Naveganadharaniya Adhyaya

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Sutra Sthana Chapter 7. Non-suppressible and suppressible natural urges and other factors for health

Abstract

This chapter describes preventive measures for endogenous and exogenous diseases. The auto-regulated system of body cleanses out metabolic waste products through various channels and maintains equilibrium in the body. This systematic natural mechanism is termed as Vega (Natural urges). These natural urges shall not be suppressed to keep body clean and preserve equilibrium in body i.e. health. This chapter includes thirteen types of natural urges, disorders due to their long term suppression and their treatment. It also emphasizes on observation of proper dietary regimen and timely exercise as per the individual’s unique body constitution. Means for maintaining psychological and social well-being for prevention of psycho-spiritual disorders are described in detail. The methods of prevention of diseases by improving strength, by knowing one’s own body constitution, maintaining psycho-spiritual balance and following an ideal dietary and lifestyle regimen suited to one’s unique constitution have been provided here.

Keywords: Vega(Natural urge), cleansing, Prakriti(Body constitution), Vyayama (exercise), Pragyaparadha(intellectual defects), Agantu roga (exogenous diseases), psychological diseases, seasonal body purification, prevention of exogenous diseases, curd.

Naveganadharaniya Adhyaya (66)
Section/Chapter Sutra Sthana Chapter 7
Tetrad/Sub-section Swastha Chatushka
Preceding Chapter Tasyashiteeya Adhyaya
Succeeding Chapter Indriyopakramaniya Adhyaya
Other Sections Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana

Contents

Introduction

This third chapter within the Swastha Chatushka (group of four chapters on health) describes guidelines of promotion of health and prevention of diseases. After describing daily and seasonal regimen in the preceding chapters, the natural urges to excrete toxins and maintain internal homeostasis have been described here. Body excretes metabolic waste through external orifices by various regulatory mechanisms. These mechanisms are termed as Vega (natural urges or processes to excrete toxins i.e. urges). There are thirteen types of physical urges that can be voluntarily controlled up to certain extent. When these urges are voluntarily suppressed for prolonged period, metabolic toxins are accumulated in the body systems leading to various diseases and local obstructed pathologies. A description of such urges (to suppress excretion), the consequences of suppression, and its management have been detailed here.

Further explanations have been provided to enumerate the basic principles of prevention of disorders and promotion of physical and psychological wellbeing, by emphasizing upon optimum physical exercises ( vyayama) and control of emotions respectively. The correct diet, according to body constitution, lifestyle, behavior therapy in the form of code of conduct, mental factors, characters of good companions and bad companions have been listed. Comprehensive information about the prevention and management of nija (endogenous) and agantu (exogenous) diseases is provided.

Sanskrit text, transliteration and English translation

अथातो नवेगान्धारणीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||

इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||

Athātō navēgāndhāraṇīyamadhyāyaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||

iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

navegAndhAraNIyamadhyAyaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||

iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

Now we shall explain the chapter on the non-suppressible natural urges. Thus said Lord Atreya. [1-2]

Adharaniya vega (Non-suppressible urges), consequences of suppression and their management

न वेगान् धारयेद्धीमाञ्जातान् मूत्रपुरीषयोः| न रेतसो न वातस्य न छर्द्याः क्षवथोर्न च||३||

नोद्गारस्य न जृम्भाया न वेगान् क्षुत्पिपासयोः| न बाष्पस्य न निद्राया निःश्वासस्य श्रमेण च||४||

Nvēgān dhārayēddhīmāñjātān mūtrapurīṣayōḥ| na rētasō na vātasya na chardyāḥ kṣavathōrna ca||3||

nōdgārasya na jr̥mbhāyā na vēgān kṣutpipāsayōḥ| na bāṣpasypa na nidrāyā niḥśvāsasya śramēṇa ca||4||

na vegAn dhArayeddhImA~jjAtAn mUtrapurIShayoH| na retaso na vAtasya na chardyAH [1] kShavathorna ca||3||

nodgArasya na jRumbhAyA na vegAn kShutpipAsayoH| na bAShpasya na nidrAyA niHshvAsasya shrameNa ca||4||

The intelligent person should not suppress the natural urges initiated by sensations of urine, defecation, sexual desires (release of semen), flatus, vomiting, sneezing, belching (eructation), yawning, hunger, thirst, tears, sleep and exertion induced dyspnea.[3-4]

एतान् धारयतो जातान् वेगान् रोगा भवन्ति ये| पृथक्पृथक्चिकित्सार्थं तान्मे निगदतः शृणु||५||

ētān dhārayatō jātān vēgān rōgā bhavanti yē| pr̥thakpr̥thakcikitsārthaṁ tānmē nigadataḥ śr̥ṇu||5||

etAn dhArayato jAtAn vegAn rogA bhavanti ye| pRuthakpRuthakcikitsArthaM tAnme nigadataH shRuNu||5||

Separate treatment for diseases arising due to suppression of these natural urges is told henceforth. [5]

1. Diseases due to suppression of urge of micturition and its treatment

बस्तिमेहनयोः शूलं मूत्रकृच्छ्रं शिरोरुजा | विनामो वङ्क्षणानाहः स्याल्लिङ्गं मूत्रनिग्रहे||६||

स्वेदावगाहनाभ्यङ्गान् सर्पिषश्चावपीडकम् | मूत्रे प्रतिहते कुर्यात्त्रिविधं बस्तिकर्म च||७||

Bastimēhanayōḥ śūlaṁ mūtrakr̥cchraṁ śirōrujā | vināmō vaṅkṣaṇānāhaḥ syālliṅgaṁ mūtranigrahē||6||

svēdāvagāhanābhyaṅgān sarpiṣaścāvapīḍakam | mūtrē pratihatē kuryāttrividhaṁ bastikarma ca||7||

bastimehanayoH shUlaM mUtrakRucchraM shirorujA | vinAmo va~gkShaNAnAhaH syAlli~ggaM mUtranigrahe||6||

svedAvagAhanAbhya~ggAn sarpiShashcAvapIDakam | mUtre pratihate kuryAttrividhaM bastikarma ca||7||

Suppression of the urge to pass urine causes pain in the bladder and phallus, dysuria, headache, bending of the body and distension of the lower abdomen. [6]

In this case, the treatment includes fomentation, sitz bath, massage, avapeedaka ghee (consumption of ghee in large doses before and after meals) and all the three types of basti (therapeutic enema with oil, decoction and medicine through urinary orifice) is prescribed. [7]

2. Diseases due to suppression of urge to defecate and its treatment

पक्वाशयशिरःशूलं वातवर्चोऽप्रवर्तनम् | पिण्डिsकोद्वेष्टनाध्मानं पुरीषे स्याद्विधारिते||८||

स्वेदाभ्यङ्गावगाहाश्च वर्तयो बस्तिकर्म च| हितं प्रतिहते वर्चस्यन्नपानं प्रमाथि च||९||

Pakvāśayaśiraḥśūlaṁ vātavarcō'pravartanam | piṇḍikōdvēṣṭanādhmānaṁ purīṣē syādvidhāritē||8||

svēdābhyaṅgāvagāhāśca vartayō bastikarma ca| hitaṁ pratihatē varcasyannapānaṁ pramāthi ca||9||

pakvAshayashiraHshUlaM vAtavarco~apravartanam | piNDikodveShTanAdhmAnaM purIShe syAdvidhArite||8||

svedAbhya~ggAvagAhAshca vartayo bastikarma ca| hitaM pratihate varcasyannapAnaM pramAthi ca||9||

Suppression of the urge to defecate causes colic pain, headache, retention of fecal matter and flatus, cramps in the calf muscles and distension of abdomen.[8]

In such cases, fomentation, massage, sitz bath, per rectal suppositories, and basti (therapeutic enema) are prescribed and one should take food and drinks that facilitate bowel evacuation to remove obstruction. [9]

3. Diseases due to suppression of urge of ejaculation and its treatment

मेढ्रे वृषणयोः शूलमङ्गमर्दो हृदि व्यथा| भवेत् प्रतिहते शुक्रे विबद्धं मूत्रमेव च||१०||

