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Kalpa Sthana

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Preamble of Kalpa Sthana of the Charaka Samhita
Ayurvedic classics have advocated to collect the medicinal plants according to part used and seasons in order to get desired pharmacological action and therapeutic benefits. Sushruta, Charaka and other acharyas advocate the collection of various parts of medicinal plants in different seasons. The logic behind such recommendations has been validated by recent modern scientific research.
In a study the variations in the phytoconstituents of ''Ashwagandha'' root was evaluated according to lunar cycles with regard to ''grishma'' and ''shishira ritu'' (summer and late winter season). In this study, total phenolic, flavonide and carbohydrate content of ''Ashwagandha'' root were found more in ''poornima'' (full moon day) samples. GAP (''Grishma Ashadha Poornima'', or the full moon night occurring in the ''Grishma-Ashadha'' season) samples showed maximum differentiation from rest of the samples with regards to TCA, TCW, TFW, MEx, WEX, pH etc. parameters. The ''Grishma-Jyeshtha Poornima'' (GJP) and GAP samples were found to be superior than ''Amavasya'' (new moon day) samples with regard to functional groups and with anoloid content respectively (Ref. 2016 Ancient Science of Life) . Such type of studies validate the concept of seasonal collection of drug delineated in Ayurveda classics like [[Charaka Samhita]] and ''Sushruta Samhita''. === Contemporary perspective === Modern phytochemistry suggests that Saponin containing drugs act like irritants due to their foam producing action. Through this mechanism, drugs like madana, ikshvaku, jimutaka, kritvedhana may produce emesis. Till date there is no research work carried out on biological activity of kurchine regarding emesis. Drugs containing anthroquinone derivatives tend to be good laxatives. Therefore anthraqinone containing drugs like argvadha act as good virechaka drugs.Ayurvedic classical texts atributed anti-diarrhoel activity to kutaja (Stem bark & seeds). Charaka included kutaja under emetics. It may be interpreted that kutaja in emetic doses induces vomiting, while in sub-emetic or therapeutic doses controls diarrhea. According to modern pharmacology “the emetic drugs in sub-emetic doses acts as bronchodilators” indicates that alteration of the dose of the drug can produce different pharmacological actions.<ref>Satoskar RS, Bhandarkar SD, Ainapure SS. Pharmacology and Pharmaco- therapeutics. Revised 16th edn. Popular Prakashan Private Limited. Mumbai; 1999.</ref> It can be presumed that kutaja in emetic doses produces vomiting at the level of upper gastrointestinal tract, while the therapeutic dose of the drug controls diarrhea at the level of lower gastrointestinal tract. ''Vamanopaga'' drugs (synergistic drugs to ''vamana karma'') like kovidara, karbudara, shanapushpi, pratyakpushpi possess ''agni'' and ''vayu mahabhuta'' dominance can support main ''vamana dravya'' for emetic action, while drugs like draksha, kashmariphala, parushaka, badara, kuvala, peelu, karkandhu are ''prithvi'' and ''ap mahabhuta'' dominant drugs, which can support the main ''virechaka'' drugs for inducing purgative action. To summarize the content of ''Kalpa sthana'' of Charaka samhita it appears that the information about most popular emetic and purgative drugs with various dosage forms is furnished. And more research is required to explain modus operandii of emetic and purgative drugs and their therapeutic applicability can be documented by evidence based clinical trials. </div>
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