Dhumapana

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It means inhaling smoke or vapours. It is indicated in preservation of health of organs in supra-clavicular region and management of diseases of the same.

Dhumapana (Inhalation of smoke/vapours), its types, directions of use and indications

1. Prayogika dhumapana (therapeutic inhalation for prevention of disease)

हरेणुकां प्रियङ्गुं च पृथ्वीकां केशरं नखम्||२०|

ह्रीवेरं चन्दनं पत्रं त्वगेलोशीरपद्मकम्| ध्यामकं मधुकं मांसी गुग्गुल्वगुरुशर्करम्||२१||

न्यग्रोधोदुम्बराश्वत्थप्लक्षलोध्रत्वचः शुभाः| वन्यं सर्जरसं मुस्तं शैलेयं कमलोत्पले||२२||

श्रीवेष्टकं शल्लकीं च शुकबर्हमथापि च| पिष्ट्वा लिम्पेच्छरेषीकां तां वर्तिं यवसन्निभाम्||२३||

अङ्गुष्ठसम्मितां कुर्यादष्टाङ्गुलसमां भिषक्| शुष्कां निगर्भां तां वर्तिं धूमनेत्रार्पितां नरः||२४||

स्नेहाक्तामग्निसम्प्लुष्टां पिबेत् प्रायोगिकीं सुखाम्|२५|

Harenuka (Pisum sativum L. ), priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl ),prithvika ( Amomum subulatum Roxb.), kesara(Crocus Sativus L.),nakha( Ipomoea Pes-tigridis L.), hribera (Plectranthus vettiveroides(Jacob)),chandana ( Santaum albus L.),patra (Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham)),tvak (Cinnamomum verum J.Presl),ela (Ellatoria cardamomum(L.) Maton), ushira (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty),padmaka (Prunus cerasoides Buch.-Ham.),dhyamaka (Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng.), madhuka ( Glycyrrhiza glabra L.), mansi ( Nardostachys jatamansi (D.Don.) DC.),guggulu (Commiphora mukul(Hook.ex Stocks), aguru( Aquilaria malaccensis Lam.), sharkara( Dodecacarbon monodecahydrate ), good bark of nyagrodha(Ficus benghalensis L.), ashvattha (Ficus religiosa L.),plaksha (Ficus virens Aiton),lodhra (Symplocos racemose Roxb.),vanya (Boswellia serrata Roxb.ex Colebr), sarjarasa (Vateria indica L.),musta (Cyperus rotundus L.),shaileya (Parmotrema perlatum (Huds.)M.Choisy ),kamala (Mallotus philippensis (Lam.)),utpala(Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f.),sriveshtaka (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.),shallaki (Boswellia serrata Roxb.ex Colebr),Sukabarha – all these are macerated, made as paste and applied on a hollow reed of sara plant, to the thickness of yava, on the reed of the size of the thumb and of eight angula (approximate 16 cm) in length. After the paste dries, the physician should remove the reed of sara plant, smear the wick with ghee and introduce it into the nozzle of the smoking apparatus, and light its front tip with fire and ask the person to inhale its smoke. This is prayogiki dhuma (daily inhalation for the healthy person) and it bestows comfort. [Cha.Su.5/20-24]

2. Snaihika dhumapana (inhalation of smoke with unctuous substances for reducing dryness)

वसाघृतमधूच्छिष्टैर्युक्तियुक्तैर्वरौषधैः||२५||

वर्तिं मधुरकैः कृत्वा स्नैहिकीं धूममाचरेत्|२६|

One should use a herbal cigar, prepared from animal fat, ghee and bee wax and should combine skillfully with the best of drugs belonging to the category of sweet taste, for unctuous smoke. [Cha.Su.5/25-26]

3. Vairechanika dhumapana (inhalation of smoke with purgative substances for cleansing)

श्वेता ज्योतिष्मती चैव हरितालं मनःशिला||२६||

गन्धाश्चागुरुपत्राद्या धूमं मूर्धविरेचने |२७|

One should smoke a cigar made of Shweta (Clitoria ternatea Linn.-white mussel shell creeper), Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus Willd-staff plant), Haritala (orpiment-yellow arsenic), Manashila (realger) and other aromatic ones like Aguru (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.), Patra (Cinnamomum tamala Ness & Eberum.-cinnamom-leaf) etc. for elimination of dosha from head region.[Cha.Su.5/26-27]

Indications of Dhumapana

गौरवं शिरसः शूलं पीनसार्धावभेदकौ||२७||

कर्णाक्षिशूलं कासश्च हिक्काश्वासौ गलग्रहः| दन्तदौर्बल्यमास्रावः श्रोत्रघ्राणाक्षिदोषजः||२८||

पूतिर्घ्राणास्यगन्धश्च दन्तशूलमरोचकः| हनुमन्याग्रहः कण्डूः क्रिमयः पाण्डुता मुखे||२९||

श्लेष्मप्रसेको वैस्वर्यं गलशुण्ड्युपजिह्विका| खालित्यं पिञ्जरत्वं च केशानां पतनं तथा||३०||

