Shadvirechanashatashritiya Adhyaya

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Shadvirechanashatashritiya Adhyaya
Section/Chapter Sutra Sthana Chapter 4
Tetrad/Sub-section Bheshaja Chatushka
Preceding Chapter Aragvadhiya Adhyaya
Succeeding Chapter Matrashiteeya Adhyaya
Other Sections Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana


Sutra Sthana Chapter 4, Chapter on The Classification of Six Hundred Types of Evacuatives

Abstract

The fourth chapter, titled Shadavirechana Shatashritiyam, provides comprehensive information about herbs and their classification by their specific activity and utility, medicinal preparations for evacuation (or evacuatives), and specific therapeutic regimen such as samshodhana (cleansing regimen) and samashamana (pacification regimen). Ayurveda emphasizes upon removing body impurities, like metabolic waste products, toxins, and undigested foods from various tissues and organs before treating any disease or applying measures for preservation, protection, and rejuvenation of health. There are six hundred preparations used for cleansing the body by vamana (therapeutic emesis) and virechana (therapeutic purgation), five hundred herbs, and (fifty) mahakashayas (classes with similar activity profile) of herbs used in their preparations. An Ayurvedic physician should have complete knowledge of special/selective actions of various preparations meant for removal of impurities from the body. The fifty mahakashayas comprise of ten herbs in each of five classes of drugs. It also includes six virechana ashraya (types of plant-based evacuatives), five kashaya yoni (original sources as per tastes), and five kashaya kalpana (forms of medicine preparations).

Keywords: a catalogue of herbs, selective activity profile, pharmaceutical forms of drugs, medicinal juice, paste, decoction, cold infusion, hot infusion.

Introduction

This chapter is the last one among the Bheshaja Chatushka (tetrad on therapeutics). As the second and third chapters dealt with the internal and external cleansing procedures respectively, the present chapter is in continuation of those topics and talks of vamana (therapeutic emesis) and virechana (therapeutic purgation) based treatment procedures. These preparations - six hundred of them - are also described in the section of Kalpa Sthana that deals with specific preparations for body cleansing procedures. However, considering the importance of cleansing procedures, they are referred briefly in the present chapter. The main content of this chapter includes fifty classes of five hundred herbs, based upon their selective action on various diseases and biological systems. These classes are called mahakashaya (classes of drugs with similar activity profile) comprising ten herbs each. These fifty classes are again sub-divided into ten sub-classes starting with jeevaniya (vitalizers) and ending with vayasthapana (anti-aging herbs). These fifty mahakashaya refer to fifty therapeutic indications, for example, chhardi nigrahana (anti-emetic), mutra virechaniya (diuretic), kasahara (antitussive and expectorant), shoola prashamana (analgesic), etc. The potency of a single drug may vary per the preparation and the indication of preparation depends on the patient’s strength.

Thus, this chapter provides a comprehensive information about medicinal preparations, their original plant resources, and selective actions of each preparation with targeted activity profile.

Sanskrit text, transliteration, and English translation

अथातःषड्विरेचनशताश्रितीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||

इतिहस्माहभगवानात्रेयः||२||

athātaḥ ṣaḍvirēcanaśatāśritīyamadhyāyaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||

iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

athAtaH ShaDvirecanashatAshritIyamadhyAyaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||

iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

Now (I) shall expound the chapter on resources of six hundred evacuatives. Thus, said Lord Atreya. [1-2]

Brief numerical categories of medicine

इह खलु षड् विरेचनशतानि भवन्ति, षड् विरेचनाश्रयाः, पञ्च कषाययोनयः, पञ्चविधं कषायकल्पनं, पञ्चाशन्महाकषायाः, पञ्च कषायशतानि, इति सङ्ग्रहः||३||

iha khalu ṣaḍ virēcanaśatāni bhavanti, ṣaḍ virēcanāśrayāḥ, pañca kaṣāyayōnayaḥ, pañcavidhaṁkaṣāyakalpanaṁ, pañcāśanmahākaṣāyāḥ, pañca kaṣāyaśatāni, iti saṅgrahaḥ||3||

iha khalu ShaD virecanashatAni bhavanti, ShaD virecanAshrayAH, pa~jca kaShAyayonayaH, pa~jcavidhaM kaShAyakalpanaM, pa~jcAshanmahAkaShAyAH, pa~jcakaShAyashatAni, iti sa~ggrahaH||3||

