Uttar Basti Siddhi
|Section/Chapter||Siddhi Sthana Chapter 12|
|Preceding Chapter||Phalamatra Siddhi|
|Other Sections||Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana|
- 1 Siddhi Sthana Chapter 12, Chapter on Successful administration of best enema therapy
- 1.1 Abstract
- 1.2 Introduction
- 1.3 Sanskrit text, Transliteration and English Translation
- 1.3.1 Patient’s care after purification therapy
- 1.3.2 Sequence and diet regimen
- 1.3.3 Natural state of health after purification
- 1.3.4 Eight impediments
- 188.8.131.52 Disease cause due to jolting by conveyance
- 184.108.40.206 Disease due to excessive walking
- 220.127.116.11 Disease due to constant sitting
- 18.104.22.168 Disease due to ajeerna and adhyashana (indigestion/ eating before the digestion of previous food)
- 22.214.171.124 Disease due to vishama and ahitbhojana (irregular and unwholesome diet)
- 126.96.36.199 Disorders due to day time sleep
- 188.8.131.52 Disorders due to vyavaya (sexual intercourse)
- 1.3.5 Treatment of these impediments
- 184.108.40.206 Treatment of the various disorders caused due loud and excessive speech
- 220.127.116.11 Treatment of the various disorders caused due to jolting, excessive walking and prolong sitting
- 18.104.22.168 Treatment of disorders Caused by Ajeerna and Adhyashana (Indigestion and frequent eating)
- 22.214.171.124 Treatment of disorder caused vishama and ahitshana (irregular and unwholesome diet)
- 126.96.36.199 Treatment of disorders caused due to day time sleeping
- 188.8.131.52 Treatment of disorders caused by sexual intercourse
- 1.3.6 Yapana basti
- 184.108.40.206 Mustadya Yapana-basti
- 220.127.116.11 Eranda-muladya yapana-basti
- 18.104.22.168 Sahacharadya yapana-basti
- 22.214.171.124 Brihatyadi yapana-basti
- 126.96.36.199 Baladi yapana basti – I
- 188.8.131.52 Baladi Yapana Basti- II
- 184.108.40.206 Hapushadya yapana basti
- 220.127.116.11 Laghu-panchamuladhya yapana basti
- 18.104.22.168 Baladi yapana basti-III
- 22.214.171.124 Baladi yapana basti - fourth
- 126.96.36.199 Shala parnyadya yapana basti
- 188.8.131.52 Sthiradi yapana basti
- 184.108.40.206 Tittiradya yapana basti
- 220.127.116.11 Dvi-pancha-muladhya yapana basti
- 18.104.22.168 Mayuradya yapana basti
- 22.214.171.124 The alternative/substitute of mayuradya yapana basti
- 126.96.36.199 Godhadya yapana basti
- 188.8.131.52 Kurmadya yapana basti
- 184.108.40.206 Karkata rasadya yapana basti
- 220.127.116.11 Gau vrishadya yapana basti
- 18.104.22.168 Dasamuladya yapana basti
- 22.214.171.124 Madhvadya yapana basti
- 126.96.36.199 Sadyo (immediate/fresh) ghritadya yapana basti
- 188.8.131.52 Madhu-tailadya yapana basti
- 184.108.40.206 Madhu-ghrtadya yapana basti-first basti
- 220.127.116.11 Madhu-ghrtadya yapana basti – second basti
- 18.104.22.168 Suradya yapana basti
- 22.214.171.124 Dvi-pancha-muladya yapana basti
- 1.3.7 Sneha Basti
- 1.3.8 Management of non eliminated basti
- 1.3.9 Disorders of excessive use of yapana-bastis
- 1.3.10 Treatment of yapana basti vyapada (complications)
- 1.3.11 Number of Chapters in Agnivesha Samhita
- 1.3.12 Benefits of studying the Charak Samhita
- 1.3.13 The function of pratisamskarta (redactor)
- 1.3.14 Tantrayukti (canons of exposition/tricks to understand text)
- 1.3.15 Merits and demerits regarding the text
- 1.3.16 Benefits of studying the Charak Samhita
- 1.3.17 End of Uttar Basti Siddhi adhyaya(chapter)
- 1.4 Tattva Vimarsha
- 1.5 Vidhi Vimarsha
- 1.5.1 Tantra Yukti
- 1.5.2 Tantrayukti (Canons of exposition of texts)
- 1.5.3 Thirty Six Tantrayukti
- 126.96.36.199 1. Adhikarana (Topic of discourse)
- 188.8.131.52 2. Yoga (Arrangement)
- 184.108.40.206 3. Hetvartha (Extension of concepts)
- 220.127.116.11 4. Padartha (Import of words)
- 18.104.22.168 5. Pradesha (Partial adumbration)
- 22.214.171.124 6. Uddesha (Concise statement)
- 126.96.36.199 7. Nirdesha (Amplification)
- 188.8.131.52 8. Vakyashesha (Supply of ellipsis)
- 184.108.40.206 9. Prayojana (Purpose)
- 220.127.116.11 10. Upadesha (Authoritative instruction)
- 18.104.22.168 11. Apadesha ( Adducement of reason)
- 22.214.171.124 12. Atidesha (Indication)
- 126.96.36.199 13. Arthapatti (Implication)
- 188.8.131.52 14. Nirnaya (Decision)
- 184.108.40.206 15. Prasanga (Restatement)
- 220.127.116.11 16. Ekanta (Categorical statement)
- 18.104.22.168 17. Anekanta (Compromising statement)
- 22.214.171.124 18. Apavarga (Exception)
- 126.96.36.199 19. Viparyaya (Assertion to contrary)
- 188.8.131.52 20. Purvapaksha (Objection)
- 184.108.40.206 21. Vidhana (Right interpretation)
- 220.127.116.11 22. Anumata (Acceptance of other interpretations)
- 18.104.22.168 23. Vyakhyana (Elaboration)
- 22.214.171.124 24. Samshaya (Doubt)
- 126.96.36.199 25. Ateetavekshana (Retrospective reference
- 188.8.131.52 26. Anagataveksha (Prospective reference)
- 184.108.40.206 27. Svasanjnya (Technical nomenclature)
- 220.127.116.11 28. Uhya (Deduction)
- 18.104.22.168 29. Samucchaya (Specification)
- 22.214.171.124 30. Nidarshana (Illustration)
- 126.96.36.199 31. Nirvachana (Scientific illustrations/ Definition)
- 188.8.131.52 32. Niyoga (Injunction)
- 184.108.40.206 33. Vikalpana (Option)
- 220.127.116.11 34. Pratutsara (Rebuttal)
- 18.104.22.168 35. Uddhara (Re-affirmation)
- 22.214.171.124 36. Sambhava (Possibility)
- 1.6 References
- 1.7 Bibliography
- 1.8 Glossary
Siddhi Sthana Chapter 12, Chapter on Successful administration of best enema therapy
The last chapter of Siddhi Sthana, Uttar Basti Siddhi emphasizes upon the following:
- Diet regimen known as samsarjana krama, to be followed after samshodhana (purification) therapy, in order to achieve normal health by enhancing appetite. Eight impediments occur if the prescribed precautions are not taken after undergoing a purification therapy. Their treatment is described.
- Understanding the twenty nine yapana bastis (a type of therapeutic enema) that are suitable for all persons in all seasons, as well as their ingredients, methods of preparation and benefits.
- Steps for compiling a treatise that is understandable by most readers by using thirty six tantra yuktis (canons of exposition or tricks to understand treatise). Their importance and application is described in some detail in this chapter.
Keywords: Ashta Maha Dosha, eight impediments, Yapana basti, therapeutic enema, Tantra Yukti, tricks to understand the text.
The Samshodhana therapy is practiced in different form for the elimination of doshas from different routes. This last section consists of 12 chapters dealing with different procedures like vamana (therapeutic emesis), virechana (therapeutic purgation) and basti (therapeutic enema), etc. for the purification of body. In the entire section, the Panchakarma therapy regarding its different aspects like methods of preparation used for different procedures, administration, indications, contraindications and complications are described in detail. Samshodhana (purification) therapy is also used in the healthy state to maintain the health and prevent disease.
The chapter mainly deals with the precautionary measures practiced after Panchakarma therapy and therapeutic enemas that are good for all persons in all seasons. After Panchakarma therapy the patient needs special care in terms of diet and life style, in order to achieve positive health after purification. The eight impediments occur after therapy if, patient speaks loud, has jolting, excessive sitting, unwholesome diet and day time sleep etc. These are prohibited after Panchakarma therapy because they vitiate doshas. These types of improper diet and lifestyle factors vitiate vata leading to various disorders. Basti (therapeutic enema) is considered an excellent method for the pacification of vata and treatment of various vata dominant disorders. Two hundred and sixteen enemas that are useful for all persons and can be taken in all seasons are described in this chapter.
In this concluding chapter, thirty six tricks named tantra yukti to understand text better are enlisted. These indicate the technical aspect of writing a large text avoiding repetitions, useful cross linkage of texts, remembering the references given earlier and later in the text. These are useful as learning techniques of ancient text. The chapter concludes with brief description about overall attributes of Charak Samhita and its constitution.
Sanskrit text, Transliteration and English Translation
Now I will describe the chapter dealing with the successful application of uttara basti (medicated preparation for enema). Thus said Lord Atreya. [1-2]
Patient’s care after purification therapy
A person, after purification therapies like vamana and virechana, becomes durbala(weak), krisha(emaciated), has alpagni (decreased digestive power), mukta sandhanabandhan (the joints of body become loose), whose vata (flatus), mala (stool), mutra (urine), kapha and pitta (body doshas) have been evacuated, visceras, gastro-intestinal tract, urinary and gall bladder and other organ feel like empty. The body becomes free from vitiated dosha (body humor), dhatu (tissues) and malas (wastes). Not able to tolerate any type of therapeutic measures due to excessive weakness, the patient should be protected like "a freshly hatched egg", like a brimful pot of oil or like cattle that are protected by a cowherd with a stick in his hand. The physician should carefully protect the patient from the unwholesome effects of diet and lifestyle, etc. [3-5]
Sequence and diet regimen
For the enhancement of agni (power of digestion and metabolism), the physician should advise the patient to consume a peya (thin gruel) and certain dietary preparations (as described earlier in Sutra Sthana) after vamana and virechana, followed by mamsa rasa (meat soup), for the protection of his health. The patient should be given snigdha (unctous), amla (sour), swadu (sweet) and hridya (pleasing) food. A sequence of rasas (taste) with sour and salty tastes should be given first, then the food having swadu (sweet) and tikta (bitter) taste and lastly the food articles having astringent and pungent tastes should be given.[6-8]
Natural state of health after purification
A patient is considered to be in a prakritik (natural) state of health if he exhibits characteristics such as sarvaksham (ability to tolerate (and adapt to) various types of diets and lifestyle), asamsarga (ability to manage natural urges), ratiyukta (endowed with a zest for life, i.e., is motivated to live), sthirendriya (has stable (not excited) senses), balwaan (strength of body and mind) and satvasampanna (endowed with strong will power).
Until the normal state of health is restored as mentioned above, the patient should avoid all the prohibited activities during that period. He should avoid the following eight dietary and lifestyle activities in particular which are considered very harmful:
- Ucchaih bhasya (loudly speaking) : This causes pain in the upper part of the body.
- Ratha-kshobha (jolting /inconvenience during journey): This causes pain all over the body.
- Ati-chakramana (excessive walking): This causes pain in the lower part of the body.
- Ati-asana (excessive /continuous sitting): This causes pain in the middle part of the body;
- Ajirna (indigestion) : This cause diseases due to ama (undigested material)
- Ahita-bhojana (intake of unwholesome diet): This causes diseases due to vitiated doshas.
