Talk:Kalpa Sthana

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Botanical identification of drugs:

Vatsaka: Two kinds of male Kutaja, male and female have been recognized and the synonyms mentioned include those for both the source plants and their seeds. The male variety is that which has larger fruits, white flowers and smooth leaves and the female variety has small fruit stalk and the flowers are blackish brownish. Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. (or W. tomentosa Roem. & Schult. ) are taken to be the two kinds referred to above

Shyama trivruita: Trivrit in Charakasamhita has been recognized to exist in two varieties i.e. Aruna and Shyama. Shyama or Shyama trivrit has been usually identified with blackish variety of Trivrit or Vriddhadaruka, both of which may be Ipomoea petaloidea Chois.

Tilvaka: According to Thakur Balavant Singh, Viburnum nervosum is the true botanical source of Classical tilvaka. While Symplocos racemosus may be the source of lodhra.

Sudha: The different species of snuhi may be enumerated as follows 1 Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. 2 Euphorbia nivulia Buch-Ham 3 Euphorbia antiquorum Linn. 4 Euphorbia trigona Haw. 5 Euphorbia royleana Boiss.

Saptala: alhana interpreted yavatikta as source plant of saptala and shankhini. Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Which is found in barley fields and having tiktarasa may be considered as saptala. Another Euphorbia species (Euphorbia pilosa Linn.) has been suggested as alternative source by Sri M R Uniyala also deserves consideration as its roots are used as purgative.

Shakhini: Dalhana and Chakrapani in their commentaries have mentioned Shvetabunha for Shankhini which is Colonyction muricatum G Don. It's seeds are used as an adulterant of Kaladana (Ipomoea hederacea (Linn.) Jacq. ). South Indian vaidyas accept Clitorea ternatea Linn. may also be used as Shankhini. Roots and seeds of Clitorea ternatea are having purgative action.

Dravanti: Dravanti has not been identified satisfactorily. Its description in the Nighantus becomes confusing due to their introduction of udumbaraparni and mushakakarni as its synonyms. There is a possibility that these names are wrongly interpolated in the place of udumbaraparni and mulakaparni. mulakaparni appears to be an appropriate name for vanamuli which has been identified as Euphorbia acaulis Roxb. as it has few radical leaves and white and thick roots like a radish plant. In this confused state of knowledge, there is no objection in accepting Croton tiglium Linn. as dravanti and its seeds as jayapala