Here are six hundred evacuatives, six classes of plant origin, five sources of medicines, five forms of medicine preparation, fifty classes of medicines and list of five hundred medicinal herbs, in brief. [3]

Six hundred formulations of medicinal plants

षड् विरेचनशतानि, इति यदुक्तं तदिह सङ्ग्रहेणोदाहृत्य विस्तरेण कल्पोपनिषदि व्याख्यास्यामः; (तत्र ) त्रयस्त्रिंशद्योगशतं प्रणीतं फलेषु, एकोनचत्वारिंशज्जीमूतकेषु योगाः, पञ्चचत्वारिंशदिक्ष्वाकुषु, धामार्गवः षष्टिधा भवति योगयुक्तः, कुटजस्त्वष्टादशधा योगमेति, कृतवेधनं षष्टिधा भवति योगयुक्तं, श्यामात्रिवृद्योगशतं प्रणीतं दशापरे चात्र भवन्ति योगाः, चतुरङ्गुलो द्वादशधा योगमेति, लोध्रं विधौ षोडशयोगयुक्तं, महावृक्षो भवति विंशतियोगयुक्तः, एकोनचत्वारिंशत्सप्तलाशङ्खिन्योर्योगाः,अष्टचत्वारिंशद्दन्तीद्रवन्त्योः, इति षड्विरेचनशतानि||४||

ṣaḍ virēcanaśatāni, iti yaduktaṁ tadiha saṅgrahēṇōdāhr̥tya vistarēṇa kalpōpaniṣadi vyākhyāsyāmaḥ; (tatra) trayastriṁśadyōgaśataṁ praṇītaṁ phalēṣu,ēkōnacatvāriṁśajjīmūtakēṣu yōgāḥ, pañcacatvāriṁśadikṣvākuṣu, dhāmārgavaḥ ṣaṣṭidhā bhavati yōgayuktaḥ,kuṭajastvaṣṭādaśadhā yōgamēti, kr̥tavēdhanaṁ ṣaṣṭidhā bhavati yōgayuktaṁ, śyāmātrivr̥dyōgaśataṁ praṇītaṁ daśāparē cātra bhavanti yōgāḥ, caturaṅgulō dvādaśadhā yōgamēti, lōdhraṁ vidhau ṣōḍaśayōgayuktaṁ, mahāvr̥kṣō bhavati viṁśatiyōgayuktaḥ, ēkōnacatvāriṁśat saptalāśaṅkhinyōryōgāḥ, aṣṭacatvāriṁśaddantīdravantyōḥ, iti ṣaḍvirēcanaśatāni||4||

ShaD virecanashatAni, iti yaduktaM tadiha sa~ggraheNodAhRutya vistareNa kalpopaniShadi vyAkhyAsyAmaH; (tatra [1] ) trayastriMshadyogashataM praNItaMphaleShu, ekonacatvAriMshajjImUtakeShu yogAH, pa~jcacatvAriMshadikShvAkuShu, dhAmArgavaH ShaShTidhA bhavati yogayuktaH, kuTajastvaShTAdashadhAyogameti, kRutavedhanaM ShaShTidhA bhavati yogayuktaM, shyAmAtrivRudyogashataM praNItaM dashApare cAtra bhavanti yogAH, catura~ggulo dvAdashadhAyogameti, lodhraM vidhau ShoDashayogayuktaM, mahAvRukSho bhavati viMshatiyogayuktaH, ekonacatvAriMshat saptalAsha~gkhinyoryogAH,aShTacatvAriMshaddantIdravantyoH, iti ShaDvirecanashatAni||4||

