‘Agni’ literally means fire. In Ayurveda biology, agni denotes all factors responsible for digestion and metabolism/transformation. (Code:SAT-B.488) It is the heat (ushma) generated from pitta dosha in the body. Therefore, all functions of agni are similar to pitta dosha.
In panchamahabhuta (five fundamental elements), agni mahabhuta is the fire element. It is responsible for the transformation or change in the form of an element. This agni mahabhuta in macrocosm is represented by agni in microcosm of human body.
|Chapter/topic||Health / Agni (digestion capacity and digestive health)|
|Co-authors||Bhojani M.K.,2 Kabadwal Dipti,2Joglekar A.3|
|Reviewed by||Basisht G.4|
1 Department of Kayachikitsa, G.J.Patel Institute of Ayurvedic Studies and Research, New Vallabhvidya Nagar, Anand, Gujarat, India
2Department of Sharir Kriya, A.I.I.A. , New Delhi, India
3 Department of Samhita Siddhant, A.I.I.A., New Delhi, India4 Rheumatologist, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A.
|Publisher||Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre, I.T.R.A., Jamnagar, India|
|Date of first publication:||September 13, 2021|
Agni is a crucial factor in life. Agni has been meant to be sign of healthy life in the body. Diminution of agni is life-threatening. Normal functioning of agni leads to longevity. [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 15/4] Sustenance of life, complexion, strength, health, nourishment, luster, ojas, teja (energy) and prana (life energy) depend on the status of agni in the body. [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 15/3] The quantity of diet is decided by agni. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 4/3] The digestion of food, metabolism, transformation, and nutrition of tissues depend on status of agni.
It is an important factor for the assessment of health and disease. [Cha.Sa. Vimana Sthana 8] State of equilibrium of agni is an important component of health. [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 13/41] All diseases are caused due to impaired agni. [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 13] Proper metabolism is key to good health. Agni is the energy that drives all metabolic processes. Selection of medicine, route and time of administration is decided based on agni of the individual. The preparatory procedures of panchakarma like oleation therapy (snehana), dose of unctuous medicine, purification protocol and its follow up measures are subjected to assessment of agni.
The acceptance of macro and micronutrients in the body depends on the status of agni. It is a crucial factor for nutrition. Apart from gross digestion and metabolism, agni is responsible for bio-energetic and biochemical transformations in the body. Jatharagni especially converts heterogeneous component of food into homogenous and produces energy, which is essential for various vital function in the body. The relation of agni with gut microbiome can be studied to explore new insights in medical treatments. This article describes the concept of agni in Ayurveda texts and its applications in current medical science.
The word ‘agni’ is made of three words. Agni = A + G + Ni. The word “A” denotes root “I,” meaning “to go”; “G” denotes the root “Ajna,” meaning “to glitter” or root “daha,” meaning “to burn” and “Ni” means “to carry.” It denotes agni moves everywhere and metamorphoses substances, burns, assimilates, glitters, and grows.
Vanhi, pawaka, anala, vaishvanara, tejasa, shikhi
The following synonyms specifically indicate Jatharagni in the body:
1) Vaishwanara: It is helpful in digestion of different types of food like eatable (ashita), drinkable (peeta), lickable (leedha), masticable (khadita) etc.
2) Sarvapaka: It states that the agni converts the heterogeneous form of heavy or light food component into homogeneous form.
3) Tanoonpata: This synonym is considered to be similar to the function of vitality or life. Where there is agni, there is life. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 15/5]
4) Amivachantana: It is responsible for prevention and cure of the disease or ama that is causative factor of all the types of diseases.
5) Damunas: It is the factor which is responsible for maintenance of healthy life.
6) Shuchi: It is considered as the purest form or purest entity. In context of digestion it might be considered as equilibrium form of digestive capacity (jatharagni), i.e. samagni.
Various synonyms like kaya agni [A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 11/34], antaragni [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 28/3], udarastha agni, pachakagni [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 21] , Jatharanala [A.Hr.Sutra Sthana 13] , Paktru [Cha. Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 15] used to describe the jatharagni. It can also be compared with the 'audarya' type of 'teja' [Tarkasangraha].