- Diva-svapna (sleeping during day time): This gives rise to diseases due to vitiated kapha dosha
- Maithuna (sexual intercourse): This cause diseases due to dhatu kshaya ( wasting/decay of body tissue )
vyavAyAdAshubalanAshorusAdashirobastigudameDhrava~gkShaNorujAnuja~gghApAdashUlahRudayaspandananetrapIDA~ggashaithilya-shukramArgashoNitAgamanakAsashvAsashoNitaShThIvanasvarAvasAdakaTIdaurbalyaikA~ggasarvA~ggarogamuShkashvayathu-vAtavarcomUtrasa~ggashukravisargajADyavepathubAdhiryaviShAdAdayaH syuH;avalupyataivagudaH,tADyata ivameDhram,avasIdatIvamano,vepatehRudayaM,pIDyantesandhayaH,tamaHpraveshyataivaca(8)|
The description of eight type of Impediments:
Now the details of signs, symptoms, treatment and effective yapana bastis (medicated enemas) for each impediment are described:
Due to speaking loudly or in excess before attaining the normal state of health after purification therapy,various diseases like shirahstapa (headache), shankha karna nistod (pricking pain in the temporal region and ears), shrotovarodha (obstruction in channels/deafness), mukha talu kantha shosha (dryness of mouth and throat), timir (black out), pipasa (excussive thirst), jwara (fever), tama (feeling like entering into dark), hanugrahamanyastmbha (spasticity of jaws, torticolis and ptyalism), nishthivan urah parshvashula (excess sputum and pain in the chest and sides of the chest), swarabheda (hoarseness of voice), hikka and shwasa (hiccup and dyspnea) etc.
Disease cause due to jolting by conveyance
The inconvenience caused by rathakshobha (jolting) results into various disorder if practiced after purification therapy, before gaining normal health are sandhiparva shaithilya (looseness of big and small joints) hanu nasa karnashirahshula-toda (pain and pricking in jaws, nose, ears and head), kukshi kshobha (pain the pelvic region), aatopa (meteorism), antrakujana (gurgling in intestines) and adhmana (flatulence), hridayendriyoparodha (congestion in heart region and senses), sphik, parshva, vankshana, vrushana, kati, prishtha vedana (pain in the hips, sides of the chest, groin, scrotum, waist and back) sandhi-skandha-greeva dourbalya (weakness of joints, shoulders and neck), angabhitapa (burning sensation in limbs), pada shotha, praswapa, harshabadaya (edema, numbness and tingling sensation in feet), etc.
Disease due to excessive walking
Before regaining normal health after the purification therapy excessive walking causes shula ( pain in the feet, calf regions, thighs, knees, groins, waist and back), sakthi sada nistoda (asthenia and pricking pain in legs), pidikodveshtana (cramps in the calf muscles) angamarda (malaise), amsabhitap (burning sensation in the shoulders), siradhamniharsha (swelling of the veins and arteries) shwasa, kasa (dyspnea and cough) and such other complications.
Disease due to constant sitting
Before regaining normal health after the purification therapy excessive/constant sitting causes sphik, parshva, vankshana, vrihana, kati, prushtha vedana (pain in the hips, sides of the chest, groins, scrotum, waist and back) and diseases that are described earlier in case of jolting.
Disease due to ajeerna and adhyashana (indigestion/ eating before the digestion of previous food)
Before attaining the normal health after the purification therapy, ajeerna (indigestion) and adhyashana (intake of food before the digestion of previous meal) results in to various health problems like mukhshosha (dryness of the mouth), adhmana (flatulence), shola nistoda (colicky and pricking pain), pipasa(thirst), gatrasad (bodyache), chhardi (vomiting), atisara (diarrhea), murchha (fainting), jwara (fever), pravahana (gripping pain) and ama-visha (food poisoning due to ama) and such other complications.
Disease due to vishama and ahitbhojana (irregular and unwholesome diet)
Irregular and unwholesome food is strictly prohibited before attaining the normal state of health. If it is not followed, health problems like aruchi (lack of desire for taking food), durbalta (weakness), vaivarnya (discoloration of the skin), kandu (itching), pama (scabies) and gatravasada (prostration of the body and grahani (sprue like disease, arsha (piles) and other diseases caused due to the vitiation and aggravation of vata.
Disorders due to day time sleep
Before regaining normal health after purification therapy day time sleep causes disorders like arochak (anorexia), avipaka (indigestion) and agninasha (suppression of the power of digestion), staimitya (feeling like body is covered with wet cloths), pandu (anemea), kandu (itching), pama and daha (scabies and burning sensation), chhardi (vomiting) angamarda (malaise), hridsthambh (impairment of the cardiac function), jadya (stiffness), tandra (drowsiness) nidra (sleep), prasamga granthi (appearance of nodular swelling), dourbalya (weakness), raktamutrakshi (red coloration of urine and eyes), talulepa (coating of the palate).
Disorders due to vyavaya (sexual intercourse)
Indulgence in the sexual intercourse without restoration of normal health after purification therapy causes various disorders such as sudden loss of strength, urusad (prostration of thighs) headache, pain in the region of urinary bladder, anus, phallus, groins, thighs, knees, calf muscles and feet), hridayaspandan (palpitation), netrapeeda (pain in the eyes), angashethilya (asthenia), shukra marga shonita gaman (bleeding through the seminal rout), kasa (cough), shwas (dyspnoea), shonita shthivan (hemoptysis) and swaravsada (asthenia of the voice), katidourbalya (weakness of lumbosacral region), ekanga sarvanga (paralysis of part or the whole body), muskshvayatu (edema in the scrotum/hydrocele), vata-varchas-mutra sanga (retention of flatus, stool and urine), sukravisarga (excessive discharge of semen), jadya-vepathu-badhirya-vishada (numbness, trembling, deafness and depression etc.), avalupyata iva guda (piercing pain in anus), tadyata iva medhram (cutting pain in the phallus), avaseedat iva mana (feeling like mind is shrinking), veptehridyam (trembling of the heart), peedyante sandhi (pain in joints), tamapravesha (feeling like entering into the darkness.) [14/8]
Hence the disorders caused due to eight types of impediments are described in detail. [13-14]
Treatment of these impediments
The treatment of eight type of Impediments-
Apart from the various disorders and their characteristics, the successful treatment of the same is described.
Treatment of the various disorders caused due loud and excessive speech
The disorders caused due loud and excessive speech can be cured by all the vata shamaka (vayu-alleviating) measures along with the methods like abhyanga (massage), sweda (fomentation), upanaha (application of hot poultices), dhuma (smoking therapy), nasya (inhalation therapy), upari-bhakta sneha-pana (intake of medicated ghee after the meal), ksheera (intake of milk), and moun (maintenance of silence), etc.
Treatment of the various disorders caused due to jolting, excessive walking and prolong sitting
The disorder caused due to jolting, long walking and prolonged sitting can be cured by the vata shamaka (vayu-alleviating) ahar (diet) vihar (life style) aushadha therapies like oleation, fomentation, etc. The patient should avoid vata vitiating factors.
Treatment of disorders Caused by Ajeerna and Adhyashana (Indigestion and frequent eating)
Indigestion and taking food before the previous meal is digested can be cured by the methods like vamana (emesis) ruksha-sweda (dry fomentation). Use of drugs which produce langhaniya (lightening effect), pachaniya (which digest ama/undigested food materials) and dipaniya (stimulant of digestive power) effect.
Treatment of disorder caused vishama and ahitshana (irregular and unwholesome diet)
The of disorder caused due to vishama and ahitashana (irregular and unwholesome diet) can be cured by the pacifying respective vitiated doshas by respective diet drug and lifestyle.
Treatment of disorders caused due to day time sleeping
The treatment of disorders caused due to day time sleep should be treated by all the kapha-alleviating measures including the diet drug and lifestyle by the following methods like dhuma-pana (medicated smoking), langhana (fasting or taking liquid diet), vamana (emesis), shiro-virechana (therapy of elimination of doshas from the head), vyayama (exercise), ruksha-asana (taking of dry diet), arishta (fermented syrup like preparations ), dipaniya (intake digestive stimulant), and pragharshana (friction massage), unmardana (kneading the body) parisechana (hot liquid fomentation).
Treatment of disorders caused by sexual intercourse
The health hazards caused due sexual intercourse should be treated by the administration of milk and ghee cooked by adding drugs belonging to jivaniya group, i.e., jivaka, rishabhaka, meda, maha-meda, kakoli, kshira-kakoli, mudga-parni, masha-parni, jivanti and madhuka (Sutra Sthana 4:9:1), (administration of fomentation, massage and upanaha (application of hot poultice) which pacify the vata dosha (taking food which promote virility like milk, intake of unctuous food and application of unctuous therapies), yapana and anuvasana basti (medicated enema which pacify vata). If there are urinary morbidities, and pain in the region of urinary bladder, then uttara-basti (urethral douche) should be given with oil cooked by adding milk boiled with vidari-gandhadi and jivaniya (groups of drugs which promoting vitality Ch.Su.5). 
Yapana Basti-Yapana basti can be administered at any time. (These are called yapana-basti because they prolong the span of life).
One pala (48 gm) each of musta (Cyperus rotundus), ushira (Vetiveria zizanioidis), bala (Sida cordifolia), aragvadha (Cassia fistula), rasna (Pluchea lanceolata), manjishtha (Rubia cordifolia), katu-rohini (Picrorhiza kurroa), trayamana (Gentiana kurroo), punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa), bibhitaka (Terminalia bellirica), guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), shala-parni (Desmodium gangeticum), brihati (Solanum indicum), kantakari (Solanum surattense) and gokshura (Tribulus terrestris) should be cut into small pieces. Eight fruits of madana (Xeromphis spinosa) should be added to this. All ingredients should be washed well first and then boiled by adding one adhaka (256 tolas) or (256x12 gm) of water till one-fourth of the water remains. To this decoction, two prasthas (2x768gm) of cow’s milk should be added, and then boil again till two prasthas of the liquid remains. To this remaining liquid, half prastha of mamsarasa (soup of meat of arid zone animals), ghee and honey equal to mamsarasa, and the paste of shata-kusuma/shata-pushpa (Anethum sowa), madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra),fruit of kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica), rasanjana (extract of Barberis aristata), priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla) as well as a little of saindhava lavana (rock-salt) should be added. This lukewarm preparation should be used for basti.
This medicated preparation which is used for basti (enema) therapy has the various therapeutic effects such as shukra mamsa bala janana (increases sperm, muscle and strength), cures kshata-kshina (debilitation), kasa (cough), gulma ( abdominal lump), shula (pain), vishama jwara (chronic/irregular fever), bradhna or vardhma (inguinal swelling/hernia), kundala (..), kundloudavarta (moving pain abdomen), kukshi shula (pain in pelvic region), mutrakrichchha (dysuria), asrig-rajah (bleeding per vagina), visarpa (erysipelas), pravahika (dysentery), shiroruja (headache) januurujanghabastigrahasmaryaunmada (stiffness of knee-joints, thighs, calf regions and the region of urinary bladder, asmari (calculus), unmada (insanity), arsha (piles), prameha (urinary disorders including diabetes), adhman (abdomen distension), vata-rakta (gout) and cure diseases caused due to aggravated pitta and kapha, sadyabalajanan and rasayana (promotes strength and rejuvenates) also.[16/1]
Six palas (6x48gm) of the root of eranda (castor) and bark of leaves of palash (Butea monosperma), three pala (3x48 gm) of each, shala-parni (Desmodium gangeticum), prishniparni(Uraria picta), brihati (Solanum indicum), kantakari (Solanum surattense), gokshura (Tribulus terrestris), rasna (Pluchea lanceolata), ashvagandha (Withania somnifera), guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), varsabhu (punarnava or Boerhavia diffusa), aragvadha (Cassia fistula), and devadaru (Cedrus deodara) should be cut into small pieces, washed properly, and cooked by adding one adhaka (3.72 kg) of water and one-fourth adhaka of milk till remaining one fourth of the same. To this the paste of shata-kusuma (shata-pushpa or Anethum sowa), kushtha (Saussurea lappa), musta (Cyperus rotundus), pippali (Piper longum), hapusha (Juniperus communis), bilva (Aegle marmelos), vacha (Acorus calamus), fruit of vatsaka (Holarrhena antidysenterica), rasanjana (Extract of Barberis Aristata), priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla) and yavani (Trachyspermum ammi) should be added. Honey, ghee, oil and rock-salt should also be added to this preparation, It should be given when sukhoshna (luke-warm), in the form of niruha basti (evacuative enema) once, twice or thrice a day.
This basti is beneficial, for the pleasure-loving people, those having compromised health, those indulging in sex in excess, emaciated persons and those suffering from phthisis; old persons, suffering from chronic piles, and those desiring of progeny.
By following the same procedure, the basti preparation prepared by boiling milk with sahachara (Barleria prionitis)), bala (Sida cordifolia), root of darbha (Imperata cylindrica) and sariva (Hemidesmus indicus).
