Jump to navigation Jump to search
no edit summary
===Fundamental principles of diagnosis===
<div style="text-align:justify;">[[Nidana Sthana]], the second section within [[Charak Samhita]], is about guidelines for diagnosing disease on the basis of detailed history and clinical examination. The word Nidana literally means primary cause and diagnosis.<ref> Available from http://spokensanskrit.org/index.php?mode=3&script=hk&tran_input=nidana&direct=au accessed on May 02,2019</ref> The five methods to know a disease viz.
''hetu '' (causative factors), ''purva-rupa'' (premonitory signs and symptoms), ''rupa '' (clinical features), ''upashaya '' (pacifying factors) and ''samprapti '' (etio-pathogenesis).The study is comprehensive and is different from modern medical system to guide a physician to diagnose and treat disease with minimal use of laboratory, imaging and other tools.
===Two important aspects in Diagnosis===
====Analysis of the individual====
The first being an evaluation of the self-healing capacity of the body which depends upon equilibrium of five components, namely
''doshas'' (body humors), ''agni '' (digestive and metabolic capacity), ''dhatu '' (body tissues), ''mala '' (waste) and psycho-spiritual state. Health is a state of equilibrium, whereas disease is a state of dis-equilibrium of any of these factors. According to [[Chikitsaprabhritiya Adhyaya#Swabhavoparama vada (theory of natural destruction)|theory of natural destruction and theory of natural resolution (swabhavoparam vada)]], the resolution / destruction of the existing always happen naturally in the course of time. So the nature itself heals disequilibrium.[[Chikitsaprabhritiya Adhyaya#Swabhavoparama vada (theory of natural destruction)|(Cha.Su.16/27)]] This aspect of host defence mechanism is important to be assessed for knowing natural healing capacity of an individual. In the fourth chapter,[[Prameha Nidana]], [[Prameha Nidana#Process of Onset of Disease|the process of onset of disease]] through interaction between aggravating and pacifying factors is described [[Prameha Nidana#Process of Onset of Disease|(Cha.Ni.4/4)]]. If the host defense factors are stronger than aggravating ones, then the disease will not occur and vice versa. Therefore, before making diagnosis of a disease, [[Rogabhishagjitiya Vimana#Examination of patient|examination of patient]] is important with emphasis on his ''prakriti'' (basic constitution), ''sara'' (quality of tissues) etc described in context of [[Rogabhishagjitiya Vimana#Examination of patient|ten fold examination of patient(Cha.Vi.8/94-131)]]. Every person has a unique constitution and hence the same biological investigations cannot be precise to assess his health status completely. Personalized assessment is important to diagnose normal and abnormal state of the individual.
====Analysis of disease====