तत्राभ्यङ्गोऽवगाहश्च मदिरा चरणायुधाः| शालिः पयो निरूहश्च शस्तं मैथुनमेव च||११||

Mēḍhrē vr̥ṣaṇayōḥ śūlamaṅgamardō hr̥di vyathā| bhavēt pratihatē śukrē vibaddhaṁ mūtramēva ca||10||

tatrābhyaṅgō'vagāhaśca madirā caraṇāyudhāḥ| śāliḥ payō nirūhaśca śastaṁ maithunamēva ca||11||

meDhre vRuShaNayoH shUlama~ggamardo hRudi vyathA| bhavet pratihate shukre vibaddhaM mUtrameva ca||10||

tatrAbhya~ggo~avagAhashca madirA caraNAyudhAH| shAliH payo nirUhashca shastaM maithunameva ca||11||

When the urge to ejaculate is suppressed, the symptoms like pain in the penis, testicles, body ache, pain in cardiac region, and retention of urine are observed. [10]

In that case massage, sitz bath, madira (alcoholic drinks), chicken, shali rice (Oryza sativa Linn.), milk, enema with decoction, and proper sexual intercourse (in order to ejaculate semen) are prescribed. [11]

4. Diseases due to suppression of urge to pass flatulence and its treatment

सङ्गो विण्मूत्रवातानामाध्मानं वेदना क्लमः| जठरे वातजाश्चान्ये रोगाः स्युर्वातनिग्रहात्||१२||

स्नेहस्वेदविधिस्तत्र वर्तयो भोजनानि च| पानानि बस्तयश्चैव शस्तं वातानुलोमनम्||१३||

Saṅgō viṇmūtravātānāmādhmānaṁ vēdanā klamaḥ| jaṭharē vātajāścānyē rōgāḥ syurvātanigrahāt||12||

snēhasvēdavidhistatra vartayō bhōjanāni ca| pānāni bastayaścaiva śastaṁ vātānulōmanam||13||

sa~ggo viNmUtravAtAnAmAdhmAnaM vedanA klamaH| jaThare vAtajAshcAnye rogAH syurvAtanigrahAt||12||

snehasvedavidhistatra vartayo bhojanAni ca| pAnAni bastayashcaiva shastaM vAtAnulomanam||13||

Retention of feces, urine and flatus, distension of abdomen, pain, fatigue and other abdominal diseases are caused due to suppression of urge to pass flatus. [12]

In such case, external and internal administration of unctuous substance, fomentation, per rectal suppositories, intake of foods and drinks having carminative action and therapeutic enema are prescribed. [13]

5. Diseases due to suppression of urge of vomiting and its treatment

कण्डूकोठारुचिव्यङ्गशोथपाण्ड्वामयज्वराः| कुष्ठहृल्लासवीसर्पाश्छर्दिनिग्रहजा गदाः||१४||

भुक्त्वा प्रच्छर्दनं धूमो लङ्घनं रक्तमोक्षणम्| रूक्षान्नपानं व्यायामो विरेकश्चात्र शस्यते||१५||

Kaṇḍūkōṭhārucivyaṅgaśōthapāṇḍvāmayajvarāḥ| kuṣṭhahr̥llāsavīsarpāśchardinigrahajā gadāḥ||14||

bhuktvā pracchardanaṁ dhūmō laṅghanaṁ raktamōkṣaṇam| rūkṣānnapānaṁ vyāyāmō virēkaścātra śasyatē||15||

kaNDUkoThArucivya~ggashothapANDvAmayajvarAH| kuShThahRullAsavIsarpAshchardinigrahajA gadAH||14||

bhuktvA pracchardanaM dhUmo la~gghanaM raktamokShaNam| rUkShAnnapAnaM vyAyAmo virekashcAtra shasyate||15||

Pruritus, urticaria, aversion (to food), vyanga (discoloration of face), shotha (edema), pandu (pallor/anaemia), jwara (fever), kushtha (skin diseases), nausea and visarpa (erysipelas) are caused by the suppression of the urges of vomiting. [14]

In such cases, Prachchardana(therapeutic induction of vomiting), dhumapana (therapeutic inhalation of smoke) , langhana (therapeutic fasting), rakta mokshana (bloodletting), foods that are dry in properties, drinks, vyayama (physical exercise) and virechana (therapeutic purgation) are prescribed. [15]

6. Diseases due to suppression of urge of sneezing and its treatment

मन्यास्तम्भः शिरःशूलमर्दितार्धावभेदकौ| इन्द्रियाणां च दौर्बल्यं क्षवथोः स्याद्विधारणात्||१६||

तत्रोर्ध्वजत्रुकेऽभ्यङ्गः स्वेदो धूमः सनावनः| हितं वातघ्नमाद्यं च घृतं चौत्तरभक्तिकम्||१७||

Manyāstambhaḥ śiraḥśūlamarditārdhāvabhēdakau| indriyāṇāṁ ca daurbalyaṁ kṣavathōḥ syādvidhāraṇāt||16||

tatrōrdhvajatrukē'bhyaṅgaḥ svēdō dhūmaḥ sanāvanaḥ| hitaṁ vātaghnamādyaṁ ca ghr̥taṁ cauttarabhaktikam||17||

manyAstambhaH shiraHshUlamarditArdhAvabhedakau| indriyANAM ca daurbalyaM kShavathoH syAdvidhAraNAt||16||

tatrordhvajatruke~abhya~ggaH svedo dhUmaH sanAvanaH| hitaM vAtaghnamAdyaM ca ghRutaM cauttarabhaktikam||17||

Neck stiffness, headache, facial paralysis, pain in half side of face and head, weakness of sense organs and locomotor organs are caused by the suppression of the urge to sneeze. [16]

In such cases, the treatment includes abhyanga (therapeutic massage) and swedana (fomentation) on the supra-clavicular region, dhooma (use of medicated smoke) along with administering navana (nasal drops), foods prescribed for alleviation of vata and consumption of ghee after meals. [17]

7. Diseases due to suppression of urge of belching and its treatment

हिक्का श्वासोऽरुचिः कम्पो विबन्धो हृदयोरसोः| उद्गारनिग्रहात्तत्र हिक्कायास्तुल्यमौषधम्||१८||

Hikkā śvāsō'ruciḥ kampō vibandhō hr̥dayōrasōḥ| udgāranigrahāttatra hikkāyāstulyamauṣadham||18||

hikkA shvAso~aruciH kampo vibandho hRudayorasoH| udgAranigrahAttatra hikkAyAstulyamauShadham||18||

Hiccups, dyspnea, aversion (to food), tremors, and feeling of congestion in the cardiac and chest region are caused due to suppression of belching or eructation. It should be treated on similar lines of hikka (hiccups). [18]

8. Diseases due to suppression of urge of yawning and its treatment

विनामाक्षेपसङ्कोचाः सुप्तिः कम्पः प्रवेपनम्| जृम्भाया निग्रहात्तत्र सर्वं वातघ्नमौषधम्||१९||

Vināmākṣēpasaṅkōcāḥ suptiḥ kampaḥ pravēpanam| jr̥mbhāyā nigrahāttatra sarvaṁ vātaghnamauṣadham||19||

vinAmAkShepasa~gkocAH suptiH kampaH pravepanam| jRumbhAyA nigrahAttatra sarvaM vAtaghnamauShadham||19||

Crookedness of body, convulsions, contractions (of muscles), numbness, tremors and trembling are caused by the suppression of yawning. Treatment for this includes all vata pacifying measures. [19]

9. Diseases due to suppression of urge of hunger and its treatment

कार्श्यदौर्बल्यवैवर्ण्यमङ्गमर्दोऽरुचिर्भ्रमः| क्षुद्वेगनिग्रहात्तत्र स्निग्धोष्णं लघु भोजनम्||२०||

Vārśyadaurbalyavaivarṇyamaṅgamardō'rucirbhramaḥ| kṣudvēganigrahāttatra snigdhōṣṇaṁ laghu bhōjanam||20||

kArshyadaurbalyavaivarNyama~ggamardo~arucirbhramaH| kShudveganigrahAttatra snigdhoShNaM laghu bhojanam||20||