क्षवथुश्चातितन्द्रा च बुद्धेर्मोहोऽतिनिद्रता| धूमपानात् प्रशाम्यन्ति बलं भवति चाधिकम्||३१||

शिरोरुहकपालानामिन्द्रियाणां स्वरस्य च| न च वातकफात्मानो बलिनोऽप्यूर्ध्वजत्रुजाः||३२||

धूमवक्त्रकपानस्य व्याधयः स्युः शिरोगताः|३३|

It is indicated in complaints of heaviness in the head, headache, rhinitis, migraine, ear-ache, pain in eyes, cough, hiccup, dyspnoea, obstruction of the throat, weakness of the teeth, discharge from the ear, nose and eyes due to morbid condition, nasal fetor, halitosis, odontalgia, anorexia, lock-jaw, torticolis, pruritis, worms, pallor of the face, mucoid discharge from the mouth, impaired voice, galashundi (uvulitis), upajihvika (ranula), alopecia, graying of hair, and falling of hair. Medicated smoke inhalation alleviates sternutation, excessive drowsiness, loss of consciousness and hypersomnia. It augments the strength of the scalp hair roots, the senses and voice. Moreover, those who resort to smoke inhalation by oral route are not afflicted by vata and kapha dosha affecting the upper part of the body or head, howsoever strong the disease may be.[27-33]

Proper times of administration of Dhumapana and

प्रयोगपाने तस्याष्टौ कालाः सम्परिकीर्तिताः||३३|| वातश्लेष्मसमुत्क्लेशः कालेष्वेषु हि लक्ष्यते|

स्नात्वा भुक्त्वा समुल्लिख्य क्षुत्वा दन्तान्निघृष्य च| नावनाञ्जननिद्रान्ते चात्मवान् धूमपो भवेत्|

तथा वातकफात्मानो न भवन्त्यूर्ध्वजत्रुजाः||३५|| रोगास्तस्य तु पेयाः स्युरापानास्त्रिस्त्रयस्त्रयः|३६|

परं द्विकाल पायी स्यादह्नः कालेषु बुद्धिमान्||३६|| प्रयोगे, स्नैहिके त्वेकं, वैरेच्यं त्रिचतुः पिबेत्|

Considering the time of aggravation of Vata and Kapha dosha in body, eight specific times of administration of medicated smoke have been prescribed for daily use.The self controlled man should resort to inhalation of smoke after taking bath, after scraping the tongue, after sneezing, after brushing the teeth, after nasya, after the use of eye-salve/collyrium and at the end of sleep. Thereby, vata and kapha borne diseases affecting the body parts above the clavicle do not afflict him. In these conditions, inhalation should be done thrice, in three puffs each time. A wise man should practice habitual smoking twice a day only, the unctuous smoking once a day and the purgative smoking thrice or four times a day. [Cha.Su.5/33-36]

Signs of proper dhumapana

हृत्कण्ठेन्द्रियसंशुद्धिर्लघुत्वं शिरसः शमः||३७||

यथेरितानां दोषाणां सम्यक्पीतस्य लक्षणम्|३८|

Feeling of well-being and clarity in hridaya (cardiac region), throat and senses, lightness of the head and pacification of the vitiated dosha are the signs of proper dhumapana. [36-38]

Complications due to excess dhumapana and their management

बाधिर्यमान्ध्यमूकत्वं रक्तपित्तं शिरोभ्रमम्||३८||

अकाले चातिपीतश्च धूमः कुर्यादुपद्रवान्| तत्रेष्टं सर्पिषः पानं नावनाञ्जनतर्पणम्||३९||

स्नैहिकं धूमजे दोषे वायुः पित्तानुगो यदि| शीतं तु रक्तपित्ते स्याच्छ्लेष्मपित्ते विरूक्षणम्||४०||

Untimely or excessive smoking causes complications like deafness, blindness, dumbness, raktapitta (hemorrhagic disorder – bleeding from nose), and giddiness. In such conditions intake of ghee is desirable. In the event of complications arising due to vata following pitta, one shall apply nasal drops, collyrium and tarpana (keeping medicated ghee in the eye) prepared using unctuous articles. In case of raktapitta, these shall be prepared with cooling drugs and in the case of complications arising out of an aggravated kapha, they shall be prepared with ruksha drugs (causing dryness).[Cha.Su.5/38-40]

Contraindications of dhumapana

परं त्वतः प्रवक्ष्यामि धूमो येषां विगर्हितः| न विरिक्तः पिबेद्धूमं न कृते बस्तिकर्मणि||४१||

न रक्ती न विषेणार्तो न शोचन्न च गर्भिणी| न श्रमे न मदे नामे न पित्ते न प्रजागरे||४२||

न मूर्च्छाभ्रमतृष्णासु न क्षीणे नापि च क्षते| न मद्यदुग्धे पीत्वा च न स्नेहं न च माक्षिकम्||४३||