Physiological entities resembling and comprising of jatharagni
1) Pachaka Pitta (Pitta responsible for digestion)
2) Shareeroshma (Body heat)
4) Digestive enzymes (salivary amylase, lipase , proteases , peptides) , gastric juices (hydrochloric acid , peptic acid), Hormones (ghrelin ,insulin , cortisol)
Agni and pitta dosha
Agni is present in the form of pitta dosha in the body. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 12/11] [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 21/9] It is a separate entity than pitta dosha as observed through various references. Pitta dosha can be considered as the facilitator for the process of agni.
The similarities and differences between Agni and Pitta can be given as below-
A) Similarities between Agni and Pitta dosha
1. Both of these perform similar functions of dahana , pachana , abhipravartana (digestion , assimilation and transformation) of food
2. Both of these, when diminished state, can be ignited using the dravya of similar attributes like hot (ushna) , sharp (teekshana), liquid (drava) etc.
3. Both of these in increased state (vriddha avastha) respond to cold measures (sheeta kriya).
4. Heat (ushma) is considered as the function of normal pitta in the body. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 18/50]
B) Dissimilarities between Agni and Pitta dosha
1. In the manifestation of Grahani disease, vitiated pitta dosha is involved suggesting that both the agni and pitta dosha differ from one other. [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 15/121]
2. In the palitya roga (Graying of Hair) involvement of both the body heat (shareera ushma-agni) and pitta dosha are mentioned separately suggesting that both of these are distinct entities. [Cha. Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 26/132]
3. Pitta dosha is unctuous(snigdha) and flows downwards (adhogami), while agni is dry (ruksha) and goes upwards (urdhwagami) [A.Hr. Sutra Sthana 9/17]
4. The Ghee or ghrita pacifies the pitta dosha, while it helps in ignition of agni. [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 13/43]
5. While describing the condition of swasthya, both sama dosha and sama agni are mentioned depicting the distinction between the two entities. [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 15/41]
6. Consumption of fish , divaswapna (day sleep) can aggravate the pitta dosha, but pacifies the agni. [Dalhana on Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 21/9]
I. Three categories of agni
Agni is classified into three main classes like:
1. Jatharagni (present in the gastro-intestinal tract). This includes factors responsible for digestion and metabolism at gastro-intestinal tract level.
This agni is responsible for all amylolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes secreted by various exocrine glands in the gut, which actually cause digestion, i.e., breaking down different macromolecules into their constituent units.
2. Bhutagni has five fundamental elements, corresponding to respective mahabhuta. Those are: parthiva (prithvi mahabhuta dominant), apya (jala mahabhuta dominant), tejasa (teja or agni mahabhuta dominant), vayavya ( vayu mahabhuta dominant) and nabhasa ( akasha mahabhuta dominant). They act on the corresponding substrate based on mahabhuta composition to make them homologous to body constituents. This includes factors responsible for digestion and metabolism at the organic level. Five types of bhutagni act after jatharagni, but before dhatvagni on the food and its metabolites. This represents the basic metabolism of various food components and minerals at hepatic level like carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism.
This agni carries out the absorption of nutrients in the liver, which plays an essential role in metabolism. Several processes such as trans-amination, de-amination, beta-oxidation of fatty acids, glycolysis etc. take place in the liver. Therefore, the overall intermediary metabolism (involving fats, carbohydrates and proteins) can be understood as the functioning of the bhutagni.
3. Dhatvagni is present in the seven body tissue components (rasa dhatu, rakta dhatu , mamsa dhatu, meda dhatu, majja dhatu, asthi dhatu and shukra dhatu) and is responsible for transformation of one dhatu into another namely rasagni, raktagni, mamsagni, medo-agni, majjo-agni, asthi agni and shukra agni. This includes factors responsible for digestion and metabolism at dhatu (various tissues). This includes the endocrine and exocrine secretions, neurotransmitter and other chemical factors.
The small portions of agni are present in each dhatu. The increase or decrease of these agni leads to depletion or overproduction of dhatu respectively. [A.Hri. Sutra Sthana 11/24] This suggests the negative feedback and autoregulatory mechanism of agni. All hormones (such as insulin, growth hormone, thyroid hormones, testosterone etc.) that promote the transportation of various nutrients into the cells, along with the enzymes participating in the Kreb’s cycle, are to be included under the term dhatvagni.
