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Dosha are regulatory functional factors of body and mind. These are principal constituents of the body those are responsible for homeostasis, when present in the state of equilibrium. Dosha also determine the psycho-physiological nature / constitution of an individual. Dosha are capable of vitiating the different bodily tissues, when deviate from the state of equilibrium and can lead to diseases. [Code: SAT-B.382] <ref>National AYUSH Morbidity and Standardized Terminologies Electronic Portal by Ministry of AYUSH Available on http://namstp.ayush.gov.in/#/sat</ref>
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|description=The word ‘Dosha’ literally means impurities or morbidities. In Ayurveda, dosha are the governing principles of physiology and psychology. They are the primary and essential constitutional factors of the human organism. They maintain the integrity of the human body.
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|image=http://www.carakasamhitaonline.com/resources/assets/ogimgs.jpg
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The word ‘Dosha’ literally means impurities or morbidities. In Ayurveda, dosha are the governing principles of physiology and psychology. They are the primary and essential constitutional factors of the human organism. They maintain the integrity of the human body. [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 21/23]<ref name="Sushruta Samhita">Sushruta. Sushruta Samhita. Edited by Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya. 8th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia;2005.</ref> The three dosha at physical level, vata, pitta, and kapha, vitiate different body tissues and can lead to diseases in disequilibrium state. [SAT-B.382]<ref>National AYUSH Morbidity and Standardized Terminologies Electronic Portal by Ministry of AYUSH Available on http://namstp.ayush.gov.in/#/sat</ref> They are the actual intrinsic factors which become excited and imbalanced, either conferring a predisposition to or actually causing morbidities disease (vyadhi).<ref>Dwarkanath C. Introduction to Kayachikitsa. Chaukhambha Orientalia.Third edition.Varanasi; 1996. Pg. 20 </ref>  Their state of equilibrium is one of the important pre-requisite for disease free state (arogya) [Cha.Sa. [[Sutra Sthana]] 9/4] and [[health]]. [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 15/48]<ref name="Sushruta Samhita" /> [A.Hr. Sutra Sthana 1/20]<ref name="Ashtanga Hridaya"/> The dosha have been correlated with systems theory in the field of physics, providing a sound theoretical basis for this Ayurvedic concept, and research utilizing a biostatistical approach to quantify the dosha reveals a sound empirical basis as well.<ref>Sharma H., Chandola H.M., Singh G., Basisht G. Utilization of Ayurveda in health care: an approach for prevention, health promotion, and treatment of disease. Part 1 – Ayurveda in primary health care. J Altern Complement Med. 2007;13(9):1011–1019.</ref>  Being the units of microcosm in body, the three dosha, kapha, pitta and vata, maintain integrity of the organism by creating, assimilating and diffusing strength in the same way as the Moon (soma), Sun(surya) and Air (anila), maintain integrity of the macrocosm respectively. [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 21/8]<ref name="Sushruta Samhita" />
  
Thus dosha are the physiological factors responsible for functions in normal state and pathogenesis of diseases in abnormal state. Their state of equilibrium is one of the important pre-requisite for health.
 
   
 
 
{{Infobox
 
{{Infobox
|title = [[Dosha]]
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|title =  Contributors
|header1 = Subtypes
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 +
|label1 = Section/Chapter/topic
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|data1 = [[Sharira]] / [[Dosha]]
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|label2 = Authors
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|data2 = Deole Y.S.<sup>1</sup>, Shilwant A.A.<sup>2</sup>
  
|label2 = Sharirik Dosha
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|label3 = Reviewed by
|data2 = [[Vata]], [[Pitta]], [[Kapha]]
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|data3 = Basisht G.<sup>1</sup>
  
|label3 = Manasik Dosha
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|label4 = Affiliations
|data3 = [[Raja]], [[Tama]]
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|data4 = <sup>1</sup>[[Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre]], I.T.& R.A., Jamnagar, Gujarat, India 
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<sup>2</sup>Department of Kriya Sharir, G.J.Patel Institute of Ayurvedic Studies and Research, New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat, India
  
|label4 = Vata
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|label5 = Correspondence email:
|data4 = [[Prana]], [[Udana]], [[Vyana]], [[Samana]], [[Apana]]
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|data5 = carakasamhita@gmail.com
  
|label5 = Pitta
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|label6 = Date of first publication:
|data5 = [[Pachaka]], [[Ranjaka]], [[Sadhaka]], [[Alochaka]], [[Bhrajaka]]
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|data6 = January 24, 2021
  
|label6 = Kapha
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|label7 = DOI
|data6 = [[Avalambaka]], [[Kledaka]], [[Shleshaka]], [[Bodhaka]], [[Tarpaka]]
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|data7 = [https://doi.org/10.47468/CSNE.2021.e01.s09.043 10.47468/CSNE.2021.e01.s09.043]
 
}}
 
}}
  
==Dosha==
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<div style = "text-align:justify;">  
<div style = "text-align:justify;"> Dosha[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dosha]are the biological humor[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humorism] manifesting there presence in living body by performing various activities, processes, functions and mechanics. These dosha are judged by the virtue of their respective functions assorted throughout the body. These functions are coined on the name of Dosha are due to the attributes - Guna[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gu%E1%B9%87a] possessed by them. Every activity happening every now and then inside the body is totally governed by and is under the influence of dosha.
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==Etymology and derivation==
The three dosha theory (Vata, Pitta and Kapha) since its inception from long time ago was established keeping the functional similarity of similar components governing the ecosystem viz. Sun, Moon and Wind. [[Ayurveda]] proposes this as a "Loka-Purush Samya Siddhanta"
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The word dosha is derived from Sanskrit root ‘dusha’ meaning causing abnormalities (vaikrutye).<ref>Srujan Jha. Shabdakalpadruma app</ref> 
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==Types of dosha ==
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The dosha are broadly categorized into two:
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# Somatic or physical level ([[sharira]] dosha): Three dosha viz. vata, pitta and kapha.  
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# Psychic or mental level ([[manas]] dosha): Two dosha viz. rajas and tamas. [Cha.Sa. [[Sutra Sthana]] 1/ 57]
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 +
The present article describes somatic or physical dosha.  
 +
 
 +
== Origin of dosha ==
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 +
Dosha at physical level originate from five fundamental elements ([[pancha mahabhuta]]). Vata dosha originates from [[vayu]] and [[akasha mahabhuta]]; Pitta dosha from [[agni mahabhuta]] and kapha dosha from combination of [[aap]] and [[prithvi mahabhuta]]. The dosha represent functions of dominant [[mahabhuta]] in the body at gross level. They can be principles of regulators, enhancers or inhibitors of the physiological functions.
  
===Etymological meaning===
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==Subtypes==
The literal meaning of the term Dosha states the independent capacity of body to vitiate, adulterate or contaminate any subtle to gross tissue or structure. On the other hand these dosha are also involved during the conception or fertilization period influencing the formation of new zygote. So whichever the dosha completely dominates throughout the phase of zygote formation may eventually reflect all the characteristics and attribute as a part of behavior or temperament - Prakruti, throughout the lifetime of that particular individual.
 
Thus the etymological meaning of the term Dosha stands as - whoever is independent, responsible for formation of Prakruti and is highly prone to get vitiated thus creating any abnormal pathology. These three dosha are omnipresent in the living body sustaining the integrity of Prana in its
 
normal stages while the same is responsible for disease ailments when vitiated.
 