In this basti milk is boiled by adding brihati (Solanum indicum), kantakari (Solanum surattense), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and chinna-ruha (guduchi-Tinospora cordifolia). To this preparation, the kalka (paste) of mulethi (Glycyrrhiza glabra), madanaphala (Xeromphis spinosa) and pippali (Piper longum), should be added. In both of these the honey, ghee, oil and rock-salt should also be added before the administration of basti. The beneficial effects of these bastis are same as the previous one.
Baladi yapana basti – I
Milk boiled with bala (Sida cordifolia), ati-bala (Abutilon indicum), vidari kandi (Pueraria tuberose), shali-parni (Desmodium gangeticum), prishni-parni (Uraria picta), brihati (Solanum indicum), kantakarika (Solanum surattense), root of darbha (Imperata cylindrical), parushaka (Grewia asiatica), kashmarya (Gmelina arborea), fruit of bilva (Aegle marmelos) and yava (Hordeum vulgare) should be added with the kalka (paste) of madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and madana (Xeromphis spinosa) along with honey, ghee as well as sauvarchala salt. This basti instantaneously promotes strength, and rejuvenates the persons suffering from kasa (cough), jwara (fever), gulma (abdominal lumps), pliha vikara (splenic disorders) and ardita (facial paralysis).
This also promotes the strength, and rejuvenates persons who are indulging in (excessive sex) and alcoholism.
Baladi Yapana Basti- II
One pala (48gm) each of bala (Sida cordifolia), ati-bala (Abutilon indicum), rasna (Pluchea lanceolata), aragvadha (Cassia fistula), madana (Xeromphis spinosa), bilva fruit (Aegle marmelos), guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa), eranda (Ricinus communis), ashvagandha (Withania somnifera), sahachara (Barleria prionitis), palasha (Butea monosperma), deva-daru (Cedrus deodara), root of bilva (Aegle marmelos), shyonaka (Oroxylum indicum), gambhari (Gmelina arborea), patala (Stereospermum suaveolens), ganikarika (Premna mucronata), shala-parni (Desmodium gangeticum), prishni-parni (Uraria picta), brihati (Solanum indicum), kantakari (Solanum surattense), and gokshura (Tribulus terrestris), and two prasthas (192gm) each of yava (Hordeum vulgare), kola (Piper longum ), kulattha (Dolichos biflorus ) as well as shushka-mulaka (dry Raphanus sativus) should be boiled by adding one drone (12.288kg ) of water till five prasthas (5x96gm) of liquid remains.
To this kwath (decoction), the paste of madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra), madana (Xeromphis spinosa), shata-pushpa (anethum sowa), kustha (saussurea lappa), pippali (piper longum), vacha (Acorus calamus), fruit of vatsaka (Holarrhena antidysenterica), rasanjana, priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla) and yavani (Trachyspermum ammi) should be added. Payasa (Jiggery), ghee, taila (oil), madhu (honey), dugdha (milk), mamsa rasa (meat soup), amla-kanjika (sour vinegar) and saindhva lavana (rock salt),should be added to this preparation, when it is lukewarm, and then should be used for application of basti. This basti helps in curing the disorders caused due to retention of shukra (semen), mutra (urine) and mala (stool) because of aggravated vata, gulma (phantom tumor), hrid-roga (heart-diseases), adhmana (flatulence), bradhna (inguinal hernia/swellings), (stiffness of the sides of the chest, back and lumbar region), sangyanash (unconsciousness) and balaksayesu (diminution of strength). The quantity of decoction is sufficient for the application of three basti.
Hapushadya yapana basti
Half kudava (96 gm) of hapusha (Juniperus communis) and one kudava(192 gm) of half crushed grains of yava (Hordeum vulgare) boiled by adding water and milk till the quantity of remaining liquid is equal to the quantity of milk. Then honey, ghee, oil and rock-salt should be added to this preparation for the application of basti. The beneficial effects of this therapy are seen in vata-rakta (resembling with gout), saktahavinmutra (retention of stool and urine), streekhedita (excessive sexual intercourse), buddhi, medha jatharagni (promotion of wisdom, intellect, agni (power of digestion and metabolism) and bala (strength).
Laghu-panchamuladhya yapana basti
The kwath (decoction) of laghu panchamula shala-parni (Desmodium gangeticum), prishna-parni (Uraria picta), brihati (Solanum indicum), kantakari (Solanum surattense), and gokshura (Tribulus terrestris) is prepared by boiling with milk and water and the paste of pippali (Piper longum), madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and madana (Xeromphis spinosa) should be added. Jaggery, ghee, oil and rock-salt is added to this preparation and used for basti. This basti is useful for the karshita (emaciated) person because of vishama-jwara (chronic/irregular fever).
Baladi yapana basti-III
Eight palas (8x48 gm) of bala (Sida cordifolia), ati-bala (Abutilon indicum), apamarga (Achyranthes aspera) and atma-gupta (Mucuna prurita), and one anjali of water. To this decoction, jaggery, ghee, oil and rock-salt should be added, and used for basti. This basti is extremely beneficial for old and weak persons, as well as those suffering from shukra and rakta kshaya (diminished semen and blood).
Baladi yapana basti - fourth
The decoction of bala (Sida cordifolia), madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra), vidari (Pueraria tuberose), root of darbha (Imperata cylindrical), mridvika (Vitis vinifera) and yava (Hordeum vulgare) should be boiled by adding goat’s milk till the quantity of the remaining liquid is equal to the quantity of milk added to it. After that this kwatha (decoction) preparation for basti should be mixed with the kalka (paste) of madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and madana (Xeromphis spinosa), madhu (honey), ghee and sandhava (rock salt). The basti used of this preparation is beneficial for cure of jwara (fever).
Shala parnyadya yapana basti
Roots of shalaparni (Desmodium gangeticum), prishni-parni (Uraria picta), and gokshura (Tribulus terrestris), kashmarya (Gmelina arborea), parushaka (Grewia asiatica), fruits of kharjura (Phoenix sylvestris) and flowers of madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra), should be added with one prastha (768gm) of goat’s milk and water each, and then boiled. The paste of pippali (Piper longum), madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and utpala (Saussurea lappa) should be added. The ghee and rock-salt, should be added this preparation and used for basti.
This basti is useful for the person suffering from kseenendriya (weakened senses) and karshita (emaciation) caused by vishama-jwara (chronic/irregular fever).
Sthiradi yapana basti
Five palas (5x48 gm) of sthiradi pancha-mula shal parni (Desmodium gangeticum), prishni-parni (Uraria picta), brihati (Solanum indicum), kantakari (Solanum surattense), and goksura (Tribulus terrestris), and five prasthas (5x96 gm) of shali (Oryza sativa), shastika, yava (Hordeum vulgare), godhuma (Triticum aestivum) and masha (Phaseolus munga) should be boiled by adding goat’s milk and reduced to one-fourth. In this preparation, equal quantity of the sap of hen’s egg should be mixed. The honey, ghee, sugar, rock-salt and sauvarchala should be added to this preparation, and given to the patient. This basti is useful as aphrodisiac, and promotes strength as well as complexion of the patient.
This is the end of description of twelve preparations of yapana type of basti meant for promotion of health and longevity.
In addition to sthiradi basti, the basti is prepared like the soup of hen’s egg, the soup of sikkhi eggs (pea-hen) , gonarda (crane) or hamsa (swan).[16-17]
Tittiradya yapana basti
The meats of tittiri (patridge), mayura (peacock) and raja-hamsa (swan), and the roots,barks or extracts of plants such as pancha-mula (roots of shala-parni (Desmodium gangeticum), prishni-parni (Uraria picta), brihati (Solanum indicum), kantakari (Solanum surattense) and goksura (Tribulus terrestris)) should be boiled with goat milk. To this preparation of milk, the paste of sata-pushpa (Anethum sowa), madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra), rasna (Pluchea lanceolata), kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica), madana-phala (Xeromphis spinosa) and pippali (Piper longum) should be added. Then ghee, oil, jaggery and rock-salt, should be mixed to this preparation and used for basti (enema).
The basti (enema) of this preparation promotes bala (strength), varna (complexion) and shukra (semen). This act as a rejuvenator also. [18/1]
Dvi-pancha-muladhya yapana basti
Drugs belonging to two types of pancha-mula (bilva, syonaka, gambhari, patala, ganikarika, sala-parni, prisni-parni, brihati kantakari and gokshura) and chicken-soup should be boiled by adding milk till one fourth of the liquid remains. To this liquid, the paste of pippali, madhuka, rasna and madana should be added. After adding sugar, honey and ghee, this preparation should be used for basti (enema).
The use of this basti promotes strength of those persons who indulge in excessive sex. [18/2]
Mayuradya yapana basti
The (gall-bladder/bile), paksha (feather), pada (legs), (beak) and antra (intestines) of mayura (peacock) should be removed. The meat of this peacock should be added with one pala each of sala-parni, prisni-parni, brihati, kantakari and gokshura, and cooked by adding water and milk till the remaining liquid is equal to the quantity of milk. To this preparation, the paste of madana, pippali, vidari, sata-kusuma (sata-puspa) and madhuka should be added. Again the honey, ghee and rock-salt should also be added and used for basti therapy. The use of this basti promotes strength and complexion along with sensory and motor function of those who lost the same due to indulgence in excessive sex. [18/3]
The alternative/substitute of mayuradya yapana basti
The above mentioned basti i.e. mayuradya yapana basti can be prepared by substituting peacock-meat with the meat of animals and birds of vishkira (gallinaceous birds), pratuda (pecker birds), prasaha (animals and birds who eat by snatching their food), and varicara (birds moving in the water) categories.
Similarly, the meat of different types of fish like rohita, etc. can be used in the place of the meat of peacock. Milk should not be added while preparing the basti with fish meat because the combination of fish and milk is considered viruddha (incompatible) in context of viruddha ahara i.e. incompatible diet (18/4)
[ Note: These basti preparations are 115 in number as -
- Twenty basti preparations containing birds belonging to viskira-group (gallinaceous birds), lava, (group-1) and vartaka (group-2) etc. as described in Charak Samhita Sutra Sthana chapter 27 (Ch.Su. 27/47-49).
- Thirty basti preparations containing the meat of birds belonging to pratuda-group (pecker birds) as described in the same chapter (Ch.Su. 27/50-52)
- Twenty nine basti preparations containing the meat of animals and birds of prasaha group (those who eat food by snatching) are described in the same context (Ch.Su. 27/35-37).
- Twenty seven basti preparations containing the meat of birds belonging to ambuchara or varichara group (moving in water) are also described at the same place (Ch.Su. 27/41-44).
- Nine basti preparations containing the meat of fish, like rohita etc.
So there are total 115 basti preparations witch are prepared by the meat of these various kind of birds and animals.]