All three classes with thirteen agni are interconnected and interdependent. The energy mechanism takes place in every body cell. This shows agni is present in every cell. Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell. The release of adenocine tri phosphate (ATP) to give energy is an example of agni working at cellular level.
II. Four types of digestive patterns
Based on the intensity of action, agni is further classified in to four categories as below.
1. High intensity or quick digestion (tikshna): It can tolerate all types of irregularities in the diet. It is seen in pitta dosha dominant constitution.
2. Low intensity or slow digestion (manda): It cannot tolerate even slight irregularities. It is seen in kapha dosha dominant constitution.
3. Normal intensity or normal digestion (sama): It is average intensity and maintains equilibrium. It is seen in an individual with a balanced dosha constitution.
4. Irregular intensity or unpredictable digestion (vishama): It is an unpredictable form that sometimes can or cannot tolerate irregularities. It is seen in vata dosha dominant constitution. [ Cha.Sa. Vimana Sthana 6/12]
The intensity of digestion is assessed on the basis of time taken for digestion of food. Normal digestion (samagni) needs 12 hours (4 yama) for complete digestion of food, and 6 hours (2 yama) for proper digestion of medicine. [A.S. Sutra Sthana 11/53] The time taken for complete digestion suggests the digestive pattern of that individual. Accordingly, four types of ‘digestive patterns’ are observed in clinical practice. In ayurvedic practice, the treatment protocol aims towards maintaining the equilibrium status of agni through diet, lifestyle and medicine. The exact relation of these digestive patterns with phenotypic variations, epigenetic pathways and intestinal microbial flora needs more research to understand precisely.
The jatharagni is located in the the gastrointestinal tract (koshtha). The lower part of the stomach and duodenum (grahani) is the main site where the initial digestive process occurs. [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 15/56-57], [Su.Sa.Sutra Sthana 21/10], [A.Hr.Sharira Sthana 3/50] Pittadhara kala (a layer responsible for pitta dosha) is responsible for the digestion of the gross components of the food in the body resembles the seat of jatharagni. [Su.Sa. Sharira Sthana 4/18-19]. Nabhi (umbilicus) is the site of flame (jyoti sthana) or specialized seat of the agni in the abdominal region. [Su.Sa. Sharira Sthana 4/57] Jatharagni has similar character with pittoshma, which is the eminent component for digestion and situated in solar circle (surya mandala) in umbilicus.[Bhela Samhita]
The bhutagni mainly works in the liver and hepato-biliary system. Dhatvagni are located and work at their respective abodes of body tissues.
Agni possess similar properties like agni mahabhuta. These properties are as follows:
- Hot (ushna)
- Sharp (teekshna)
- Subtle (sukshma)
- Light (laghu)
- Dry (ruksha)
- Clear (vishada)[Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 26/11]
- Rupa (vision) [Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 1/27]
Functions of agni
The important function of agni is digestion and transformation of ingested food substance to biologically acceptable form. Agni produces the essence or useful part of the food (anna rasa) and the waste part of the food (kitta bhaga). [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 28/4] The essence of food is then circulated further for processing by bhutagni and dhatvagni. The waste part leads to formation of excretory products (mala) including stool (purisha), urine (mutra) and sweat (sweda).
The bhutagni acts for selective uptake of their corresponding components of food. Similarly, dhatvagni acts for selective transformation of food component into the respective body tissues. The waste products formed in this process lead to formation of metabolic wastes (dhatu mala) at various levels. Thus, agni plays vital role in formation and nourishment of body tissues. Apart from digestion and metabolism, agni plays essential role in thermo-regulation, normal complexion, energy generation, strength and immunity. Agni reduces the bulk and moisture. Thus, combustion and reduction are functions of agni.
