Referencing guidelines

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The references should be numbered consecutively in order in which they are first mentioned in the text (not in alphabetic order) and placed as endnote. In the text they should be indicated above the line (super scripted). Ex.[1] Use the style of the examples mentioned below, which are based on the formats used by the NLM in Index Medicus. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus. Use complete name of the journal for non-indexed journals. Avoid using abstracts as references.

The commonly cited types of references are shown here:

Articles in Journals

Standard journal article (for up to six authors)

Deole YS, Ashok BK, Shukla VJ, Ravishankar B, Chandola HM. Psychopharmacological Study on Antidepressant effect of Brahmi Ghrita. AYU Int Res J Ayurveda 2008;29(2):77-83.

Standard journal article (for more than six authors)

List the first six contributors followed by et al. Nozari Y, Hashemlu A, Hatmi ZN, Sheikhvatan M, Iravani A, Bazdar A, et al. Outcome of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients without major risk factors and patients with at least one major risk factor for coronary artery disease. Indian J Med Sci 2007;61:547-54.

Volume with supplement

Shen HM, Zhang QF. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102 Suppl 1:275-82.

Issue with supplement

Payne DK, Sullivan MD, Massie MJ. Women's psychological reactions to breast cancer. Semin Oncol 1996; 23(1, Suppl 2):89-97.

Books and Other Monographs

Book of Personal author(s)

Patwardhan K..Human Physiology in Ayurveda, Jaikrishnadas Series. 1st ed. Varanasi:Chaukhambha Orientalia;2008.

Editor(s), compiler(s) as author

Deole Y.S.,Basisht G., editors. Charak Samhita New Edition. Jamnagar: Charak Samhita Research Training and Skill Development Centre; 2020.

Chapter in a book

Singh R.H.,Singh G., Sodhi J.S., Dixit U.. Deerghanjivitiya Adhyaya. In: Deole Y.S., Basisht G.,editors. Charak Samhita New Edition. 1st ed. Jamnagar: Charak Samhita Research Training and Skill Development Centre; 2020.pp.--.

Electronic Sources as reference

Journal article on the Internet

  1. Basisht GK. Symbiohealth-Need of the hour. AYU [serial online] 2011 [cited 2020 Jan 6];32:6-11. Available from: http://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2011/32/1/6/85715

Monograph on the Internet

  1. Deole Y.S., Shilwant A.A., authors. Ojas [monograph on the Internet]. Jamnagar: Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre; 2020 [cited 2020 September 15]. Available from: http://www.carakasamhitaonline.com/index.php?title=Ojas.

Homepage/Web site

  1. carakasamhitaonline.com[homepage on the Internet]. Jamnagar: Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre; CCA-NC-SA 4.0 [updated 2020 Jul 29; cited 2020 Sep 15]. Available from: http://www.carakasamhitaonline.com/index.php?title=Main_Page.

Part of a homepage/Web site

  1. Gujarat Ayurved University [homepage on the Internet]. Jamnagar: The University; [updated 2019 Dec 31; cited 2020 Jan 07]. Gujarat Ayurved University; Available from: http://ayurveduniversity.edu.in/

References from Ayurvedic Classical Texts and Samhitas

In case of multiple references from same Samhita, the reference shall be quoted in the text in square bracket in following format:

[Abbreviated form of name of samhita, name of section, chapter number / verse number]

The details of abbreviations shall be given at the end of article. The detail bibliographic information shall be listed as only one reference in the endnotes.

For example, if the reference is from Charak Samhita, then the reference can be quoted as [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 1/40]

For single references and standard references from other samhita, the following format shall be followed.

Bibliographic details for citation

The following bibliographic details are important for any text.

  • Name of the original author/translator/commentator.
  • Name of the text.
  • Names of editor
  • Number of edition
  • Place of publication
  • Name of publisher
  • Year of publication.
  • Page numbers.
  • Online source: If the source is online edition, then the source or URL of the website shall be quoted with date and time of accessing the source.

Following are some examples of citing sources of Ayurveda classical texts.

Charak Samhita

Original Charak Samhita

Present Electronic edition

The cite this page link on Mediawiki sidebar (can be seen on the left side of screen) of each chapter page can be used to use citation tools of this present edition. We encourage researchers to properly cite the content of this edition in their works.

This edition can be cited as:

Contributors. Main Page. In: Deole Y.S.., Basisht G., eds. Charak Samhita New Edition. 1st ed. Jamnagar, Ind: CSRTSDC; 2020. http://www.carakasamhitaonline.com/index.php?title=Main_Page&oldid=35892. Accessed Date like November 11, 2020.

Print edition examples

Charak. Charak Samhita. Edited by Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya. 1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy;2000. p.--.

Sthana and Adhyaya in Charak Samhita

Present Electronic edition example

Sthana (section)

Dwivedi R.B.. Sutra Sthana. In: Deole Y.S., Basisht G., eds. Charak Samhita New Edition. 1st ed. Jamnagar, Ind: CSRTSDC; 2020. http://www.carakasamhitaonline.com/index.php?title=Sutra_Sthana&oldid=35718. Accessed November 11, 2020.

Adhyaya (chapter)

Singh R.H., Singh G., Sodhi J.S., Dixit U.. Deerghanjiviteeya Adhyaya. In: Dixit U., Deole Y.S., Basisht G., eds. Charak Samhita New Edition. 1st ed. Jamnagar, Ind: CSRTSDC; 2020. http://www.carakasamhitaonline.com/index.php?title=Deerghanjiviteeya_Adhyaya&oldid=36008. Accessed November 11, 2020.