  
===Definition===
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Each physical dosha has five subtypes based on their functions and sites.
Dosha are generally said to be the humors of the body as per [[Ayurveda]]. These humors may be different as per the physical and psychological aspect of the body. Any substance which is independent in capacity to work, exclusively involved in Prakruti formation physiologically and tends to easily gets deviated to create any pathology is termed to be Dosha. This altogether makes the Dosha a different one from the humors of Greek or Latin philosophy.
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# Vata dosha: Prana, Udana, Samana, Vyana, Apana 
However the term dosha is popularized by the tendency of them to create pathology by deviation in the normal functioning of the body.
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# Pitta dosha: Pachaka, Ranjaka, Sadhaka, Alochaka, Bhrajaka 
At physical level there are three Sharirik dosha which are - Vata, Pitta and Kapha. At psychological level there are only two Mansik dosha namely - Raja and Tama. <ref>Kashinath Shastri. Charak Samhita. Sutra Sthan. Deerghanjivitiya. Reprint 2007. Pg. No. 25. URL. http://www.carakasamhitaonline.com/mediawiki-1.32.1/index.php?title=Deerghanjiviteeya_Adhyaya. </ref>
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# Kapha dosha: Avalambaka, Kledaka, Bodhaka, Tarpaka, Shleshaka [A.Hr. Sutra Sthana 12]<ref name="Ashtanga Hridaya">Vagbhata. Ashtanga Hridayam. Edited by Harishastri Paradkar Vaidya. 1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy;2000.</ref>
The tridosha can be stated as -
 
#Vata - Principle factor for any type of movement, initiation, interest, locomotion.
 
#Pitta - Factor responsible for metabolism, heat, transduction, biotransformations.
 
#Kapha - Factor responsible for strength, vigor, retention, moisture, stability.
 
  
===Constitution===
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==Functions ==
[[Ayurveda]] believes that every materialistic and non-materialistic things in the world are made up of the five primitive elements viz. Pancha mahabhutas. Thus every subtle to gross object is having fixed and proportionate elemental composition. Dosha are also having the same with one or the other dominating attributes. The involvement of these Mahabhutas in dosha are ultimately reflected by the guna possessed by the respective dosha.  
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#Vata dosha - Akasha and Vayu
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The dosha govern all the physiological activities. Growth and development (upachaya), strength (bala), complexion (varna), blissful state (prasannata) depends upon them. [Cha.Sa. [[Sutra Sthana]] 20/9]
#Pitta dosha - Teja or Agni
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#Kapha dosha - Prithvi and Jala
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Vata dosha governs functions in the body related to initiation and movement e. g. food through the digestive tract, transportation of oxygen in the bloodstream, communication between cells via nerve impulses, excretion of metabolic wastes etc.  
===Table 1:Elemental composition of dosha as per different Ayurvedic contexts===
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{| class="wikitable"  
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Pitta dosha governs functions that relate to transformation (e.g., digestion of food, processes of metabolism, etc.), hunger, thirst, vision, sensory perception, intelligence, complexion, and heat generation.
! Dosha''' !! ''Ashtanga Samgraha''!! ''Sushrut Samhita''!!''Chakrapani & Dalhan''  
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Kapha dosha governs the structure and cohesion of the body.  It relates with function of strength, stability and moisture in body. [A. Hr. Sutra Sthana 11/1-3]<ref name="Ashtanga Hridaya"/>
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==Properties==
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The dosha act through their properties ([[guna]]). The properties ([[guna]]) are responsible for showing specific effect ([[karma]]).  Dosha govern the functions related to that property and lead to resultant effect. Therefore, these properties are also applied as parameters to assess normal and abnormal states of dosha in body. The resultant effect is observed clinically.
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 +
'''Table 1: Properties of dosha'''
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{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Sr.No''' !! ''Parameter of effect''!! ''Vata dosha''!! ''Pitta dosha''!! ''Kapha dosha''!!
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|-
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! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 1
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| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Specific gravity/weight/volume
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Lightness (laghu)
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| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | --
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| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Heaviness (guru)
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 2
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Unctuousness portion 
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Dryness (ruksha)
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Slightly unctuous (sa-sneha)
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Unctuous (snigdha)
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 3
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Temperature and potency 
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| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Cold (sheeta)
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Hot (ushna)
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Cold (sheeta)
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 4
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Touch /texture
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Roughness (khara)
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | --
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Unctuous/slimy
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 5
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Duration of effect
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Quickly acting (ashukari), short lasting effect (alpa),  cyclic tendency (muhushchari)
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Sharp or pungent (tikshna)/ quick acting, severe effect
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Prolong duration of action (chirakari). Long lasting effect, and mild (manda)
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|-
 +
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 6
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| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Movability
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Moving (chala)
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| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Slightly movable (sara)
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| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Stable or immovable (sthira)
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 7
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Consistency
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Subtle (sukshma)
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Liquid (drava)
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Slimy, sticky (pichhila)
 
|-
 
|-
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Vata
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! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 8
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Vayu and Akash
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| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Taste
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Vayu
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| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | --
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Vayu
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| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Sour (amla), pungent (katu) in taste [8]
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Sweet (madhura) in taste
 
|-
 
|-
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Pitta
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! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 9
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Agni
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| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Psychological co-relate
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Agni
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| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Rajas
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Agni
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| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Sattva
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Tamas
 
|-
 
|-
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Kapha
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! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 10
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Prithvi and Jala
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| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Other properties
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Soma (Jala)
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| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Cleansing or Non-slimy (vishada), Severely acting (daruna)[Cha.Sa. [[Sutra Sthana]] 12/4], conducive (yogavahi), Can move oblique or in any direction (tiryag gami), responsible for sound (shabda) and touch(sparsha) perception
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Soma (Jala)
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| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Foul smelling (vistra)
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | --
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
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[[Charak Samhita]], [Su.Sa. Nidana Sthana]<ref name="Sushruta Samhita" /> [A.Hr. Sutra Sthana 1/11-12 ]<ref name="Ashtanga Hridaya"/> Kashyap Samhita, Sharangdhara Samhita
  
===Properties===
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==Primary centers of dosha==
Every materialistic or non-materialistic object (dravya) in the world acts only by the virtue of properties possessed by it. These properties, attributes are nothing but Guna of that dravya.
 
The term Dosha from its definition states very three basic properties as -
 
  
#Which are involved in formation of Prakriti (Somatotype) of an individual.  
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These are omnipresent throughout the body. However, their primary centers are located in below umbilicus (vata dosha), between umbilicus and cardiac region (pitta dosha) and above cardiac region (kapha dosha). [A. Hr. Sutra Sthana 1/7]<ref name="Ashtanga Hridaya"/>
#Those which are independent.
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#Those which are unstable and tend to deviate from normalcy and also have tendency to create a disease.  
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More specifically, vata dosha regulates the functions in the regions of large intestine (pakvashaya), lumbar region (kati), thighs (sakthi), ears (shrotra), bones (asthi) and skin (sparshanendriay).
  
==Properties of Sharirik Dosha==
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Pitta dosha regulates functions in umbilicus (nabhi), stomach (amashaya), sweat glands (sweda), lymphatics (lasika), blood (rudhira), nutrient fluids (rasa), eyes(drik), and skin (sparshana).  
Vata-Pitta-Kapha are the three Sharirik dosha. Each one possess individual and specific properties within them. Ancient Ayurvedic scholars differ in their opinion as per their individual thinking and intellect. Following are the properties of Sharirik dosha as mentioned by different ancient scholars.
 
