Dosha are regulatory functional factors of body and mind. These are principal constituents of the body those are responsible for homeostasis, when present in the state of equilibrium. Dosha also determine the psycho-physiological nature / constitution of an individual. Dosha are capable of vitiating the different bodily tissues, when deviate from the state of equilibrium and can lead to diseases. [Code: SAT-B.382] 
Thus dosha are the physiological factors responsible for functions in normal state and pathogenesis of diseases in abnormal state. Their state of equilibrium is one of the important pre-requisite for health.
|Sharirik Dosha||Vata, Pitta, Kapha|
|Manasik Dosha||Raja, Tama|
|Vata||Prana, Udana, Vyana, Samana, Apana|
|Pitta||Pachaka, Ranjaka, Sadhaka, Alochaka, Bhrajaka|
|Kapha||Avalambaka, Kledaka, Shleshaka, Bodhaka, Tarpaka|
The three dosha theory (Vata, Pitta and Kapha) since its inception from long time ago was established keeping the functional similarity of similar components governing the ecosystem viz. Sun, Moon and Wind. Ayurveda proposes this as a "Loka-Purush Samya Siddhanta"
The literal meaning of the term Dosha states the independent capacity of body to vitiate, adulterate or contaminate any subtle to gross tissue or structure. On the other hand these dosha are also involved during the conception or fertilization period influencing the formation of new zygote. So whichever the dosha completely dominates throughout the phase of zygote formation may eventually reflect all the characteristics and attribute as a part of behavior or temperament - Prakruti, throughout the lifetime of that particular individual. Thus the etymological meaning of the term Dosha stands as - whoever is independent, responsible for formation of Prakruti and is highly prone to get vitiated thus creating any abnormal pathology. These three dosha are omnipresent in the living body sustaining the integrity of Prana in its normal stages while the same is responsible for disease ailments when vitiated.
Dosha are generally said to be the humors of the body as per Ayurveda. These humors may be different as per the physical and psychological aspect of the body. Any substance which is independent in capacity to work, exclusively involved in Prakruti formation physiologically and tends to easily gets deviated to create any pathology is termed to be Dosha. This altogether makes the Dosha a different one from the humors of Greek or Latin philosophy. However the term dosha is popularized by the tendency of them to create pathology by deviation in the normal functioning of the body. At physical level there are three Sharirik dosha which are - Vata, Pitta and Kapha. At psychological level there are only two Mansik dosha namely - Raja and Tama.  The tridosha can be stated as -
- Vata - Principle factor for any type of movement, initiation, interest, locomotion.
- Pitta - Factor responsible for metabolism, heat, transduction, biotransformations.
- Kapha - Factor responsible for strength, vigor, retention, moisture, stability.
Ayurveda believes that every materialistic and non-materialistic things in the world are made up of the five primitive elements viz. Pancha mahabhutas. Thus every subtle to gross object is having fixed and proportionate elemental composition. Dosha are also having the same with one or the other dominating attributes. The involvement of these Mahabhutas in dosha are ultimately reflected by the guna possessed by the respective dosha.
- Vata dosha - Akasha and Vayu
- Pitta dosha - Teja or Agni
- Kapha dosha - Prithvi and Jala
Table 1:Elemental composition of dosha as per different Ayurvedic contexts
|Dosha||Ashtanga Samgraha||Sushrut Samhita||Chakrapani & Dalhan|
|Vata||Vayu and Akash||Vayu||Vayu|
|Kapha||Prithvi and Jala||Soma (Jala)||Soma (Jala)|
Every materialistic or non-materialistic object (dravya) in the world acts only by the virtue of properties possessed by it. These properties, attributes are nothing but Guna of that dravya. The term Dosha from its definition states very three basic properties as -
- Which are involved in formation of Prakriti (Somatotype) of an individual.
- Those which are independent.
- Those which are unstable and tend to deviate from normalcy and also have tendency to create a disease.
Properties of Sharirik Dosha
Vata-Pitta-Kapha are the three Sharirik dosha. Each one possess individual and specific properties within them. Ancient Ayurvedic scholars differ in their opinion as per their individual thinking and intellect. Following are the properties of Sharirik dosha as mentioned by different ancient scholars.