Six hundred evacuatives, as said above, will be mentioned here in brief and will be described in detail in Kalpa Sthana. There are 133 formulations of madana phala, 39 of devadali, 45 of katutumbi, 60 of dhamargava, 18 of kutaja, 60 of koshataki, 110 of shyama and trivrut, 12 aragvadha, 16 of lodhra, 20 of sunhí, 39 of saptalá and shankhini, and 48 of dantí and dravantí. These are six hundred evacuatives. [4]

Six parts of plants used in formulation

षड् विरेचनाश्रया इति क्षीरमूलत्वक्पत्रपुष्पफलानीति||५||

ṣaḍ virēcanāśrayā iti kṣīramūlatvakpatrapuṣpaphalānīti||5||

ShaD virecanAshrayA iti kShIramUlatvakpatrapuShpaphalAnIti||5||

The six parts of plants that serve as sources of evacuatives are: latex, root, bark, leaf, flower and fruit. [5]

Basic tastes for medicinal preparations

पञ्चकषाययोनयइतिमधुरकषायोऽम्लकषायःकटुकषायस्तिक्तकषायः कषायकषायश्चेति तन्त्रे सञ्ज्ञा||६|

pañca kaṣāyayōnaya iti madhurakaṣāyō'mlakaṣāyaḥ kaṭukaṣāyastiktakaṣāyaḥ kaṣāyakaṣāyaścēti tantrē sañjñā||6||

pa~jca kaShAyayonaya iti madhurakaShAyo~amlakaShAyaH kaTukaShAyastiktakaShAyaH kaShAyakaShAyashceti tantre sa~jj~jA||6||

The five basic tastes associated with medicinal preparations mentioned in this compendium are: sweet, sour, pungent, bitter and astringent. [6]

Five types of medicinal forms

पञ्चविधंकषायकल्पनमिति तद्यथा- स्वरसः, कल्कः, शृतः, शीतः,फाण्टः, कषाय इति| (यन्त्रनिष्पीडिताद्द्रव्याद्रसः स्वरस उच्यते | यः पिण्डो रसपिष्टानां स कल्कः परिकीर्तितः || वह्नौ तु क्वथितं द्रव्यं शृतमाहुश्चिकित्सकाः | द्रव्यादापोत्थितात्तोये प्रतप्ते निशि संस्थितात् || कषायो योऽभिनिर्याति स शीतः समुदाहृतः | क्षिप्त्वोष्णतोये मृदितं तत् फाण्टं परिकीर्तितम् ||) तेषां यथापूर्वं बलाधिक्यम्; अतः कषायकल्पना व्याध्यातुरबलापेक्षिणी; न त्वेवं खलु सर्वाणि सर्वत्रोपयोगीनि भवन्ति||७||

pañcavidhaṁ kaṣāyakalpanamiti tadyathā- svarasaḥ, kalkaḥ, śr̥taḥ, śītaḥ, phāṇṭaḥ, kaṣāya iti| (yantraniṣpīḍitāddravyādrasaḥ svarasa ucyatē | yaḥ piṇḍō rasapiṣṭānāṁ sa kalkaḥ parikīrtitaḥ || vahnau tu kvathitaṁ dravyaṁ śr̥tamāhuścikitsakāḥ | dravyādāpōtthitāttōyē prataptē niśi saṁsthitāt || kaṣāyō yō'bhiniryāti sa śītaḥ samudāhr̥taḥ | kṣiptvōṣṇatōyē mr̥ditaṁ tat phāṇṭaṁ parikīrtitam ||) tēṣāṁ yathāpūrvaṁ balādhikyam; ataḥ kaṣāyakalpanā vyādhyāturabalāpēkṣiṇī; na tvēvaṁ khalu sarvāṇi sarvatrōpayōgīni bhavanti||7||

pa~jcavidhaM kaShAyakalpanamiti tadyathA- svarasaH, kalkaH, shRutaH, shItaH, phANTaH, kaShAya iti| (yantraniShpIDitAddravyAdrasaH [1] svarasa ucyate | yaH piNDo rasapiShTAnAM sa kalkaH parikIrtitaH || vahnau tu kvathitaM dravyaM shRutamAhushcikitsakAH | dravyAdApotthitAttoye pratapte nishi saMsthitAt || kaShAyo yo~abhiniryAti sa shItaH samudAhRutaH | kShiptvoShNatoye mRuditaM tat phANTaM parikIrtitam ||) teShAM yathApUrvaM balAdhikyam; ataH kaShAyakalpanA vyAdhyAturabalApekShiNI; na tvevaM khalu sarvANi sarvatropayogIni bhavanti||7||