  
'''Vata Dosha'''
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Kapha dosha regulates functions in chest, throat, head (shira), all joints (parva), stomach(amashaya), nutrient fluids (rasa), adipose tissue (meda), nose (ghrana) and tongue(jivha). [A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 12/1-3]<ref name="Ashtanga Hridaya"/>
  
'''Charak Samhita''' - 
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==Affinity of vitiation==
Ruksha (Dryness), Laghu (Light weightedness), Shita (Cold), Khara (Rough), Sukshma (Fine or Subtle), Chala (Movable), Vishad (Cleaning or Removing tendency or Non-slimy)<ref>Kashinath Shastri. Charak Samhita. Sutra Sthan. Deerghanjivitiya. Reprint 2007. Pg. No. 27.</ref>, Daruna (Harshness)<ref>Kashinath Shastri. Charak Samhita. Sutra Sthan. Vatakalakaliya Adhyaya. Reprint 2007. Pg. No. 172.</ref>, Yogavahi (Synergistic in action)<ref>Kashinath Shastri. Charak Samhita. Sutra Sthan. Jwara Chikitsa. Reprint 2007.</ref>
 
  
'''Sushruta Samhita''' -
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Dosha primarily vitiate their own sites of body constituents ([[dhatu]] and [[mala]]). The vata dosha resides in and vitiates bones ([[asthi]]); pitta dosha vitiates sweat ([[sweda]]) and blood ([[rakta dhatu]]). Kapha dosha affects all remaining body constituents like nutrient fluids ([[rasa dhatu]]), muscle tissue ([[mamsa dhatu]]), adipose tissue ([[meda dhatu]]), bone marrow ([[majja dhatu]]), reproductive constituents ([[shukra dhatu]]), urine ([[mutra]]) and stools ([[purisha]]). [A.Hr. Sutra Sthana 11/26]<ref name="Ashtanga Hridaya"/>
Ruksha (Dryness), Laghu (Light weightedness), Shita (Cold), Khara (Rough), Tiryag (no any specific direction /Oblique), Dviguna (Shabda - Sound and Sparsha - Touch), Rajo bahula (mutually interdependent with Rajasik - exciting factors at psychological level), Achintya virya (Unimaginable potency), Doshanam neta (Primary to all other dosha), Roga Samuharat (Capable to vitiate enough to produce multiple diseases), Ashukari (Very quick in action), Muhushchari (Repeated tendency)<ref>Yadavji Trikamji Acharya. Sushrut Samhita. Nidan Sthan. Vatavyadhi Nidan. Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan. Reprint 2012. Pg. No. 257.</ref>
 
  
'''Ashtanga Hridaya''' -
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These sites are important in diagnosis of origin of disease pathology, site of lesion, and target oriented treatments.
Ruksha (Dryness), Laghu (Light weightedness), Shita (Cold), Khara (Rough), Sukshma (Fine or Subtle), Chala (Movable) <ref>Kaviraj Atridev Gupta. Ashtang Hridayam. Sutra Sthan. Ayushkamiya. Reprint 2007. Pg. No. 27.</ref>
 
  
'''Kashyap Samhita''' -
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==Importance of dosha==
Vyavayi (Spreadable), Vishad (Cleaning or Removing tendency or Non-slimy), Shita (Cold), Ruksha (Dryness), Chala (Movable),  Khara (Rough)
 
  
'''Sharangdhara Samhita''' -
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Dosha are the fundamental principles of body that are responsible for every physiological as well as pathological events in the body. [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 15/3]<ref name="Sushruta Samhita" />, [A.sa. Sutra Sthana 16], [A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 11/1]<ref name="Ashtanga Hridaya"/> Dosha form the fundamental body constitution (prakriti), play vital role in digestion and metabolism ([[agni]]), preserve and maintain health while in state of equilibrium. 
Vibhag karanam (Which separates, segregates), Rajo gunamaya (Dominant with Raja guna at psychological level), Sukshma (Fine or Subtle), Shita (Cold), Ruksha (Dryness), Laghu (Light weightedness), Chala (Movable)
 
  
'''Pitta Dosha'''
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===Body constitution or phenotype (dosha prakriti)===
  
'''Charak Samhita''' -
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The body constitution (prakriti) of a person is based upon the relative proportions of the three dosha. The equilibrium or dominance of dosha at the time of formation of embryo determines the body constitution (deha prakriti). [Cha.Sa. [[Sutra Sthana]] 7/40] This proportion is further modulated by the diet and lifestyle of mother, age, and the environment in which the person grows to generate the unique dosha-prakriti of the individual.  The individual shows characteristic features of respective dominant dosha in prakriti. It is very similar to the phenotype in modern biology. Thus, the current genetic paradigms believe that the phenotype of individual results from interaction between genotype (established at fertilization) and the environment, which includes epigenetic changes resulting from parental age, diet, lifestyle, and other environmental factors.<ref>Lakhotia S. C. (2014). Translating Ayurveda's Dosha-Prakriti into objective parameters. Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine, 5(3), 176.</ref>  Genomic variations with the classification of prakriti are studied. It is observed that PGM1 correlates with phenotype of pitta prakriti. This suggests that the phenotypic classification has a genetic basis; and its prakriti-based practice resonates with personalized medicine.<ref>Govindaraj, P. et al. Genome-wide analysis correlates Ayurveda Prakriti. Sci. Rep. 5, 15786; doi: 10.1038/srep15786 (2015)</ref>  The relation between clinical phenotype and predisposition of disease is studied. The study was carried out on the association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C with type 2 diabetes and prakriti. An extremely strong association between prakriti (kaphaja/kapha-pittaja) and type 2 diabetes (P < 0.00001) was detected in this study.<ref>Gupta A, Ali A, Tewari P, Agrawal NK, Patel R, Byadgi PS. Association of kaphaja and kapha-pittaja prakriti and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T allele with type 2 diabetes. AYU [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 Jan 5];39:146-50. Available from: http://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2018/39/3/146/255251</ref>
Sa-sneha (slightly unctuous), Ushna (Hot), Tikshna (Sharp), Drava (Liquid), Amla (Sour in taste), Vistra (Foul smelling), Sara (Secretory), Katu (Bitter in taste)
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 +
Studies have shown that Ayurvedic body type classification may be associated with genes of inflammation and oxidative stress factors, the rate of DNA methylation and development of cardiovascular diseases.<ref>Anna Korossy, Anna Blazovics. Ayurveda for the treatment of Obesity. Orv Hetil 2016 Aug; 157 (34):1349-52. DOI: 10.1556/650.2016.30534.</ref> 
  
'''Sushruta Samhita''' -
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===Influence of dosha on digestion ([[agni]]) and gut (koshtha)===
Ushna (Hot), Tikshna (Sharp), Drava (Liquid), Puti (Putri smelling), Pita (Normally Yellowish in appearance), Nila (Bluish appearance abnormally), Katu (Normally Bitter in taste), Amla (Sour in taste abnormally)
 
  
'''Ashtanga Hridaya''' -
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The dominant dosha influences the biological processes of digestion and metabolism. It also affects the gut functions (koshtha).  The digestion and gut patterns are classified into three categories based on the dominance of dosha as shown in table below.
Sa-sneha (slightly unctuous), Ushna (Hot), Tikshna (Sharp), Laghu (light weightedness), Vistra (Foul smelling), Sara (Secretory), Drava (Liquid)
 
