yoga.

Test for existence of mind and its importance in process of knowledge

One and the most important proof of existence of mind is materialization or otherwise of direct perception. The contact of mind with soul, sense organs with their objects consequently leads to understanding and knowledge of that particular object. The presence of mind can be inferred from presence or absence of knowledge. (Cha.Sha.1/18-19)This is also one of the sign of functioning mind. It is most applicable test because mind plays great role in the chain of perception to knowledge and memory. The things are memorized only after proper attention and perception. Otherwise all goes in vain in absent minded people.

Attributes of mind

The mind is anu (subtle) and eka (unitary). (Cha.Sha.1/19) It is subtler than the subtlest and hence cannot be perceived by ordinary senses. This subtleness is the reason for limitation of modern psychiatry to define and conclude the exact structure of mind. It appears multiple in same individual due to variation in pertaining to perception of its own objects (svartha), motivation and perception of objects of senses (indriyartha) and its deposition. Similarly it takes various forms due to its contact with qualities like intelligence (sattva), arrogance (rajas) and Ignorance (tamas). But it is only one because it can motivate only one sense organ resulting in activation of only one organ at a time. Mind is not multiple because it cannot motivate and establish contact with all sense organs simultaneously. (Cha.Su.8/5) This quality again denotes the application of power of mind concentration to perceive things.

The other attribute of mind is its Chanchalatva (fickleness). It is one of the major obstacles in concentration and meditation.

Functions of mind (karmani)

Four important functions of mind (Cha.Sha.1/21)are described as:

  1. Control of Sense faculties (Indriyabhigraha)
  2. Self restraint (Svasya Nigraha)
  3. Speculation (Uha)
  4. Consideration and Thinking (Vichara)
    1. Control of Sense faculties (Indriyabhigraha):Mind is considered as the master motivator and controller of all sense organs. The sensations can be perceived only in active presence of mind. Thus mind is the driving force for perception of external world through cognitive senses.
    2. Self restraint (Svasya nigraha): None other can control activities of mind except mind itself. Thus mind is regulator and coordinator of its own activities. This function of self restraint has been implied widely in psychiatric treatments also. The Satvavajaya (victory over mind) (Cha.Su.11/54) i.e. restraining mind from harmful objects is traditional form of psychotherapy which includes training of mind to avoid dangerous things. In practicing meditation also one has to have better control over activities of mind.
    3. Speculation (Uha): Guessing on the logical interpretations is speculation This is peculiar function of mind on the basis of which science stands, grows, new discoveries are made, and innovations are materialized. Speculation is applied in logical way to make a conjuncture about the possible outcome in a given situation.
    4. Consideration and Thinking (Vichara):This is another important function of mind applied almost in every decision made. This is the thinking power of mind to differentiate the things between right and wrong, correct or incorrect, useful or harmful etc. This power makes the man different from other animals.

Objects of Mind

In addition to functions, the objects of mind are also described (Cha.Sha.1/20) viz. Chintya (cogitation), Vicharya (consideration of discrimination), Uhya (speculation and logical reasoning), Dhyeya (aiming), Sankalpya (conviction and determination).

Charak Samhita has described three reasons for occurrence of disease:

  1. Mistake of the intellect (prajnaparadha) by losing connection to the source (consciousness).
  2. Losing control of special senses.
  3. Not acting conducive to seasons and place.
Prajnaparadha (intellectual errors)

The description of prajnaparadha seems to work for cause as well as effect in the patho-physiology of stress. Prajnaparadha has been defined as the composite consequence of dhi, dhriti and smriti vibramsha. (Cha.Sha.1/98-101) This means it can affect the conscience, self-control and memory functioning of intellect. It is the root cause of all mental disorders such as passion, anger, fear, confusion, grief (Cha.Su.7/52) as well as the karmaja and atmaja vyadhi. (Cha.Ni.7/21)

The improper actions caused by this intellectual error leads to vitiation of physical and mental dosha as follows:

  1. Forceful stimulation of natural urges and suppression of the manifested ones. This is applicable for both the physical sharira adharaniya vega and manas dharaniya vega (natural urges).
  2. Excess adventure beyond one’s capacity
  3. Excess indulgence in sexual act
  4. Negligence to seek treatment in time
  5. Initiation of action at improper time and improper acts
  6. Decrease in modesty and good conduct
  7. Disrespect to respectable persons
  8. Indulgence in harmful sensory activities
  9. Intake of harmful substances and addicting to the factors which can cause elation or even unmada(insanity)
  10. Traveling at improper place in improper time
  11. Association with evil actions and persons involved in it
  12. Not following the daily, seasonal diet and lifestyle regimen described in the classics
  13. Indulgence in negative activities originated by envy, ego, fear, anger, intoxication, confusion.
Disturbance of intellectual functioning by Prajnaparadha

Dhi (intellect), dhriti (self control or patience) and smriti (memory) can be considered as the three important functioning faculties, impairment of which leads to psychiatric disorders. The dhi(intellect) normally views things as they really are and its impairment leads to viewing eternal things as ephemeral and something harmful as useful and vice versa. The dhi vibhramsha leads to indecisiveness of the person to discriminate between right and wrong things.

Due to impairment of patience mind indulging in various worldly enjoyments cannot be restrained from harmful objects. Dhriti vibhramsha results into lack of self control over activities. Normally memory contains everything memorable and if it is impaired due to overcoming by rajas and tamas, the worthy things are not memorized leading to misconduct of the person. (Cha.Sha.1/98-101) and smriti vibhramsha leads to decrease or improper recall, retention of things in memory.

The other two causative factors like parinama and asatmendriyartha samyoga are also equally important causes.

The parinama or time factor means not adapting the seasonal, diurnal changes as per physiological changes of dosha. The changes related to age and death are also included in kala.