Emaciation, weakness, change in body complexion, generalized body ache, aversion (to food) and dizziness are caused by suppressing hunger. In such cases, unctuous, hot and light (easily digestible) food is advised. [20]

10. Diseases due to suppression of urge of thirst and its treatment

कण्ठास्यशोषो बाधिर्यं श्रमः सादो हृदि व्यथा| पिपासानिग्रहात्तत्र शीतं तर्पणमिष्यते||२१||

Kaṇṭhāsyaśōṣō bādhiryaṁ śramaḥ sādō hr̥di vyathā| pipāsānigrahāttatra śītaṁ tarpaṇamiṣyatē||21||

kaNThAsyashoSho bAdhiryaM shramaH sAdo hRudi vyathA| pipAsAnigrahAttatra shItaM tarpaNamiShyate||21||

Dryness of throat and mouth, deafness, feeling of exhaustion, weakness and cardiac pain are caused by the suppression of thirst (or the urge to drink). In that case, cold refreshing and satiating drinks are advised. [21]

11. Diseases due to suppression of urge of tears and its treatment

प्रतिश्यायोऽक्षिरोगश्च हृद्रोगश्चारुचिर्भ्रमः| बाष्पनिग्रहणात्तत्र स्वप्नो मद्यं प्रियाः कथाः||२२||

Pratiśyāyō'kṣirōgaśca hr̥drōgaścārucirbhramaḥ| bāṣpanigrahaṇāttatra svapnō madyaṁ priyāḥ kathāḥ||22||

pratishyAyo~akShirogashca hRudrogashcArucirbhramaH| bAShpanigrahaNAttatra svapno madyaM priyAH kathAH||22||

Rhinitis, eye diseases, cardiac diseases, aversion (to food) and dizziness are caused by suppressing urge to cry (due to grief). The treatment includes sleep (rest), intake of wine and pleasing stories or positive conversations. [22]

12. Diseases due to suppression of urge of sleep and its treatment

जृम्भाऽङ्गमर्दस्तन्द्रा च शिरोरोगोऽक्षिगौरवम्| निद्राविधारणात्तत्र स्वप्नः संवाहनानि च||२३||

Jr̥mbhā'ṅgamardastandrā ca śirōrōgō'kṣigauravam| nidrāvidhāraṇāttatra svapnaḥ saṁvāhanāni ca||23||

jRumbhA~a~ggamardastandrA ca shirorogo~akShigauravam| nidrAvidhAraNAttatra svapnaH saMvAhanAni ca||23||

Yawning, body ache, drowsiness, diseases of head and heaviness in the eyes are caused by suppression of the urge to sleep. Resorting to sound sleep and samvahana (gentle massage) is advised in such cases. [23]

13. Diseases due to suppression of urge of exertion induced dyspnea and its treatment

गुल्महृद्रोगसम्मोहाः श्रमनिःश्वासधारणात्| जायन्ते तत्र विश्रामो वातघ्न्यश्च क्रिया हिताः||२४||

Gulmahr̥drōgasammōhāḥ śramaniḥśvāsadhāraṇāt| jāyantē tatra viśrāmō vātaghnyaśca kriyā hitāḥ||24|| gulmahRudrogasammohAH shramaniHshvAsadhAraNAt| jAyante tatra vishrAmo vAtaghnyashca kriyA hitAH||24||

Gulma (lump in abdomen), cardiac diseases and confused state of mind are caused by suppression of dyspnea (due to exertion). In that case, proper rest and regimen for the alleviation of vata are advised. [24]

वेगनिग्रहजा रोगा य एते परिकीर्तिताः| इच्छंस्तेषामनुत्पत्तिं वेगानेतान्न धारयेत्||२५||

Vēganigrahajā rōgā ya ētē parikīrtitāḥ| icchaṁstēṣāmanutpattiṁ vēgānētānna dhārayēt||25||

veganigrahajA rogA ya ete parikIrtitAH| icchaMsteShAmanutpattiM vegAnetAnna dhArayet||25||

Diseases caused by the suppression of various natural urges have been described in this chapter. The person desirous of preventing these diseases should not suppress any of these natural urges. [25]

Dharaniya vega- Restraint of psychological urges (suppressible urges)

इमांस्तु धारयेद्वेगान् हितार्थी प्रेत्य चेह च| साहसानामशस्तानां मनोवाक्कायकर्मणाम्||२६||

Imāṁstu dhārayēdvēgān hitārthī prētya cēha ca| sāhasānāmaśastānāṁ manōvākkāyakarmaṇām||26||

imAMstu dhArayedvegAn hitArthI [1] pretya ceha ca| sAhasAnAmashastAnAM manovAkkAyakarmaNAm||26||

A person willing for his own well-being, in this life and after (death), should suppress the urges to engage in adventures, and extreme activities of psyche, speech and body. [26]

Manasika vega (Psychological urges)

लोभशोकभयक्रोधमानवेगान् विधारयेत्| नैर्लज्ज्येर्ष्यातिरागाणामभिध्यायाश्च बुद्धिमान्||२७||

Lōbhaśōkabhayakrōdhamānavēgān vidhārayēt| nairlajjyērṣyātirāgāṇāmabhidhyāyāśca buddhimān||27||

lobhashokabhayakrodhamAnavegAn vidhArayet| nairlajjyerShyAtirAgANAmabhidhyAyAshca buddhimAn||27||

An intelligent person should control greed, grief, fear, anger, egoism, shamelessness (impudence), jealousy, excessive affliction (in anything), and desire to acquire someone else’s wealth. [27]

Vachika vega (Verbal urges)

परुषस्यातिमात्रस्य सूचकस्यानृतस्य च| वाक्यस्याकालयुक्तस्य धारयेद्वेगमुत्थितम्||२८||

Paruṣasyātimātrasya sūcakasyānr̥tasya ca| vākyasyākālayuktasya dhārayēdvēgamutthitam||28||

paruShasyAtimAtrasya sUcakasyAnRutasya ca| vAkyasyAkAlayuktasya dhArayedvegamutthitam||28||

Harsh talks, excessive talking, that which intends to harm others or backbiting, lying and untimely speech (improper words at improper time) are to be restrained during speaking. [28]

Kayika vega (Physical urges)

देहप्रवृत्तिर्या काचिद्विद्यते परपीडया| स्त्रीभोगस्तेयहिंसाद्या तस्यावेगान्विधारयेत्||२९||

Dēhapravr̥ttiryā kācidvidyatē parapīḍayā| strībhōgastēyahiṁsādyā tasyāvēgānvidhārayēt||29||

dehapravRuttiryA kAcidvidyate parapIDayA| strIbhogasteyahiMsAdyA tasyAvegAnvidhArayet||29||

Physical actions intended to trouble others, excessive indulgence in sex, stealing, violence (persecution), etc. should be restrained. [29]

Importance of this restraint

पुण्यशब्दो विपापत्वान्मनोवाक्कायकर्मणाम्| धर्मार्थकामान् पुरुषः सुखी भुङ्क्ते चिनोति च||३०||

Puṇyaśabdō vipāpatvānmanōvākkāyakarmaṇām| dharmārthakāmān puruṣaḥ sukhī bhuṅktē cinōti ca||30||

puNyashabdo vipApatvAnmanovAkkAyakarmaNAm| dharmArthakAmAn puruShaH sukhI bhu~gkte cinoti ca||30||

The virtuous one, who is free from all evil deeds of mind, speech and body, is indeed happy and enjoys the fruits of dharma (virtue), artha(wealth), and kama (desires).[30]

Vyayama (exercise)

Definition

शरीरचेष्टा या चेष्टा स्थैर्यार्था बलवर्धिनी| देहव्यायामसङ्ख्याता मात्रया तां समाचरेत्||३१||

Sarīracēṣṭā yā cēṣṭā sthairyārthā balavardhinī| dēhavyāyāmasaṅkhyātā mātrayā tāṁ samācarēt||31||

sharIraceShTA yA ceShTA sthairyArthA balavardhinI| dehavyAyAmasa~gkhyAtA mAtrayA tAM samAcaret||31||