Physiological factors supporting agni
Dosha are the main functional unit of human physiology. Dosha also govern the physiology of digestion. Samana vayu acts on jatharagni (the digestive factors) and kindles agni. [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 28/8] Prana vayu and apana vayu support the functions of agni. Pachaka pitta, devoid of liquid property, is responsible for digestion. [A. Hr. Sutra Sthana 12/10-11] Kledaka kapha is responsible for moistening the ingested food. Thus, the process of digestion is driven by dosha. Factors responsible for the complete transformation and absorption of food (ahara parinamakara bhava) explain this phenomenon in-depth. [Cha. Sa. Sharira Sthana 6/14], [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 15/6-8]. The vitiated dosha leads to the formation of ama.
Some researchers include the following factors under categories of physiological factors of Ayurveda :
Kledaka kapha: Mucin
Pachaka pitta: Various digestive enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic amylase, pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase, maltase, pepsin etc.
Samana vayu: Enteric nervous system, sympathetic & parasympathetic supply of Autonomous nervous system.
Factors influencing agni
1. Quantity of diet
Food acts as fuel for agni. Food in proper quantity in accordance with agni (yatha agni abhyavahara) promotes digestion. Unsuitable food at an improper time and improper quantity (vishamashana) impairs digestion. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 25/40] Suitable variation in the quantity of food helps to maintain proper digestion and metabolism. The quantity further depends on heavy to digest (gurutva) and light to digest (laghutva) nature of food. Nourishing benefits of diet is subjected to the status of agni. Thus, agni is an important facilitator between health and food.
The sour taste (amla rasa) and pungent taste (katu rasa) kindle agni. [ Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 26/4]
3. Variety of forms of food
Different types of wholesome foods ingested in the form of eatable, drinkable, lickable and masticable stimulate the antaragni (digestive process). [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 28/3]
4. Oleation therapy or fats
The unctuous or fat portion of food enhances taste, stimulates and expedites digestion. [Cha.Sa. Vimana Sthana 1/25.2] The oleation therapy (snehana) is prescribed before purification process to correct digestion. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 13] Administration of fat in moderate quantity is advised to kindle digestion in low digestive process. It is contraindicated in persons with polyphagia or aggravated pitta.
II. Pathophysiological conditions
5. Status of pitta dosha and rakta dhatu
Individuals with highly aggravated pitta dosha in duodenum have excessive digestive strength. Therefore, are able to digest and metabolize fats easily. [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 15/70] The circadian variation of pitta dosha may also influence the status of agni.
Proper physiological functioning of the agni is considered to the resultant of the vishuddha (pure) rakta dhatu in the body. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 24/24]. Abnormalities in rakta dhatu can result in disorders of agni.
6. Purification procedures
The digestion is weakened after administration of purification procedures. Therefore, a specific diet pattern (sansarjana krama) is prescribed to correct digestion as a follow up protocol. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 15/16] On the contrary, proper purification (shodhana) including vamana , virechana and basti [Cha. Sa. Siddhi Sthana, 1/17,27,42] leads to the optimum ignition of agni in the body. [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 16/ 6, 17] Depletion therapies (Apatarpana or langhana) also leads to normalizing agni in proper way and diminution when performed in excess. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 23/27]
7. Excess fat deposition or corpulence (aavarana of vata dosha by meda)
Due to the obstruction of body channels by medas, the movement of vata dosha is specially confined to koshtha (gut). This results in stimulation of agni and rapid digestion of food. Hence, the person quickly feels hunger pains and suffers from voracious appetite. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 21/5-6]
Physical exercise enhances digestion and metabolic processes. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 7/32] Therefore, one shall follow exercise as per the status of agni to maintain equilibrium and health.
III. Environmental conditions
The changes in atmosphere influence agni. The strength of agni is low in rainy season. Hence, measures promoting agni and light to digest food is prescribed in seasonal regimen of rainy season. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 5/34] In winter season, the strength of agni is good. Hence, heavy to digest food in good quantity is prescribed in the seasonal regimen. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 6/9] These examples show environmental conditions can influence the digestion and metabolism.
The strength of agni is at peak in young and middle age. It is low in old age. The ageing process adversely affects agni. Hence, the food pattern shall be modified as per age.