  
'''Kashyap Samhita''' -  
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'''Table 2: Influence of dosha on digestion and gut pattern '''
Ushna (dominantly hot), Tikshna (slightly sharp in nature), Laghu (light weightedness), Drava (Liquid)
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{| class="wikitable"
 +
! ''Sr.No'' !! ''Dosha''!! ''[[Agni]] (digestion pattern)''!! ''Koshtha (gut pattern)''!! ''Clinical picture''!!
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 1
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Vata dosha
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Irregular digestion (vishama [[agni]])
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Hard bowel (krura koshtha)
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Irregular digestion, hard stools, constipation, inhibited intestinal motility, discomfort in defecation and abdominal pressure
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 2
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Pitta dosha
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Fast digestion (tikshna [[agni]])
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Soft bowel (mrudu koshtha)  
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Fast digestion, increased sensitivity of intestinal mucosa, loose motions, frequent defecation
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 3
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Kapha dosha
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Slow digestion (manda [[agni]])
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Medium (not too soft, not too hard) bowel (madhyama koshtha)
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Slow and sluggish digestion, semi solid, soft consistency of stool, defecation with ease
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
'''Sharangdhara Samhita''' -
+
===Pathological importance===
Ushna (Hot), Drava (Liquid), Pita (Normally Yellowish in appearance), Nila (Bluish appearance abnormally), Satvagunottaram (Dominant Satvik guna at psychological level), Katu - Tikta (Bitter and Spicy in taste normally), Amla (Sour in taste abnormally)
 
  
 +
The dosha are the factors that get vitiated themselves in the initial stage of the disease. Further, they vitiate other body constituents (dhatu and mala).  Therefore, disequilibrium of dosha is the primary and fundamental cause of any disease. [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 21/3]<ref name="Sushruta Samhita" />
  
'''Kapha Dosha'''
+
==Factors influencing dosha in body==
  
'''Charak Samhita''' -
+
=== Diet and lifestyle ===
Guru (Heavy), Shita (Cold), Mrudu (Soft), Snigdha (Unctuous), Madhur (Sweet in taste), Sthir (Stable), Pichhila (Slimy, Sticky in nature)
 
  
'''Sushruta Samhita''' -
+
The diet dominant in similar properties of dosha increases the proportion of dosha in body. The diet which is opposite to the properties of dosha decreases the proportion of dosha. Therefore, diet which maintains equilibrium state of dosha in the body is advised for preservation of health. The following table shows specific tastes and potencies that influences the dosha. 
Shweta (Whitish), Guru (Heavy), Snigdha (Unctuous), Pichhila (Slimy, Sticky in nature), Shita (Cold), Madhur (normally Sweet in taste), Lavana (Salty in taste abnormally)
 
  
'''Ashtanga Hridaya''' -  
+
'''Table 3: Influence of taste and potency on dosha '''
Snigdha (Unctuous), Shita (Cold), Guru (Heavy), Manda (Slow and Sluggish), Shlakshna (Sticky), Mrutsna (Slimy), Sthir (Stable)
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Sr.No''' !! ''Dosha''!! ''Aggravating taste ([[rasa]]) and [[veerya]] (potency)''!! ''Pacifying taste ([[rasa]]) and [[veerya]] (potency)''!!
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 1
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Vata dosha
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Pungent (katu), bitter (tikta), astringent(kashaya), cold potency
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Sweet(madhura), sour(amla), salty(lavana), hot potency
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 2
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Pitta dosha
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Sour(amla), salty(lavana), pungent (katu), hot potency
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Sweet(madhura), bitter (tikta), astringent(kashaya), cold potency
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 3
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Kapha dosha
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Sweet(madhura), sour(amla), salty(lavana), cold potency
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Pungent (katu), bitter (tikta), astringent(kashaya), hot potency
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
The lifestyle activities that produce similar effects as of dosha lead to vitiation of dosha and vice versa.  For example, excess movement increases vata dosha, and rest pacifies vata dosha.  The same principles are applied in treatment of diseases due to vitiation of dosha.
 +
 
 +
=== Season, age, time and circadian rhythm===
  
'''Sharangdhara Samhita''' -
+
The time factor in terms of season/climate change, age, day-night rhythm naturally influences levels of dosha in body.  The changes in the microcosm are observed due to changes in macrocosm.[A.Hr. Sutra Sthana 1/8]<ref name="Ashtanga Hridaya"/>
Snigdha (Unctuous), Guru (Heavy), Shweta (Whitish), Pichhila (Slimy, Sticky in nature), Shita (Cold), Tamogunadhik (dominant with Tamasik guna at psychological level), Swadu (Sweet in taste normally), Lavana (Salty in taste abnormally)
 
  
==Importance of Dosha==
+
'''Table 4: Impact of season, age, time and circadian rhythm on dosha'''
Dosha are the physiological entities of the body playing their respective role both at physical and psychological level as well. They are involved at almost every happening inside the body from subtle to gross level activities. They are involved in birth or origin of an tiny structure, component, organ and ultimately an individual too. They are having a crucial role to run all the functional activities, mechanics of an structure, organ, system and complete organism. Their importance is highlighted in Ayurveda in different Ayurvedic treatises as -  
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Sr.No''' !! ''Dosha''!! ''Age''!! ''Peak time in day-night cycle''!! ''Peak Season''!! ''Peak time after meals''!!
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 1
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Vata dosha
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Old age
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Time of end of day and night
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Rainy season
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Post digestion
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 2
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Pitta dosha
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Middle age
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Midday and midnight
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Autumn
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Mid digestion
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 3
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Kapha dosha
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Childhood
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Start of day and night
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Spring 
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Immediately after meals, starting of digestion
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
* दोषधातुमलमूलं हि शरीरम् | - सु.सू.१५/३
+
== Natural cycle of dosha as per seasonal variation (ritu kriyakala)==
* दोषधातुमलमूलो हि देहः | - अ.सं.सू.१६
 
* दोषधातुमलामूलं हि सदा दहस्य तं चलः | - अ.ह्.सू.११
 
  
===Physiological Importance===
+
The body is continuously exposed to the external environment and climatic changes as per season. The dosha tend to deviate from normal state and show variations in their levels according to the seasons. These physiological disequilibrium states are maintained by adopting seasonal dietary and lifestyle regimen ([[ritucharya]]) to preserve health.  As these states are more prone for opportunistic diseases, these are also called as ‘ritu kriyakala’ (seasonal opportunities). The table shows seasonal variations in dosha.   
# '''Dosha are involved in formation of Prakruti''' - As the definition of the Dosha itself implies - ''Prakruti arambhaktvam''
 
# '''Dosha are vital components to maintain and establish the Health'''
 
# Normalcy of Dosha is responsible for Normal state of ''Agni''
 
# Any deviation in any form of Dosha from their normalcy leads to development of pathological ailments further leading into disease.  
 
# Even though countable and limited Dosha, they are capable to produce innumerable pathological symptoms and diseases too.
 
# Dosha (Vata, Pitta and Kapha) are the only components responsible for origin and development of metaphysical body and its formed elements. Thus are also considered as pillars of the body holding and sustaining the integrity of life. (वात पित्त श्लेषमाण एव देहसंभवहेतवः | - सु.सू.२१/३)    
 
  
+
'''Table 5: Influence of taste and potency on dosha '''
===Pathological Importance===
+
{| class="wikitable"
The dosha as the name is suggestive of, are having a natural tendency to deviate from the normalcy. In such way they are very unstable matter with high potential within them. The static or dynamic state of equilibrium of these dosha is mainly responsible for health whereas in-equilibrium leads to manifestation of any pathological ailment which may ultimately land into diseases. The natural behavior of dosha is the capability to contaminate, adulterate, vitiate or create imbalance by any means.
+
! Sr.No''' !! ''Dosha''!! ''State of accumulation (chaya)''!! ''State of aggravation (prakopa)''!! ''State of alleviation (prashama)''!!
* दुष्यन्ति इति दोषः |  
+
|-
* शरीर दूषणात् दोषा | - शा.पु.५
+
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 1
* ते एव च व्यापन्नाः प्रलयहेतवः | - सु.सू.२१/३
+
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Vata dosha
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Summer (grishma)
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Rainy season(varsha)
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Autumn (sharada)
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 2
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Pitta dosha  
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Rainy season (varsha)
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Autumn (sharada)
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Pre-winter (hemanta)
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 3
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Kapha dosha
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Winter (shishira)
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Spring (vasanta)
 +
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Summer (grishma)
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
==Clinical aspects ==
  
===Locations of Dosha===
+
===Diagnosis of the abnormal state===
These are omnipresent throughout the body. They are continuously in a state of circulation maintaining, regulating and governing all the physiological activities throughout the body. Simultaneously, by the virtue of practicing dosha vitiating factors, the same dosha are also on the verge of deviation due to which body is constantly under the threat of surrendering and becoming host to any disease. Based on this concept, the general location of dosha can be categorized into two as - General location & Specific location.
 
