Ikshvaku Kalpa Adhyaya
Kalpa Sthana Chapter 3.Pharmaceutical preparations of Ikshvaku
In the chapter on pharmaceutics of Ikshvaku (Lagenaria siceraria), 45 recipes of Ikshvaku processed in various media like milk, alcohol, whey, buttermilk, oil cake, clarified butter, meat soup etc. are described. The useful parts like leaves, flower and seeds of ikshvaku are employed for emesis. A recipe with administration of seeds in an increasing dose from fifty up to maximum hundred seeds per day is described.Ikshvaku is indicated in conditions like kasa(cough), shwasa (dyspnea/asthma), chhardi(vomiting), jwara(fever), visha(toxin), swarabheda(hoarseness), peenasa(coryza), gulma(lump in abdomen), udara(abdominal swellings including ascitis), granthi(cystic swelling), galaganda (goiter), shleepada (elephantitis), pandu(anemia), kushtha(dermatosis), arochaka(dyspepsia), prameha(diabetes). Emesis induced by inhalation of powdered flower sprinkled over a garland is also described in this chapter. Drugs like Yashti, Kovidara, Karbudara, Nipa, Vidula, Bimbi, Shanapushpi, Sadapushpi, Pratyakpushpi, Bilwamoola, Mahajaalini,Jimutaka, Kritavedhana and Kutaja etc. are also incorporated along with Ikshvaku in various formulations.
Keywords: Ikshvaku, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley, Vamana, therapeutic emesis.
|Section/Chapter||Kalpa Sthana Chapter 3|
|Preceding Chapter||Jimutaka Kalpa Adhyaya|
|Succeeding Chapter||Dhamargava Kalpa Adhyaya|
|Other Sections||Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana|
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Sanskrit Text, Transliteration with English Translation
- 3 Tattva Vimarsha (Fundamental Principles)
- 4 Vidhi Vimarsha (Applied Inferences)
- 5 Reference
Ikshvaku is referred at various places in Charaka Samhita by synonyms like Lamba, Katukalabu, Tumbi, Pindphala and Phalini. It is indicated in Kasa(cough), Shwasa(dyspnea/asthma), Visha(toxins), Chhardi(vomiting), Jwara(fever) and Pratamyata(blackouts). The most potent and useful part employed in recipes are leaves (collected before flowering), fruits and seeds. Two more synonyms - Katutumbi and Mahaphala are quoted for Ikshvaku with hridya( cardio-protective) and vishahara( anti-poisonous) properties. 
In a samabhasha (discussion) referred in Siddhi Sthana, King Vamaka opined that Katutumbi is the best emetic and capable of eliminating doshas. Lord Atreya concluded that Katutumbi is useful for the treatment of Prameha (urinary diseases including diabetes), however Madanaphala is superior, because it can be prescribed in various other disease conditions too.  Rajanighantu mentioned several varieties of Tumbi like Kumbha tumbi, Ksheeratumbi, Bhutumbi etc. whereas Bhavamishra identified two varieties of Tumbi, namely Madhura and Latatumbi.
Latin name: Lagenaria vulgaris
Synonym: Cucurbita siceraria Molina; Lagenaria vulgaris Ser., L.Leucantha (Duch.) Rusby.
Sanskrit name: Ikshwaku
Hindi name: Kasvi Lauki, Kadva Tumba, Kadva Dudhya
English name: Bitter Bottle Gourd, Bottle Gourd
Synonym: Katu-tumbi, Tumbini, Ikshvaku, Pindaphala, Mahaphala, Katukalabu, Tiktalabu, Tiktabeeja, Tumbi, Alabu
- Rasa – Tikta
- Guna – Laghu
- Veerya – Sheeta
- Vipaka – Katu
Pharmacological actions – Pittahara, Hridya
Indications – Jwara, Kasa
Therapeutic uses –
- Ashmari (Calculi) – The seed powder mixed with honey and sheep’s milk administered for 7 days dissolves Ashmari (Calculus).