Table 2:Comparative analysis of properties of Vata Dosha
|Charak Samhita||Sushrut Samhita||Ashtanga Hridaya||Kashyap Samhita||Sharangdhara Samhita|
|Ruksha (Dryness)||Ruksha (Dryness)||Ruksha (Dryness)||Ruksha (Dryness)||Ruksha (Dryness)|
|Laghu (Light weightedness)||Laghu (Light weightedness)||Laghu (Light weightedness)||-||Laghu (Light weightedness)|
|Shita (Cold)||Shita (Cold)||Shita (Cold)||Shita (Cold)||Shita (Cold)|
|Khara (Rough)||Khara (Rough)||Khara (Rough)||Khara (Rough)||-|
|Chala (Movable)||-||Chala (Movable)||Chala (Movable)||Chala (Movable)|
|Sukshma (Fine or Subtle)||-||Sukshma (Fine or Subtle)||-||Sukshma (Fine or Subtle)|
|Vishad (Cleaning or Removing tendency or Non-slimy), Daruna (Harshness), Yogavahi (Synergistic in action)||Tiryag (no any specific direction /Oblique), Dviguna (Shabda - Sound and Sparsha - Touch), Rajo bahula (mutually interdependent with Rajasik - exciting factors at psychological level), Achintya virya (Unimaginable potency), Doshanam neta (Primary to all other dosha), Roga Samuharat (Capable to vitiate enough to produce multiple diseases), Ashukari (Very quick in action), Muhushchari (Repeated tendency)||Vishad (Cleaning or Removing tendency or Non-slimy), Vyavayi (Spreadable)||Rajo gunamaya (Dominant with Raja guna at psychological level), Vibhag karanam (Which separates, segregates)|
Table 3:Comparative analysis of properties of Pitta Dosha
|Charak Samhita||Sushruta Samhita||Ashtanga Hridaya||Kashyap Samhita||Sharangdhar Samhita|
|Sa-sneha (slightly unctuous)||-||Sa-sneha (slightly unctuous)||-||-|
|Ushna (Hot)||Ushna (Hot)||Ushna (Hot)||Ushna (Hot)||Ushna (Hot)|
|Tikshna (Sharp)||Tikshna (Sharp)||Tikshna (Sharp)||Tikshna (Sharp)||-|
|Drava (Liquid)||Drava (Liquid)||Drava (Liquid)||Drava (Liquid)||Drava (Liquid)|
|Amla (Sour in taste), Katu (Bitter in taste)||Katu (Normally Bitter in taste), Amla (Sour in taste abnormally)||-||-||Katu - Tikta (Bitter and Spicy in taste normally), Amla (Sour in taste abnormally)|
|-||Pita (Normally Yellowish in appearance), Nila (Bluish appearance abnormally)||-||-||Pita (Normally Yellowish in appearance), Nila (Bluish appearance abnormally)|
|Vistra (Foul smelling)||Puti (Putrid smelling)||Vistra (Foul smelling)|
|-||-||Laghu (light weightedness)||Laghu (light weightedness)||-|
|Sara (Secretory)||-||Sara (Secretory)||-||-|
|-||-||-||-||Satvagunottaram (Dominant Satvik guna at psychological level)|
Charak Samhita - Guru (Heavy), Shita (Cold), Mrudu (Soft), Snigdha (Unctuous), Madhur (Sweet in taste), Sthir (Stable), Pichhila (Slimy, Sticky in nature)
Sushruta Samhita - Shweta (Whitish), Guru (Heavy), Snigdha (Unctuous), Pichhila (Slimy, Sticky in nature), Shita (Cold), Madhur (normally Sweet in taste), Lavana (Salty in taste abnormally)
Ashtanga Hridaya - Snigdha (Unctuous), Shita (Cold), Guru (Heavy), Manda (Slow and Sluggish), Shlakshna (Sticky), Mrutsna (Slimy), Sthir (Stable)
Sharangdhara Samhita - Snigdha (Unctuous), Guru (Heavy), Shweta (Whitish), Pichhila (Slimy, Sticky in nature), Shita (Cold), Tamogunadhik (dominant with Tamasik guna at psychological level), Swadu (Sweet in taste normally), Lavana (Salty in taste abnormally)
Importance of Dosha
Dosha are the physiological entities of the body playing their respective role both at physical and psychological level as well. They are involved at almost every happening inside the body from subtle to gross level activities. They are involved in birth or origin of an tiny structure, component, organ and ultimately an individual too. They are having a crucial role to run all the functional activities, mechanics of an structure, organ, system and complete organism. Their importance is highlighted in Ayurveda in different Ayurvedic treatises as -
- दोषधातुमलमूलं हि शरीरम् | - सु.सू.१५/३
- दोषधातुमलमूलो हि देहः | - अ.सं.सू.१६
- दोषधातुमलामूलं हि सदा दहस्य तं चलः | - अ.ह्.सू.११
- Dosha are involved in formation of Prakruti - As the definition of the Dosha itself implies - Prakruti arambhaktvam
- Dosha are vital components to maintain and establish the Health
- Normalcy of Dosha is responsible for Normal state of Agni
- Any deviation in any form of Dosha from their normalcy leads to development of pathological ailments further leading into disease.