The consumption of dravya like ghee, Drakshasava, Snehapana or Snehakarma in general can lead to the ignition and improvement of the status of agni [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 13/43] , [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana13/58] , [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/4] , [Cha. Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 15/201]. Deepana and pachana are lead to the ignition of agni and digestion of ama result in proper functioning of the agni [Sharangdhar Samhita Prathama Khanda 4/3-4]. The consumption of rasayana like Chyavanprasha , Bhallataka rasayana help in improving the agni and digestive function in general [Cha. Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 1/1/74] , [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 1/2/17].
12. Prakriti (body constitution)
|Strength of jatharagni||Prakriti|
|Sama (Equilibrium)||Equilibrium (Sama) Prakriti|
Assessment of agni
Assessment of agni is an essential component in the maintenance of health as well as in treating diseases. Agni is subjectively inferred from capacity of digestion. [Cha.Sa. Vimana Sthana 4/8, 8/40] Various attempts are made to develop tools to assess agni.
Singh A, Patwardhan K. et. al. developed and validated a self-assessment tool to estimate strength of agni. The study also evaluated the practical utility of developed tool by recording serum lipid parameters. Lipid parameters vary significantly according to the status of agni.
Eswaran H. T. et. al. prepared an agni assessment scale comprising 64 questions to evaluate the four types of agni. The study has validated a scale for internal consistency.
Patil VC, Baghel MS et. al. developed formulae to assess the digestive functions (agni) during the administration of snehana (internal oleation).
Agni performs various functions of digestion, metabolism and assimilation. Gastric secretion is a digestive fluid, formed in the stomach and contains numerous compounds including hydrochloric acid (HCL), pepsin, lipase, mucin. Kulatunga et al assessed the status of agni in the patients of pandu (anemia and blood deficiency disorders). Its relationship with the acidity of gastric secretions was observed by use of fractional test meal examination. Their study concluded that HCL reduction in patients of anemia seriously affects the protein and iron absorption; thus Hypochlorhydria (found in 72.8% of the patients) indicates hypofunction of agni.
Causes of impairment of agni (agni dushti)
Following are the causes of impairment of agni.
- Excessive starvation
- Taking food in a state of indigestion
- Irregular habit of eating
- Eating unwholesome food
- Excess intake of heavy to digest food and excessive nourishment
- Food with cold quality or eating chilled or frozen items
- Food which is dry in nature or food which brings about emaciation
- Contaminated food
- Excess water intake [Ma.Ni. Agnimandya Nidana]
- Improper administration of therapeutic emesis (vamana), purgation (virechana) and oleation (Sneha)
- Improper administration of unctuous enema (anuvasana basti) [Cha.Sa. Siddhi Sthana 4/ 49]
- Eating food with negative emotions like worries, grief, fear, anger [Cha.Sa. Vimana Sthana 2/9]
- Emaciation of body due to disease
- Sudden change in environmental conditions or migration to unsuitable place, time zone and season
- Suppression of natural urges [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 15/42-43]
- Day time sleep [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 21/46]
The vitiation of agni leads to improper digestion and metabolism. It forms a toxic metabolic product called ‘ama visha’. This leads to a state of indigestion and its clinical features. It leads to disorders of digestive system (grahani), if not treated on time. [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 15/44-45]
The vitiation of agni is observed in various diseases as follows:
- Depletion of agni (agni sada) in disorders of vitiation of blood (rakta dhatu) [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 24/13]
- Impaired functions of agni (upahata agni) in jwara (fever and associated diseases) [ Cha.Sa. Nidana Sthana1/23] [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 3/102]
- Irregular pattern of agni (agni vaishmya) is seen in gulma [ Cha.Sa. Nidana Sthana 3/15]
- Impaired agni is observed in rajayakshma (tuberculosis) [ Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 8/41], udara (abdominal diseases including ascites) [ Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 13/9] hemorrhoids (arsha) [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 14/244-246], diarrhoea (atisara) [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 19/7], morbid thirst (trishna) [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 21/63] and obstruction of udana vata by apana vata [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 28/210]
- Various disorders due to ama dosha like enteritis (visuchika) and sluggish bowel (alasaka) are caused due to low digestion by agni [Cha.Sa. Vimana Sthana 2/10]
The diseases due to vitiation of agni can be categorized as following:
1. Vitiation of jatharagni: Disorders of digestive system, indigestion, acid peptic diseases, irritable bowel syndrome
2. Vitiation of bhutagni: Disorders in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism at hepatic level, disorders due to fluid and electrolytes imbalance
3. Vitiation of dhatvagni: Disorders of tissue metabolism and systems related to various dhatu and srotasa The respective biomarkers and diagnostic assessment tools can be utilized to understand pathophysiology of these diseases.