Print edition examples

Charak. Sutra Sthana, Cha.1 Deerghanjivitiya Adhyaya. In: Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya, Editors. Charak Samhita.1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy;2000. p.1-24.

Verse in Charak Samhita

Present Electronic edition example

Singh R.H., Singh G., Sodhi J.S., Dixit U.. Deerghanjiviteeya Adhyaya verse 03. In: Dixit U., Deole Y.S., Basisht G., eds. Charak Samhita New Edition. 1st ed. Jamnagar, Ind: CSRTSDC; 2020. http://www.carakasamhitaonline.com/index.php?title=Deerghanjiviteeya_Adhyaya&oldid=36008. Accessed November 11, 2020.

Print edition examples

Charak. Sutra Sthana, Cha.1 Deerghanjivitiya Adhyaya verse 03. In: Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya, Editor. Charak Samhita.1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy;2000. p.4.

Commentary/ Tattva vimarsha/ Vidhi vimarsha in Charak Samhita

Present Electronic edition example

Singh R.H., Singh G., Sodhi J.S., Dixit U.. Deerghanjiviteeya Adhyaya vidhi vimarsha. In: Dixit U., Deole Y.S., Basisht G., eds. Charak Samhita New Edition. 1st ed. Jamnagar, Ind: CSRTSDC; 2020. http://www.carakasamhitaonline.com/index.php?title=Deerghanjiviteeya_Adhyaya&oldid=36008. Accessed November 11, 2020.

Print edition examples

Chakrapani, Charak. Sutra Sthana, Cha.1 Deerghanjivitiya Adhyaya ver.03. In: Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya, Editor. Charak Samhita.1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy;2000.p.4.

Sushruta Samhita

Original Sushruta Samhita

Sushruta. Sushruta Samhita. Edited by Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya. 8th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia;2005. p.--.

Sthana and Adhyaya in Sushruta Samhita

Sushruta. Sutra Sthana, Cha.1 Vedotpattim Adhyaya. In: Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya, Editors. Sushruta Samhita. 8th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia;2005. p.1-10.

Verse in Sushruta Samhita

Sushruta. Sutra Sthana, Cha.1 Vedotpattim Adhyaya verse 3. In: Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya, Editors. Sushruta Samhita. 8th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia;2005. p.1.

Commentary in Sushruta Samhita

Dalhana, Sushruta. Sutra Sthana, Cha.1 Vedotpattim Adhyaya verse 3. In: Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya, Editors. Sushruta Samhita. 8th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia;2005. p.1.

Ashtanga Hridayam

Original Ashtanga Hridayam

Vagbhata. Ashtanga Hridayam. Edited by Harishastri Paradkar Vaidya. 1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy;2000.p.--.

Sthana and Adhyaya in Ashtanga Hridayam

Vagbhata. Sutra Sthana, Cha.1 Ayushkamiya Adhyaya. In: Harishastri Paradkar Vaidya, Editors. Ashtanga Hridayam. 1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy;2000. p.1-23.

Verse in Ashtanga Hridaya

Vagbhata. Sutra Sthana, Cha.1 Ayushkamiya Adhyaya verse 3. In: Harishastri Paradkar Vaidya, Editors. Ashtanga Hridayam. 1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy;2000.p.4.

Commentary in Ashtanga Hridayam

Arunadatta, Vagbhata. Sutra Sthana, Cha.1 Ayushkamiya Adhyaya verse 3. In: Harishastri Paradkar Vaidya, Editors. Ashtanga Hridayam. 1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy;2000.p.4.

Any other Ayurveda classical text

Likewise, any other Ayurveda classical text can be quoted as:

Name of the original author. Name of the text. Edited by ---. No. of ed. Place of publication: name of publisher; year of publication. Page numbers.

Examples:

  • Kashyapa. Kashyapa Samhita. Edited by P. V. Tewari. Reprint. Varanasi: Chaukhambha vishvabharati;2008. pp.--

Translated Ayurveda classical text

The translated books can be quoted as below:

Name of the original author. Name of the text. Translated from (language) by (name of translator). No. of ed. Place of publication: name of publisher; year of publication. Page numbers.

Examples:

  • Madhavakara. Madhava Nidanam (Roga vinischaya). Translated from Sanskrit by K. R. Srikantha Murthy. 8th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha orientalia;2007.pp--
  • Sharangadhara. Sharangadhara Samhita. Translated from Sanskrit by K.R. Srikantha Murthy. Reprint ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha orientalia;2016.pp--
  • Bhavamishra. Bhavaprakasha -Volume I. Translated from Sanskrit by K.R. Srikantha Murthy. 1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas academy;2000.pp.-
  • Bhavamishra. Bhavaprakasha -Volume II. Translated from Sanskrit by K.R. Srikantha Murthy. Reprint ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas academy;2004.pp.-

Quoting more than once in an article

If the author refers same book for more than one time, then the abbreviations like Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana chapter number/verse number can be used in the running text. It can be followed by a single number of bibliographic citation only once in the reference list. For example if the Charak Samhita is referred more than once, then it can be quoted like this:

The nutrients present in the food nourish respective dhatu qualitatively and quantitatively. [Cha. Sa. Sutra Sthana 28/4][1] Each dhatu nourishes its next sequential dhatu.[Cha. Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 8/39] [1]

Single number of references can be given in bibliography as:

1. Charak. Charak Samhita. Edited by Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya. 1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy;2000.

Quoting online edition of Charak Samhita

The online chapters or web pages from the present edition can be quoted from cite this page link of side bar.