Such suitable physical movement intended towards bringing stability (in body) and increase in strength is known as vyayama (physical exercise). This has to be practiced in moderation (with apt control and for proper duration). [31]

Benefits of vyayama (exercise) and harmful effects of excess exercise

लाघवं कर्मसामर्थ्यं स्थैर्यं दुःखसहिष्णुता | दोषक्षयोऽग्निवृद्धिश्च व्यायामादुपजायते||३२||

श्रमः क्लमः क्षयस्तृष्णा रक्तपित्तं प्रतामकः| अतिव्यायामतः कासो ज्वरश्छर्दिश्च जायते||३३||

Lāghavaṁ karmasāmarthyaṁ sthairyaṁ duḥkhasahiṣṇutā | dōṣakṣayō'gnivr̥ddhiśca vyāyāmādupajāyatē||32||

śramaḥ klamaḥ kṣayastr̥ṣṇā raktapittaṁ pratāmakaḥ| ativyāyāmataḥ kāsō jvaraśchardiśca jāyatē||33|| lAghavaM karmasAmarthyaM sthairyaM duHkhasahiShNutA | doShakShayo~agnivRuddhishca vyAyAmAdupajAyate||32||

shramaH klamaH kShayastRuShNA raktapittaM pratAmakaH| ativyAyAmataH kAso jvarashchardishca jAyate||33||

Lightness, strength to work, stability, endurance towards distress and mitigation of dosha (especially kapha), and stimulation of agni (digestive power) is engendered by physical exercise. [32]

Exhaustion, fatigue, wasting (of body tissues), thirst, bleeding from different parts of the body (raktapitta), pratamaka (dyspnea with fainting), cough, fever and vomiting are caused by excessive physical exercise. [33]

Indications to stop vyayama (exercise)

(स्वेदागमः श्वासवृद्धिर्गात्राणां लाघवं तथा| हृदयाद्युपरोधश्च इति व्यायामलक्षणम्||१||)

(svēdāgamaḥ śvāsavr̥ddhirgātrāṇāṁ lāghavaṁ tathā| hr̥dayādyuparōdhaśca iti vyāyāmalakṣaṇam||1||)

(svedAgamaH shvAsavRuddhirgAtrANAM lAghavaM tathA| hRudayAdyuparodhashca iti vyAyAmalakShaNam||1||)

Perspiration, increase in respiratory rate, feeling of lightness of body, and congestion in cardiac (heart) region and such other organs of the body are signs of reaching threshold of exercise and one should stop the exercise.(1) (Note: This verse seems to be added later and was not a part of original text.)

Activities to be done in appropriate measures only

व्यायामहास्यभाष्याध्वग्राम्यधर्मप्रजागरान्| नोचितानपि सेवेत बुद्धिमानतिमात्रया||३४||

Vyāyāmahāsyabhāṣyādhvagrāmyadharmaprajāgarān| nōcitānapi sēvēta buddhimānatimātrayā||34||

vyAyAmahAsyabhAShyAdhvagrAmyadharmaprajAgarAn| nocitAnapi seveta buddhimAnatimAtrayA||34||

Exercise, laughing, speaking, walking, sexual activities and staying awake at night should not be practiced in excess by an intelligent person even if they are accustomed (or habituated) to doing such activities. [34]

Contra-indications to stop vyayama (exercise)

एतानेवंविधांश्चान्यान् योऽतिमात्रं निषेवते| गजं सिंह इवाकर्षन् सहसा स विनश्यति||३५||

(अतिव्यवायभाराध्वकर्मभिश्चातिकर्शिताः | क्रोधशोकभयायासैः क्रान्ता ये चापि मानवाः||१||

बालवृद्धप्रवाताश्च ये चोच्चैर्बहुभाषकाः| ते वर्जयेयुर्व्यायामं क्षुधितास्तृषिताश्च ये||२||)

ētānēvaṁvidhāṁścānyān yō'timātraṁ niṣēvatē| gajaṁ siṁha ivākarṣan sahasā sa vinaśyati||35||

(ativyavāyabhārādhvakarmabhiścātikarśitāḥ | krōdhaśōkabhayāyāsaiḥ krāntā yē cāpi mānavāḥ||1||

bālavr̥ddhapravātāśca yē cōccairbahubhāṣakāḥ| tē varjayēyurvyāyāmaṁ kṣudhitāstr̥ṣitāśca yē||2||)

etAnevaMvidhAMshcAnyAn yo~atimAtraM niShevate| gajaM siMha ivAkarShan sahasA sa vinashyati||35||

(ativyavAyabhArAdhvakarmabhishcAtikarshitAH | krodhashokabhayAyAsaiH krAntA ye cApi mAnavAH||1||

bAlavRuddhapravAtAshca ye coccairbahubhAShakAH| te varjayeyurvyAyAmaM kShudhitAstRuShitAshca ye||2||)

One who indulges in these and such other activities in excess, suddenly perishes like a lion trying to drag an (huge) elephant. [35]

(The person emaciated due to excess sexual intercourse, weight bearing, walking, those afflicted by anger, grief, fear, exertion; those who are children, elderly, prone to vata, who need to talk loudly and excessively, and those who are hungry and thirsty shall avoid physical exercise). (Note: This verse seems to be added later and was not a part of original text.)

Padamshika krama (Sequence to adopt good habits and discard bad habits) =

उचितादहिताद्धीमान् क्रमशो विरमेन्नरः| हितं क्रमेण सेवेत क्रमश्चात्रोपदिश्यते||३६||

Ucitādahitāddhīmān kramaśō viramēnnaraḥ| hitaṁ kramēṇa sēvēta kramaścātrōpadiśyatē||36||

ucitAdahitAddhImAn kramasho viramennaraH| hitaM krameNa seveta kramashcAtropadishyate||36||

An intelligent person should gradually wean himself away from unwholesome/unhealthy practices (to which he is addicted) and adopt wholesome ones in the proper sequence. The schedule for the same is given below. [36]

प्रक्षेपापचये ताभ्यां क्रमः पादांशिको भवेत्| एकान्तरं ततश्चोर्ध्वं द्व्यन्तरं त्र्यन्तरं तथा||३७||

Prakṣēpāpacayē tābhyāṁ kramaḥ pādāṁśikō bhavēt| ēkāntaraṁ tataścōrdhvaṁ dvyantaraṁ tryantaraṁ tathā||37||

prakShepApacaye tAbhyAM kramaH pAdAMshiko bhavet| ekAntaraM tatashcordhvaM dvyantaraM tryantaraM tathA||37||

On the first day one should give up a quarter of the unwholesome practice (still maintaining three-fourth of it) and correspondingly adopt a quarter of wholesome. On the second day, half of the unwholesome practice should be given up and half of the wholesome one should be adopted; this is to be continued for the third day also. On the fourth day, three-fourth of the unwholesome practice should be given up and three-fourth of the wholesome one should be adopted. This process should be continued on the fifth and sixth day also. The process of giving up of the unwholesome practice and adoption of the wholesome practice is completed fully on the seventh day. [37]

क्रमेणापचिता दोषाः क्रमेणोपचिता गुणाः| सन्तो यान्त्यपुनर्भावमप्रकम्प्या भवन्ति च||३८||

Kramēṇāpacitā dōṣāḥ kramēṇōpacitā guṇāḥ| santō yāntyapunarbhāvamaprakampyā bhavanti ca||38||

krameNApacitA doShAH krameNopacitA guNAH| santo yAntyapunarbhAvamaprakampyA bhavanti ca||38||

By slowly and gradually giving up unwholesome practices and by increasing the wholesome practices in proper sequence, the unwholesome practices do not reoccur and the wholesome practices are fully adopted. [38]

Details of doshanushayi deha prakriti (dosha dominant body constitution)

समपित्तानिलकफाः केचिद्गर्भादि मानवाः| दृश्यन्ते वातलाः केचित्पित्तलाः श्लेष्मलास्तथा||३९||

तेषामनातुराः पूर्वे वातलाद्याः सदातुराः| दोषानुशयिता ह्येषां देहप्रकृतिरुच्यते||४०||