Godhadya yapana basti
The aushadha dravya (drugs) belonging to the group of panchamula i.e. bilva (Aegle marmelos), syonaka (Oroxylum indicum), gambhari (Gmelina arborea), patala (Stereospermum suaveoiens), ganikarika (Premna mucronata), and ten palas (10x48gm) of the meat of godha (iguana), nakula (mongoose), marjara (cat) and musika (mouse) is cooked with milk. To this preparation, the paste of madana-phala (Xeromphis spinosa), pippali (Piper longum), should be added. Again this should be added with rock-salt, sauvarchala, sugar, honey, ghee and oil and used for basti. This basti is beneficial for promoting the strength and rejuvenate the body, healing of the phthisis lesion, helps in curing the ailments caused due to the compression of the chest, correction of fractures caused due to riding the ratha (wooden cart), elephant and horse etc. It cures vata-balasaka (diseases caused by vata and kapha), udavarta (diseases caused due to upward movement of vata in abdomen), sakta mutra varcha shukra (retention of urine, stool and semen due to vata) and such other diseases. [18/5]
Kurmadya yapana basti
The meat of any one type of kurma (tortoise) is boiled with milk. This is added with the soup of testicles of vrisha (bull), elephant, nakra (crocodile), hamsa (swan) and kukkutandrasa (sap of the eggs of hen). The honey, ghee, sugar, rock-salt, the paste of ikshurasa (Juice of Saccharum officinarum) and fruit of atma-gupta (Mucuna prurita) should be added and used for basti. This basti provide strength even in the old age person also. The term kurmadya meaning kurma, etc. includes ten other animals like karkata (crab), matsya (fish), sisumara (esturine crocodile), timingila (whale), shukti (pearl oyster), sankha (conch-shell), udra (cat-fish), kumbhira (crocodile), culuke (gangetic dolphin) and makara (great Indian crocodile) in addition to kurma (tortoise). The basti prepared with the meat of tortoise is to be enumerated as one of the 29 main bastis. The other ten prepared with the remaining ten animals should be treated as extension basti.[18/6]
Karkata rasadya yapana basti
The soup of karkataka (crab) meat is added with the sap of the egg of cataka, honey, ghee and sugar, should be used for basti. This basti is strong aphrodisiac. If the milk boiled with uccataka, iksuraka (kokilaksa) and atma-gupta (Mucuna prurita) is taken after the administration of this basti, then a person becomes capable of having sex with many women. [18/7]
Gau vrishadya yapana basti
Milk boiled with the gau-vrisha (testicles of bull), goat and pig, karkataka and cataka should be added with the paste of ucchata, ikshuraka (kokilaksha) and atma-gupta, honey, ghee rock-salt and small quantity of sea-salt should be used for basti. This is used for aphrodisiac purpose.[18/8]
Dasamuladya yapana basti
The five prasritas (5 x 96 gm) of the decoction of dasha-mula bilva (Aegle marmelos), shyonaka (Oroxylum indicum), gambhari (Gmelina arborea), patala (Stereospermum suaveoiens), ganikarika (Premna mucronata), sala-parni (Desmodium gangeticum), prishni-parni (Uraria picta), brihati (Solanum indicum), kantakari (Solanum surattense) and gokshura (Tribulus terrestris) and the meat of peacock, swan as well as domestic fowl, four prasritas (4x96gm) of oil, ghee, vasa (fat) and majja (bone-marrow) should be added. This liquid should be added with the paste of shata-pushpa (Anethum sowa), musta (Cyperus rotundus) and hapusha (Juniperus communis). After adding rock-salt, this preparation should be used for basti. This cures vatika diseases of feet, ankle-joints, thighs, knee-joints, calf-region, lumbar region, groins, urinary bladder region and testicles etc. [18/9]
Extension of preparation no. twenty
Following the same procedure as mentioned above, the basti should be prepared with the meat of mriga (animals living on dry land), vishkira (gallinaceous birds), anupa (animals living on marshy land) and bileshaya (animals living in the burrows in earth).
The bastis prepared by these birds and animals are 59 in number as:
- Seventeen by the meat of mrigas (antelopes) as mentioned in Charak Samhita Sutra Sthana chapter27 (Ch.Su.27 / 45-46).
- Nineteen bastis are prepared with the meat of viskiras pakshis (gallinaceous birds) mentioned in the same context (Ch.Su. 27/ 47-49). 21 birds are described there but here only 19 are mentioned excluding the mayura (peacock) and kukkuta (domestic fowl) because use of their meat is already mentioned in the basti no. 20.
- Nine bastis are prepaired with the meat of anupas desha pakshis (animals living on marshy land) (Ch. Su. 27/39)
- Fourteen bastis are prepared with the meat of bilesayas (animals living in burrows in the earth) Ch.Su. 27/39.(18/11)
Madhvadya yapana basti
Two prasritas of madhu (honey) and ghrita (ghee) should be added with two prasithas of warm water. To this, half pala of the paste of shata-pushpa and half aksha of rock salt should be added. Basti prepared with this method is extremely aphrodisiac. It cures mutra-kricchra (dysuria), and diseases caused by pitta as well as vayu. (18/11)
Sadyo (immediate/fresh) ghritadya yapana basti
Four prasthas of freshly collected ghee, oil, vasa (fat of muscle) and majja (bone marrow) should be added with half pala paste of hapusa, and half aksa of rock-salt, and used for basti. This basti is extremely aphrodisiac. It cures mutra-kricchra (dysuria) and diseases caused due to pitta. It rejuvenates the body too. (18/12)
Madhu-tailadya yapana basti
Four prasritas of madhu (honey) and taila (oil) should be added with half pala paste of sata-pushpa, and half aksa of rock-salt and used for basti. This is beneficial for dipana (stimulating the power of digestion and metabolism), brimhana (nourishment of the body) bala-varna-kara (promotes strength and complexion), nirupadrava (free from harmful effects),vrisyatama (promotes virility), andrasayana (rejuvenator). Cures krimi (worm/parasitic infestation), kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), udavarta (upward movement of vata in the abdomen), gulma (phantom tumor), arsas (piles), bradhna (inguinal swelling), plihan (splenic disorder) and meha/prameha (obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes). (18/13)
Madhu-ghrtadya yapana basti-first basti
The madhu (honey) and ghrita (ghee), added with equal quantity of milk, mixed with the paste of drugs described above in basti no. 23. Basti with this preparation is beneficial for bala-varna-kara (promoting the strength and complexion), vrisyatama (aphrodisiac), nirupadrava (free from harmful effects) Cures basti-medhra-paka (inflammation of urinary bladder and phallus), parikartika (sawing pain), mutra-kricchra (dysuria) and diseases caused vitiated pitta. It act as rasayana (rejuvenation) therapy for the body.
Madhu-ghrtadya yapana basti – second basti
Following the same method, honey (madhu) and ghee (ghrita) should be added with equal quantity of meat-soup and one aksha kalka of musta. This basti is prepared following the same method as earlier in preparation no. 23. It cures vata-balasa (a disease caused by aggravated vayu and kapha), pada-harsa (tingling sensation in the feet), gulma (phantom tumor), contraction /stiffness of lumbar region, thighs and knee-joints, and pain in the region of urinary bladder, scrotum, phallus, lumbar region and back etc.
Suradya yapana basti
Seven prasthas of sura (type of alcohol), sauviraka (vinegar), kulattha-soup, meat-soup, honey, ghee and oil should be added with the paste of musta and shatahva. To this preparation salt is added and used for basti which cures all the vatika diseases.
Dvi-pancha-muladya yapana basti
Both types of panchamula (laghu and brihata) ie roots of bilva, shyonaka, gambhari, patala, ganikarika, shalaparni, prishniparni, brhati, kantakari and goksura), triphala (haritaki, bibhitaka and amalaki), bilva fruit and madanaphala is boiled by adding cow’s urine. To this kwatha (decoction), the kalka (paste) of kutaja, madana-phala, musta and patha should be added. After adding rock-salt, yava-ksara (alkali prepared of barley), honey and oil, this preparation should be used for basti. This basti should be used for the treatment of diseases caused by kapha, bastyatopa (flatulence in the urinary bladder region), vata shukra sanga (retention of flatus and semen), pandu (anemia), ajeerna (indigestion), visuchika (choleric diarrhea) and alasaka (intestinal obstruction).
अतऊर्ध्वंवृष्यतमान्स्नेहान्वक्ष्यामः| शतावरीगुडूचीक्षुविदार्यामलकद्राक्षाखर्जूराणांयन्त्रपीडितानांरसप्रस्थंपृथगेकैकंतद्वद्घृततैलगोमहिष्यजाक्षीराणांद्वौद्वौदद्यात्,जीवकर्षभकमेदामहामेदात्वक्क्षीरीशृङ्गाटकमधूलिकामधुकोच्चटापिप्पलीपुष्करबीज नीलोत्पलकदम्बपुष्प-पुण्डरीककेशरकल्कान्पृषततरक्षुमांसकुक्कुटचटकचकोरमत्ताक्षबर्हिजीवञ्जीवकुलिङ्गहंसाण्डरसवसामज्जादेश्चप्रस्थंदत्त्वासाधयेत्| ब्रह्मघोषशङ्खपटहभेरीनिनादैःसिद्धंसितच्छत्रकृतच्छायंगजस्कन्धमारोपयेद्भगवन्तंवृषध्वजमभिपूज्य,तंस्नेहंत्रिभागमाक्षिकंमङ्गलाशीःस्तुतिदेवतार्चनैर्बस्तिंगमयेत्| नृणांस्त्रीविहारिणांनष्टरेतसांक्षतक्षीणविषमज्वरार्तानांव्यापन्नयोनीनांवन्ध्यानांरक्तगुल्मिनीनांमृतापत्यानामनार्तवानांचस्त्रीणांक्षीणमांसरुधिराणांपथ्यतमंरसायनमुत्तमंवलीपलितनाशनंविद्यात्(१)|१९|
ataūrdhvaṁvr̥ṣyatamānsnēhānvakṣyāmaḥ| śatāvarīguḍūcīkṣuvidāryāmalakadrākṣākharjūrāṇāṁyantrapīḍitānāṁrasaprasthaṁpr̥thagēkaikaṁtadvadghr̥tatailagōmahiṣyajākṣīrāṇāṁdvaudvaudadyāt, jīvakarṣabhakamēdāmahāmēdātvakkṣīrīśr̥ṅgāṭakamadhūlikāmadhukōccaṭāpippalīpuṣkarabījanīlōtpalakadambapuṣpa-puṇḍarīkakēśarakalkānpr̥ṣatatarakṣumāṁsakukkuṭacaṭakacakōramattākṣabarhijīvañjīvakuliṅgahaṁsāṇḍarasavasāmajjādēścaprasthaṁdattvāsādhayēt| brahmaghōṣaśaṅkhapaṭahabhērīninādaiḥsiddhaṁsitacchatrakr̥tacchāyaṁgajaskandhamārōpayēdbhagavantaṁvr̥ṣadhvajamabhipūjya, taṁsnēhaṁtribhāgamākṣikaṁmaṅgalāśīḥstutidēvatārcanairbastiṁgamayēt| nr̥ṇāṁstrīvihāriṇāṁnaṣṭarētasāṁkṣatakṣīṇaviṣamajvarārtānāṁvyāpannayōnīnāṁvandhyānāṁraktagulminīnāṁ mr̥tāpatyānāmanārtavānāṁcastrīṇāṁkṣīṇamāṁsarudhirāṇāṁpathyatamaṁrasāyanamuttamaṁvalīpalitanāśanaṁvidyāt(1)|19|
ataUrdhvaMvRuShyatamAnsnehAnvakShyAmaH| shatAvarIguDUcIkShuvidAryAmalakadrAkShAkharjUrANAMyantrapIDitAnAMrasaprasthaMpRuthagekaikaMtadvadghRutatailagomahiShyajAkShIrANAMdvaudvaudadyAt, jIvakarShabhakamedAmahAmedAtvakkShIrIshRu~ggATakamadhUlikAmadhukoccaTApippalIpuShkarabIjanIlotpalakadambapuShpa-puNDarIkakesharakalkAnpRuShatatarakShumAMsakukkuTacaTakacakoramattAkShabarhijIva~jjIvakuli~ggahaMsANDarasavasAmajjAdeshcaprasthaMdattvAsAdhayet| brahmaghoShasha~gkhapaTahabherIninAdaiHsiddhaMsitacchatrakRutacchAyaMgajaskandhamAropayedbhagavantaMvRuShadhvajamabhipUjya, taMsnehaMtribhAgamAkShikaMma~ggalAshIHstutidevatArcanairbastiMgamayet| nRuNAMstrIvihAriNAMnaShTaretasAMkShatakShINaviShamajvarArtAnAMvyApannayonInAMvandhyAnAMraktagulminInAM mRutApatyAnAmanArtavAnAMcastrINAMkShINamAMsarudhirANAMpathyatamaMrasAyanamuttamaMvalIpalitanAshanaMvidyAt(1)|19|
Here some oleating (anuvasana) bastis will be described.
Satavaryadi sneha basti
The swarasa (juice) of satavari, guduchi, ikshu, vidari, amalaki, draksa and kharjura, one prastha each and to this, two prasthas of ghee, oil, cow’s milk, buffalo-milk and goat-milk each should be added. Then the kalka (paste) of jivaka, rsabhaka, meda, maha-meda, tvak-ksiri (vamsa-lochana), sringataka, madhulika, madhuka, uchchata, pippali, seeds of pushkara, nilotpala, flower of kadamba pundarika and kesara should be added. This preparation should be boiled by adding one prastha meat-soup of mriga (antelope) and taraksu (type of lion), along with the sap of the eggs of kukkuta, chataka, chakora, mattaksa (kokila) barhi, jivanjivaka, kulinga and hamsa, vasa (muscle-fat), majja (bone-marrow), etc. To this medicated basti, one-third in quantity honey should be added. With auspicious benedictions, prayers and worshipping of the gods, this basti should be administered.