- Even though countable and limited Dosha, they are capable to produce innumerable pathological symptoms and diseases too.
- Dosha (Vata, Pitta and Kapha) are the only components responsible for origin and development of metaphysical body and its formed elements. Thus are also considered as pillars of the body holding and sustaining the integrity of life. (वात पित्त श्लेषमाण एव देहसंभवहेतवः | - सु.सू.२१/३)
Inter-relation of Dosha with Rutu (Season)
Body is continuously exposed to the external environment and is under the influence of seasonal impact every now and then. Dosha as per their normal tendency of deviation, tends to deviate with the change in season. Dosha starts accumulating further aggravating and then after alleviating due to seasonal changes. This variation and deviation of dosha from its normalcy is completely physiological subject to proper implementation and practicing seasonal regimen as mentioned by Ayurveda classics. It is essential to know the stage wise variation of dosha to prevent from experiencing any pathological ailments or landing into diseases. This concept is also known as - Physiological Kriyakala.
Table 2:Physiological Kriyakala
|Dosha||Chaya (Stage of Accumulation of Dosha)||Prakop (Stage of Aggravation of Dosha)||Prasham (Stage of Alleviation of Dosha)|
|Vata||Grishma (Summer)||Varsha (Rainy season)||Sharad (Autumn)|
|Pitta||Varsha (Rainy season)||Sharad (Autumn)||Hemant (Pre-Winter)|
|Kapha||Shishir (Winter)||Vasant (Spring)||Grishma (Summer)|
The dosha as the name is suggestive of, are having a natural tendency to deviate from the normalcy. In such way they are very unstable matter with high potential within them. The static or dynamic state of equilibrium of these dosha is mainly responsible for health whereas in-equilibrium leads to manifestation of any pathological ailment which may ultimately land into diseases. The natural behavior of dosha is the capability to contaminate, adulterate, vitiate or create imbalance by any means.
- दुष्यन्ति इति दोषः |
- शरीर दूषणात् दोषा | - शा.पु.५
- ते एव च व्यापन्नाः प्रलयहेतवः | - सु.सू.२१/३
Locations of Dosha
These are omnipresent throughout the body. They are continuously in a state of circulation maintaining, regulating and governing all the physiological activities throughout the body. Simultaneously, by the virtue of practicing dosha vitiating factors, the same dosha are also on the verge of deviation due to which body is constantly under the threat of surrendering and becoming host to any disease. Based on this concept, the general location of dosha can be categorized into two as - General location & Specific location.
General location of Dosha
सर्वदेहव्यापित्वे अपि यो यास्मिन् अधिवचेन वर्तते तत् तस्य स्थानम् | - हेमाद्रि
Generally whole body is the residing place of Dosha and not any single place whether subtle or gross is devoid by the presence or action of these dosha.
ते व्यापिनो अपि ह्रन्नाभ्योरधोमध्योर्ध्वसंश्रयाः | - अ.ह्.सू.१/७
However, from the point of origin of disease there are certain broad location spread throughout body, where the dosha do reside. Manifestation of specific type of diseases as per dosha originates from these location also the treatment modality is selected and assigned keeping these location in focus.
