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→Preamble of Kalpa Sthana of the Charaka Samhita
A healthy individual is an asset to any society (and contributes to making a healthy society), while a sick individual will be a liability to the family and society. To keep oneself healthy, Ayurveda
laid down the principles of various lifestyles with regard to daily regimen (''dinacharya''), seasonal regimen (''ritucharya'') and modified lifestyles to cure the diseases. Physical exercise for the preservation of health begins with the adaptation of purification of body and mind along with intake of ''rasayana'' drugs ( rejuvenating agents). Accumulation of ''malas'' (metabolic waste) at the level of cell, tissue or organ should be expunged out to facilitate the restoration of normal functioning of the body by five purificatory procedures (''shodhana karma'') often referred as [[Panchakarma]], namely ''vamana'' (emesis), ''virechana'' (purgation), ''asthapana basti'' (evacuative enema), ''anuvasana basti'' (restorative enema), and ''shirovirechana'' (errhines) are indicated for healthy as well as diseased. If ''malas'' are not taken out of the body, they cause diseases and decay (ageing) of the body. After purification procedures, ''jatharagni'' (gastro-intestinal digestive juices) becomes weak and may not digest the food normally. For restoration of this function, the food that is easily digestible is introduced and increased gradually over a period of time and this procedure is called ''samsarjana karma''. Details of pharmaceutical process of drugs employed in ''vamana'' and ''virechana'' procedures are given in this section and detailed therapeutic implications of all the ''shodhana'' karma in [[Siddhi Sthana]]. ''Vamana'' and ''virechana'' therapies should be administered before administering ''basti'' (medicated enema therapy). Therefore, ''vamana'' and ''virechana'' drugs are first described in Kalpa Sthana before the description of therapy, which is described in detail under [[Siddhi Sthana]]. Generally, purgation therapy is administered only after the administration of emetic therapy and keeping this view the first six chapters are allocated for description of emetic drugs . Six drugs are described for emesis and nine others are described for purgation. Six hundred recipes prepared from these drugs (Total 15 drugs) are for the use of physician of low caliber and intelligent physician can formulate many other recipes to suit the exact requirement of his patient. The formulations are prescribed according to disease in different dosage forms like ''kashaya'' (decoction), ''svarasa'' (juice), ''kalka'' (paste), ''churna'' (powder), ''peya'' (drinks), ''lehya'' (lickable), and ''bhojya'' (foods).
==== Table no 1: Kalpa Sthana Contents at a Glance====
=== Salient features of [[Kalpa Sthana]] ===
discussed the general information about Pharmaco-kinetics of drugs, dosage forms and weights and measures. Drugs useful for ''vamana'' and ''virechana'' are discussed with their synonyms, varieties, pharmacological actions, and various modes of application in different dosage forms.
==== Factors responsible for therapeutic efficacy ====
Four important factors for producing maximum therapeutic efficacy of these drugs are identified. ''Deshasampat'' (collecting the plant from appropriate habitat), ''kalasampat'' (collecting the drugs in the appropriate season), ''gunasampat'' (collecting the plants when they are enriched with excellent attributes like ''rasa'', ''guna'', ''virya'', etc.) and ''bhajanasampat'' (storage of drugs in appropriate container).
==== Pharmacokinetic of
Drugs (used for emesis and purgation) which are ''ushna'' (hot), ''tikshna'' (sharp), ''sukshma'' (subtle), ''vyavayi'' (those pervading the entire body before getting digested) and ''vikasi'' (those causing looseness of joints), by virtue of their own potency, reach the heart and circulate through the vessels. Because of their ''agneya'' nature (predominance of ''agni mahabhuta'', or fire element), they liquefy the compact form of (adhered) ''doshas'' (morbid material), and because of their sharpness (''tikshna'' attribute) they separate the adhered ''doshas'' located in the gross and subtle channels of the entire body. Like honey kept in the pot smeared with fat, the morbid material, after separation, moves floating without adhesion in the body which has been oleated (by the administration of oleation therapy). Because of its nature to move through subtle channels and to flow (towards the
gastro-intestinal tract), this morbid material reaches the stomach, and gets propelled by ''udana vayu''. Because of the predominance of ''agni'' and ''vayu mahabhutas'' in these (emetic) drugs, and because of their specific action (''prabhavajanya'') to move upwards, the morbid material gets expelled through the upward tract (mouth). On the other hand, purgative drugs, because of the predominance of ''prithvi'' and ''jala mahabhutas'', and because of their specific action, (''prabhavajanya'') move downwards to expel the morbid material through the downward tract (anus). Combination of both these attributes result in the expulsion of the morbid material through both the upward and downward tracts.
==== Similarities/ Dissimilarities of ''virya'' ====
Sometimes, the drugs of secondary nature (mixed with main drug) have antagonistic property. Even then they do not contradict the effects of the principal drug. If these drugs of secondary nature are similar in potency as that of the principal drugs, then the recipe becomes all the more effective therapeutically. Trituration, boiling etc. are considered ''samskaras'' which bring in chemical changes in the chemical structure of the drug which results in
potentiation or neutralization of the drug activity.
==== Modification of drug activity ====
Ayurvedic classics have advocated to collect the medicinal plants according to part used and seasons in order to get desired pharmacological action and therapeutic benefits. Sushruta, Charaka and other acharyas advocate the collection of various parts of medicinal plants in different seasons. The logic behind such recommendations has been validated by recent modern scientific research.
In a study the variations in the phytoconstituents of ''Ashwagandha'' root was evaluated according to lunar cycles with regard to ''grishma'' and ''shishira ritu'' (summer and late winter season). In this study, total phenolic, flavonide and carbohydrate content of ''Ashwagandha'' root were found more in ''poornima'' (full moon day) samples. GAP (''Grishma Ashadha Poornima'', or the full moon night occurring in the ''Grishma-Ashadha'' season) samples showed maximum differentiation from rest of the samples with regards to TCA, TCW, TFW, MEx, WEX, pH etc. parameters. The ''Grishma-Jyeshtha Poornima'' (GJP) and GAP samples were found to be superior than ''Amavasya'' (new moon day) samples with regard to functional groups and with anoloid content respectively (Ref. 2016 Ancient Science of Life) . Such type of studies validate the concept of seasonal collection of drug delineated in Ayurveda classics like [[Charaka Samhita]] and Sushruta Samhita.