Samapittānilakaphāḥ kēcidgarbhādi mānavāḥ| dr̥śyantē vātalāḥ kēcitpittalāḥ ślēṣmalāstathā||39||

tēṣāmanāturāḥ pūrvē vātalādyāḥ sadāturāḥ| dōṣānuśayitā hyēṣāṁ dēhaprakr̥tirucyatē||40||

samapittAnilakaphAH kecidgarbhAdi mAnavAH| dRushyante vAtalAH kecitpittalAH shleShmalAstathA||39||

teShAmanAturAH pUrve vAtalAdyAH sadAturAH| doShAnushayitA hyeShAM dehaprakRutirucyate||40||

Some individuals have the equal proportions of pitta-kapha-vata prakriti (equilibrium state of all dosha) at the time of conception, while some are dominated by vata, some by pitta and some by kapha. [39]

Those of the first category (balanced dosha) do not suffer from diseases. Others (dominated by single dosha), are always likely to suffer. These are called as doshanushayi (depending upon dominancy of dosha) deha prakriti (body constitution). [40]

Preservation of health and equilibrium

विपरीतगुणस्तेषां स्वस्थवृत्तेर्विधिर्हितः| समसर्वरसं सात्म्यं समधातोः प्रशस्यते||४१||

Viparītaguṇastēṣāṁ svasthavr̥ttērvidhirhitaḥ| samasarvarasaṁ sātmyaṁ samadhātōḥ praśasyatē||41||

viparItaguNasteShAM svasthavRuttervidhirhitaH| samasarvarasaM sAtmyaM samadhAtoH prashasyate||41||

Diet and exercise regimen with opposite/neutralizing dosha properties are prescribed for maintaining health. Habitual intake of balanced diet with all rasa in proportionate quantity is recommended for equilibrium state of dosha. [41]

Malayana (channels of excretion)

द्वे अधः सप्त शिरसि खानि स्वेदमुखानि च| मलायनानि बाध्यन्ते दुष्टैर्मात्राधिकैर्मलैः||४२||

मलवृद्धिं गुरुतया लाघवान्मलसङ्क्षयम्| मलायनानां बुध्येत सङ्गोत्सर्गादतीव च||४३||

Dvē adhaḥ sapta śirasi khāni svēdamukhāni ca| malāyanāni bādhyantē duṣṭairmātrādhikairmalaiḥ||42||

malavr̥ddhiṁ gurutayā lāghavānmalasaṅkṣayam| malāyanānāṁ budhyēta saṅgōtsargādatīva ca||43||

dve adhaH sapta shirasi khAni svedamukhAni ca| malAyanAni bAdhyante duShTairmAtrAdhikairmalaiH||42||

malavRuddhiM gurutayA lAghavAnmalasa~gkShayam| malAyanAnAM budhyeta sa~ggotsargAdatIva ca||43||

Two external orifices in the lower part of the body (viz. the anus and urethra), seven orifices in head region (viz., two eyes, two ears, two nostrils and mouth) and numerous openings of sweat glands are channels meant for excretion (of waste products). These are affected by vitiated dosha and increased waste products. [42]

If there is heaviness in these excretory orifices, it is indicative of increase in waste products due to excess accumulation (inside body). If there is lightness in the excretory orifices, it indicates decrease in quantity of waste products due to excess excretion (from body). [43]

तान् दोषलिङ्गैरादिश्य व्याधीन् साध्यानुपाचरेत्| व्याधिहेतुप्रतिद्वन्द्वैर्मात्राकालौ विचारयन्||४४||

Tān dōṣaliṅgairādiśya vyādhīn sādhyānupācarēt| vyādhihētupratidvandvairmātrākālau vicārayan||44||

tAn doShali~ggairAdishya vyAdhIn sAdhyAnupAcaret| vyAdhihetupratidvandvairmAtrAkAlau vicArayan||44||

By ascertaining signs and symptoms of dosha indicated above, one shall treat curable diseases by (therapies having) qualities opposite to disease and causative factors after proper consideration of the dose and time of administration. [44]

Importance of Swasthavritta (Regimen for prevention of diseases)

विषमस्वस्थवृत्तानामेते रोगास्तथाऽपरे | जायन्तेऽनातुरस्तस्मात् स्वस्थवृत्तपरो भवेत् ||४५||

Viṣamasvasthavr̥ttānāmētē rōgāstathā'parē| jāyantē'nāturastasmāt svasthavr̥ttaparō bhavēt||45||

viShamasvasthavRuttAnAmete rogAstathA~apare| jAyante~anAturastasmAt svasthavRuttaparo bhavet||45||

Lifestyle contrary to that mentioned in Swasthavritta leads to above-mentioned and similar diseases. Therefore, the course of life conducive to the maintenance of good health should be followed. [45]

Anutpattikar chikitsa [Preventive measures]

Suitable month for panchakarma treatments and benefits

माधवप्रथमे मासि नभस्यप्रथमे पुनः| सहस्यप्रथमे चैव हारयेद्दोषसञ्चयम्||४६||

स्निग्धस्विन्नशरीराणामूर्ध्वं चाधश्च नित्यशः| बस्तिकर्म ततः कुर्यान्नस्यकर्म च बुद्धिमान्||४७||

यथाक्रमं यथायोग्यमत ऊर्ध्वं प्रयोजयेत्| रसायनानि सिद्धानि वृष्ययोगांश्च कालवित्||४८||

रोगास्तथा न जायन्ते प्रकृतिस्थेषु धातुषु| धातवश्चाभिवर्धन्ते जरा मान्द्यमुपैति च||४९||

विधिरेष विकाराणामनुत्पत्तौ निदर्शितः| निजानामितरेषां तु पृथगेवोपदेक्ष्यते||५०||

Mādhavaprathamē māsi nabhasyaprathamē punaḥ| sahasyaprathamē caiva hārayēddōṣasañcayam||46||

snigdhasvinnaśarīrāṇāmūrdhvaṁ cādhaśca nityaśaḥ| bastikarma tataḥ kuryānnasyakarmaca buddhimān||47||

yathākramaṁ yathāyōgyamata ūrdhvaṁ prayōjayēt| rasāyanāni siddhāni vr̥ṣyayōgāṁśca kālavit||48||

rōgāstathā na jāyantē prakr̥tisthēṣu dhātuṣu| dhātavaścābhivardhantē jarā māndyamupaiti ca||49||

vidhirēṣa vikārāṇāmanutpattau nidarśitaḥ| nijānāmitarēṣāṁ tu pr̥thagēvōpadēkṣyatē||50||

mAdhavaprathame mAsi nabhasyaprathame punaH| sahasyaprathame caiva hArayeddoShasa~jcayam||46||

snigdhasvinnasharIrANAmUrdhvaM cAdhashca nityashaH| bastikarma tataH kuryAnnasyakarma ca buddhimAn||47||

yathAkramaM yathAyogyamata UrdhvaM prayojayet| rasAyanAni siddhAni vRuShyayogAMshca kAlavit||48||

rogAstathA na jAyante prakRutistheShu dhAtuShu| dhAtavashcAbhivardhante jarA mAndyamupaiti ca||49||

vidhireSha vikArANAmanutpattau nidarshitaH| nijAnAmitareShAM tu pRuthagevopadekShyate||50||

In the months of Chaitra (the month coming before Madhava/Vaishakha i.e. approximately during Mid March- Mid April), Shravana (the month coming before Nabhasya/Bhadrapada, i.e. approximately during Mid July- Mid August) and Margashirsha (the month coming before Sahasya/Pausha, approximately during Mid October- Mid November), the accumulated dosha should be eliminated (by means of purification therapies). [46]

After the oleation and fomentation therapies, emetics (for elimination of dosha from upper part of body) and purgatives (for elimination of dosha from lower part of body) should be administered. Subsequently, the intelligent person should be treated with medicated enema and nasal instillation/errhines therapies regularly. [47]

The above mentioned treatments shall be followed in proper sequence and appropriately. And thereafter, medicines processed with rejuvenation and aphrodisiac preparations should be prescribed. [48]

