Abstracts- Nidana Sthana

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The abstracts of all chapters of Nidana Sthana are presented here.

Chapter 1. Jwara Nidana (Chapter on the diagnosis of Fever and other related diseases)

Nidana Sthana deals with the etiology, symptomatology, and means of diagnosis of diseases. It begins with a generalized set of diseases and then progresses into specialized studies of diseases. This explains why the section begins with a study of etiological factors causing jwara (this chapter) – a generalized study of fever - and then proceeds onto the studies of vitiation of the various dhatus, or tissues, that are addressed in the subsequent chapters. The first part of this chapter deals with tools necessary for acquiring a comprehensive knowledge of any disease. Nidana Panchaka, an important concept introduced in this chapter, implies a set of five important tools/components - etiology, premonitory signs, clinical features, pacifying factors and pathogenesis – that help in understanding a disease thoroughly. Each of these tools has a specific significance in diagnosis and explores an important aspect of the disease. Etiology helps to ascertain the causative factors of the diseases and diagnosis helps in determining the nature of the disease by causative factors, premonitory signs, actual signs, exploratory signs, and pathogenesis. It is not possible to manage disease completely without knowing all aspects of the disease process. The second part of the chapter uses the tools described in the first part to explain jwara and its types (endogenous and exogenous), as well as methods to manage it. Jwara is caused by the accumulation of vitiated dosha at the site of digestion and further affliction of digestion and thermal regulation in the body. Considering the basic tools for comprehensive understanding of disease, it is regarded as an important chapter.

Chapter 2. Raktapitta Nidana (Diagnosis and etiopathogenesis of Bleeding Disorders)

This second chapter of Nidana Sthana is about bleeding disorders (raktapitta) caused by an excess of pitta dosha in the body vitiating the rakta dhatu. This vitiated rakta dhatu leads to tissue break-down, causing hemorrhages in the upper and lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Contributing factors that increase the probability of raktapitta include consumption of specific food and drug substances including consumption of incompatible food substances, consuming certain meats with alcohol, butter milk with meat of animals etc. These etiological factors are basically ushna (hot) –either in properties or in potency - which when regularly consumed by a person, vitiate pitta. Vitiated pitta has the same color and smell as rakta, and blends seamlessly with it to form raktapitta. Vitiated pitta and increased rakta circulate in the channels and the resultant increased volume of the blood overflows from the bodily orifices. During the pathogenesis of raktapitta, if an excessive and vitiated kapha joins in the action, bleeding from upper orifices occurs while an excessive and vitiated vata leads to bleeding from the lower orifices. While the kapha condition is curable, the vata-affliction is difficult to cure. Complications arise when both kapha and vata vitiations occur alongside raktapitta. Such conditions are incurable. Therapeutic measures of emesis and purgation, along with useful medicinal formulations and attention may improve the condition of patients of hemorrhagic disorders in varying degrees. Prodromal symptoms and complications have been described in this chapter.