धूमं न भुक्त्वा दध्ना च न रूक्षः क्रुद्ध एव च| न तालुशोषे तिमिरे शिरस्यभिहिते न च||४४||

न शङ्खके न रोहिण्यां न मेहे न मदात्यये| एषु धूममकालेषु मोहात् पिबति यो नरः||४५||

रोगास्तस्य प्रवर्धन्ते दारुणा धूमविभ्रमात्|४६|

Now I will explain the persons in whom smoking is contra-indicated: One who has followed virechana (therapeutic purgation), basti (therapeutic enema), a person who has disorders of rakta, who is afflicted with poison, one who is in grief, during pregnancy, one who is fatigued, one who is intoxicated, one suffering from disorders of ama or pitta, one who has had a sleepless night, one suffering from fainting, giddiness, thirst, emaciation or trauma, one who has just taken wine, milk, unctuous beverage or honey, one who has taken food along with curd, one who is afflicted with dryness, anger, dryness of the palate, timira, head-injury, shankhaka, rohini, meha(obstinate urinary disorders) or alcoholism. If a person, out of ignorance, smokes in these instances or in an untimely condition, his disorders will aggravate dreadfully due to complications of dhumapana. [Cha.Su.5/41-46]

Method of dhumapana (smoke inhalation)

धूमयोग्यः पिबेद्दोषे शिरोघ्राणाक्षिसंश्रये||४६||

घ्राणेनास्येन कण्ठस्थे मुखेन घ्राणपो वमेत्| आस्येन धूमकवलान् पिबन् घ्राणेन नोद्वमेत्||४७||

प्रतिलोमं गतो ह्याशु धूमो हिंस्याद्धि चक्षुषी|४८|

ऋज्वङ्गचक्षुस्तच्चेताः सूपविष्टस्त्रिपर्ययम्||४८||

पिबेच्छिद्रं पिधायैकं नासया धूममात्मवान्|४९|

The person eligible for dhumapana should inhale the smoke through nose in case of diseases of the head, nose and eye. Dhumapana is advised through mouth in case of diseases of throat. The person who has inhaled smoke through the nose shall exhale it by the mouth, but should not exhale it through nose, because the smoke traversing in the reverse direction injures the eyes quickly. One should cautiously inhale smoke through one nostril after closing the other nostril, thrice in each round, thus for three rounds, in comfortable sitting position with straight body and eyes with concentration of mind. [46-49]

Dhuma netra (nozzle of smoking pipe)

चतुर्विंशतिकं नेत्रं स्वाङ्गुलीभिर्विरेचने||४९||

द्वात्रिंशदङ्गुलं स्नेहे प्रयोगेऽध्यर्धमिष्यते| ऋजु त्रिकोषाफलितं कोलास्थ्यग्रप्रमाणितम्||५०||

बस्तिनेत्रसमद्रव्यं धूमनेत्रं प्रशस्यते|५१|

For the smoke inhalation for errhine purpose, the smoking pipe should be of the length twenty-four fingers breadth, measuring with one’s own finger; For unctuous smoke, it should be of thirty-two fingers; and for daily smoke it should be longer by a half than the first.

The smoking pipe recommended the most is a straight one having three knots/bulges, having the proximal caliber of the size of a ziziphus-stone and is made of the same materials as those of the basti nozzle. [Cha.Su.5/49-51]

दूराद्विनिर्गतः पर्वच्छिन्नो नाडीतनूकृतः||५१||

नेन्द्रियं बाधते धूमो मात्राकालनिषेवितः|५२|

The smoke which comes from a distance, intercepted by the knots/bulges and attenuated by passing through the tapering pipe, taken with due consideration of dose and time does not impair the senses. [Cha.Su.5/51-52]

Effects of less, proper & excess Dhumapana (smoke inhalation)

यदा चोरश्च कण्ठश्च शिरश्च लघुतां व्रजेत्||५२|| कफश्च तनुतां प्राप्तः सुपीतं धूममादिशेत्|

अविशुद्धः स्वरो यस्य कण्ठश्च सकफो भवेत्||५३|| स्तिमितो मस्तकश्चैवमपीतं धूममादिशेत्|

तालु मूर्धा च कण्ठश्च शुष्यते परितप्यते||५४|| तृष्यते मुह्यते जन्तू रक्तं च स्रवतेऽधिकम्| शिरश्च भ्रमतेऽत्यर्थं मूर्च्छा चास्योपजायते||५५|| इन्द्रियाण्युपतप्यन्ते धूमेऽत्यर्थं निषेविते|५६|

When the chest, throat and head feel light and the kapha is liquefied, it is said to be a correct smoking. If the voice is not clear, the throat is filled with kapha and the head feels heavy, it is said to be an insufficient smoking. If the palate, head and throat feel parched and become hot and the person feels thirsty, stupefied and unconscious, or if the person bleeds profusely and the head feels light and dizzy or if the person becomes unconscious or his senses feel agitated, it should be known that the smoking has been done in excess. [Cha.Su.5/52-56]

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