  
'''General location of Dosha'''
+
The increased (vriddhi) or decreased (kshaya) state of dosha in body is diagnosed by assessment of physiological functions of respective dosha. [Cha.Sa. [[Sutra Sthana]] 18/52-53]
  
सर्वदेहव्यापित्वे अपि यो यास्मिन् अधिवचेन वर्तते तत् तस्य स्थानम् | - हेमाद्रि
+
=== Diseases due to dosha ===
  
Generally whole body is the residing place of Dosha and not any single place whether subtle or gross is devoid by the presence or action of these dosha.  
+
The endogenous diseases (nija vyadhi) are caused by the vitiation of dosha (vata, pitta, and kapha). The diseases caused due to combination of two or three dosha are called as general (samanya) diseases. The diseases caused due to vitiation of one dosha only are called as 'nanatmaja' (dosha specific) diseases. [Cha.Sa.[[Sutra Sthana]] 20/10]
  
ते व्यापिनो अपि ह्रन्नाभ्योरधोमध्योर्ध्वसंश्रयाः | - अ.ह्.सू.१/७
+
=== Treatment ===
  
However, from the point of origin of disease there are certain broad location spread throughout body, where the dosha do reside. Manifestation of specific type of diseases as per dosha originates from these location also the treatment modality is selected and assigned keeping these location in focus.
+
The abnormal states of dosha are treated with rational therapeutic use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures. [Cha.Sa. [[Sutra Sthana]] 1/58] The treatment principles of various states of dosha are as follows:
  
'''Specific location of Dosha'''
+
# Decreased state: Increase dosha by diet and lifestyle
 +
# Vitiated state: Pacification therapy
 +
# Aggravated state: Removing the excess to restore equilibrium
 +
# Normal state: maintain the equilibrium  [Su.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 33/3]<ref name="Sushruta Samhita" />
  
 +
Some primary selective treatments in the increased state of dosha are stated in following table.
  
===Table 2:Specific location of Physical Dosha as per different Ayurveda Scholars===
+
'''Table 6: Selective treatment modality and substance for dosha'''
{| class="wikitable"  
+
{| class="wikitable"
! Sr.No''' !! ''Charak Samhita''!! ''Sushrut Samhita''!!''Ashtanga Samgraha''!!''Ashtanga Hridaya''!!''Kashyap Samhita''
+
! Sr.No''' !! ''Dosha''!! ''Type of Treatment''!! ''Therapeutic substance''!!
 
|-
 
|-
 
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 1
 
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 1
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Pakvashaya (Large Intestine)
+
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Vata Dosha
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Pakvadhan (Large Intestine)
+
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Therapeutic Enema ([[Basti]])
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Pakvashaya (Large Intestine)
+
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Oil (Taila)
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Pakvashaya (Large Intestine)
 
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Adho Nabhi (Body parts below umbilicus)
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 2
 
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 2
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Purishadhan (Rectum and Anal canal)
+
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Pitta Dosha
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Guda (Anal canal)
+
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Therapeutic Purgation ([[Virechana]])
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | -
+
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Ghee/Clarified butter (Ghrita)
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | -
 
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | -
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 3
 
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 3
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Kati (Pelvic region)
+
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Kapha Dosha
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Shroni (Pelvic region)
+
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Therapeutic Emesis ([[Vamana]])
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Kati (Pelvic region)
+
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Honey (Madhu)
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Kati (Pelvic region)
 
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | -
 
 
|-
 
|-
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 4
+
|}
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Asthi (Bones)
+
 
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | -
+
==Current researches==
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Asthi (Bones)
+
 
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Asthi (Bones)
+
===Relation of dosha to physiological markers and brain functions===
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Asthi (Bones) and Majja (Marrow, Nervous tissue)
+
 
|-
+
Research studies have suggested the patterns of blood chemistry, genetic expression, physiological states, and chronic diseases are associated with each dosha type. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high LDL, and low HDL concentrations, common risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were reported to be higher in kapha types as compared to pitta and vata types. Whereas Hemoglobin and RBC count tend to be higher in pitta as compared to other types, while serum prolactin was found to be higher in vata types.  Genetic expression also distinguishes dosha types. Where genes in the immune response pathways were up-regulated in pitta types, genes related to cell cycles up-regulated in vata types, and genes in the immune signaling pathways were found to be up-regulated in kapha types.
! rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | 5
+
 
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Basti (Urinary Bladder), Pada (Lower extremities), Sakthi (Thighs)
+
Also, inflammatory genes were up-regulated in vata types, whereas up-regulation of oxidative stress pathway genes were observed in pitta and kapha types. CD25 (activated B cells) and CD56 (natural killer cells) were higher in kapha dosha types. CYP2C19 genotypes, a family of genes that help in detoxification and metabolism of certain drugs were down-regulated in kapha types and up-regulated in pitta types.  A research program using physiological and cortical measures is suggested to explore the utility of dosha brain-types. Dosha brain models may give scope to learn in field of relation of dosha to electroencephalography EEG patterns, autonomic activation and autonomic balance, stress reactivity and behavior.  This line of research could help clarify variable response to drugs and lifestyle modifications in normal and clinical populations and so help target health promotion at all levels of life. There are possible correlations between autonomous nervous systems and dosha.<ref>Travis FT, Wallace RK. Dosha brain-types: A neural model of individual differences. J Ayurveda integrative Med 2015;6:280-5. DOI: 10.4103/0975-9476.172385</ref> 
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | -
+
 
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Shrotrendriya (Sense organ for Hearing sense), Sparshanendriya (Sense organ for Tactile sense)
+
The systems approach proposed by Hankey A. shows how tridosha applies to every living organism from the first cells, and how it is inherited and diversified in the history of life. Ayugenomics study confirms dosha's inheritance. Each dosha is responsible for regulating an essential aspect of organism function, connected to a recognized definition of life: Vata, Input/Output (homeostasis); Pitta, Turnover (negative entropy production); Kapha, Storage (inheritable structure).<ref>Hankey A. (2010). Establishing the Scientific Validity of Tridosha part 1: Doshas, Subdoshas and Dosha Prakritis. Ancient science of life, 29(3), 6–18</ref>
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | Shrotrendriya (Sense organ for Hearing sense), Sparshanendriya (Sense organ for Tactile sense)
+
 
| rowspan="1" style="text-align: left;" | -
+
===Relation of vata dosha and vagus nerve===
|-
+
 
|}
+
Venil Sumantran and Pratibha Nair proposed strong correlations between vagus nerve and vata dosha activity. They have hypothetically provided four possible reasons to assume vagal activity as a reliable candidate biomarker of important vata dosha functions. First, normal vata dosha and the vagus maintain neural, respiratory, and digestive homeostasis, and dysfunctions in both entities cause very similar diseases.  Second, vata dosha regulates higher neural functions such as mental health and behaviour, and the 'polyvagal theory' proposes similar functions for the vagus. Third, the similar roles of vata dosha and vagus in maintaining gut homeostasis, suggest that vagal activity in the 'gut-brain' link is a candidate biomarker of pakwashaya (lower gut), a primary regulatory site for vata dosha. Fourth, the vagus is the only vital nerve whose activity can be reliably measured and manipulated. Vagal nerve stimulation is an approved therapy for certain ailments attributed to impaired vata dosha.<ref>Venil N Sumantran, Pratibha P Nair. Can the vagus nerve serve as biomarker for vata dosha activity?  J Ayurveda Integr Med, Apr-Jun 2019;10(2):146-151. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaim.2019.04.003</ref>  This research can provide better understanding in concept and practical approach towards vata dosha.
 +
 