- Pradara (Menorrhagia) – The fruit powder mixed with honey and sugar relieves
- Padasphutana (Cracks on sole) – The fruit pulp applied externally for 3 days relieves padasphutana.
Parts used – Fruit, Leaf, Root, Seed
Preparations & Dosage – Juice 10-20 ml.
Tendrillar climber, upto 10m long; stem soft, hairy, angular. Leaves alternate, petiolate, broadly ovate – suborbicular, 3-5 angled or shortly lobed and dentate with cordate base, 15-20 cm across; petiole with two glands at the part of joining lamina. Flowers monoecious, solitary, axillary; calyx tube of male green, narrowly campanulate with linear, small lobes; corolla of 5 oblong – obovate, white petals about 4-5 cm long and 2.5 cm broad; stamens 3, anthers slightly fused, one of them 1- celled and the others 2- locular; female flowers with densely softly hairy ovary. Fruit of various shapes on different plants, very long and club- shaped, sometimes reaching upto 75 cm long and 15-20 cm diameter at broader end, or bottle- shaped/ dumbbell - shaped and broadly obovoid shape, the broader end measuring upto 25 cm across or more. Seeds numerous, oblong in outline, about 1.3* 0.7 cm, broader and somewhat obcordate at apex.
Flowering – October- December
Fruiting – March- June
Distribution – Wild Lagenaria siceraria is generally met with in and around forest villages, almost throughout India. In this form, both the fruit (unripe and ripe) and the root are bitter to taste and are supposed to be used in Indian systems of Medicine. The non – bitter form with edible, unripe fruit is cultivated and is available throughout the year for consumption. The morphological description, however, matches for both the forms.
The climber is distributed almost throughout the Tropics in the world.
Chemical constituent: Bitter fruit yield 0.013% of a solid foam containing cucurbitacin B, D, G and H, mainly cucurbitacin B. These bitter principles are present in the fruit as aglycon. Leaves contain cucurbitacin B, and roots cucurbitacins B, D and traces of E. The fruit juice contains beta-glycosidase (elaterase).. According to Thakur Balwant Singh, there are two varieties, sweet and bitter used as vegetable and in medicine respectively. The fruit deprived of its pulp and seeds used an instrument for blood-letting 
Action: The roots are emetics, purgative and anti-inflammatory. They are useful in constipation and inflammation. The leaves are bitter, refrigerant, emetic, purgative, anodyne, expectorant, depurative and febrifuge. They are useful in cough, bronchitis, asthma, fever, inflammation, leprosy, skin disease, jaundice, decaying teeth, cephalagia, constipation, flatulence and baldness.
Flowers are cooling and useful in ophthalmia and odontalgia.
The fruits are refrigerant, emetics, purgative, anti-inflammatory, depurative, expectorant, diuretic and febrifuge. They are useful in burning of the feet, cough, bronchitis, inflammation, skin diseases, leprosy, fainting, night blindness, Apachi, delirium, rhinitis, oedema and fever.
The seeds are purgative, diuretic, cooling and useful in cough, fever, burning micturition, otalgia, inflammations, dropsy and haemorrhoids.
Sanskrit Text, Transliteration with English Translation
अथात इक्ष्वाकुकल्पं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||
इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||
athāta ikṣvākukalpaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||
iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||
athAta ikShvAkukalpaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||
iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||
Now we shall expound the chapter "Ikshvaku kalpa"(Pharmaceutical preparations of Ikshvaku). Thus said Lord Atreya. [1-2]
Note: Ikshvaku is bottle gourd.