The five forms of medicinal preparations are: juices, pastes, decoctions (i.e., herbs boiled with water), cold infusions (herbs soaked overnight in hot water), and hot infusions (herbs mixed with hot water). A drug, in the juice form, extracted out of a preparation by applying mechanical pressure, is called swarasa. Kalka is a drug ground with some liquid into a lump or paste form. Physicians say that shruta (kwatha) is a decoction prepared by boiling a drug on fire. When a drug is kept in hot water for the whole night, the cold infusion thus obtained is known as sheeta. Finally, phanta (hot infusion) is a preparation in which a drug is put in hot water for a while, gently mixed and administered.

The potency of these drugs is (increasing) in preceding order (hot infusion to juice), but the administration of medicine forms depend on severity of disease and strength of the patient and, therefore, are not all useful everywhere (indiscriminately). [7]

Fifty classes of medicines per their activity profile

पञ्चाशन्महाकषाया’ इति यदुक्तं तदनुव्याख्यास्यामः;तद्यथा- जीवनीयो बृंहणीयो लेखनीयो भेदनीयः सन्धानीयो दीपनीय इति षट्कः कषायवर्गः; बल्यो वर्ण्यः कण्ठ्यो हृद्य इति चतुष्कः कषायवर्गः; तृप्तिघ्नोऽर्शोघ्नः कुष्ठघ्नः कण्डूघ्नः क्रिमिघ्नो विषघ्न इति षट्कः कषायवर्गः; स्तन्यजननः स्तन्यशोधनः शुक्रजननः शुक्रशोधन इति चतुष्कः कषायवर्गः; स्नेहोपगः स्वेदोपगो वमनोपगो विरेचनोपग आस्थापनोपगोऽनुवासनोपगः शिरोविरेचनोपग इति सप्तकः कषायवर्गः; छर्दिनिग्रहणस्तृष्णानिग्रहणो हिक्कानिग्रहण इति त्रिकः कषायवर्गः; पुरीषसङ्ग्रहणीयः पुरीषविरजनीयो मूत्रसङ्ग्रहणीयो मूत्रविरजनीयो मूत्रविरेचनीय इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः; कासहरः श्वासहरः शोथहरो ज्वरहरः श्रमहर इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः; दाहप्रशमनः शीतप्रशमन उदर्दप्रशमनोऽङ्गमर्दप्रशमनः शूलप्रशमन इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः; शोणितस्थापनो वेदनास्थापनः सञ्ज्ञास्थापनः प्रजास्थापनो वयःस्थापन इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः; इति पञ्चाशन्महाकषाया महतां च कषायाणां लक्षणोदाहरणार्थं व्याख्याता भवन्ति| तेषामेकैकस्मिन् महाकषाये दश दशावयविकान् कषायाननुव्याख्यास्यामः; तान्येव पञ्च कषायशतानि भवन्ति||८||