This basti is beneficial for a person indulging in excessive sex, suffering from nashtretas (loss of semen), suffering from kshata-kshina (phthisis) and vishamajwara (chronic/irregular fever), female suffering from yoni vyapada (gynecological disorders), bandhyatva (sterility) and raktagulma (uterine tumor), whose offspring succumb to death before or after delivery, suffering from anartava (amenorrhoea) and a person suffering from ksheen mamsa rudhira(diminished muscular tissue and blood). It acts as an excellent rasayana (rejuvenation therapy) and also cures vali (wrinkles of skin) and palita (graying of hair).[19/1]
बलागोक्षुरकरास्नाश्वगन्धाशतावरीसहचराणांशतंशतमापोथ्यजलद्रोणशतेप्रसाध्यं,तस्मिन्जलद्रोणावशेषेरसेवस्त्रपूतेविदार्यामलकस्वरसयोर्बस्तमहिषवराहवृषकुक्कुटबर्हिहंसकारण्डवसारसाण्डरसानांघृततैलयोश्चैकैकंप्रस्थमष्टौप्रस्थान्क्षीरस्यदत्त्वाचन्दनमधुकमधूलिकात्वक्क्षीरीबिसमृणालनीलोत्पलपटोलात्मगुप्तान्नपाकितालमस्तकखर्जूरमृद्वीकातामलकी-कण्टकारीजीवकर्षभकक्षुद्रसहामहासहाशतावरीमेदापिप्पलीह्रीबेरत्वक्पत्रकल्कांश्चदत्त्वासाधयेत्| ब्रह्मघोषादिनाविधिनासिद्धंबस्तिंदद्यात्| तेनस्त्रीशतंगच्छेत्;नचात्रास्तेविहाराहारयन्त्रणाकाचित्| एषवृष्योबल्योबृंहणआयुष्योवलीपलितनुत्क्षतक्षीणनष्टशुक्रविषमज्वरार्तानांव्यापन्नयोनीनांचपथ्यतमः(२)|
balāgōkṣurakarāsnāśvagandhāśatāvarīsahacarāṇāṁśataṁśatamāpōthyajaladrōṇaśatēprasādhyaṁ,tasminjaladrōṇāvaśēṣērasēvastrapūtēvidāryāmalakasvarasayōrbastamahiṣavarāhavr̥ṣakukkuṭabarhihaṁsakāraṇḍavasārasāṇḍarasānāṁghr̥tatailayōścaikaikaṁprasthamaṣṭauprasthānkṣīrasyadattvācandanamadhukamadhūlikātvakkṣīrībisamr̥ṇālanīlōtpalapaṭōlātmaguptānnapākitālamastakakharjūramr̥dvīkātāmalakī-kaṇṭakārījīvakarṣabhakakṣudrasahāmahāsahāśatāvarīmēdāpippalīhrībēratvakpatrakalkāṁścadattvāsādhayēt| brahmaghōṣādināvidhināsiddhaṁbastiṁdadyāt| tēnastrīśataṁgacchēt;nacātrāstēvihārāhārayantraṇākācit| ēṣavr̥ṣyōbalyōbr̥ṁhaṇaāyuṣyōvalīpalitanutkṣatakṣīṇanaṣṭaśukraviṣamajvarārtānāṁvyāpannayōnīnāṁcapathyatamaḥ(2)|19|
balAgokShurakarAsnAshvagandhAshatAvarIsahacarANAMshataMshatamApothyajaladroNashateprasAdhyaM,tasminjaladroNAvasheSherasevastrapUtevidAryAmalakasvarasayorbastamahiShavarAhavRuShakukkuTabarhihaMsakAraNDavasArasANDarasAnAMghRutatailayoshcaikaikaMprasthamaShTauprasthAnkShIrasyadattvAcandanamadhukamadhUlikAtvakkShIrIbisamRuNAlanIlotpalapaTolAtmaguptAnnapAkitAlamastakakharjUramRudvIkAtAmalakI-kaNTakArIjIvakarShabhakakShudrasahAmahAsahAshatAvarImedApippalIhrIberatvakpatrakalkAMshcadattvAsAdhayet| brahmaghoShAdinAvidhinAsiddhaMbastiMdadyAt| tenastrIshataMgacchet;nacAtrAstevihArAhArayantraNAkAcit| eShavRuShyobalyobRuMhaNaAyuShyovalIpalitanutkShatakShINanaShTashukraviShamajvarArtAnAMvyApannayonInAMcapathyatamaH(2)|19|
Baladi Sneha Basti
One hundred palas (100x48gm) of each of bala (Sida cordifolia), goksuraka (Tribulus terrestris), rasna (Pluchea lanceolata), ashvagandha (Withania somnifera), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and sahachara (Barleria prionitis) should be crushed into small pieces and boiled by adding one hundred dronas (100x12.288kg) of water till one-fourth of the liquid remains. Then this liquid should be filtered by a cloth. This should be boiled by adding the one prastha (768gm) swaras (juice) of vidari (Pueraria tuberosa) and amalaki (Emblica officinalis) each, one prastha (768gm) meat-soup of goat, buffalo, pig and bull each, one prastha (768gm) saps of the eggs of domestic fowl, pea-hen, swan, karandava and sarasa each, one prastha (768gm) ghee and oil each, eight prasthas (8x768gm) of milk and kalka ( Paste) of chandana (Santalum album), madhuka (Glycirrhiza glabra), madhulika, tvak-ksiri (vamsa-lochana or Bambusa arundinacea), bias, mrinala, nilotpala (Nymphaea stellata)), patola (Trichosanthes dioica), atma-gupta (Mucuna prurita), anna-paki (odana-paki), tala-mastaka, kharjura (Phoenix sylvestris), mridvika (Vitis vinifera), tamalaki (Phyllanthus urinaria), kantakari (Solanum surattense), jivaka (Microstylis wallichii), rishabhaka (Microstylis mucifera), kshudra-saha (mudga-parni or Phaseolus trilobus), maha saha (masa-parni or Teramnus labialis), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus), meda (Polygonumverticillatum), pippali (Piper longum), hribera, tvak (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and patra (Cinnamomum tamala).
With the chanting of vedic mantras and such other rituals described earlier basti should be given with this preparation. After having this basti a person becomes sexually active. This basti does not involve any restriction of diet or regimen. It promotes virility, strength, corpulence and longevity. It cures vali (wrinkles) on the skin and palita (graying of hair). It is exceedingly wholesome for patients suffering from phthisis, loss of semen, vishama-jwara (irregular fever) and female disorders.19(2)
सहचरपलशतमुदकद्रोणचतुष्ट्येपक्त्वाद्रोणशेषेरसेसुपूतेविदारीक्षुरसप्रस्थाभ्यामष्टगुणक्षीरंघृततैलप्रस्थंबलामधुकमधूकचन्दनमधूलिकासारिवामेदामहामेदाकाकोलिक्षीरकाकोलीपयस्यागुरुमञ्जिष्ठाव्याघ्रनख-शटीसहचरसहस्रवीर्यावराङ्गलोध्राणामक्षमात्रैर्द्विगुणशर्करैःकल्कैःसाधयेत्| बह्मघोषादिनाविधिनासिद्धंबस्तिंदद्यात्| एषसर्वरोगहरोरसायनोललितानांश्रेष्ठोऽन्तःपुरचारिणीनांक्षतक्षयवातपित्तवेदनाश्वासकासहरस्त्रिभागमाक्षिकोवलीपलितनुद्वर्णरूपबलमांसशुक्रवर्धनः(३) |
sahacarapalaśatamudakadrōṇacatuṣṭyēpaktvādrōṇaśēṣērasēsupūtēvidārīkṣurasaprasthābhyāmaṣṭaguṇakṣīraṁghr̥tatailaprasthaṁbalāmadhukamadhūkacandanamadhūlikāsārivāmēdāmahāmēdākākōlikṣīrakākōlīpayasyāgurumañjiṣṭhāvyāghranakha-śaṭīsahacarasahasravīryāvarāṅgalōdhrāṇāmakṣamātrairdviguṇaśarkaraiḥkalkaiḥsādhayēt| bahmaghōṣādināvidhināsiddhaṁbastiṁdadyāt| ēṣasarvarōgaharōrasāyanōlalitānāṁśrēṣṭhō'ntaḥpuracāriṇīnāṁkṣatakṣayavātapittavēdanāśvāsakāsaharastribhāgamākṣikōvalīpalitanudvarṇarūpabalamāṁsaśukravardhanaḥ(3)|
sahacarapalashatamudakadroNacatuShTyepaktvAdroNasheSherasesupUtevidArIkShurasaprasthAbhyAmaShTaguNakShIraMghRutatailaprasthaMbalAmadhukamadhUkacandanamadhUlikAsArivAmedAmahAmedAkAkolikShIrakAkolIpayasyAguruma~jjiShThAvyAghranakha-shaTIsahacarasahasravIryAvarA~ggalodhrANAmakShamAtrairdviguNasharkaraiHkalkaiHsAdhayet| bahmaghoShAdinAvidhinAsiddhaMbastiMdadyAt| eShasarvarogaharorasAyanolalitAnAMshreShTho~antaHpuracAriNInAMkShatakShayavAtapittavedanAshvAsakAsaharastribhAgamAkShikovalIpalitanudvarNarUpabalamAMsashukravardhanaH(3)|
Sahacharadya sneha basti
One hundred palas (100x48gm) of sahachara (Barleria prionitis) should be added with four dronas (4x12.288kg) of water, and boiled till one drone (12.288kg) of the liquid remains. This kwatha (decoction) should be strained out, and then boiled by adding one prastha (768gm), kwatha (juice ) of vidari (Pueraria tuberosa) and sugar cane each, sixteen prasthas (16x768gm) of milk, one prastha (768gm) ghee and oil each, kwatha (paste) of one aksa (12gm ), bala (Sida cordifolia), madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra), chandana (Santalum album), madhulika, sariva (Hemidesmus indicus), meda (Polygonatum verticillatum), maha-meda (Polygonatum cirrhifolium), kakoli (Nomocharis oxypetala), ksira-kakoli (Lilium polyphyllum), payasya(Impomoea paniculata), aguru (Aquilaria agallocha), manjistha (Rubia cordifolia), vyaghra-nakha, sati (Hedychium spicatium), sahacara (Barleria prionitis), sahasra-virya (durva or Cynodon dactylon), varanga (guda-tvak) and lodhra (Symplocos racemosa) each , and two aksas (2x12gm) of sugar. This basti should be given while chanting the Vedic mantras and other rituals.This basti is beneficial for all the diseases, delicate women living in homes, it rejuvenates the body. It cures kshata-kshina (phthisis), pain caused by vayu and pitta, shwasa and kasa (dyspnea and cough). When it is used after adding honey of one third in quantity of the already prepared basti, it cures vali (wrinkles), palita (graying of hairs), and promotes (color), (complexion), roopa (beauty), bala (strength), mamsa (muscle) and shukra (semen).
If these above mentioned rasayana sneha bastis are concentrated by shatpaka sahasra paka (by cooking hundred or thousands times) their potency and strength increases with improved benefits (19)
The benefits of yapana sneha and niruha basti:
The above mentioned oleating basti preparations are called yapana basti. These are avirodhi (not contraindicated) either for healthy persons, patients or for old persons also. They promote shukra and mamsa (semen and muscular tissue) of a person, indulging in excessive sex. They cure all diseases, and can be administered in all seasons. They help the sterile women and men to conceive and have the progeny. Both, sneha and niruha basti (medicated enema with and without oil) give ishta (desired) results. These yapana bastis serve both the purposes i.e. snehana (oleation) and shodhana (elimination of vitiated doshas) from the body.[20-22]
Apathya(Contraindications) during the course of Yapana Bastis:
During the course of above mentioned yapana bastis, the patient should avoid vyayama (exercise), maithuna (sexual intercourse), intake of madya and madhu (alcohol and honey), shishirambu (cold water), taking of full meal and jolting by conveyances. (23)
tatra shlokAH  -
viMshatishca tathA saptaviMshatishcAmbucAribhiH|
nava matsyAdibhishcaiva shikhikalpena bastayaH||25||
dasha karkaTakAdyaishca kUrmakalkena bastayaH|
mRugaiH saptadashaikonaviMshatirviShkirairdasha  ||26||
ekonatriMshadityete saha snehaiH samAsataH||27||
proktA vistarasho bhinnA dve shate ShoDashottare|
ete mAkShikasaMyuktAH kurvantyativRuShaM  naram||28||
nAtiyogaM na vA~ayogaM stambhitAste ca kurvate|29|
Summary of basti preparations:
|Basti preparations with egg||3|
|With the meat of karkata etc.||10|
|With the meat of mrigas||17|
|With the meat of viskiras||19|
|With the meat of anupas||9|
|With the meat of bhusayas||14|
|With the meat of prashas||29|
|With the meat of pratuds||30|
|With the meat of ambuchar||27|
|With the meat of matasya||9|
Thus, when classified in detail, the 29 original and 187 extended, total 216 basti preparations.