Management of disorders due to impairment of agni
I. Lowered state of agni
The lowered functions of agni can be managed by administration of low dose of unctuous substance (sneha) to kindle it. Deepana (stimulation) of agni is the main therapy. Various dietary recipes, lifestyle modifications, panchakarma therapies and medicines are prescribed in management of grahani are prescribed for restoring equilibrium state of agni. [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 15] The food, beverages and medicines with hot potency, sour and pungent taste are prescribed to kindle agni. Langhana (therapeutic fasting) is an important measure in the management of vitiation of agni. [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 3/276]
Food and beverages to kindle agni
- Lukewarm water [Cha.Sa. Vimana Sthana 3/40]
- Manda (thin soup) [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/254]
- Curd [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/225]
- Butter [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/230]
- Ghee [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/231]
- Meat of common quail (lava bird) [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/69]
- Fresh ginger (zingiber officinale) [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/166], powder of dried ginger [ Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/296]
- lemon/ jambira (Citrus limon (Linn.) Burm.F) [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/167]
- Varieties of wines like arishta (prepared from medicinal decoction), pakwarasa( prepared from sugarcane juice), gauda( prepared from jaggery) [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/179-195]
- Gruel-water (manda) [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/251]
- Thin gruel (peya) and gruel water (manda) of roasted paddy [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/254-255]
- Sesame oil [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/287]
- Black pepper (maricha) [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/298]
- Asa foetida (hingu) [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/299]
- Rock salt (saindhav) [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/300]
- Celery seeds (karavi, Carum bulbocastanum W.Koch.), black cumin (kunchika, Nigella sativa Linn.), cumin (ajaji, Cuminum cyminum Linn.), bishops weed (yavani, Trachyspermum ammi Linn.), coriander (dhanyaka, Coriandrum sativum) and Indian tooth-ache tree (tumburu, Zanthoxylum armatum DC). [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/307]
- Alkali (kshara) [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/306]
- Sequential administration of thin gruel, thick gruel kindles agni after purification procedures as dietary regimen [ Cha.Sa. Siddhi Sthana 6/57]
- Talisadi churna [ Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 8/148]
- Shadava recipe (an ayurvedic formulation) [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 11/90]
- Chiktrak ghritam [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 12/58-59]
- Phalarishta [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 14/153-157]
- Dashamuladi ghrita [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 15 /82-86]
- Panchamuladi churna or ghrita [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 15/88-93]
- Kshara ghrita [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 15/168-172]
- Agastya haritaki avaleha [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 16 /137]
- Therapeutic purgation (virechana) [Cha.Sa. Siddhi Sthana 1/18]
- Therapeutic enema with decoction (niruha basti) [Cha.Sa. Siddhi Sthana 1/42]
Treatment for excess agni
Excess agni is generally caused due to vitiation of pitta dosha. Hence treatment of pitta dosha is prescribed. The other condition is obstruction of vata dosha by excess fats (medasavritta vata), it causes excess stimulation of agni and polyphagia. This condition is treated with reducing therapy for fats (meda dhatu). It normalizes vata dosha and reduces appetite.
- Paravata fruit (Garcinia cowa ROxb.) is used to reduce agni. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/134]
- The alangy / ankota phala (alangium salviifolium (Linn.F.) Wang.) is used to reduce excess heat caused by agni. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 27/159]
- Peya (thin gruel)
- Therapeutic purgation (virechana) [Cha.Sa. Siddhi Sthana 1/18]
Review articles exploring the Physiological aspects of agni
Many review articles throwing light upon understanding the physiological functioning of Agni in context to jatharagni are available in the public domain. Few important points like the explanation of the digestive and metabolic functions of Agni mention of various types of dietetic materials are digested by their own agni (bhutagni), encouraged and enhanced by antaragni (jatharagni), which is further digested and metabolized by dhatvagni to associate the body with the nutritional strength, complexion and happy life along with providing energy to the seven dhatus are discussed in the articles.