Asatmendriyartha samyoga is self explanatory term denoting improper indulgence in the unsuitable sensory activities. The activities are enlisted in detail in the chapter. In today’s era of modernization and technological dependence, the excess indulgence in use of sense organs shall be avoided.

Practicing yogic lifestyle negates above three factors which cause disease and thus prevents disease and gives healthy long life. There are many disciplines of yoga described since Vedic period dating back 4000 to 5000 years. In the second century B.C. Patanjali outlined ashtanga yoga (eight limbs of yoga) or raja yoga which is being recognized as the most common and practical in the current society.

Origin of the word yoga is from Sanskrit word yuj meaning “union” and represents union of mind, body, soul and spirit. As mentioned in the chapter, all started from pure being or purusha which is divine and state of perfection without any suffering because there is nothing material. Purusha creates prakriti which is all around us and we start relating to it and forget that our essence is purusha. This continued relationship to prakriti is the cause for desires and expectations resulting in suffering. The realization of this comes through chitta which is feeling, centered in the heart and is evolution of consciousness.

In order to transcend this dichotomy, Patanjali described the following eight limbs of ashtanga yoga.

The first two aspects are yama and niyama to create social and personal discipline in the society. The next two, asana and pranayama are to achieve physical and mental strength and stability.

Pratyahara, dharana, dhyana and samadhi are to achieve moksha by detachment, focus, meditation and bliss. Each one of us has unique qualities and has different levels of existing skills provided by each of the limbs of yoga. Therefore, some individuals may require a teacher or guru to give guidance in the early stages.

  1. Yamas (social restraints for relating to society) These are:
    1. Ahimsa: We should not cause pain to others by thoughts, words and actions. Show kindness and thoughtfulness to others.
    2. Satya: Truthfulness and honesty.
    3. Asteya or non-stealing: Tangible and intangible.
    4. Bramhacharya: Control over senses, appropriate sexual behavior.
    5. Aparigraha or non hoarding: Taking from nature what is needed.
  2. Niyama: (Personal restraints or conduct)
    1. Shaucha: Physical and mental cleanliness or purity.
    2. Santosha: Contentment
    3. Tapas: Self discipline.
    4. Swadhyaya: Self study
    5. Ishwara pranidhana: Acceptance. Do karma and leave results to higher powers.
  3. Asanas: Means steady and comfortable posture. Improves health, strength, balance and flexibility. On a deeper level it is a tool to calm the mind and move into the inner essence of being.
  4. Pranayama: Directing the life force produces heat (tapa) and cleans the channels, strengthens the respiratory system, calms the mind to be able to concentrate and meditate.
  5. Pratyahara: This is a stage when withdrawal of senses occurs due to break in the link between senses and the mind. It facilitates the next three limbs of yoga.
  6. Dharana: This is a stage of deep concentration of mind on one particular object, sound or thought and there is cultivation of inner awareness.
  7. Dhyana or meditation: This is the seventh step of yoga and during this stage there is deep awareness but no focus. There may be very few thoughts or no thoughts.
  8. Samadhi: This is a stage of bliss where the subject and object merge as one. Person feels connected to all living beings and is at peace. Illusionary separation of “I” and “mine” is lost as mind does not distinguish between self and non-self.

All these have positive benefits to improve body-mind strength and harmony. Integrated yoga can be taught to normal participants without any harmful effects and it may reduce the negative affect and increase the positive affect within a week.

Further reading

  1. Agnivesha, Charak, Dridhabala, Charak Samhita, Edited by Jadavaji Trikamji, Fifth Edition Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthana, Varanasi, 2001.
  2. Agnivesha, Charak, Dridhabala, Charak Samhita, Edited by Dr Ramkaran Sharma and Dr Bhagvan Dash, Reprint Edition, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series, Varanasi, 2011.
  3. Agnivesha, Charak, Dridhabala, Charak Samajna, Edited by P V Sharma, Second Edition Chaukhambha Orientalia, Delhi, 2005.
  4. Agnivesha, Charak, Dridhabala, Charak Samhita, Edited by P V Sharma, Reprint Ninth Edition, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2007.
  5. Agnivesha, Charak, Dridhabala, Charak Samhita, Vol. 5, Reprint Edition, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2008.
  6. Agnivesha, Charak, Dridhabala, Charak Samhita, Vol. 2, Fourth Edition, Sastu Sahitya Vardhak Karyalaya, Ahmedabad, 1999.


Sr. No. Technical Term Technical Term in English Translation
Diacritical Sanskrit
1 puruṣaḥ puruShaH पुरुषः The soul and originalsource of the universe .
2 kṣētrajñaḥ kShetraj~jaH क्षेत्रज्ञः Conscious principle in the corporealframe.
3 bhūtātmā bhUtAtmA भूतात्मा Individual soul.
4 prakr̥tiścāṣṭadhātukī prakRutishcAShTadhAtukI प्रकृतिश्चाष्टधातुकी 8producers or primaryessenceswhich evolve the whole visible world.
5 avyakta avyakta अव्यक्त Unmanifested form of the Universe which is the combination of Prakriti and Purush and gives rise to Buddhi (Intellect)
6 naiṣṭhikī cikitsā naiShThikI cikitsA नैष्ठिकी चिकित्सा Absolute relief from all kind of miseries
7 upadhā upadhA उपधा Worldly desires which are the basic cause for all miseries.
8 yōga yoga योग A state of mental concentration where the mind is contained in the soul and the contact between soul, mind, senses and objects of senses is lacking.
9 mōkṣa mokSha मोक्ष Liberation or release from the cycle of rebirth and death
10 satyā buddhi satyA buddhi सत्या बुद्धि Real knowledge that the body and soul are two different entities and soul is not responsible for all the miseries.