Synonyms and qualities
सिद्धं वक्ष्याम्यथेक्ष्वाकुकल्पं येषां प्रशस्यते|३|
लम्बाऽथ कटुकालाबूस्तुम्बी पिण्डफला तथा||३||
इक्ष्वाकुः फलिनी चैव प्रोच्यते तस्य कल्पना|४|
siddhaṁ vakṣyāmyathēkṣvākukalpaṁ yēṣāṁ praśasyatē|3|
lambā'tha kaṭukālābūstumbī piṇḍaphalā tathā||3||
ikṣvākuḥ phalinī caiva prōcyatē tasya kalpanā|4|
siddhaM vakShyAmyathekShvAkukalpaM yeShAM prashasyate|3|
lambA~atha kaTukAlAbUstumbI piNDaphalA tathA||3||
ikShvAkuH phalinI caiva procyate tasya kalpanA|4|
I shall now describe the proven preparation of the bottle gourd and the type of the patient for whom it is recommended. The bottle gourd is also known by the names of lamba ,katukalabu, thumbi, pindaphala, ikshvaku and phalini. [3-4]
प्रताम्यति नरे चैव वमनार्थं तदिष्यते|५|
pratāmyati narē caiva vamanārthaṁ tadiṣyatē|5|
pratAmyati nare caiva vamanArthaM tadiShyate|5|
It is recommended for purpose of emesis in patients suffering from cough, dyspnea, poisoning, vomiting and fever as well as in patients reduced due to diseases of kapha or fainting. 
अपुष्पस्य प्रवालानां मुष्टिं प्रादेशसम्मितम्||५||
क्षीरप्रस्थे शृतं दद्यात् पित्तोद्रिक्ते कफज्वरे|
पुष्पादिषु च चत्वारः क्षीरे जीमूतके यथा||६||
योगा हरितपाण्डूनां सुरामण्डेन पञ्चमः|
फलस्वरसभागं च त्रिगुणक्षीरसाधितम्||७||
उरःस्थिते कफे दद्यात् स्वरभेदे च पीनसे|
जीर्णे मध्योद्धृते क्षीरं प्रक्षिपेत्तद्यदा दधि||८||
जातं स्यात् सकफे कासे श्वासे वम्यां च तत् पिबेत्|
अजाक्षीरेण बीजानि भावयेत् पाययेत् च||९||
विषगुल्मोदरग्रन्थिगण्डेषु श्लीपदेषु च|
मस्तुना वा फलान्मध्यं पाण्डुकुष्ठविषार्दितः||१०||
तेन तक्रं विपक्वं वा सक्षौद्रलवणं पिबेत्|११|
apuṣpasya pravālānāṁ muṣṭiṁ prādēśasammitam||5||
kṣīraprasthē śr̥taṁ dadyāt pittōdriktē kaphajvarē|
puṣpādiṣu ca catvāraḥ kṣīrē jīmūtakē yathā||6||
yōgā haritapāṇḍūnāṁ surāmaṇḍēna pañcamaḥ|
phalasvarasabhāgaṁ ca triguṇakṣīrasādhitam||7||
uraḥsthitē kaphē dadyāt svarabhēdē ca pīnasē|
jīrṇē madhyōddhr̥tē kṣīraṁ prakṣipēttadyadā dadhi||8||
jātaṁ syāt sakaphē kāsē śvāsē vamyāṁ ca tat pibēt|
ajākṣīrēṇa bījāni bhāvayēt pāyayēt ca||9||
viṣagulmōdaragranthigaṇḍēṣu ślīpadēṣu ca|
mastunā vā phalānmadhyaṁ pāṇḍukuṣṭhaviṣārditaḥ||10||
tēna takraṁ vipakvaṁ vā sakṣaudralavaṇaṁ pibēt|11|
apuShpasya pravAlAnAM muShTiM prAdeshasammitam||5||
kShIraprasthe shRutaM dadyAt pittodrikte kaphajvare|
puShpAdiShu ca catvAraH kShIre jImUtake yathA||6||
yogA haritapANDUnAM surAmaNDena pa~jcamaH|
phalasvarasabhAgaM ca triguNakShIrasAdhitam||7||
uraHsthite kaphe dadyAt svarabhede ca pInase|
jIrNe madhyoddhRute kShIraM prakShipettadyadA dadhi||8||
jAtaM syAt sakaphe kAse shvAse vamyAM ca tat pibet|
ajAkShIreNa bIjAni bhAvayet pAyayet ca||9||
viShagulmodaragranthigaNDeShu shlIpadeShu ca|
mastunA vA phalAnmadhyaM pANDukuShThaviShArditaH||10||
tena takraM vipakvaM vA sakShaudralavaNaM pibet|11|
A large fistful of the sprouts of the plant (leaves) that has not yet put forth flowers should be boiled in 64 tolas (768ml) of milk and given in the fever of the kapha type, with pitta provocation.