Augmenting the potency of basti preparations.
Use of the above mentioned enema-recipes by adding honey makes a person exceedingly virile. When fortified (with honey), they do not allow any over-action (atiyoga) or under-action (ayoga).[24-28]
Management of non eliminated basti
There are some bastis which are not eliminated because of their soft nature, so to treat this complication the asthapana-basti prepared by cow’s urine and other ingredients having teekshna (irritant nature) should be given immediately.
Disorders of excessive use of yapana-bastis
The excessive use of yapana-basti results in shopha (edema), agni-nasha (loss of the power of digestion and metabolism), pandu (anemia), shula (pain), arsha (piles), pari-kartika (sawing pain), jwara (fever) and atisara (diarrhea).
Treatment of yapana basti vyapada (complications)
The complications due to yapan basti should be treated by the use of arishtas (medicated wines), milk, sidhu ( type of wine ), and agnideepak aushadhis ( appetizers) etc.
The disorders caused due to various impediments like loudly speaking etc. and their treatment has been described in detail. Thus the patient should be protected from these all. 
The nirukti (derivation) of Siddhi Sthana: The section (sthana) in which the successful (siddhi) administration of purification therapy (emesis, purgation etc.), their complications arising due to various reasons, and management of the same is described is called as Siddhi Sthana.[331/2]
Number of Chapters in Agnivesha Samhita
The wise Agnivesha, has compiled the entire literature of his guru’s statements, the sage Atreya in this treatise in one hundred and twenty chapters for the welfare of all the living beings. [34-341/2]
Benefits of studying the Charak Samhita
By the vidhina pathan (systematic study) of this treatise (Charak Samhita) a person achieves deerghayu (longevity), yasha (fame), swasthya (health), trivarga (dharma, artha and kama /the three basic desires of life) and pushkala (moksha / salvation) as well as siddhi (professional accomplishment) also in this world.[35-36]
The function of pratisamskarta (redactor)
A redactor expands the concise statements and the expanded statements into concised ones along with the addition of new thoughts in the old work, and puts it in new (revised) form.
Therefore, Charak, having the excellent intelect and wisdom redacted this illustrious treatise, which was lacking as one-third of its present form. This incomplete or missing text was completed by Dridhabala, the resident of Panchanadpur, by adding 17 chapters of Chikitsa Sthana, 12 chapters in Kalpa Sthana and Siddhi Sthana each. Total 41 chapters were added by Dridhabala. He collected the subject matter from different sources like picking up the grains, the completed the text in excellent form which is available today. Hence this text is not deficient in shabda (words) their meanings and free from textual blemishes. It is vichitrabhibhushitam (decorated/endowed/embellished) with thirty six tantrayuktis (canons of exposition). [36-40]
Tantrayukti (canons of exposition/tricks to understand text)
Number of tantra yuktis (36 Canons of exposition)
- Adhikaraṇa (subject matter)
- Yoga (rational combination)
- Hetvarth (extension of argument)
- Padarth (implication or import of words)
- Pradesh (partial enunciation)
- Uddesha (concise statement)
- Nirdesha (amplification)
- Vakyashesha (supply of ellipsis)
- Prayojana (aim/object)
- Upadesha (Authoritative instruction),
- Apadesh (adducement of reasons),
- Atidesha (indication)
- Arthapatti (implication),
- Nirṇaya (decision),
- Prasanga (restatement)
- Ekanta (categorical statement),
- Anekanta (compromising statement),
- Apavarga (exception) ,
- Viparyaya (opposite) ,
- Purvapaksha (amplification of earlier statement),
- Vidhana (correct interpretation) ,
- Anumata (confession) ,
- Vyakhyana (explanation) ,
- Samsaya (doubt) ,
- Atitavekekshna (retrospective reference),
- Anagatavekshna (prospective reference),
- Svasangya (technical terms)
- Uhya (deduction),
- Samuchya (specification),
- Nidarshana (Illustration),
- Nirvachana (citation of analogy),
- Sanniyoga (injuction) ,
- Vikalpana (option),
- Pratyutsara (rebuttal),
- Uddhara (re-affirmation),
- Sambhava (possibility). [41-44]
These tantrayuktis are found in concise/aphoristic or extended/expository form in all text to make the subject clear and understandable but where the text itself is composed inconcise/aphoristic form, they are adopted partially only. 
Importance of tantrayuktis
As the Lotus blossom in ponds in the presence of Sun light, the dark house enlightened by the lamp, in the same way these tantrayuktis help to understand the treatise in holistic way i.e. prabodhan (knowledge) and prakashan (making clear).
The Application of tantrayuktis
The person who is having the knowledge of one subject along with these tantrayuktis, can understand the other subject also with the help of them. But one who is not conversant with tantrayuktis can not understand his own texts as well the others too at any cost, same as a person fails to get wealth in spite of all efforts when his fortune does not favors him. [47-48]
Merits and demerits regarding the text
If a person does not know how to handle a weapon, he destroys himself by using the same. Similarly, the text/subject which is not understood well or properly, will destroy the person by practicing the same. On the other hand, as the weapon in the hands of wise protect him in trouble, in the same way the well understood text/treatise protect the physician in terms of his name fame and wealth too. 
It is also said that the tantrayuktis will be described in detail again from critical analysis point of view, for understanding the good and bad qualities of this treatise (Charak Samhita) in uttar-tantra. 
(Note: One thing which is important to mention here that this is a controversial statement given here because the present Charak Samhita which is available today, does not have any extension like uttar tantra. So it requires further study and exploration of this subject matter.)
Benefits of studying the Charak Samhita
The physician, who studies this text with concentrated mind and try to understand the same by critical and analytical way as well as apply those yogas/formulas/prescriptions in his practice which are mentioned in this text, attains the patience, memory, knowledge and righteousness. He becomes the bestower of happiness and long life to the human beings. 
The person who know this text of twelve thousand verses and paragraph by heart, he is the knower of meanings and thinker of this treatise as well as an efficient physician.
The therapeutic measures described in this text of Agnivesha are useful both for healthy persons and the patients too.
What so ever knowledge of medicine is available in this treatise is also present in other text of Ayurveda, and what so ever knowledge is not available here can not be found any text of Ayurveda. This indicates the greatness of Charak Samhita.
The text of Agnivesha as redacted by Charak is supplemented by Dridhabala .[52-55]
End of Uttar Basti Siddhi adhyaya(chapter)
Thus here in this Tantra (treatise) which was expounded by Agnivesha, redacted by Charak and supplemented by Dridhbala, it is the end of this 12th chapter, Uttar Basti Siddhi, the last section of Siddhi Sthana of Charak Samhita.
- Purification therapies evacuate excess accumulated wastes from body leading to transient disturbance in homeostasis. Therefore utmost care of patient should be taken after purification therapies.
- The patient shall follow prescribed rules of diet and lifestyle for regaining positive health after purification.
- If the rules are not followed properly, it leads to vitiation of vata dosha resulting in various vata related disorders.
- These disorders are treated with yapana basti i.e. medicated enema that sustain health.
- The treatise shall be learnt and understood by applying techniques called tantrayukti (canons of exposition/tricks for understanding treatise).
The term siddhi means accomplishment with perfection in the administration of therapies for the treatment of diseases.
Ahara (diet) is predominantly endowed with six rasas (taste) and they act through their properties by contradicting each other, resulting in equilibrium. Thus the patient should be given diet having mutually contradictory tastes, and mutually contradictory properties like unctuousness and ununctuousness alternatively till equilibrium is attained. Because the state of complete health as stated by Sushruta ie the the equilibrium state of dosha, dhatu, agni, mala causing pleasant state of soul, senses and mind. Samadosha samagnishcha samdhatu malkriyah--–Prasnnatmen driyamanah (Su. Su. 15/8).
The ashta mahadosha mentioned in this chapter are all held responsible for the vitiation of doshas mainly the vata, causing various disorders. Initiation of speech is the action of vata (udana vayu) so uchha bhashya (loudness) ati-bhashya (excessive speaking), jolting, constant sitting etc. cause various disorders. Thus it advisable as precautionary measure to avoid strain due to these activities, that one should speak slowly and less to prevent the disorders caused by the same. (13-14)
Measures in terms of diet and life style having pacifying properties specially, vata along with pitta and kapha are helpful in managing the eight impediments.
After the purification therapy, the patient becomes physically and mentally weak so the experienced physician advises the patient to gradually progress diet from lighter to heavier. Starting with peya (thin gruel) and ending with mamsa rasa (meat-soup) for the stimulation of agni (power of digestion and metabolism). In view of some scholars, this protocol of specific dietary regimen is necessary after vamana (emesis) and virechana (purgation) therapy only and not in niruha and shiro-virechana.
Yapana basti- Yapana basti means medicated preparation which can be used all the time for basti and they promote longevity, preserve health and cure of diseases too.
There are 216 bastis mentioned in this chapter for the maintenance of health and cure of disease, having various ingredients. Some of the ingredients are not available now or difficult to get but seems to be very effective, as referred in the literature and experienced by various scholars. These bastis are effective for the maintenance of health and cure of disease as it pacifies vata and considered as half treatment of any disease. It serves the purpose of virechana also as described by many scholars and it requires extensive clinical experience in this field. This uttara basti is very effective in gynecology disorders. It acts in the pelvic region /lower part of umbilical region due to that the apana vayu is pacified by the same.
It is also very effective in vatashthila (Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy). Various studies have been conducted in the Department of shalya tantra of IMS BHU in BPH cases. The basti was prepared with different kwatha and oily preparations like dashamoola kwatha and narayana taila(oil)etc. After the application of this procedure, the signs and symptons like pain & swelling, urgency, dysurea, burning micturation were reduced to great extent and the size of prostate reduced. Those patients who required surgery, the bleeding during and after operation was less and removal of prostate was easier in comparison to the control group. The probable mechanism of action is increased permeability of cells, which results in exchange of materials between intra and extracellular space. Dashmula kwatha (decoction) and narayan tail are good for pacification of vata. These remedies help to clean the urethral passage, decrease inflammation, edema and residual urine, relieving signs and symptoms of BPH.  So there are many benefits achieved by application of uttara basti in BPH and gynecological disorders as well as pelvic region diseases.
Agnivesha, while composing this treatise followed the statements of his /guru preceptor Atreya. Since Ayurveda is a science of spirituality also, there is a tradition of worshiping gods and natural powers having good result of action. Thus after worshiping Lord Shiva, these medicated preparations are used, while chanting Vedic mantras and blowing conch-shell accompanied with the beating sound of pataha (hand-drum) as well as bheri (kettle drum). This helps to attain the real goal of life, tri-varga or the three basic desires of human life such as dharma (performance of duties), artha (satisfaction of senses with their objects / acquirement of wealth) and kama (fulfillment of desires).
After the detailed discreption of yapana basti and their extended form, thirty six Tantra Yuktis are mentioned in very brief.
Thirty two tantra yuktis are described in uttar tantra of Sushrat samhita. The commentator of Charak Samhita, Bhattar Harisha Chandra, has described forty Tantra Yuktis. So there is difference in number due to difference in opinion.
The word Tantra Yukti is formed of two words, tantra and yukti. Tantra means shastra(treatise) like Ayurveda.
The word yukti means planning. So the word tantra yukti means the planning of compilation of treatise and treatment in scientific way. In the etiology, cinical features and management of diseases the application of tantra yukti is seen very frequently. For example, in the management of prameha the application of vikalp tantra yukti is seen in context of udaka pana/medicated water of different ingredients (Ch.Chi.6/46) Similarly in the compilation of any treatise one word has been used in different context like prayojana, adhikarana and uhya etc. A compilation of any knowledge after its experience is very important for its preservation and future generation. “Vidhina pathan” (systematic studies) as mentioned in this chapter, reflect the importance of tantra yuktis, as the procedure of study described in Vimana Sthana of Charak Samhita (8/ 7).
There are two aim of these Tantra Yuktis, mentioned in Sushruta Samhita:
- Vakya yojana- Planing of construction/formation of sentences in scientific way logically so that the meaning should be clear.
- Arthayojana- The way of compilation of any treatise to make the meaning of words clear, or the specific meaning of the words.