(By administering the above treatments, as applicable) In a state of equilibrium of dhatu, diseases are prevented, tissue elements develop properly and ageing process slows down. [49]

The procedures for preventing endogenous diseases have been described above. Those for preventing exogenous ones have been described in the next verse. [50]

Causes and management of Agantu roga (exogenous diseases)

Pragnyaparadha (intellectual defect) and its sequelae

ये भूतविषवाय्वग्निसम्प्रहारादिसम्भवाः| नृणामागन्तवो रोगाः प्रज्ञा तेष्वपराध्यति||५१||

Yē bhūtaviṣavāyvagnisamprahārādisambhavāḥ| nr̥ṇāmāgantavō rōgāḥ prajñā tēṣvaparādhyati||51||

ye bhUtaviShavAyvagnisamprahArAdisambhavAH| nRuNAmAgantavo rogAH praj~jA teShvaparAdhyati||51||

Exogenous diseases are produced by evil spirits, toxins, air, fire, assault on human beings. Intellect is affected in such diseases. [51]

Mano vikara (Psychological disorders)

ईर्ष्याशोकभयक्रोधमानद्वेषादयश्च ये| मनोविकारास्तेऽप्युक्ताः सर्वे प्रज्ञापराधजाः||५२||

īrṣyāśōkabhayakrōdhamānadvēṣādayaśca yē| manōvikārāstē'pyuktāḥ sarvē prajñāparādhajāḥ||52||

IrShyAshokabhayakrodhamAnadveShAdayashca ye| manovikArAste~apyuktAH sarve praj~jAparAdhajAH||52||

Jealousy, grief, fear, anger, egoism and hatred, etc. and all other mentioned mental disorders result from defects in one’s intellect. [52]

Management of Agantu roga (Prevention and management of exogenous diseases)

त्यागः प्रज्ञापराधानामिन्द्रियोपशमः स्मृतिः| देशकालात्मविज्ञानं सद्वृत्तस्यानुवर्तनम्||५३||

आगन्तूनामनुत्पत्तावेष मार्गो निदर्शितः| प्राज्ञः प्रागेव तत् कुर्याद्धितं विद्याद्यदात्मनः||५४||

Tyāgaḥ prajñāparādhānāmindriyōpaśamaḥ smr̥tiḥ| dēśakālātmavijñānaṁ sadvr̥ttasyānuvartanam||53||

āgantūnāmanutpattāvēṣa mārgō nidarśitaḥ| prājñaḥ prāgēva tat kuryāddhitaṁ vidyādyadātmanaḥ||54||

tyAgaH praj~jAparAdhAnAmindriyopashamaH smRutiH| deshakAlAtmavij~jAnaM sadvRuttasyAnuvartanam||53||

AgantUnAmanutpattAveSha mArgo nidarshitaH| prAj~jaH prAgeva tat kuryAddhitaM vidyAdyadAtmanaH||54||

Avoidance of such emotions, control over sense and motor organs, memorizing (regimens), specific knowledge (orientation) of place, time and one’s own self, and following regimen of good conduct are some of the ways to prevent exogenous diseases. Therefore, an intelligent person desirous of his own well-being shall follow these suitable measures well in advance. [53-54]

Importance of aptopadesha (authoritative statements) and pratipatti (timely decision)

आप्तोपदेशप्रज्ञानं प्रतिपत्तिश्च कारणम्| विकाराणामनुत्पत्तावुत्पन्नानां च शान्तये||५५||

āptōpadēśaprajñānaṁ pratipattiśca kāraṇam| vikārāṇāmanutpattāvutpannānāṁ ca śāntayē||55||

Aptopadeshapraj~jAnaM pratipattishca kAraNam| vikArANAmanutpattAvutpannAnAM ca shAntaye||55||

Knowledge of the prescription of authoritative sages and taking proper decisions at the right time and need are (recommended) for prevention of impending diseases and treatment of existing diseases. [55]

Varjya purusha (Characters of bad companions to be avoided)

पापवृत्तवचःसत्त्वाः सूचकाः कलहप्रियाः| मर्मोपहासिनो लुब्धाः परवृद्धिद्विषः शठाः||५६||

परापवादरतयश्चपला रिपुसेविनः| निर्घृणास्त्यक्तधर्माणः परिवर्ज्या नराधमाः||५७||

Pāpavr̥ttavacaḥsattvāḥ sūcakāḥ kalahapriyāḥ| marmōpahāsinō lubdhāḥ paravr̥ddhidviṣaḥ śaṭhāḥ||56||

parāpavādaratayaścapalā ripusēvinaḥ| nirghr̥ṇāstyaktadharmāṇaḥ parivarjyā narādhamāḥ||57||

pApavRuttavacaHsattvAH sUcakAH kalahapriyAH| marmopahAsino lubdhAH paravRuddhidviShaH shaThAH||56||

parApavAdaratayashcapalA ripusevinaH| nirghRuNAstyaktadharmANaH parivarjyA narAdhamAH||57||

Such wretched human beings, who are of sinful conduct, speech and mind, back biters, those who are quarrelsome by nature, those who indulge in sarcastic remarks about others, the greedy, those who envy the prosperity of others, the cruel, those who indulge in defaming others, the fickle-minded, those who serve the enemy, those devoid of compassion and those who do not follow the virtuous course of life should be avoided. [56-57]

Characters of good companions (to be followed)

बुद्धिविद्यावयःशीलधैर्यस्मृतिसमाधिभिः| वृद्धोपसेविनो वृद्धाः स्वभावज्ञा गतव्यथाः||५८||

सुमुखाः सर्वभूतानां प्रशान्ताः शंसितव्रताः| सेव्याः सन्मार्गवक्तारः पुण्यश्रवणदर्शनाः||५९||

Buddhividyāvayaḥśīladhairyasmr̥tisamādhibhiḥ| vr̥ddhōpasēvinō vr̥ddhāḥ svabhāvajñā gatavyathāḥ||58||

sumukhāḥ sarvabhūtānāṁ praśāntāḥ śaṁsitavratāḥ| sēvyāḥ sanmārgavaktāraḥ puṇyaśravaṇadarśanāḥ||59||

buddhividyAvayaHshIladhairyasmRutisamAdhibhiH| vRuddhopasevino vRuddhAH svabhAvaj~jA gatavyathAH||58||

sumukhAH sarvabhUtAnAM prashAntAH shaMsitavratAH| sevyAH sanmArgavaktAraH puNyashravaNadarshanAH||59||

Those who have attained maturity by virtue of intellectual wisdom, knowledge, age, character, courage, memory and contemplation, who serve senior (by age and rank) persons, who are mature and learned ones, who are well acquainted with human nature, those who are devoid of all anxieties, who are well behaved with everybody, who are in serenity, who follow righteous course of action, who advocate good conduct and whose very name and sight are auspicious should be accompanied. [58-59]

Important measures to be followed for complete wellness

आहाराचारचेष्टासु सुखार्थी प्रेत्य चेह च| परं प्रयत्नमातिष्ठेद्बुद्धिमान् हितसेवने||६०||

āhārācāracēṣṭāsu sukhārthī prētya cēha ca| paraṁ prayatnamātiṣṭhēdbuddhimān hitasēvanē||60||

AhArAcAraceShTAsu sukhArthI pretya ceha ca| paraM prayatnamAtiShThedbuddhimAn hitasevane||60||

Intelligent person desirous of well-being in the present world (birth) and the world after death should strive his level best to follow the correct regimen of diet, code of conduct and deeds (prescribed in above verses). [60]

Guidelines for consumption of dadhi (curd) and hazards of improper consumption

न नक्तं दधि भुञ्जीत न चाप्यघृतशर्करम्| नामुद्गयूषं नाक्षौद्रं नोष्णं नामलकैर्विना ||६१||

ज्वरासृक्पित्तवीसर्पकुष्ठपाण्ड्वामयभ्रमान्| प्राप्नुयात्कामलां चोग्रां विधिं हित्वा दधिप्रियः||६२||