 +
=== Nuclear correlation ===
 +
 
 +
Sharma H. and Wallace RK proposed that mRNA, tRNA, and protein have features and properties that represent vata, pitta, and kapha at the cellular level. Messenger RNA corresponds with vata (transmission of information), tRNA corresponds with pitta (transformation), and protein corresponds with kapha (structure).<ref>Hari Sharma and Robert Keith Wallace. Ayurveda and Epigenetics. Medicina 2020, DOI: 10.3390/medicina56120687</ref>
 +
 
 +
=== Assessment of dosha ===
 +
 
 +
Manohar PR and his team of researchers proposed the heart rate variability analysis to determine functions of dosha in body. Substantial agreement between the HRV analysis and the clinical method of assessing dosha imbalances in pathological conditions is observed in data.<ref>Ram Manohar, P., Sorokin, O., Chacko, J., & Nampoothiri, V. (2018). An exploratory clinical study to determine the utility of heart rate variability analysis in the assessment of dosha imbalance. Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine, 9(2), 126–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaim.2017.06.008</ref>  S. Shilpa and C.G.Venkatesha Murthy (2011) developed and standardized Mysore Tridosha Scale, wherein only the psychological aspects of the dosha prakriti have been used to build items for the assessment of personality. The psychometric properties of the scale are established with significant reliability and validity of data.<ref>Shilpa, S., & Murthy, C. G. (2011). Development and standardization of Mysore Tridosha scale. Ayu, 32(3), 308–314. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-8520.93905</ref>
 +
 
 +
=== Relation of dosha to sleep ===
 +
 
 +
A study was conducted to determine if each dosha can act as a predictor of quality and quantity of sleep. The survey-based cross-sectional study carried out on 995 persons of both sexes (average age 49.1 years) suggests that higher vata scores are associated with a longer time to fall asleep and a lesser feeling of being rested in the morning. Higher kapha scores, in contrast, are associated with longer daytime naps. These results suggest tridosha play important role in sleep physiology. The dosha can influence the quality and quantity of sleep.<ref>Telles, S., Pathak, S., Kumar, A., Mishra, P., & Balkrishna, A. (2015). Ayurvedic doshas as predictors of sleep quality. Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research, 21, 1421–1427. https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.893302</ref>
 +
 
 +
=== Abbreviations ===
 +
 
 +
*SAT = Standard Ayurveda Terminology
 +
*Cha. = Charak
 +
*Su. = Sushruta
 +
*Sha. =Sharangadhara
 +
*Sa. = Samhita
 +
*A. = Ashtanga
 +
*Hr. = Hrudaya
 +
 
 +
== Related chapters ==
 +
 
 +
[[Deerghanjiviteeya Adhyaya]], [[Vatakalakaliya Adhyaya]], [[Kiyanta Shiraseeya Adhyaya]], [[Trishothiya Adhyaya]], [[Ashtodariya Adhyaya]], [[Maharoga Adhyaya]], [[Rogabhishagjitiya Vimana Adhyaya]]
 +
 
 +
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 +
 
 +
== References ==
  
==References==
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Latest revision as of 22:57, 23 September 2021

The word ‘Dosha’ literally means impurities or morbidities. In Ayurveda, dosha are the governing principles of physiology and psychology. They are the primary and essential constitutional factors of the human organism. They maintain the integrity of the human body. [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 21/23][1] The three dosha at physical level, vata, pitta, and kapha, vitiate different body tissues and can lead to diseases in disequilibrium state. [SAT-B.382][2] They are the actual intrinsic factors which become excited and imbalanced, either conferring a predisposition to or actually causing morbidities disease (vyadhi).[3] Their state of equilibrium is one of the important pre-requisite for disease free state (arogya) [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 9/4] and health. [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 15/48][1] [A.Hr. Sutra Sthana 1/20][4] The dosha have been correlated with systems theory in the field of physics, providing a sound theoretical basis for this Ayurvedic concept, and research utilizing a biostatistical approach to quantify the dosha reveals a sound empirical basis as well.[5] Being the units of microcosm in body, the three dosha, kapha, pitta and vata, maintain integrity of the organism by creating, assimilating and diffusing strength in the same way as the Moon (soma), Sun(surya) and Air (anila), maintain integrity of the macrocosm respectively. [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 21/8][1]

Contributors
Section/Chapter/topic Sharira / Dosha
Authors Deole Y.S.1, Shilwant A.A.2
Reviewed by Basisht G.1
Affiliations

1Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre, I.T.& R.A., Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

2Department of Kriya Sharir, G.J.Patel Institute of Ayurvedic Studies and Research, New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat, India
Correspondence email: carakasamhita@gmail.com
Date of first publication: January 24, 2021
DOI 10.47468/CSNE.2021.e01.s09.043

Etymology and derivation

The word dosha is derived from Sanskrit root ‘dusha’ meaning causing abnormalities (vaikrutye).[6]

Types of dosha

The dosha are broadly categorized into two:

  1. Somatic or physical level (sharira dosha): Three dosha viz. vata, pitta and kapha.
  2. Psychic or mental level (manas dosha): Two dosha viz. rajas and tamas. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/ 57]

The present article describes somatic or physical dosha.

Origin of dosha

Dosha at physical level originate from five fundamental elements (pancha mahabhuta). Vata dosha originates from vayu and akasha mahabhuta; Pitta dosha from agni mahabhuta and kapha dosha from combination of aap and prithvi mahabhuta. The dosha represent functions of dominant mahabhuta in the body at gross level. They can be principles of regulators, enhancers or inhibitors of the physiological functions.

Subtypes

Each physical dosha has five subtypes based on their functions and sites.

  1. Vata dosha: Prana, Udana, Samana, Vyana, Apana
  2. Pitta dosha: Pachaka, Ranjaka, Sadhaka, Alochaka, Bhrajaka
  3. Kapha dosha: Avalambaka, Kledaka, Bodhaka, Tarpaka, Shleshaka [A.Hr. Sutra Sthana 12][4]

Functions

The dosha govern all the physiological activities. Growth and development (upachaya), strength (bala), complexion (varna), blissful state (prasannata) depends upon them. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 20/9]

Vata dosha governs functions in the body related to initiation and movement e. g. food through the digestive tract, transportation of oxygen in the bloodstream, communication between cells via nerve impulses, excretion of metabolic wastes etc.

Pitta dosha governs functions that relate to transformation (e.g., digestion of food, processes of metabolism, etc.), hunger, thirst, vision, sensory perception, intelligence, complexion, and heat generation.