pañcāśanmahākaṣāyā’ iti yaduktaṁ tadanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ; tadyathā- jīvanīyō br̥ṁhaṇīyō lēkhanīyō bhēdanīyaḥ sandhānīyō dīpanīya iti ṣaṭkaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; balyō varṇyaḥ kaṇṭhyō hr̥dya iti catuṣkaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; tr̥ptighnō'rśōghnaḥ kuṣṭhaghnaḥ kaṇḍūghnaḥ krimighnō viṣaghna iti ṣaṭkaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; stanyajananaḥ stanyaśōdhanaḥ śukrajananaḥ śukraśōdhana iti catuṣkaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; snēhōpagaḥ svēdōpagō vamanōpagō virēcanōpaga āsthāpanōpagō'nuvāsanōpagaḥ śirōvirēcanōpaga iti saptakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; chardinigrahaṇastr̥ṣṇānigrahaṇō hikkānigrahaṇa iti trikaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; purīṣasaṅgrahaṇīyaḥ purīṣavirajanīyō mūtrasaṅgrahaṇīyō mūtravirajanīyō mūtravirēcanīya iti pañcakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; kāsaharaḥ śvāsaharaḥ śōthaharō jvaraharaḥ śramahara iti pañcakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; dāhapraśamanaḥ śītapraśamana udardapraśamanō'ṅgamardapraśamanaḥ śūlapraśamana iti pañcakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; śōṇitasthāpanō vēdanāsthāpanaḥ sañjñāsthāpanaḥ prajāsthāpanō vayaḥsthāpana iti pañcakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ; iti pañcāśanmahākaṣāyā mahatāṁ ca kaṣāyāṇāṁ lakṣaṇōdāharaṇārthaṁ vyākhyātā bhavanti| tēṣāmēkaikasmin mahākaṣāyē daśa daśāvayavikān kaṣāyānanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ; tānyēva pañca kaṣāyaśatāni bhavanti||8||

‘pa~jcAshanmahAkaShAyA’ iti yaduktaM tadanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH; tadyathA- jIvanIyo bRuMhaNIyo lekhanIyo bhedanIyaH sandhAnIyo dIpanIya iti ShaTkaHkaShAyavargaH; balyo varNyaH kaNThyo hRudya iti catuShkaH kaShAyavargaH; tRuptighno~arshoghnaH kuShThaghnaH kaNDUghnaH krimighno viShaghna itiShaTkaH kaShAyavargaH; stanyajananaH stanyashodhanaH shukrajananaH shukrashodhana iti catuShkaH kaShAyavargaH; snehopagaH svedopago vamanopagovirecanopaga AsthApanopago~anuvAsanopagaH shirovirecanopaga iti saptakaH kaShAyavargaH; chardinigrahaNastRuShNAnigrahaNo hikkAnigrahaNa iti trikaHkaShAyavargaH; purIShasa~ggrahaNIyaH purIShavirajanIyo mUtrasa~ggrahaNIyo mUtravirajanIyo mUtravirecanIya iti pa~jcakaH kaShAyavargaH; kAsaharaHshvAsaharaH shothaharo jvaraharaH shramahara iti pa~jcakaH kaShAyavargaH; dAhaprashamanaH shItaprashamanaudardaprashamano~a~ggamardaprashamanaH shUlaprashamana iti pa~jcakaH kaShAyavargaH; shoNitasthApano vedanAsthApanaH sa~jj~jAsthApanaHprajAsthApano vayaHsthApana iti pa~jcakaH kaShAyavargaH; iti pa~jcAshanmahAkaShAyA mahatAM ca kaShAyANAM lakShaNodAharaNArthaM vyAkhyAtAbhavanti| teShAmekaikasmin mahAkaShAye dasha dashAvayavikAn kaShAyAnanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH; tAnyeva pa~jca kaShAyashatAni bhavanti||8||

The Fifty Mahakashaya (or classes of medicines, grouped by major classes)