Jatharagni and Prakriti of young Indian adult population: A descriptive cross-sectional study
Agni is dynamic in nature and hence is responsible for all types of transformations in the body. It plays a very important role in the growth, development and maintenance of the body. There is a definite type of jatharagni for a particular prakriti and this is pre-determined at the time of conception. Understanding one's own agni and prakriti helps individuals choose a specific diet and regimes for a healthy life. One Observational study was planned on this concept. The study establishes the association between agni and dvandvaja (mixed with two dosha) prakriti. It was observed that vata-pitta prakriti individuals had teekshnagni, vata-kapha prakriti individuals had mandagni, and kapha-pitta prakriti had vishamagni. Although the results were promising, they should be proven with a larger sample size in different populations.
Formation and validation of questionnaire to assess jatharagni
The assessment of the state of agni is very crucial in the practice of ayurveda. It acts as a window first to understand the individual's digestive system. Secondly the metabolism (digestion and absorption) of the food and medicine in an individual is based on the state of agni. There are very few or no tools based on Ayurveda to assess agni. Interviewing an individual based on a questionnaire will serve as effective tool in analysing the state of agni.
Efficacy of samsarjana krama in a patient with agnimandya due to vyadhi sankar: A case study
The case mentioned above was diagnosed with vyadhi sankara (complicated disease condition) in terms of ayurveda, patient’s condition was deteriorating, because of the agnimandya. The dietary advice was given on the line of sansarjana krama in order to improve the status of agni, which was the root cause for multiple ailments. The agni improved and also nutritional status showed a little improvement with relief of symptoms like nausea, palpitation, pallor and cracking of lips after treatment.
1. S.N.Tiwari. Correlation of Jaṭharagni and Dhatvagni. Dept. of Kayachikitsa, Banaras Hindu university, Varanasi,1969
2. A.K.Mishra. Relation of Jaṭharagni and Dhatvagni clinical and experimental study. Dept. of Kayacikitsa, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 1972.
3. Ashutosh Tiwari. Concept of Jaṭharagni. Dept of Basic Principles, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 1980.
4. Govind Ram Paysi. Agni Vivechana. Dept. of Basic Principles, N.I.A. Rajasthan University Jaipur, 1985.
5. Madhavilatta G. Bhatt. Concept of Dhatu and Dhatvagni W.S.R. to Asṭhi dhatu and Asṭhyagni. Dept. of Basic Principles, I.P.G.T.& R.A. Jamnagar,1995.
6. Srividya Iyer. Concept of Bhaishajya Kaala and its applicability in relation to Agni w.s.r. to Amlapitta. Dept. of Basic Principles, I.P.G.T.& R.A. Jamnagar,2003.
7. Manish Dhanani. Kale cha Arabhate Karma Yattat Sadhyati Dhruvam in context of Jatharagni-Mandya. Dept. of Basic Principles, I.P.G.T.& R.A. Jamnagar,2005.
8. Vaibhav Dadu. Doşadhātumalakşayavŗddhivijñānīya Adhyāya of Suśruta Saṃhitā & Assessment of the principle “Pūrvah pūrvoativŗddhatvātvardhayeddhi param” in context of Raktakşaya . Dept. of Basic principles, I.P.G.T.& R.A. Jamnagar, 2007.
9. Kishor G Satani. An Applied Study of Interrelationship of Jatharagni and Dhatvagni in Context to Dhatuvriddhi, Dept. of Basic Principles, I.P.G.T.& R.A. Jamnagar, 2011.
10. Saylee H Deshmukh . Fundamental and Applied aspect of Lifestyle in Ayurveda classics and its role in Agnimandya, Dept. of Basic Principles, I.P.G.T.& R.A. Jamnagar, 2014.
Future areas of research
Research is needed to study the biological effects of various factors mentioned above. The role of hormones like insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormones in regulating tissue metabolism is well studied. However, the pharmacological effect of various dietary recipes, lifestyle factors and medicinal formulations on these hormones needs to be elaborated. The focused study on relation of agni with theories of epigenetics, inflammation, gut microbiome can produce insightful outcomes and new treatment options. The personalized medicine and personalized diet patterns depend completely of individualistic patterns of agni. The concept can provide leads beyond current theories of calorie consumption and nutrition.