Specific location of Dosha
Table 3:Specific location of Physical Dosha as per different Ayurveda Scholars
|Sr.No||Charak Samhita||Sushrut Samhita||Ashtanga Samgraha||Ashtanga Hridaya||Kashyap Samhita|
|1||Pakvashaya (Large Intestine)||Pakvaadhan (Large Intestine)||Pakvashaya (Large Intestine)||Pakvashaya (Large Intestine)||Adho Nabhi (Body parts below umbilicus)|
|2||Purishadhan (Rectum and Anal canal)||Guda (Anal canal)||-||-||-|
|3||Kati (Pelvic region)||Shroni (Pelvic region)||Kati (Pelvic region)||Kati (Pelvic region)||-|
|4||Asthi (Bones)||-||Asthi (Bones)||Asthi (Bones)||Asthi (Bones) and Majja (Marrow, Nervous tissue)|
|5||Basti (Urinary Bladder), Pada (Lower extremities), Sakthi (Thighs)||-||Shrotrendriya (Sense organ for Hearing sense), Sparshanendriya (Sense organ for Tactile sense)||Shrotrendriya (Sense organ for Hearing sense), Sparshanendriya (Sense organ for Tactile sense)||-|
Relations of Dosha
Interrelation between Dosha and Mahabhuta
It is mentioned above on the same page under the constitution of Dosha.
- Vata dosha - Akasha and Vayu
- Pitta dosha - Teja or Agni
- Kapha dosha - Prithvi and Jala
Interrelation between Dosha and Dhatu
It is the mutual interdependence relation between Ashraya (one who allows to get lodge the other one) and Ashrayee (one who lodges, accumulates). Dosha generally circulates throughout the body and finds a space - Kha vaigunya, to get stagnate, lodge, accumulate thereby favoring the roots for physio-pathogenesis. It is shown in the table below -
Table: Interrelation between Dosha and Dushya
|3||Kapha||Rasa, Mamsa, Meda, Majja, Shukra, Mutra, Purish|
Interrelation between Dosha and Rasa
Dosha is considered to be a group of specific properties that tend to deviate by the external supplements in terms of Dravya, Guna, and Karma by practicing specific dietary regimen and daily routine. So, the type of Rasa (taste) fluctuates the status of specific properties within the body. There are some rasa which aggravates dosha, while some pacify them. It is shown in the table below -
Table: Interrelation between Dosha and Rasa
|Sr.No||Dosha||Dosha Aggravting Rasa||Dosha Pacifying Rasa|
|1||Vata||Katu (Spicy), Tikta (Bitter), Kashay (Astringent)||Madhur (Sweet), Amla (Sour), Lavana (Salty)|
|2||Pitta||Amla (Sour), Lavana (Salty), Katu (Spicy)||Madhur (Sweet), Tikta (Bitter), Kashay (Astringent)|
|3||Kapha||Madhur (Sweet), Amla (Sour), Lavana (Salty)||Katu (Spicy), Tikta (Bitter), Kashay (Astringent)|
Interrelation between Dosha and Rutu
Dosha within the body are having constant impact of season and external climacteric conditions over them. So, with the change of external climacteric conditions the status of dosha too gets deviated from normalcy. However, it gets stabilized automatically by adoption and practicing of seasonal regimen guidelines mentioned in Rutucharya Adhyaya of Charak samhita. The same is highlighted in the table of Physiological Kriyakala, mentioned above.
Influence of Dosha on Agni
Tridosha are the working biophysical entities influencing almost every physiological activity within the body. Dosha also affect the status of Jatharagni thereby altering the digestive capabilities of Agni. It is due to the dominancy of a group of properties of any of the Dosha. It is mentioned below -
Table: Interrelation between Dosha and Agni
|Sr.No||Dosha||Type of Agni||Clinical picture|
|1||Vata||Visham Agni||Irregular digestion|
|2||Pitta||Tikshna Agni||Quick digestion with large gastric eructations|
|3||Kapha||Manda Agni||Slow and sluggish digestion|
Influence of Dosha on Koshta
The same dosha by the virtue of respective guna, influence the status of the mucosal gut lining which affects the intestinal environment and bowel habits. The same is mentioned in the table below -
Table: Interrelation between Dosha and Koshta
|Sr.No||Dosha||Type of Koshta||Clinical picture|
|1||Vata||Krura||Hard stools, Constipation, Inhibited intestinal motility, defecation discomfort with application of additional abdominal pressure|
|2||Pitta||Mrudu||Increased sensitivity of intestinal mucosa, Loose motions, frequent defecation habit|
|3||Kapha||Madhyam||Semi solid, soft, firm consistency of stool, defecation with ease|
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