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Nidana Sthana

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===Fundamental principles of diagnosis===
<div style="text-align:justify;">[[Nidana Sthana]], the second section within [[Charak Samhita]], is about guidelines for diagnosing disease on the basis of detailed history and clinical examination. The word Nidana literally means primary cause and diagnosis.<ref> Available from http://spokensanskrit.org/index.php?mode=3&script=hk&tran_input=nidana&direct=au accessed on May 02,2019</ref> The five methods to know a disease viz. ''[[hetu'' ]] (causative factors), ''purva-rupa'' [[purvarupa]] (premonitory signs and symptoms), ''[[rupa'' ]] (clinical features),''[[upashaya'' ]] (pacifying factors) and ''[[samprapti'' ]] (etio-pathogenesis).The study is comprehensive and is different from modern medical system to guide a physician to diagnose and treat disease with minimal use of laboratory, imaging and other tools.
===Two important aspects in Diagnosis===
====Analysis of the individual====
The first being an evaluation of the self-healing capacity of the body which depends upon equilibrium of five components, namely ''doshas'' [[dosha]] (regulatory functional factors of the body humors), ''[[agni'' ]] (digestive and metabolic capacity), ''[[dhatu'' ]] (body tissues), ''[[mala'' ]] (metabolic wasteproducts) and psycho-spiritual state. Health is a state of equilibrium, whereas disease is a state of dis-equilibrium of any of these factors. According to [[Chikitsaprabhritiya Adhyaya#Swabhavoparama vada (theory of natural destruction)|theory of natural destruction and theory of natural resolution (swabhavoparam vada)]], the resolution / destruction of the existing always happen naturally in the course of time. So the nature itself heals disequilibrium.[[Chikitsaprabhritiya Adhyaya#Swabhavoparama vada (theory of natural destruction)|(Cha.Su.16/27)]] This aspect of host defence mechanism is important to be assessed for knowing natural healing capacity of an individual. In the fourth chapter,[[Prameha Nidana]], [[Prameha Nidana#Process of Onset of Disease|the process of onset of disease]] through interaction between aggravating and pacifying factors is described [[Prameha Nidana#Process of Onset of Disease|(Cha.Ni.4/4)]]. If the host defense factors are stronger than aggravating ones, then the disease will not occur and vice versa. Therefore, before making diagnosis of a disease, [[Rogabhishagjitiya Vimana#Examination of patient|examination of patient]] is important with emphasis on his ''prakriti'' (basic constitution), ''sara'' (quality of tissues) etc described in context of [[Rogabhishagjitiya Vimana#Examination of patient|ten fold examination of patient(Cha.Vi.8/94-131)]]. Every person has a unique constitution and hence the same biological investigations cannot be precise to assess his health status completely. Personalized assessment is important to diagnose normal and abnormal state of the individual.
====Analysis of disease====

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