The importance and application of tantra yukti is mentioned as prabodhana (knowledge) and prakashana (making clear or manifest) in Charak Samhita. Sushruta said that having the knowledge of a single subject one can not become expert, even his own discipline requires a multi disciplinary knowledge for holistic approach as of Ayurveda. Charak has expressed this view in context of tantra yuktis that without knowing the same one can not understand his own subject as wellas others.
At the same time there is controversial remark is given after naming the thirty six tantra yuktis that the detail description will be geven in uttar tantra, practically which is not present in the available text today. Over this issue Dr. Richa Vishvakarma has thrown some light by her small effort and concluded that-
In the present scenario, the available editions of Charak Samhita contain eight Sthanas only. Charak Samhita does not contain Uttara-Tantra like Sushruta Samhita and Samhitas of Vagbhata. On contrary the twelfth chapter of Siddhi Sthana Charak has mentioned about Uttara Tantra of Charak Samhita. So it is essential to emphasize on this issue, which was not explained in length by commentators of Charak Samhita . Many controversies raised on the existence and recognition of uttara-tantra of Charak Samhita. On the other hand, some scholars who belong to a later period have mentioned certain references in their work, which are claimed to be from uttara tantra of Charak Samhita. After a thorough study and scanning of available literature, it is concluded that Charak uttar tantra was existing up to the time of Nishchalakara (13th century AD.). Nishchalakara has quoted a number of references in Ratnaprabha, which are from uttar tantra of Charak Samhita. Furthermore, there is a need to discuss about existence of uttara tantra of Charak Samhita by further more detailed study and scanning of literatures of Ayurveda and allied literatures
Tantrayukti (Canons of exposition of texts)
Meemansa (name of a philosophy trend), Nyaya (name of a philosophy trend) and vyakarana ( grammar) are used for proper interpretation of Vedas,. Commentator Dalhana in Sushruta samhita (Su.4.7) said that a vaidya should have knowledge of Saankhya, Jyotish Shastra and Vaisheshika etc. Being part of Vaidic literature, Meemansa, Nyaya and Vyakarana are most useful for proper interpretation of Ayurveda also. But Ayurveda has developed its own unique methodology for proper interpretation, termed as Tantrayukti in which certain important points from these Darshana or other sciences are already incorporated.
Tantra here means Shastra, i.e. guiding principles of Ayurveda. Yukti is a methodology in which multiple observations are correlated, to understand appropriate meaning. Understanding Tantrayukti is very much important, for proper understanding of Ayurveda. Following are important sources to understand Tantrayukti:
- Charak Samhita Siddhi Sthana 12th chapter with commentaries
- Sushruta samhita Uttara tantra 65th chapter with commentaries
- Ashtanga sangraha Uttara tantra 50th chapter with commentaries
- Tantrayukti Vichara by Neelamegha Vaidya
- Kautileeya Arthashastra 15
- Other allied Shastras like Nyaya, Meemansa, Vyakarana etc.
Tantrayukti are important because of following benefits:
- शास्त्राधिगमः।(सुगृहीतं शास्त्रं रक्षति, दुर्गृहीतं क्षिणोति) (Ch.Si.12/48,49)Shastradhigama : proper understanding of Ayurveda. Because only proper understanding helps for maintenance of health and curing diseases. Improper knowledge may be harmful.
- प्रबोधनम्- अम्बुजवनस्यार्कः। (Ch.Si..12/46, Su.U.65/7) Prabodhanam Ambujavanasyarka: Just like the lotus blooms, in sunlight, with Tantrayukti, the meaning of Ayurvedic texts is elaborated.
- प्रकाशनम्- प्रदीपो वेश्मनो। (Ch.Si. 12/46, Su.U. 65/7) Prakashanam Padeepo Veshmano: Just like a light removes darkness in the house, with Tantrayukti, meaning of difficult topics becomes lucid.
- अनुक्तार्थज्ञानम्। (Su.U..65/6) Anuktartha Jnanartham: Tantrayukti enables to understand even the unsaid hidden meanings.
- आशु अन्यशास्त्रप्रबोधनम्। (Ch.Si.12/47) Aashu anyashatraprabodhanam: By knowing Tantrayukti, not only Ayurveda, but one becomes capable of understanding other allied sciences also.
- स्ववाक्यसिद्ध्यर्थम्। (Su.U..65/5) Swavakya siddhyartham:The meanings drawn with help of Tantrayukti, justifies ones statements in a scientific discourse.
- असद्वादिवाक्यप्रतिषेधनम्। (Su.U. 65/5) Asadvadi Vakya patishedham: In a scientific discourse, statements of those who are misinterpreting texts, can be refuted with the help of Tantrayukti.
Thirty Six Tantrayukti
1. Adhikarana (Topic of discourse)
Adhikarana is the topic of discourse. e.g. specific information on rasa and dosha, like rasaprabhava and dosha is the adhikarana in the first chapter of Vimanasthana.
In a Adhyaya(chapter), there may be multiple adhikarana. The meaning of the words or statements, is to be understood based on the adhikarana in which they are used. Therefore, knowing adhikarana, is important. Even the modes of action of medicines can be understood as per the aadhikarana. E.g. In Chikitsasthana 8th chapter, Under Rajayakshma Chikitsa, there are multiple adhikarana. Sitopaladi choorna is used in kasa adhikara, while talisadi choorna is used in arochaka adhikara. This enables us to understand the peculiarities of the actions of both these formulations.
2. Yoga (Arrangement)
Various terms placed at different places are arranged to draw appropriate meaning. E.g .Five step methodology --i.e. Pratijna (Proposition- hypothesis), Hetu (Reasoning, evidences for support, testimony), Drishtanta (examples), Upanaya (analogy) and Nigamana (deduction) is used to explain the relation between Matrija (mother engendered), Pitrija (father engendered) etc. factors which altogether lead to formation of the embryo.
3. Hetvartha (Extension of concepts)
It illustrates the condition of invisible things by visible and known examples. The concepts introduced in certain initial chapters of Samhita, are extended and applied to later contexts, for getting appropriate meaning and applications like clinical applications. E.g. In Charak Su.12/5, a concept is explained, that continuous use of food or medicines leads to augmentation of body constituents homologous to it. This concept is further applied in various contexts like Ch.Sha.6.9. This concept is then applied in Chikitsasthana.
4. Padartha (Import of words)
It means that, when a word having two or more senses is used, then that meaning alone has to be accepted which suits the previous and later contexts. Here various words are aligned together, to draw appropriate meaning. The meaning here, is according to the context. The individual words, here may have different meaning in some other context, but when combined together in this context, they provide a specific meaning, which is the technical meaning, in the present context. e.g. Svabhavoparamavada described in Su.16. Svabhava- Uparama-Vada all these words are having different meanings in other contexts. But when joined together, in this context , it means a proposed theory, which suggests that for the formation and manifestation of any objects certain causative factors are responsible, but for their destruction and annihilation, no other cause is required, because, it is nature of anything which is produced to get destroyed.
5. Pradesha (Partial adumbration)
When the information on a particular subject is vast, it’s not possible to provide all the details. In such conditions, small part is described in such a way, that it acts as an example for readers, to guide about further details which can’t be furnished. E.g. after providing guidelines about preparation of medicinal formulations in Ch.Su.4.,Ch.Ka.12 etc. places, 600 formulations are described in Kalpasthana. It is explained that these provide guidelines. If one understands these guidelines, one can prepare millions of such formulations.
6. Uddesha (Concise statement)
Uddesha is the method of briefly touching a subject without going in detail. Thus, when one says “disease” (shalya), it means both internal and external diseases without any kind of specification. Uddesha is a concise statement like Ch.Su.1.24 mentions that Lord Indra explained Ayurveda to Sage Bharadvaja with trifold methodology i.e. Hetu (Causes), Linga (symptoms and signs) and Aushadha (treatment modalities). This is further described in the whole text, in relation to health and diseases. E.g. causes of (factors leading to) health, and causes of diseases, and so on.
7. Nirdesha (Amplification)
It is the method of describing thing in detail. E.g. In Sutrasthana 1st chapter three Doshas pertaining to the body are mentioned as Vayu, Pitta and Kapha. This is like Uddesha. Now further details about these Doshas like their properties, their functions, causes for their vitiation and treatment for them are described further in the Sutrasthana 1st chapter and also in Su.12, 20, Vimanasthana 6th chapter etc. this is Nirdesha.
8. Vakyashesha (Supply of ellipsis)
It consists in supplying an idea suggested by the context, but not expressly mentioned. Here authors of ancient texts(Samhita), don’t mention certain words in a statement, to keep the text concise. However such words can be easily understood, and are necessary for drawing correct meaning of the statement. E.g. Ch.Su.16.28 states that for utpatti (formation, manifestation) of objects causative factors (are necessary), but not for their nirodha (cessation, annihilation). In this statement, the words in the bracket-‘are necessary’ – are not directly mentioned, but can be understood and are necessary.
9. Prayojana (Purpose)
It is the purpose for which a description is given or for which a doer initiates his actions. E.g. to produce dhatusamya (balanced state of all body constituents) is mentioned as the prayojana (purpose for promulgation) of Ayurveda.
10. Upadesha (Authoritative instruction)
It is the method of giving general instruction. These are important guidelines by the ancient sages, which are otherwise difficult to understand for a layman. It explains what exactly should be done in a given condition, while treating a patient, or for maintenance and promotion of health. It explains what to do, how to do and in which order to be done. E.g. Ch.Su.13.99 explains that swedana should be always preceded by snehana. Such advice comes from vast knowledge, experience and wisdom of the sages. Thus this is practically very important.
11. Apadesha ( Adducement of reason)
It is the method of showing the reasons of things. After stating a certain fact, here reasoning is provided. E.g. Ch.Vi.3rd chapter, while describing epidemics, it is stated that factors like wind, water and the land are gradually more and more influential. The reasoning is further provided, that these factors are more and more difficult to avoid. Somehow a person can hide at the residence to avoid exposure to polluted abnormal wind, but avoiding water will be even more difficult, because although polluted, the water sources may be finite and limited.
12. Atidesha (Indication)
Is that of anticipating a future event from a present indication or prognostication. Thus, from the fact of increasing and uprising of vata in a man’s system may predict that he will have specific bowel disease(udavarta).
13. Arthapatti (Implication)
It is that which is understood, by implication, though not directly mentioned, is called arthapatti. E.g. it is advised that eating curds during night should be avoided. By implication of this, it is understood that eating curds in daytime won’t harm health.
14. Nirnaya (Decision)
Is the decision taken after a scientific discussion, taking into consideration both sides of the arguments. E.g. in the Ch.Su.10th chapter, there is a discussion between Lord Atreya and the sage Maitreya over the significance of the quadruple (consisting of the physician, attendants and nursing staff, medicines and the patient. The argument of Maitreya, that these four factors don’t have any significant role in the disease cure, is refuted by Lord Atreya and their role is proven. The concluding statement of Lord Atreya, that these four factors when endowed with good qualities, are significant for the treatment, is called as Nirnaya.
15. Prasanga (Restatement)
It is a virtue by which allusion is made to things repeatedly described in other chapter. Here since it is necessary, to quote certain facts, for proper understanding in other contexts also. So this is not mere repetition. E.g. As per Charak Samhita, only sama prakriti (balanced state of all three doshas) is Prakriti, and Vatala (Vata dominant) etc. Prakriti (specific body constitution with predominance of one or two doshas) are termed as in fact vikriti (imbalance, abnormality). Therefore, the treatment for them is described in Ch.Su.7.41. Again in Ch.Vi.6.14-18 since in that context also it was needed, treatment for vatala etc. is again described.
16. Ekanta (Categorical statement)
It allows of affirming a specific action of things unexceptionably e.g. Madanaphala fruit induces vomiting i.e. under all circumstances. Here there is no scope for difference of opinion and arguments; as such things are true in any circumstances.
17. Anekanta (Compromising statement)
It is the virtue of which one understands that different opinions prevail on a particular subject. E.g. in Ch.Su.25.1-25, various opinions about the principles from Purusha (living being or a human being) is originated are quoted. None of them is absolutely wrong. But none of these factors are capable of originating Purusha, alone or independently. So none of these opinions, can be accepted as complete truth. Therefore in verse number 26-29, Lord Atreya concluded, that a Purusha originates from all these factors, collectively. If one would adhere to unilateral view, he wouldn’t be able to know the complete truth ever. This is called as Anekanta.
18. Apavarga (Exception)
It consists in allowing exceptions to general directions. E.g. in Ch.Su.8.20. As a general rule, stale food should not be used, it’s not healthy. But fruits, dried meat, dried vegetables etc. are the exceptions to this general rule.