Kapha dosha governs the structure and cohesion of the body. It relates with function of strength, stability and moisture in body. [A. Hr. Sutra Sthana 11/1-3][4]

Properties

The dosha act through their properties (guna). The properties (guna) are responsible for showing specific effect (karma). Dosha govern the functions related to that property and lead to resultant effect. Therefore, these properties are also applied as parameters to assess normal and abnormal states of dosha in body. The resultant effect is observed clinically.

Table 1: Properties of dosha

Sr.No Parameter of effect Vata dosha Pitta dosha Kapha dosha
1 Specific gravity/weight/volume Lightness (laghu) -- Heaviness (guru)
2 Unctuousness portion Dryness (ruksha) Slightly unctuous (sa-sneha) Unctuous (snigdha)
3 Temperature and potency Cold (sheeta) Hot (ushna) Cold (sheeta)
4 Touch /texture Roughness (khara) -- Unctuous/slimy
5 Duration of effect Quickly acting (ashukari), short lasting effect (alpa), cyclic tendency (muhushchari) Sharp or pungent (tikshna)/ quick acting, severe effect Prolong duration of action (chirakari). Long lasting effect, and mild (manda)
6 Movability Moving (chala) Slightly movable (sara) Stable or immovable (sthira)
7 Consistency Subtle (sukshma) Liquid (drava) Slimy, sticky (pichhila)
8 Taste -- Sour (amla), pungent (katu) in taste [8] Sweet (madhura) in taste
9 Psychological co-relate Rajas Sattva Tamas
10 Other properties Cleansing or Non-slimy (vishada), Severely acting (daruna)[Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 12/4], conducive (yogavahi), Can move oblique or in any direction (tiryag gami), responsible for sound (shabda) and touch(sparsha) perception Foul smelling (vistra) --

Charak Samhita, [Su.Sa. Nidana Sthana][1] [A.Hr. Sutra Sthana 1/11-12 ][4] Kashyap Samhita, Sharangdhara Samhita

Primary centers of dosha

These are omnipresent throughout the body. However, their primary centers are located in below umbilicus (vata dosha), between umbilicus and cardiac region (pitta dosha) and above cardiac region (kapha dosha). [A. Hr. Sutra Sthana 1/7][4]

More specifically, vata dosha regulates the functions in the regions of large intestine (pakvashaya), lumbar region (kati), thighs (sakthi), ears (shrotra), bones (asthi) and skin (sparshanendriay).

Pitta dosha regulates functions in umbilicus (nabhi), stomach (amashaya), sweat glands (sweda), lymphatics (lasika), blood (rudhira), nutrient fluids (rasa), eyes(drik), and skin (sparshana).

Kapha dosha regulates functions in chest, throat, head (shira), all joints (parva), stomach(amashaya), nutrient fluids (rasa), adipose tissue (meda), nose (ghrana) and tongue(jivha). [A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 12/1-3][4]

Affinity of vitiation

Dosha primarily vitiate their own sites of body constituents (dhatu and mala). The vata dosha resides in and vitiates bones (asthi); pitta dosha vitiates sweat (sweda) and blood (rakta dhatu). Kapha dosha affects all remaining body constituents like nutrient fluids (rasa dhatu), muscle tissue (mamsa dhatu), adipose tissue (meda dhatu), bone marrow (majja dhatu), reproductive constituents (shukra dhatu), urine (mutra) and stools (purisha). [A.Hr. Sutra Sthana 11/26][4]

These sites are important in diagnosis of origin of disease pathology, site of lesion, and target oriented treatments.

Importance of dosha

Dosha are the fundamental principles of body that are responsible for every physiological as well as pathological events in the body. [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 15/3][1], [A.sa. Sutra Sthana 16], [A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 11/1][4] Dosha form the fundamental body constitution (prakriti), play vital role in digestion and metabolism (agni), preserve and maintain health while in state of equilibrium.

Body constitution or phenotype (dosha prakriti)

The body constitution (prakriti) of a person is based upon the relative proportions of the three dosha. The equilibrium or dominance of dosha at the time of formation of embryo determines the body constitution (deha prakriti). [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 7/40] This proportion is further modulated by the diet and lifestyle of mother, age, and the environment in which the person grows to generate the unique dosha-prakriti of the individual. The individual shows characteristic features of respective dominant dosha in prakriti. It is very similar to the phenotype in modern biology. Thus, the current genetic paradigms believe that the phenotype of individual results from interaction between genotype (established at fertilization) and the environment, which includes epigenetic changes resulting from parental age, diet, lifestyle, and other environmental factors.[7] Genomic variations with the classification of prakriti are studied. It is observed that PGM1 correlates with phenotype of pitta prakriti. This suggests that the phenotypic classification has a genetic basis; and its prakriti-based practice resonates with personalized medicine.[8] The relation between clinical phenotype and predisposition of disease is studied. The study was carried out on the association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C with type 2 diabetes and prakriti. An extremely strong association between prakriti (kaphaja/kapha-pittaja) and type 2 diabetes (P < 0.00001) was detected in this study.[9]

Studies have shown that Ayurvedic body type classification may be associated with genes of inflammation and oxidative stress factors, the rate of DNA methylation and development of cardiovascular diseases.[10]

Influence of dosha on digestion (agni) and gut (koshtha)

The dominant dosha influences the biological processes of digestion and metabolism. It also affects the gut functions (koshtha). The digestion and gut patterns are classified into three categories based on the dominance of dosha as shown in table below.

Table 2: Influence of dosha on digestion and gut pattern

Sr.No Dosha Agni (digestion pattern) Koshtha (gut pattern) Clinical picture
1 Vata dosha Irregular digestion (vishama agni) Hard bowel (krura koshtha) Irregular digestion, hard stools, constipation, inhibited intestinal motility, discomfort in defecation and abdominal pressure
2 Pitta dosha Fast digestion (tikshna agni) Soft bowel (mrudu koshtha) Fast digestion, increased sensitivity of intestinal mucosa, loose motions, frequent defecation
3 Kapha dosha Slow digestion (manda agni) Medium (not too soft, not too hard) bowel (madhyama koshtha) Slow and sluggish digestion, semi solid, soft consistency of stool, defecation with ease

Pathological importance

The dosha are the factors that get vitiated themselves in the initial stage of the disease. Further, they vitiate other body constituents (dhatu and mala). Therefore, disequilibrium of dosha is the primary and fundamental cause of any disease. [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 21/3][1]

Factors influencing dosha in body

Diet and lifestyle

The diet dominant in similar properties of dosha increases the proportion of dosha in body. The diet which is opposite to the properties of dosha decreases the proportion of dosha. Therefore, diet which maintains equilibrium state of dosha in the body is advised for preservation of health. The following table shows specific tastes and potencies that influences the dosha.

Table 3: Influence of taste and potency on dosha

Sr.No Dosha Aggravating taste (rasa) and veerya (potency) Pacifying taste (rasa) and veerya (potency)
1 Vata dosha Pungent (katu), bitter (tikta), astringent(kashaya), cold potency Sweet(madhura), sour(amla), salty(lavana), hot potency
2 Pitta dosha Sour(amla), salty(lavana), pungent (katu), hot potency Sweet(madhura), bitter (tikta), astringent(kashaya), cold potency
3 Kapha dosha Sweet(madhura), sour(amla), salty(lavana), cold potency Pungent (katu), bitter (tikta), astringent(kashaya), hot potency

The lifestyle activities that produce similar effects as of dosha lead to vitiation of dosha and vice versa. For example, excess movement increases vata dosha, and rest pacifies vata dosha. The same principles are applied in treatment of diseases due to vitiation of dosha.