As per the description of the recipes of jimutaka in the earlier chapter, four types of milk preparations are to be made out of its flowers etc.(Milk should be prepared with its flowers, milky gruel with freshly appeared fruits, milk cream with hairy fruits, curd with non hairy one and sour curd from milk boiled with the pale green fruit).The fifth one is made by soaking green – pale fruits in suramanda. 
One part of the expressed juice of the fruits should be boiled with three parts milk. This is to be administered in accumulation of kapha in the chest, in hoarseness of voice and chronic coryza.
The pulp of a ripe fruit of ikshvaku should be removed and in this shell, milk should be kept till it becomes curd. This curd should be given as potion in cough with expectoration, dyspnea and vomiting.
The seeds of bottle gourd impregnated with goats milk should be taken as potion in poisoning, gulma (abdominal lump), abdominal diseases, tumors of glandular enlargement and in elephantiasis.
The pulp of the bottle gourd fruit mixed with whey should be taken as potion in anemia, dermatosis and poisoning or a potion of butter milk prepared with its pulp may be taken mixed with honey and rock salt.
The person habituated to pleasant smell should be made to vomiting by smelling a flower which has been sprinkled over with the fruit –juice and the powder of the dried flowers of the bottle gourd.
तुम्ब्या फलरसैः शुष्कैः सपुष्पैरवचूर्णितम्||११||
छर्दयेन्माल्यमाघ्राय गन्धसम्पत्सुखोचितः भक्षयेत् फलमध्यं वा गुडेन पललेन च ||12||
इक्ष्वाकुफलतैलं वा सिद्धं वा पूर्ववद्घृतम्|१३| |
tumbyā phalarasaiḥ śuṣkaiḥ sapuṣpairavacūrṇitam||11||
chardayēnmālyamāghrāya gandhasampatsukhōcitaḥ bhakṣayēt phalamadhyaṁ vā guḍēna palalēna ca||12||
ikṣvākuphalatailaṁ vā siddhaṁ vā pūrvavadghr̥tam|13|
tumbyA phalarasaiH shuShkaiH sapuShpairavacUrNitam||11||
bhakShayet phalamadhyaM vA guDena palalena ca||12||
ikShvAkuphalatailaM vA siddhaM vA pUrvavadghRutam|13|
For the purpose of easy emesis to delicate patients, the juice of pulp of the bottle gourd with dried powder of its flowers, should be used to inhale, or be eaten with jaggery and tila paste or the bottle gourd oil and ghee prepared as in the case of jimutaka ,may also be taken as an emetic.[11-13]
पञ्चाशद्दशवृद्धानि फलादीनां यथोत्तरम्||१३||
पिबेद्विमृद्य बीजानि कषायेष्वाशतं पृथक्|
pañcāśaddaśavr̥ddhāni phalādīnāṁ yathōttaram||13||
pibēdvimr̥dya bījāni kaṣāyēṣvāśataṁ pr̥thak|
pa~jcAshaddashavRuddhAni phalAdInAM yathottaram||13||
pibedvimRudya bIjAni kaShAyeShvAshataM pRuthak|14|
The seeds of the bottle gourd beginning with fifty in number and increased in each time by ten till one hundred is reached,(50,60,70,80,90,100) should be crushed and put into the decoctions of the emetic nuts (jimutaka, ikshvaku, dhamargava, vastaka and kritavedhana) taking each in its successive order. [13-14]
Table 1: Formulations of Ikshwaku for emesis:
|Successive Order||Ikshwaku seed vamaka yoga with decoction of other 6 vamaka yoga|
|1||50 seeds of ikshwaku + madana Phala decoction|
|2||60 seeds of ikshwaku + jimutaka decoction|
|3||70 seeds of ikshwaku + ikshwaku decoction|
|4||80 seeds of ikshwaku + dhamargava decoctionn|
|5||90 seeds of ikshwaku + indrayava (vatsaka seeds) decoction|
|6||100 seeds of ikshwaku + kritavedhana decoction|
A fistful ( with inside nails) of its seeds mixed with the decoction of Yashtimadhu, Kovidara, Karburdar, Neepa, Vidula, Bimbi, Sanapushpi, Sadapushpi and Pratyakpushpi(nine drugs) may be taken for emesis.