Na naktaṁ dadhi bhuñjīta na cāpyaghr̥taśarkaram| nāmudgayūṣaṁ nākṣaudraṁ nōṣṇaṁ nāmalakairvinā ||61||

jvarāsr̥kpittavīsarpakuṣṭhapāṇḍvāmayabhramān| prāpnuyātkāmalāṁ cōgrāṁ vidhiṁ hitvā dadhipriyaḥ||62||

na naktaM dadhi bhu~jjIta na cApyaghRutasharkaram| nAmudgayUShaM nAkShaudraM noShNaM nAmalakairvinA ||61||

jvarAsRukpittavIsarpakuShThapANDvAmayabhramAn| prApnuyAtkAmalAM cogrAM vidhiM hitvA dadhipriyaH||62||

Curd should not be consumed at night. Otherwise, if curd is to be taken, it should be mixed with ghee, sugar, green gram soup, honey or amalaka (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.). It should not be heated also. [61]

Jwara (fever), Raktapitta (bleeding from different parts of the body), visarpa (erysipelas), kushtha (obstinate skin diseases), pandu (anemia like disorders), bhrama (giddiness, vertigo) and severe kamala (jaundice and other hepato-biliary disorders) occur if the prescribed rules for consumption of curd are not followed by one who is fond of curd. [62]

Summary with points discussed in chapter

तत्र श्लोकाः- वेगा वेगसमुत्थाश्च रोगास्तेषां च भेषजम्| येषां वेगा विधार्याश्च यदर्थं यद्धिताहितम्||६३||

उचिते चाहिते वर्ज्ये सेव्ये चानुचिते क्रमः| यथाप्रकृति चाहारो मलायनगदौषधम्||६४||

भविष्यतामनुत्पत्तौ रोगाणामौषधं च यत्| वर्ज्याः सेव्याश्च पुरुषा धीमताऽऽत्मसुखार्थिना||६५||

विधिना दधि सेव्यं च येन यस्मात्तदत्रिजः| नवेगान्धारणेऽध्याये सर्वमेवावदन्मुनिः||६६||

Tatra ślōkāḥ- vēgā vēgasamutthāśca rōgāstēṣāṁ ca bhēṣajam| yēṣāṁ vēgā vidhāryāśca yadarthaṁ yaddhitāhitam||63||

ucitē cāhitē varjyē sēvyē cānucitē kramaḥ| yathāprakr̥ti cāhārō malāyanagadauṣadham||64||

bhaviṣyatāmanutpattau rōgāṇāmauṣadhaṁ ca yat| varjyāḥ sēvyāśca puruṣā dhīmatātmasukhārthinā||65||

vidhinā dadhi sēvyaṁ ca yēna yasmāttadatrijaḥ| navēgāndhāraṇē'dhyāyē sarvamēvāvadanmuniḥ||66||

tatra shlokAH- vegA vegasamutthAshca rogAsteShAM ca bheShajam| yeShAM vegA vidhAryAshca yadarthaM yaddhitAhitam||63||

ucite cAhite varjye sevye cAnucite kramaH| yathAprakRuti cAhAro malAyanagadauShadham||64||

bhaviShyatAmanutpattau rogANAmauShadhaM ca yat| varjyAH sevyAshca puruShA dhImatA~a~atmasukhArthinA||65||

vidhinA dadhi sevyaM ca yena yasmAttadatrijaH| navegAndhAraNe~adhyAye sarvamevAvadanmuniH||66||

To summarize : All natural urges, diseases arising due to their suppression and their management, urges that are to be suppressed, appropriate and inappropriate diet and lifestyles, the sequence for adoption of healthy practices and discarding unhealthy ones, proper diet according to the natural body constitution, the diseases relating to the excretory orifices and their treatment, preventive measures of impending diseases and management , characteristics of good persons whose company should be kept by intelligent people desirous of his wellbeing, and those of bad persons whose company intelligent persons should avoid, and rules regarding consumption of curd - as told by Atreya have been described in this chapter on ‘non suppression of natural urges.’ [63-66].

Tattva Vimarsha (Fundamental Principles)

  1. The human body produces natural urges at regular intervals to cleanse the body systems and remove metabolic toxins. Thus, the normal mechanism of natural urge is important for preservation of health.
  2. Natural urges should not be suppressed in order to preserve overall health.
  3. Negative physical, verbal and psychic activities should be restrained.
  4. The persons with equal proportion of vata, pitta and kapha in their prakriti (basic body constitution) i.e. equilibrium of dosha are always healthy. The persons with dis-equilibrium of dosha always suffer from diseases.
  5. Body purification therapies, rejuvenation and aphrodisiac therapies should be followed at proper time to prevent diseases and ageing.
  6. Optimum amount of physical exercise is important for maintenance of physical strength.
  7. One shall follow daily routine and lifestyle as per his own psychic and somatic constitution.

Vidhi Vimarsha (Applied Inferences)

This chapter describes prevention of disorders through maintenance of internal somatic hygiene and promotion of somato-psychological strength. As explained earlier in the introductory part, building up the internal strength through physical exercise, restraint of negative psyche, follow up of proper dietary regimen as per body constitution plays important role in prevention of impending disorders, and management of psychological disorders. The chapter covers a comprehensive knowledge about ways to achieve positive physical, psychological and spiritual health in holistic manner emphasizing the true essence of Ayurveda.

Natural somatic urges, disorders due to their suppression and their management

Thirteen natural urges are categorized according to their functions. The first seven urges, micturition, defecation, ejaculation of semen, passing flatus, vomiting, sneezing, belching (eructation) are intended to expel the waste products outside body from external orifices. Next six urges, yawning, hunger, thirst, tears, sleep and exertion induced dyspnea are based upon physiological requirements of body to maintain homeostasis.

Normally, physical and mental faculties of an individual function through the interaction of dosha with dhatu and in this process, mala are formed and excreted out of the body. Health is a delicate balance between these three factors. The imbalance results in diseases. Mala is the end product of digestion and metabolism and must be excreted out at regular intervals through specific orifices. The elimination process is controlled by voluntary reflex mechanisms to certain extent. These are known as vega or movement. The word vega is defined by Chakrapani as pravritti meaning action and unmukhatvam meaning those which are intended to get expelled out. When there is long term voluntary suppression, specific waste products get accumulated leading to specific diseases. All urges are initiated predominantly by vata and the treatments include alleviation of vata.

Restraint of negative psychological factors for psycho-spiritual well-being

The character of an individual is assessed by his psyche, speech, activities and his overall behavior. The negative activities, which are harmful for one’s own character as well as social well-being, are explained. The rules for execution of mental actions, speech and physical activities have been prescribed. The basic emotions that express positive attitude need to be maintained, while those with negative origin are to be controlled and given up. These prescribed activities help towards a better development of one’s personality in this life as well as in the afterlife. The objective of this course is to achieve complete health in aspects of physical, mental and spiritual wellbeing in order to attain four purushartha viz. dharma (eternal virtuous duties), artha (wealth), kama (passion) and moksha (salvation).

Benefits of physical exercise and harmful effects of excessive exercise

There are benefits of physical exercise in proper amount as well as harmful effects of excessive exercise. The measure of exercise always depends upon physiological mechanisms of body, seasonal variation and time of performing exercise. Stopping signals and subjective feelings of physical exercise are perspiration, increase in respiratory rate, feeling of lightness of body, and congestion in cardiac (heart) region and such other organs of the body are signs of reaching threshold of exercise. Emphasis has been given on proper amount of exercise to be followed. This is again a subjective prescription and not a one-size-fits-all situation, which is the uniqueness of Ayurveda. It first describes the harmful effects of excess exercise and prohibits other routine activities like excessive laughing, speaking, walking, sexual intercourse, and staying awake late at night.

Sequence to develop good habits and stop bad habits

It is important to know the good things to be followed and avoid bad things by one for longevity. It is advised to gradually give up addictions and adopt wholesome habits increasingly. The protocol advised is, on the first day one should give up a quarter of the unwholesome practice (still maintaining three-fourths of it,) and correspondingly adopt a quarter of wholesome. On the second day, half of the unwholesome practice should be given up and half of the wholesome one should be adopted; this is to be continued for the third day also. On the fourth day, three-fourths of the unwholesome practice should be given up and three-fourths of the wholesome one should be adopted. This process should be continued on the fifth and sixth day also. The process of giving up of the unwholesome practice and adoption of the wholesome practice is completed fully on the seventh day.