Season, age, time and circadian rhythm

The time factor in terms of season/climate change, age, day-night rhythm naturally influences levels of dosha in body. The changes in the microcosm are observed due to changes in macrocosm.[A.Hr. Sutra Sthana 1/8][4]

Table 4: Impact of season, age, time and circadian rhythm on dosha

Sr.No Dosha Age Peak time in day-night cycle Peak Season Peak time after meals
1 Vata dosha Old age Time of end of day and night Rainy season Post digestion
2 Pitta dosha Middle age Midday and midnight Autumn Mid digestion
3 Kapha dosha Childhood Start of day and night Spring Immediately after meals, starting of digestion

Natural cycle of dosha as per seasonal variation (ritu kriyakala)

The body is continuously exposed to the external environment and climatic changes as per season. The dosha tend to deviate from normal state and show variations in their levels according to the seasons. These physiological disequilibrium states are maintained by adopting seasonal dietary and lifestyle regimen (ritucharya) to preserve health. As these states are more prone for opportunistic diseases, these are also called as ‘ritu kriyakala’ (seasonal opportunities). The table shows seasonal variations in dosha.

Table 5: Influence of taste and potency on dosha

Sr.No Dosha State of accumulation (chaya) State of aggravation (prakopa) State of alleviation (prashama)
1 Vata dosha Summer (grishma) Rainy season(varsha) Autumn (sharada)
2 Pitta dosha Rainy season (varsha) Autumn (sharada) Pre-winter (hemanta)
3 Kapha dosha Winter (shishira) Spring (vasanta) Summer (grishma)

Clinical aspects

Diagnosis of the abnormal state

The increased (vriddhi) or decreased (kshaya) state of dosha in body is diagnosed by assessment of physiological functions of respective dosha. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 18/52-53]

Diseases due to dosha

The endogenous diseases (nija vyadhi) are caused by the vitiation of dosha (vata, pitta, and kapha). The diseases caused due to combination of two or three dosha are called as general (samanya) diseases. The diseases caused due to vitiation of one dosha only are called as 'nanatmaja' (dosha specific) diseases. [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 20/10]

Treatment

The abnormal states of dosha are treated with rational therapeutic use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/58] The treatment principles of various states of dosha are as follows:

  1. Decreased state: Increase dosha by diet and lifestyle
  2. Vitiated state: Pacification therapy
  3. Aggravated state: Removing the excess to restore equilibrium
  4. Normal state: maintain the equilibrium [Su.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 33/3][1]

Some primary selective treatments in the increased state of dosha are stated in following table.

Table 6: Selective treatment modality and substance for dosha

Sr.No Dosha Type of Treatment Therapeutic substance
1 Vata Dosha Therapeutic Enema (Basti) Oil (Taila)
2 Pitta Dosha Therapeutic Purgation (Virechana) Ghee/Clarified butter (Ghrita)
3 Kapha Dosha Therapeutic Emesis (Vamana) Honey (Madhu)

Current researches

Relation of dosha to physiological markers and brain functions

Research studies have suggested the patterns of blood chemistry, genetic expression, physiological states, and chronic diseases are associated with each dosha type. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high LDL, and low HDL concentrations, common risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were reported to be higher in kapha types as compared to pitta and vata types. Whereas Hemoglobin and RBC count tend to be higher in pitta as compared to other types, while serum prolactin was found to be higher in vata types. Genetic expression also distinguishes dosha types. Where genes in the immune response pathways were up-regulated in pitta types, genes related to cell cycles up-regulated in vata types, and genes in the immune signaling pathways were found to be up-regulated in kapha types.

Also, inflammatory genes were up-regulated in vata types, whereas up-regulation of oxidative stress pathway genes were observed in pitta and kapha types. CD25 (activated B cells) and CD56 (natural killer cells) were higher in kapha dosha types. CYP2C19 genotypes, a family of genes that help in detoxification and metabolism of certain drugs were down-regulated in kapha types and up-regulated in pitta types. A research program using physiological and cortical measures is suggested to explore the utility of dosha brain-types. Dosha brain models may give scope to learn in field of relation of dosha to electroencephalography EEG patterns, autonomic activation and autonomic balance, stress reactivity and behavior. This line of research could help clarify variable response to drugs and lifestyle modifications in normal and clinical populations and so help target health promotion at all levels of life. There are possible correlations between autonomous nervous systems and dosha.[11]

The systems approach proposed by Hankey A. shows how tridosha applies to every living organism from the first cells, and how it is inherited and diversified in the history of life. Ayugenomics study confirms dosha's inheritance. Each dosha is responsible for regulating an essential aspect of organism function, connected to a recognized definition of life: Vata, Input/Output (homeostasis); Pitta, Turnover (negative entropy production); Kapha, Storage (inheritable structure).[12]

Relation of vata dosha and vagus nerve

Venil Sumantran and Pratibha Nair proposed strong correlations between vagus nerve and vata dosha activity. They have hypothetically provided four possible reasons to assume vagal activity as a reliable candidate biomarker of important vata dosha functions. First, normal vata dosha and the vagus maintain neural, respiratory, and digestive homeostasis, and dysfunctions in both entities cause very similar diseases. Second, vata dosha regulates higher neural functions such as mental health and behaviour, and the 'polyvagal theory' proposes similar functions for the vagus. Third, the similar roles of vata dosha and vagus in maintaining gut homeostasis, suggest that vagal activity in the 'gut-brain' link is a candidate biomarker of pakwashaya (lower gut), a primary regulatory site for vata dosha. Fourth, the vagus is the only vital nerve whose activity can be reliably measured and manipulated. Vagal nerve stimulation is an approved therapy for certain ailments attributed to impaired vata dosha.[13] This research can provide better understanding in concept and practical approach towards vata dosha.

Nuclear correlation

Sharma H. and Wallace RK proposed that mRNA, tRNA, and protein have features and properties that represent vata, pitta, and kapha at the cellular level. Messenger RNA corresponds with vata (transmission of information), tRNA corresponds with pitta (transformation), and protein corresponds with kapha (structure).[14]

Assessment of dosha

Manohar PR and his team of researchers proposed the heart rate variability analysis to determine functions of dosha in body. Substantial agreement between the HRV analysis and the clinical method of assessing dosha imbalances in pathological conditions is observed in data.[15] S. Shilpa and C.G.Venkatesha Murthy (2011) developed and standardized Mysore Tridosha Scale, wherein only the psychological aspects of the dosha prakriti have been used to build items for the assessment of personality. The psychometric properties of the scale are established with significant reliability and validity of data.[16]

Relation of dosha to sleep

A study was conducted to determine if each dosha can act as a predictor of quality and quantity of sleep. The survey-based cross-sectional study carried out on 995 persons of both sexes (average age 49.1 years) suggests that higher vata scores are associated with a longer time to fall asleep and a lesser feeling of being rested in the morning. Higher kapha scores, in contrast, are associated with longer daytime naps. These results suggest tridosha play important role in sleep physiology. The dosha can influence the quality and quantity of sleep.[17]

Abbreviations

  • SAT = Standard Ayurveda Terminology
  • Cha. = Charak
  • Su. = Sushruta
  • Sha. =Sharangadhara
  • Sa. = Samhita
  • A. = Ashtanga
  • Hr. = Hrudaya

Related chapters

Deerghanjiviteeya Adhyaya, Vatakalakaliya Adhyaya, Kiyanta Shiraseeya Adhyaya, Trishothiya Adhyaya, Ashtodariya Adhyaya, Maharoga Adhyaya, Rogabhishagjitiya Vimana Adhyaya

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