कषायैः कोविदाराद्यैर्मात्राश्च फलवत् स्मृताः|१५|
kaṣāyaiḥ kōvidārādyairmātrāśca phalavat smr̥tāḥ|15|
kaShAyaiH kovidArAdyairmAtrAshca phalavat smRutAH|15|
Quantity and size of the pills (the pills should be prepared in the size of haritaki, vibhitaki and amalaki with the addition of drugs of kovidara group as suggested for madanaphala with the addition of any one of kovidara group of drugs used for emesis.
बिल्वमूलकषायेण तुम्बीबीजाञ्जलिं पचेत्||१५||
पूतस्यास्य त्रयो भागाश्चतुर्थः फाणितस्य तु|
सघृतो बीजभागश्च पिष्टानर्धांशिकांस्तथा ||१६||
तं लेहं साधयेद्दर्व्या घट्टयन्मृदुनाऽग्निना||१७||
यावत् स्यात्तन्तुमत्तोये पतितं तु न शीर्यते|
तं लिहन्मात्रया लेहं प्रमथ्यां च पिबेदनु||१८||
कल्प एषोऽग्निमन्थादौ चतुष्के पृथगुच्यते|१९|
bilvamūlakaṣāyēṇa tumbībījāñjaliṁ pacēt||15||
pūtasyāsya trayō bhāgāścaturthaḥ phāṇitasya tu|
saghr̥tō bījabhāgaśca piṣṭānardhāṁśikāṁstathā ||16||
taṁ lēhaṁ sādhayēddarvyā ghaṭṭayanmr̥dunā'gninā||17||
yāvat syāttantumattōyē patitaṁ tu na śīryatē|
taṁ lihanmātrayā lēhaṁ pramathyāṁ ca pibēdanu||18||
kalpa ēṣō'gnimanthādau catuṣkē pr̥thagucyatē|19|
bilvamUlakaShAyeNa tumbIbIjA~jjaliM pacet||15||
pUtasyAsya trayo bhAgAshcaturthaH phANitasya tu|
saghRuto bIjabhAgashca piShTAnardhAMshikAMstathA ||16||
taM lehaM sAdhayeddarvyA ghaTTayanmRudunA~agninA||17||
yAvat syAttantumattoye patitaM tu na shIryate|
taM lihanmAtrayA lehaM pramathyAM ca pibedanu||18||
kalpa eSho~agnimanthAdau catuShke pRuthagucyate|19|
One anjali (192 grams) of the bottle gourd seeds should be boiled in the decoction of the roots of bilva and strained. Take three parts of these decoction, one part of phanita (half boiled sugarcane juice), one part of ghee, half part of each of the pastes of the seeds of sponge gourd, bristly luffa and kurchi. This should be prepared into a linctus on a gentle fire stirring the stuff with a ladle till it has obtained the consistency of forming threads which do not snap when put into water .This linctus should be taken in proper dose followed by a potion of the digestive stimulant decoction. Similarly, linctus recipes of ikshvaku seeds can be prepared with the decoction of roots of agnimantha, shyonaka, patala and gambhari. [15-18]
शक्तुभिर्वा पिबेन्मन्थं तुम्बीस्वरसभावितैः||१९||
कफजेऽथ ज्वरे कासे कण्ठरोगेष्वरोचके|
गुल्मे मेहे प्रसेके च कल्कं मांसरसैः पिबेत्॥ २०॥
नरः साधु वमत्येवं न च दौर्बल्यमश्नुते।
śaktubhirvā pibēnmanthaṁ tumbīsvarasabhāvitaiḥ|
kaphajē'tha jvarē kāsē kaṇṭharōgēṣvarōcakē || 19||
gulmē mēhē prasēkē ca kalkaṁ māṁsarasaiḥ pibēt|
naraḥ sādhu vamatyēvaṁ na ca daurbalyamaśnutē||20||