19. Viparyaya (Assertion to contrary)
It is that by virtue of which from a positive or a negative assertion, its contrary is also asserted. E.g. In Ch.Su.1.66, it is mentioned, that foods or medicines having madhura (sweet), amla (sour), and lavana (salty, saline) tastes, subdue vata. This also implies, that the opposite of them i.e. katu (pungent), tikta (bitter) and kashaya (astringent), provoke it.
20. Purvapaksha (Objection)
This is the objection raised on a statement. E.g.in Ch.Sha.1.6 , Agnivesha asked Lord Atreya, that if Atma (the soul) is said to be devoid of actions, then how at the same time it is considered as responsible for all the actions? Such questions are asked to initiate a debate, which will ultimately help to understand the scientific truth.
21. Vidhana (Right interpretation)
It is that by virtue of which one understands that, when certain descriptions follow certain enumeration, the former are to be taken in the order in which the later are related. Here certain concepts in the texts are elaborated, in the subsequent description in the text itself. E.g. in Ch.Su.7.42-43, first it is mentioned that the channels for elimination of mala (waste products)are affected by abnormally increased or decreased malas. Just after that we find further explanation, that such increase or decrease in the malas can be inferred by observing hampered elimination or excessive elimination from these channels, through external orifices.
22. Anumata (Acceptance of other interpretations)
By virtue of Anumata, it is to be understood that, when the opinion of other authorities is referred to and not contradicted, it is signified that it is approved. The authors of the texts give their own interpretations and opinions. But sometimes important opinions of others are also quoted. Some of these opinions of others are refuted. But some are not refuted. Here it means that as per the authors of texts, this is not the best interpretation. But it’s not an interpretation which can be totally rejected also. It has got some valid point. Such opinions are not found refuted, indicating that they are acceptable. E.g. in Ch.Chi.14.33, opinions of other authorities, regarding treatment of hemorrhoids are quoted. But further Lord Atreya has given his own opinion. Although opinion of other authorities, that hemorrhoids can be treated with surgery etc. is also not refuted. In other words, it is accepted, that these also can be the ways of treatment.
23. Vyakhyana (Elaboration)
The method of elaborate description is called vyakhyanam. Certain topics are elaborately described by the author himself. E.g. in Ch.Sha.1.17 mentions about Purusha(living being, human being) composed of conglomeration of 24 principles. Further from 18th to 42nd verse, details about the same concept are provided.
24. Samshaya (Doubt)
It allows a way of statement which may create doubt & confusion in the mind of the reader. Creating this doubt is necessary for clarity. Many times both ways of interpretation also may be correct. E.g. In Ch.Su.11.6 It is mentioned that as per some authorities, the parents are the cause of birth, while as per others, svabhava (nature) is the cause and so on. After raising these doubts, the answers are given, which brings clarity in understanding.
25. Ateetavekshana (Retrospective reference
It permits alluding to things described before. Certain concepts or information mentioned in the initial sections or chapters of the text, are to be applied in the next chapters or sections, for proper understanding. E.g. Concepts from all other sections described in prior sections, are to be applied in Chikitsasthana, while understanding the treatments. E.g. in Ch.Chi.3.269, it is said that specific types of Sveda (sudation), mentioned in Sutrasthana 14th chapter are to be used here. Since they are already described in Sutrasthana, here it isn’t necessary to repeat the description, rather one can go to the previous reference.
26. Anagataveksha (Prospective reference)
It allows to leave certain things for future description and elaboration. Certain concepts or information is supposed to be described in later sections or chapters. But in that particular context, it is mentioned that one can refer later chapters or section. E.g. in Ch.Ni.1.36, although the chapter deals with the diagnosis part of jwara (fever), the treatments are also hinted in brief. In order to understand them, one has to refer the chapter 3 of Chikitsasthana.
27. Svasanjnya (Technical nomenclature)
The method of using words in a sense different from what they have in other literatures i.e. technical use. Certain technical terms, may have different meaning in other contemporary sciences or in Sanskrit literature. But, since it is applied as a technical term, a specific meaning is attached to that word. E.g. jentaka or holaka are some unique words, hardly found in literature, but in Charak Samhita, they are used as specific types of sweda (sudation). Whereas samsarga or sannipata may be used in literature with a different sense, but in Ayurveda, they are used in the sense of pathologies in which two or three doshas are involved respectively. Similarly word dhatu may be used in the sense of metals in alchemy, or in the sense of root in grammar, but in Ayurveda, it is used in the sense of most important body constituents, which bear the existence of the body.
28. Uhya (Deduction)
Is the by which things which are apparent from the context can be understood. Texts provide guidelines, but while treating the patient, the vaidya(physician) ultimately has to take the decision. A vaidya has to apply the guidelines given in the text for the patient, who is under his treatment. So a vaidya has to use his own intelligence and wisdom. The texts have advised a vaidya to use his own wisdom at many places. E.g. while describing the medicines which can be used for basti, it is said at Ch.Vi.8.149, that a vaidya can exclude the medicines not suitable for a particular patient, and he may add similar medicines which are appropriate for the patient, but not mentioned in the text.
29. Samucchaya (Specification)
It means the taking of two or more things together as having equal value. In certain sentences from the texts multiple words are used, while highlighting and giving stress on each word. This type of method is called as samucchaya. E.g. in Ch.I.1.3, the important points to be discussed in Indriyasthana are enlisted. Here each word is written as vanashcha, svarashcha etc. By adding ‘Cha’, each word is specified. This is to denote that each of these topics is equally important.
30. Nidarshana (Illustration)
It allows to describe anything after the analogy of other things. Here simple examples are given, which everyone can understand. These examples are taken from the things, which are well known to the society, therefore even a fool can understand. E.g. in Ch.Sha.1.43-44, it is said that Atma (soul) has to be accepted as responsible for all the actions. Because the other factors are inanimate, so they are not capable of doing anything on their own. Those who do not accept existence of Atma, will have to say that the clay, the rod, the wheel, all come together in absence of a potter to produce a pot. Such examples are known as Nidarshana.
31. Nirvachana (Scientific illustrations/ Definition)
A scientific illustration or definition is called Nirvachana. Here such examples are given which can be understood only by the experts of that field. E.g. in Ch.Su.16.32, Svabhavoparamavada is described. According to it for production and manifestation of objects, specific causative factors are required, but for their destruction or annihilation their nature itself is the cause, so no other cause is required. Every object which is produced, gets destroyed, it is the nature of the objects. To explain this, it is said that no other cause except their nature can be found, for destruction of objects. Kala (time) is continuous, and there is no cause for elapse of time except time itself. Similarly for destruction and annihilation of objects their nature itself is the cause and no other cause can be found out. Such type of examples are called as Nirvachana.
32. Niyoga (Injunction)
It means the direction. The sages like lord Atreya, have given certain directions. These directions are based on their deep knowledge, vast experience and their enlightened state. Therefore, these directions must be followed. Such directions are called as Niyoga. A student may also understand significance of such directions, as his studies progress. E.g. in Ch.Su.14.46, under jjentaka sweda, it is advised to the patient that even if he sweats profusely or feels giddiness, then also he shouldn’t leave the jentaka house.
33. Vikalpana (Option)
It is method of giving alternative or optional direction. Certain options are given and any appropriate options from them may be selected. E.g. in Ch.Chi.6.46, for patients of Prameha (diabetes) water processed with heartwood of medicinal plants like asana is advised. But optionally water processed with kusha grass also can be used.
34. Pratutsara (Rebuttal)
In a scientific discussion, opinions of each other are refuted, with scientific reasoning. E.g. in Ch.Su.25, the opinion of Parikshi Maudgalya, that Purusha (living being or human being) is made up of Atma (soul), is further refuted by Sharaloma, who proposed that Purusha is produced from mana(mind). Further his opinion is also refuted. This type of methodology is called as pratyutsara.
35. Uddhara (Re-affirmation)
When in a scientific discussion, not only opinion of others is refuted, but own opinion is supported with scientific reasoning, then it is called as uddhara. E.g. in Ch.Su.25th chapter, with regards to origin of a Purusha, various experts not only refuted opinions of others, but also have substantiated their own opinions. Like Parikshi Maudgalya supported his opinion that Atma (soul) is responsible for the origin of a Purusha. He said that since Atma alone is animate, and other factors are inanimate, it is responsible for all the actions. Since it is responsible for all the actions, it will also take responsibility for the fruits of those actions, for which, it takes birth. Thus it is responsible for the origin of a Purusha.
36. Sambhava (Possibility)
The substratum or base for origin of anything, is called sambhava. E.g. for the disease vyanga (freckles), face is the site of origin.
Tantrayukti, is very important tool for proper understanding of Ayurveda, not just theoretically, but for practical application of it also.
In the last, the importance of Charak Samhita is mentioned that this treatise comprising one hundred and twenty chapters which expounds the statements of sage Atreya by eminent disciple Agnivesa, endowed with therapeutic wisdom for the benefit of all the living beings. In the original work of Agnivesa, some topics were dealt with in great detail, and some others, very briefly which hindered its proper comprehension. For removing these defects, the redactor Caraka made efforts because a text in brief is not understandable and detailed text is not comprehensible. Therefore, the original text was redacted to make it more convenient for the readers. Agnivesa tantra which is redacted by Caraka, one-third of it was not available at the time of Drdhabala. He supplemented 41 non-available chapters. These are 17 chapters of Chikitsa Sthana and 12 chapters each in Kalpa and Siddi Sthana. So in this way this text is available in present form.
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- Agnivesha, Charak, Dridhbala,Charak Samhita, Siddhi Sthana,uttarbastisiddhi naam Adhyaya Hindi,Gujarati English translated jaikrishnadas Ayurveda series vol.4,Reprint chaukhamba orientalia,Varanasi,2008
- Agnivesha, Charak,Dridhbala,Charak Samhita, Siddhi Sthana,uttarbastisiddhi naam Adhyaya Hindi translated by Sri.Satyanarayana Shastri,Pandit Kashinath Shastri,Dr.Gorakhanath Chaturvedi 2006 Reprint chaukhamba Bharti Akadami Varanasi 2009
- Kaviraj Atrideva Gupta, Astanga Hridaya,Vidyotini Tika,Uttara tantra Chap.25;Reprint 2005, chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan,Varanasi
- Vaman(vaman;वमन)-Emesis or Induced vomitting
- Durbalaṁ(durbala;कृश)- weak
- kr̥śam(kRusham ; कृशम)-Emaciated
- agnisandhukṣaṇ(agnisandhukShaN; अग्निसन्धुक्षण)- For the enhancement of Agni ( power of digestion and metabolism)
- uccairbhāṣyaṁ(uccairbhAShyaM; उच्चैर्भाष्यं)- loudlly speaking
- divāsvapna(divAsvapna; दिवास्वप्नं)-sleeping during day time
- avicaṅkramaṇ (avica~gkramaN; ; अविचङ्क्रमण)-excessive walking
- atiāsanē(AtiAsane; असने)-excessive /continous sitting
- aṅgamar(a~ggamard; अङ्गमर्द)- malaise
- vyavāy(vyavAy;व्यवाय)- sexual intercourse
- svarabhēd(svarabhed;स्वरभेद.)-hoarseness of voice
- mūtrakr̥cch(mUtrakRucchमूत्रकृच्छ्र)- dysuria
- udāvarta(udAvarta; उदावर्त)- diseases caused due to upward movement of vata in abdomen
- vātasaktamūtravarca (vAtasaktamUtravarca; वातसक्तमूत्रवर्च )-retention of urine, stool and semen
- ānūpa(AnUpaअIनूप)- animals living on marshy land)
- Bilēśayā(bileshay;बिलेशया)-animals living in the burrows in earth) 17prayōjana(prayojana;प्रयोजन)-aim/object
- Yōga(yoga;योग)- rational combination
- arthaḥpadasya;(arthaHpadasya अर्थःपदस्य)- Implication or import of words
- ōddēś(oddesh; उद्देश )-Concise stateme
- Vidhān(vidhAn; विधान.)-Correct interpretation)
- vikalpana( vikalpana; विकल्पन)- Option
- upadēś(upadesh; उपदेश )-Authoritative instruction
- prabōdhana (prabodhana; प्रबोधन प्रकाशा)-knowledge
- prakāś (prakAsh; प्रकाश)-Making clear
- tantrayuktibhiḥ (tantrayuktibhiH; तन्त्रयुक्ति )-Canons of exposition)