Jump to navigation Jump to search
Text replacement - "Ayurveda" to "Ayurveda"
==Preamble of Kalpa Sthana ==
<div style="text-align:justify;">A healthy individual is an asset to any society (and contributes to making a healthy society), while a sick individual will be a liability to his family in particular and the society at large. To keep oneself healthy, Ayurveda lays down the principles of various lifestyles in terms of daily regimen (''dinacharya''), seasonal regimen (''ritucharya'') and modified lifestyles to cure the diseases. Physical exercise for the preservation of health begins with adapting techniques for purification of the body and the mind along with an intake of ''rasayana'' drugs (rejuvenatives). Accumulated ''malas'' (metabolic waste) at the level of cell, tissue or organ should be expunged out to facilitate the restoration of normal functioning of the body by five purificatory procedures (''shodhana karma'') often referred as [[Panchakarma]], namely ''vamana'' (emesis), ''virechana'' (purgation), ''asthapana basti'' (evacuative enema), ''anuvasana basti'' (restorative enema), and ''shirovirechana'' (errhines) are indicated for healthy as well as diseased. If ''malas'' are not taken out of the body, they cause diseases and decay (ageing) of the body. After purification procedures, ''jatharagni'' (gastro-intestinal digestive juices) becomes weak and may not digest the food normally. For restoration of this function, the food that is easily digestible is introduced and increased gradually over a period of time and this procedure is called ''samsarjana karma''. Details of pharmaceutical process of drugs employed in ''vamana'' and ''virechana'' procedures are given in this section and detailed therapeutic implications of all the ''shodhana'' karma in [[Siddhi Sthana]].
''Vamana'' and ''virechana'' therapies should be administered before administering ''basti'' (medicated enema therapy). Therefore, ''vamana'' and ''virechana'' drugs are first described in [[Kalpa Sthana]] before the description of therapy, which is described in detail under [[Siddhi Sthana]]. Generally, purgation therapy is administered only after the administration of emetic therapy and keeping this view the first six chapters are allocated for description of emetic drugs.
==== Sushruta's perspective of Kalpa sthana ====
The subject matter of Kalpasthana in Sushruta samhita is entirely different and deals with one of the Ashtangas of Ayurveda known as Damshtrachikitsa (Toxicology). Sushruta furnished the details of ''vamana'' and virechana drugs in Sutra sthana (43 and 44th chapter). Among vamana dravyas madanaphala, jimutaka pushpa, kutaja phala, ikshvaku pushpa, kritavedhana beeja and dhamargava phala are enumerated. Sushruta identified best virechaneeya drugs based on part used like, trivrit among root purgatives and amongst bark, fruits, oil, juice and latex, the drugs namely tilvaka, haritaki, erandataila (Castor oil), karavellaka and snuhi are considered as best respectively. Trivrit, danti, dravanti, tilvaka, haritaki, chaturangula, erandataila, snuhiksheera, saptala, and shankhini are enumerated under virechaneeya drugs. There is not much difference among the drugs enumerated in Charak and Sushruta, but Sushruta included triphala, erandataila under virechana drugs.
Charak suggested root bark of tilvaka while Sushruta instructed to use bark of tilvaka. A purgative recipe is suggested for children, old people, delicate and patients suffering from dhatukshaya (weight loss/wasting condition) by Sushruta which includes erandataila (Castor oil) mixed with triphala kwatha and milk or meat soup. He also suggested chaturangula for children up to age 12. It appears that Sushruta suggested easily available purgatives.<ref>Sushruta samhita, Ed. By G. D. Shingal et al., Sutra Sthana 44/72-77.</ref>
Ayurvedic classics have advocated to collect the medicinal plants according to part used and seasons in order to get desired pharmacological action and therapeutic benefits. Sushruta, Charak and other acharyas advocate the collection of various parts of medicinal plants in different seasons. The logic behind such recommendations has been validated by recent modern scientific research.
In a study the variations in the phytoconstituents of ''Ashwagandha'' root was evaluated according to lunar cycles with regard to ''grishma'' and ''shishira ritu'' (summer and late winter season). In this study, total phenolic, flavonide and carbohydrate content of ''Ashwagandha'' root were found more in ''poornima'' (full moon day) samples. GAP (''Grishma Ashadha Poornima'', or the full moon night occurring in the ''Grishma-Ashadha'' season) samples showed maximum differentiation from rest of the samples with regards to TCA, TCW, TFW, MEx, WEX, pH etc. parameters. The ''Grishma-Jyeshtha Poornima'' (GJP) and GAP samples were found to be superior than ''Amavasya'' (new moon day) samples with regard to functional groups and with anoloid content respectively. <ref>Tavhare SD, Nishteswar K, Shukla VJ. Effect of seasonal variations on the phytoconstituents of Aśvagandhā w.r. to lunar cycles. Ancient Sci Life. 2016;35((3)):150–8 available online https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4850775/</ref> <ref>Tavhare SD, Nishteswar K, Shukla VJ. Influence of lunar cycles on growth of Ashwagandha(Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal). AYU [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Jan 22];36:258-64. Available from: http://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2015/36/3/258/182763 </ref> Such type of studies validate the concept of seasonal collection of drug delineated in Ayurveda classics like [[Charak Samhita]] and ''Sushruta Samhita''.
=== Contemporary perspective ===