shaktubhirvA pibenmanthaM tumbIsvarasabhAvitaiH||19||
kaphaje~atha jvare kAse kaNTharogeShvarocake|20|
gulme mehe praseke ca kalkaM mAMsarasaiH pibet|
naraH sAdhu vamatyevaM na ca daurbalyamashnute||20||
The demulcent drink with the extracted juice of the bottle gourd and saktu (roasted paddy powder) should be taken as potion in fever due to kapha, cough, throat diseases and anorexia. 
A portion of the paste of the bottle gourd seeds mixed with meat soup should be taken in gulma, meha and praseka. By this, person vomits well without getting exhausted. 
पयस्यष्टौ सुरामण्ड-मस्तु-तक्रेषु च त्रयः|
घ्रेयं सपललं तैलं वर्धमानाः फलेषु षट्||२१||
घृतमेकं कषायेषु नवान्ये मधुकादिषु|
अष्टौ वर्तिक्रिया लेहाः पञ्च मन्थो रसस्तथा||२२||
योगा इक्ष्वाकुकल्पे ते चत्वारिंशच्च पञ्च च|
उक्ता महर्षिणा सम्यक् प्रजानां हितकाम्यया||२३||
payasyaṣṭau surāmaṇḍa-mastu-takrēṣu ca trayaḥ|
ghrēyaṁ sapalalaṁ tailaṁ vardhamānāḥ phalēṣu ṣaṭ||21||
ghr̥tamēkaṁ kaṣāyēṣu navānyē madhukādiṣu|
aṣṭau vartikriyā lēhāḥ pañca manthō rasastathā||22||
yōgā ikṣvākukalpē tē catvāriṁśacca pañca ca|
uktā maharṣiṇā samyak prajānāṁ hitakāmyayā||23||
payasyaShTau surAmaNDa-mastu-takreShu ca trayaH|
ghreyaM sapalalaM tailaM vardhamAnAH phaleShu ShaT||21||
ghRutamekaM kaShAyeShu navAnye madhukAdiShu|
aShTau vartikriyA lehAH pa~jca mantho rasastathA||22||
yogA ikShvAkukalpe te catvAriMshacca pa~jca ca|
uktA maharShiNA samyak prajAnAM hitakAmyayA||23||
Eight milk preparations, three preparations consisting of one in supernatant part of wine, one in whey and one in butter milk, one in snuff, one preparation with tila paste, one of oil and six preparation of successively increasing dose of seeds with emetic nut etc., one of ghee, nine with decoctions of liquorice etc., eight of pills, five of linctuses, one of demulcent drink and one of meat-juice –thus these forty-five preparations of the bottle gourd have been fully described by the grate sage, desirous of the welfare of humanity. [21-22]
इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृतेऽप्राप्ते दृढबलसम्पूरिते कल्पस्थाने इक्ष्वाकुकल्पो नाम तृतीयोऽध्यायः||३||
ityagnivēśakr̥tē tantrē carakapratisaṁskr̥tē'prāptē dr̥ḍhabalasampūritē kalpasthānē ikṣvākukalpō nāma tr̥tīyō'dhyāyaḥ||3||
ityagniveshakRute tantre carakapratisaMskRute~aprApte dRuDhabalasampUrite kalpasthAne ikShvAkukalpo nAma tRutIyo~adhyAyaH||3||
Thus, in the section on ikshvaku kalpa pharmaceutics, in the treatise compiled by Agnivesha and redacted by Charaka, the third chapter entitled 'The Pharmaceutics of the bottle gourd' not being available, the same as restored by Dridhabala is completed.