Dosha dominant prakriti, susceptibility to disease and specific diet for prevention of diseases

Importance

The crux of prevention of diseases is maintaining a balance of dosha from time of conception. If the dosha are in equilibrium within the body of an individual, the person does not suffer from diseases. The imbalance including predominance of a single dosha in prakriti makes him/her susceptible to diseases. The balance of dosha can be maintained through habitual intake of diet of all rasas and following those regimens with opposite properties of dominant dosha in prakriti. Therefore, to know the predominant dosha in one’s constitution is very important for prescribing suitable diet and lifestyle regimen in prevention and management of diseases. The suitable dietary regimen for each dosha prakriti is described in detail in the eighth chapter of Vimana Sthana.

Phenotypic co-relation of prakriti

Every individual is different from another and hence should be considered as a separate entity.[1] The three broad classes of ‘prakriti’ are based on certain physical, physiological and psychological characters.[2] The scientists suggest phenotypic classification of India’s traditional medicine has a genetic basis; and its Prakriti-based practice in vogue for many centuries resonates with personalized medicine. [3]. Thus prakriti concept is independent of racial, ethnic or geographical considerations and may provide appropriate means of classifying phenotypes to be considered collectively for genotyping. In a study, the researchers postulated that human phenome based on prakriti, namely kapha, pitta and vata have genetic connotation that could help classifying human population based on broad phenotype clusters. Accordingly HLA DR alleles among various prakriti classes and demonstrated significant associations were analysed. [4] The concept of constitutional uniqueness of human individuals and personalized prescription of diet and drugs is special feature of Ayurveda. This has similarities with the pharmacogenomics and customized medicine.[5] In a study on genome-wide SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) analysis of 262 well-classified male individuals (after screening 3416 subjects) belonging to three Prakriti (Vata, Pitta, Kapha), it is observed that PGM1 correlates with phenotype of Pitta as described in the ancient text of Charaka Samhita.[3]

Signs of derangement of internal metabolism and excretion

Proper and timely excretion of waste products of metabolism is important for maintenance of health and prevention of disease. This aspect is not well addressed by the current society and main stream medical system. The clinical examination of functions of seven external orifices in the head and two in lower part (urethra and anus) can reveal important clues related to internal tissue metabolism. Diseases can be managed through the right combination of dose, duration as well as time of administration of drugs and occurrence of diseases. Regular and seasonal purification described below are important to follow.

Principles of seasonal body purification for prevention of impending diseases and longevity

Ayurveda advises to follow the course prescribed for promotion of positive health in order to avoid diseases. Oleation and fomentation therapies are administered first to be followed by, emetics (for elimination of dosha from upper part of body) and purgatives (for elimination of dosha from lower part of body). Subsequently, the person should get medicated enema and nasal instillation/errhines therapies administered regularly. The time of purification to detoxify body from accumulated toxins is prescribed viz. vamana in the months of Chaitra (approximately during March-April), basti in Shravana (approximately during July-August) and virechana in Margashirsha (approximately during November-December). It is important to follow rasayana (rejuvenation) and vrishya (aphrodisiac) medications after this course to prevent all endogenous diseases. This also maintains proper growth and development of body tissues and delays the aging process.

Causes and management of exogenous diseases

Toxins, polluted air, excessive heat, assault trauma, bacterial and viral infections etc. are external etio-pathological factors for exogenous diseases. The negative psychological factors and also other mental disorders are caused by defect in the intellect. Intellect discriminates between right and wrong things to be followed. When this faculty is impaired, the person is not able to take proper decisions and this leads to consumption of improper things in diet and lifestyle. This is called Pragyaparadha ( intellectual error/defect) and is the important cause for diseases.

The management approach includes maintaining proper restraint over senses and locomotor organs through correcting intellectual defect, memorizing proper dietary and lifestyle regimens, proper orientation of place, time and self-consciousness about modulating as per prescribed regimens. In present era, this is important to prevent infectious diseases, their spread, and management of existing infections and their recurrence.

Importance of good companions and bad companions

Social well-being can be maintained by keeping good company and avoiding bad association. This is important for preventing stress due to social factors and to maintain one’s psychological balance intact. The impact of company of good persons leads to development of good moral character. On the contrary, company of bad ones leads to degradation of one’s psychological balance and character.

Curd and its prescriptions

The possible reasons behind incorporating curd in this chapter might be excess consumption of curd as specific dietary factor. The properties of curd are enlisted further in 27th chapter of Sutra Sthana (Annapanavidhi Adhyaya) [verses 225-228].

The curd should not be taken at night. Curd is abhishyandi (increasing secretions and causing obstruction). At night, there is obstruction of channels in body and digestion is weak. Ghee, sugar, green gram soup, and honey and Embelica officinalis should be added to curd in order to prevent its untoward effects. Curd should not be heated as it makes it incompatible to the body. If, the above instructions are not followed by a “curd foodie”, the person will suffer from fever, bleeding disorder, skin diseases anemia, jaundice and vertigo.

To conclude, Chakrapani further reinforces which foods should be used and which should not be used, regimen of physical exercise etc. Treatment of diseases, which have not yet manifested is by elimination of dosha at appropriate time. Treatments of manifested diseases are purificatory and rejuvenation therapies, and use of aphrodisiacs. (63-66)

List of Research works done

Place: IPGT & RA, Jamnagar:

  1. Shah BB: 1992: A study of the concept of Vegavarodha with particular reference to its impact on gastrointestinal tract and assessment of management principles [L-1925]

Place: Akola:

  1. Aaware Milind B. :2000: Adharaneeya Kshudha vegache Arogyavishayak Mahatma va tyache vartamana kalin mahatmya.

Place: Shri Ayurveda college, Nagpur:

  1. Patil K.B.: 1995: Ayurvedeeya Samhita Grantha madhye varnita adharaneeya vegancha shareera swasthyavara honara prabhava – ek adhyayana
  1. Malgudkar SM : 2002: Effect of dharaneeya vegas of samhita and their clinical evaluation in modern era –A study w.s.r. to krodha

Place: Bijapur:

  1. Awaradi C.M. : 2004: Dharaneeya vegas on the effect of psychosomatic disorders

Place: Ashtanga Ayurveda college, Pune:

  1. Rupali Purkar : 2003: To study dharaneeya manasika vegas and its role in etio-pathology of Hridroga

Place: Tilak Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Pune:

  1. Ambekar Leena G.: Effect of Sukha saraka churna in Malavarodha

Place: Trivandrum:

  1. Jayshree M.N.: 1999: A conceptual analysis of sharirika vega in the content of Ayurvedic system of medicine

Place: Pune University:

  1. Sathye B.V. [1986] PhD thesis: Vihara chikitsa through Yoga procedures

Place: Tibbiya college, Delhi :

  1. Tejinder : 2006: A clinical study on the effect of vyayama in medo vriddhi persons of deha prakriti

Place: SDM College of Ayurveda, Hassan:

  1. Vijayalakshmi GH: A comparative study on vyayama and yoga in the management of sthoola madhumeha

Place: Sri Ayurveda college, Nagpur:

  1. Andhare RV:2003: Vibhinna deha prakriti ke vyaktiyon mein Dehoshma [body temperature] par kala tatha vayanusar vyayama [exercise] ka prabhava : Ek adhyayana


References

  1. Valiathan, M. S., The Legacy of Caraka, Orient Longman, Chennai, 2003.
  2. Swoboda, R. E., Prakruti: Ayurvedic Con- stitution, Motilal Banarasidas Publishers, Varanasi, 1996.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Govindaraj P, Nizamuddin S, Sharath A, et al. Genome-wide analysis correlates Ayurveda Prakriti. Nat Publ Gr.:1-12. doi:10.1038/srep15786
  4. Patwardhan, B., Joshi, K. and Chopra, A., J. Altern. Complement. Med., 2005, 11, 349– 353.
  5. Patwardhan, B., Indian Drugs, 2000, 37, 213–227.