The effect of agni on thermoregulation, bio-energetics, pharmacological mechanisms are some key areas of research.
A. = Ashtanga, Cha.= Charak Hr.= Hridaya, Ma.= Madhav, Ni.= Nidana, S.= Samgraha, Su.=Sushruta, Sa.= Samhita
Grahani Chikitsa Adhyaya, Trividhakukshiya Vimana Adhyaya, Rasa Vimana Adhyaya, Vividhashitapitiya Adhyaya, Agni mahabhuta, Ahara vidhi, Dhatvagni, Bhutagni, Acid peptic diseases, Deepana, Pachana
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- ↑ National AYUSH Morbidity and Standardized Terminologies Electronic Portal by Ministry of AYUSH Available on http://namstp.ayush.gov.in/#/sat
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Agrawal AK, Yadav CR, Meena MS. Physiological aspects of Agni. Ayu. 2010 Jul;31(3):395-8. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.77159. PMID: 22131747; PMCID: PMC3221079.
- ↑ Sushruta. Sushruta Samhita. Edited by Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya. 8th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia;2005.
- ↑ Payyappallimana U, Venkatasubramanian P. Exploring Ayurvedic Knowledge on Food and Health for Providing Innovative Solutions to Contemporary Healthcare. Front Public Health. 2016;4:57. Published 2016 Mar 31. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2016.00057
- ↑ Vani G, Prasad J. Concept of Agni and Aharapaka (metabolic transformation) in ayurveda. Int Ayurvedic Med J 2013;1:1 7.
- ↑ Shabdakalpadruma, Radhakantdev R, editors. Amar Publication Varanasi: Chaukhamba Samskrit Series. 1967:8.
- ↑ Patwardhan K/ Vidhi Vimarsha of Grahani Chikitsa. In Charak Samhita New Edition. Available from https://www.carakasamhitaonline.com/index.php?title=Grahani_Chikitsa#Areas_of_Further_Research
- ↑ Vagbhata. Ashtanga Hridayam. Edited by Harishastri Paradkar Vaidya. 1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy;2000.
- ↑ Chandola H.M. Acid Peptic diseases. Available from https://www.carakasamhitaonline.com/index.php?title=Acid_peptic_diseases#Agni_and_patterns_of_digestion cited on 07/09/2021
- ↑ Singh A, Singh G, Patwardhan K, Gehlot S. Development, Validation and Verification of a Self-Assessment Tool to Estimate Agnibala (Digestive Strength). J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2017 Jan;22(1):134-140. doi: 10.1177/2156587216656117. Epub 2016 Jul 4.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 Eswaran HT, Kavita MB, Tripathy TB, and Shivakumar. Formation and validation of questionnaire to assess Jāṭharāgni. Anc Sci Life.2015 Apr-Jun; 34(4): 203–209.
- ↑ Patil VC, Baghel MS, Thakar AB. Assessment of agni (digestive process) and koshtha (bowel movement with special reference to abhyantara snehana (internal oleation). Ancient Sci. Life. 2008; 28:26-28
- ↑ Kulatunga R D H, Rai N P, Ali Z. Status of Agni in Pandu Roga (anemia) and its association with the acidity of gastric secretions-A Clinical Study. IAMJ: Volume 7, Issue 1, January – 2019.
- ↑ Kuttikrishnan M, Sridhar R, Varghese EJatharagni and Prakriti of young Indian adult population: A descriptive cross-sectional study. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2022 Jan-Mar;13(1):100438. doi: 10.1016/j.jaim.2021.04.008. Epub 2022 Jan 29. PMID: 35101333; PMCID: PMC9034458.
- ↑ Mukta, Rao MV, Arora J.Efficacy of Samsarjanakrama in a patient with Agnimandya due to vyadhi sankar: A case study. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2021 Jan-Mar;12(1):182-186. doi: 10.1016/j.jaim.2021.01.004. Epub 2021 Feb 27. PMID: 33648827; PMCID: PMC8039330.