Ten Major Classes/Groups of Medicines
Group I Consisting of six subgroups of medicines:jeevaniya(vitaliser), brimhaniya(bulk-promoting), lekhaniya (emaciating), bhedaniya(mass-breaking), sandhaniya(union-promoting), and deepaniya(appetizer).
Group II Consisting of four subgroups of medicines:balya (tonic), varnya (complexion-promoting),kanthya (beneficial for throat), and hridya (cordial).
Group III Comprising of six subgroups of medicines:truptighna (anti-satiety), arshoghna (anti-haemorrhoidal), kushthghna(anti-dermatosis), kandughna (anti-pruritic), krumighna (anthelmintic), and vishaghna (anti-toxic).
Group IV Having four subgroups of medicines: stanyajanana(galactogogue), stanyashodhana (galactodepurant), shukrajanana (semen-promoting), and shukrashodhana (semen-depurant).
Group V Consisting of seven subgroups of medicines: snehopaga (sub-oleative), swedopaga (sub-diaphoretic), vamanopaga(sub-emetic), virechanopaga (sub-purgative), aasthapanopaga(sub-corrective enemata), anuvasanopaga (sub-unctuous enema), and shirovirechanopaga (sub-errhines).
Group VI Comprising of three subgroups of medicines: chhardi nigrahana(anti- emetic), trushna nigrahana(thirst-quenching or thirst-alleviating), and hikka nigrahana(reducing hiccups).
Group VII Consisting of five subgroups of medicines: purisha samgrahaniyafaecal astringent), purisha virajaniya (faecal de-pigmenter), mutra samgrahaniya(anti-diuretic), mutra virajaniya(urinary depigmenter), and mutra virechaniya(diuretic).
Group VIII Consisting of five subgroups of medicines: kasahara (anti-cough), shwasahara (anti-dyspneic), shothahara(anti-oedema), jwarahara(antipyretic), and shramahara(anti-fatigue).
Group IX Consisting of five subgroups of medicines: dahaprashamana (pacifying burning sensation), sheetaprashamana(pacifying cold sensation), udardaprashamana(pacifyingallergies), angamardhaprashamana(pacifying bodyache), and shulaprashamana(pacifying pain).
Group X Comprising of five subgroups of medicines:shonitasthapana (haemostatic), sanjnasthapana(regaining consciousness), prajasthapana(promoting conception and implantation of embryo), and vayasthapana(anti-ageing)

Thus, fifty classes of medicines have been mentioned for definition and example. Among them, in every class, the ten constituent medicinal herbs will be described further, which will complete the list of five hundred medicinal herbs. [8]


तद्यथा- जीवकर्षभकौमेदामहामेदाकाकोलीक्षीरकाकोलीमुद्गपर्णीमाषपर्ण्यौ जीवन्ती मधुकमिति दशेमानि जीवनीयानि भवन्ति (१),

क्षीरिणीराजक्षवकाश्वगन्धाकाकोलीक्षीरकाकोलीवाट्यायनीभद्रौदनीभारद्वाजीपयस्यर्ष्यगन्धा इति दशेमानि बृंहणीयानि भवन्ति (२),

मुस्तकुष्ठहरिद्रादारुहरिद्रावचातिविषाकटुरोहिणीचित्रकचिरबिल्वहैमवत्य इति दशेमानि लेखनीयानि भवन्ति (३),

सुवहार्कोरुबुकाग्निमुखीचित्राचित्रकचिरबिल्वशङ्खिनीशकुलादनीस्वर्णक्षीरिण्य इति दशेमानि भेदनीयानि भवन्ति (४),

मधुकमधुपर्णीपृश्निपर्ण्यम्बष्ठकीसमङ्गामोचरसधातकीलोध्रप्रियङ्गुकट्फलानीति दशेमानि सन्धानीयानि भवन्ति (५),

पिप्पलीपिप्पलीमूलचव्यचित्रकशृङ्गवेराम्लवेतसमरिचाजमोदाभल्लातकास्थिहिङ्गुनिर्यासा इति दशेमानि दीपनीयानि भवन्ति (६),

इति षट्कः कषायवर्गः||९||

tadyathā- jīvakarṣabhakau mēdā mahāmēdā kākōlī kṣīrakākōlī mudgaparṇīmāṣaparṇyaujīvantī madhukamiti daśēmāni jīvanīyāni bhavanti (1),

kṣīriṇīrājakṣavakāśvagandhākākōlīkṣīrakākōlīvāṭyāyanībhadraudanībhāradvājīpayasyarṣyagandhā iti daśēmāni br̥ṁhaṇīyānibhavanti (2),

mustakuṣṭhaharidrādāruharidrāvacātiviṣākaṭurōhiṇīcitrakacirabilvahaimavatya iti daśēmāni lēkhanīyāni bhavanti (3),