Tattva Vimarsha (Fundamental Principles)
- Ikshvaku (Lagenaria siceraria) is used as emetic in various diseases originated from vitiation of kapha and pitta.
Vidhi Vimarsha (Applied Inferences)
Pharmacological activities 
Anti-hyperglycemic activity, anti-oxidant activity, anti-hyperlipidemic, cardioprotective, immunomodulatory, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, hyperthyroidism, hyperglycemia, lipid peroxidation, anti-cancer, CNS depressant activity, hypertensive activity.
- Anthelmintic activity: Ethanolic extract of seeds exhibited potent anthelmintic activity against tapeworm (hymenolepis nana).
- Antioxidant: Methanolic extract of leaves shown significant antioxidant activity in DPPH method.
- Antistress and adaptogenic activity: Ethanolic extract of fruits shown significant anti-stress activity in forced swimming endurance stress on swimming endurance time methods in albino rats.
- L.S juice is an excellent in cardiac problems, digestive, urinary problems and in diabetes. Dietary fibres present helps in constipation, flatulence and in piles.
There is a scope to conduct clinical trials to study effect of Ikshvaku as emetic in diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia and liver disorders.
- Prof. K.C. Chunekar, Commentator, Late Dr. G.S. Pandey, editor, Bhavamishra, Bhavaprakash Nighantu, Revised and enlarged edition 2010, Shakavarga, Chaukhamba Bharati Acadamy, Varanasi, pp 682
- Ram Karan Sharma and Vaidya Bhagwan Dash, Caraka Samhita, Vol VI, Sidhhisthana, Chap 11, shlok no. 5-6, edition 2nd 2005, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, pp. 382
- Prof K Nishteswar&Dr.KoppulaHemadri, Dravyaguna Vidyana, first edition 2010, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratisthan, Delhi, pp 421.
- P.C.Sharma et al, Data Base on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol-5, Reprint 2005, CCRAS, GOI, 437
- C.P.Khare, Indian Medicinal Plant, an Illustrated Dictionary. P 358
- Thakur Balwant Singh and Dr K C Chunekar, Glossary of Vegetable drugs in Brihattrayi, second edition 1999, Chaukhamba Amarabharati Prakashan, Varanasi, pp25
- P.C.Sharma et al, Data Base on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, Vol-5, Reprint 2005, CCRAS, GOI, pp437
- B.N. Shah et al, Phytopharmacological profile of Lagenaria siceraria: A review, Asian Journal of Plant Science 9(3); 2010, 152-157.
- EE Elisha, HAA Twaji,NM Ali, JH Tarish, S Karim,M Al-Omari, The Anthelmintic Activity of Some Iraqi Plants of the Cucurbitaceae, International Journal of Crude Drug Research, Vol 25, Issue 3,1987, PP-153-157
- Neeraj Kant Sharma, Priyankayadav, Hemant Kumar Singh And Anil Kumar Shrivastava, In Vitro Antioxidant activity of Lagenaria siceraria leaves, Malaysian Journal of Pharmaceutical science, Vol 11, No.1,1-11(2013),
- B.V.S Lakshmi and M Sudhakar, Adaptogenic activity of Lagenaria siceraria, An experimental study using acute stress models on rats, Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2009,4(8)pp-300-306
- Rakesh P Prajapati, Manisha Kalariya, Sachin K parmar, Navin R sheth Phytochemical and pharmacological review of legenaria siceraria , J Ayurveda Integr Med . 2010 volume1/issue 4/ page 266-272 http://www.iaim.in/text.asp?20101/4/266-272/74431