suvahārkōrubukāgnimukhīcitrācitrakacirabilvaśaṅkhinīśakulādanīsvarṇakṣīriṇya iti daśēmāni bhēdanīyāni bhavanti (4),

madhukamadhuparṇīpr̥śniparṇyambaṣṭhakīsamaṅgāmōcarasadhātakīlōdhrapriyaṅgukaṭphalānīti daśēmāni sandhānīyāni bhavanti (5),

pippalīpippalīmūlacavyacitrakaśr̥ṅgavērāmlavētasamaricājamōdābhallātakāsthihiṅguniryāsā iti daśēmāni dīpanīyāni bhavanti (6),

iti ṣaṭkaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||9||

tadyathA- jIvakarShabhakau medA mahAmedA kAkolI kShIrakAkolI mudgaparNImAShaparNyau [1] jIvantI madhukamiti dashemAni jIvanIyAni bhavanti (1),

kShIriNIrAjakShavakAshvagandhAkAkolIkShIrakAkolIvATyAyanIbhadraudanIbhAradvAjIpayasyarShyagandhA [2] iti dashemAni bRuMhaNIyAni bhavanti (2),

mustakuShThaharidrAdAruharidrAvacAtiviShAkaTurohiNIcitrakacirabilvahaimavatya iti dashemAni lekhanIyAni bhavanti (3),

suvahArkorubukAgnimukhIcitrAcitrakacirabilvasha~gkhinIshakulAdanIsvarNakShIriNya [3] iti dashemAni bhedanIyAni bhavanti (4),

madhukamadhuparNIpRushniparNyambaShThakIsama~ggAmocarasadhAtakIlodhrapriya~ggukaTphalAnIti dashemAni sandhAnIyAni bhavanti (5),

pippalIpippalImUlacavyacitrakashRu~ggaverAmlavetasamaricAjamodAbhallAtakAsthihi~gguniryAsA iti dashemAni dIpanIyAni bhavanti (6),

iti ShaTkaHkaShAyavargaH||9||

Group I: Six subgroups of medicines
Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Jeevaniya(Vitalisers) jívaka, rishabhaka, meda, mahameda, kakoli, kshirakakoli, mudgaparni, mashaparni, jivanti and madhuka
Brimhaniya(Strength/bulk promoting) kshirini, rajakshavaka, ashwagandha, kakoli, kshirakakoli, vatyayani,bhadraudani, bhardwaji, payasya and rishyagandha
Lekhaniya(emaciating) musta, kushtha, haridra, daruharidra, vacha, ativisha, katurohini, chitraka, chirabilwa, andhaimavati
Bhedaniya(breaking mass/solid lesions) suvaha, arka, urubuka, agnimukhi, chitra, chitraka, chirabilwa, shankhini, shakuladani and swarnakshirini
Sandhaniya(promoting union/binding) madhuka, madhuparni, prushniparni, ambashthaki, samanga, mocharasa, dhataki, lodhra, priyangu and katphala
Deepaniya(Appetisers) pippali, pippalimula, chavya, chitraka, shringavera, amlavetasa, maricha, ajamoda, bhallatakasthi and higuniryasa


ऐन्द्र्यृषभ्यतिरसर्ष्यप्रोक्तापयस्याश्वगन्धास्थिरारोहिणीबलातिबला इति दशेमानि बल्यानि भवन्ति (७),

चन्दनतुङ्गपद्मकोशीरमधुकमञ्जिष्ठासारिवापयस्यासितालता इति दशेमानि वर्ण्यानि भवन्ति (८),

सारिवेक्षुमूलमधुकपिप्पलीद्राक्षाविदारीकैटर्यहंसपादीबृहतीकण्टकारिका इति दशेमानि कण्ठ्यानि भवन्ति (९),

आम्राम्रातकलिकुचकरमर्दवृक्षाम्लाम्लवेतसकुवलबदरदाडिममातुलुङ्गानीति दशेमानि हृद्यानि भवन्ति (१०),

इति चतुष्कः कषायवर्गः||१०||

aindryr̥ṣabhyatirasarṣyaprōktāpayasyāśvagandhāsthirārōhiṇībalātibalā iti daśēmāni balyāni bhavanti (7),

candanatuṅgapadmakōśīramadhukamañjiṣṭhāsārivāpayasyāsitālatā iti daśēmāni varṇyāni bhavanti (8),

sārivēkṣumūlamadhukapippalīdrākṣāvidārīkaiṭaryahaṁsapādībr̥hatīkaṇṭakārikā iti daśēmāni kaṇṭhyāni bhavanti (9),

āmrāmrātakalikucakaramardavr̥kṣāmlāmlavētasakuvalabadaradāḍimamātuluṅgānīti daśēmāni hr̥dyāni bhavanti (10),

iti catuṣkaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||10||

aindryRuShabhyatirasarShyaproktApayasyAshvagandhAsthirArohiNIbalAtibalA iti dashemAni balyAni bhavanti (7),

candanatu~ggapadmakoshIramadhukama~jjiShThAsArivApayasyAsitAlatA iti dashemAni varNyAni bhavanti (8),

sArivekShumUlamadhukapippalIdrAkShAvidArIkaiTaryahaMsapAdIbRuhatIkaNTakArikA iti dashemAni kaNThyAni bhavanti (9),

AmrAmrAtakalikucakaramardavRukShAmlAmlavetasakuvalabadaradADimamAtulu~ggAnIti dashemAni hRudyAni bhavanti (10),

iti catuShkaH kaShAyavargaH||10||

Group II: Four subgroups of medicines
Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Balya (tonics) aindri, rishabhi, atirasa, rishyaprokta, payasya, ashwagandha, sthira, rohini, bala and aatibala
Varnya (promoting complexion) chandana, tunga, padmaka, ushira, madhuka, manjishtha, sariva, payasya, sita, lata
Kanthya (beneficial for throat & voice) sariva, ikshu (root), madhuka, pippala, Draksha, vidari, kaidarya, hansapadi, bruhati and kantakarika
Hridya (liked by mind) amra, Aamrataka, likucha, karamarda, vrukshamla, amlavetasa, kuvala, badara, dadima, and matulunga


नागरचव्यचित्रकविडङ्गमूर्वागुडूचीवचामुस्तपिप्पलीपटोलानीति दशेमानि तृप्तिघ्नानि भवन्ति (११),

कुटजबिल्वचित्रकनागरातिविषाभयाधन्वयासकदारुहरिद्रावचाचव्यानीति दशेमान्यर्शोघ्नानि भवन्ति (१२),

खदिराभयामलकहरिद्रारुष्करसप्तपर्णारग्वधकरवीरविडङ्गजातीप्रवाला इति दशेमानि कुष्ठघ्नानि भवन्ति (१३),

चन्दननलदकृतमालनक्तमालनिम्बकुटजसर्षपमधुकदारुहरिद्रामुस्तानीति दशेमानि कण्डूघ्नानि भवन्ति (१४),

अक्षीवमरिचगण्डीरकेबुकविडङ्गनिर्गुण्डीकिणिहीश्वदंष्ट्रावृषपर्णिकाखुपर्णिका इति दशेमानि क्रिमिघ्नानि भवन्ति (१५),

हरिद्रामञ्जिष्ठासुवहासूक्ष्मैलापालिन्दीचन्दनकतकशिरीषसिन्धुवारश्लेष्मातका इति दशेमानि विषघ्नानि भवन्ति (१६),

इति षट्कः कषायवर्गः||११||

nāgaracavyacitrakaviḍaṅgamūrvāguḍūcīvacāmustapippalīpaṭōlānīti daśēmāni tr̥ptighnāni bhavanti (11),

kuṭajabilvacitrakanāgarātiviṣābhayādhanvayāsakadāruharidrāvacācavyānītidaśēmānyarśōghnāni bhavanti (12),

khadirābhayāmalakaharidrāruṣkarasaptaparṇāragvadhakaravīraviḍaṅgajātīpravālā iti daśēmāni kuṣṭhaghnāni bhavanti (13),

candananaladakr̥tamālanaktamālanimbakuṭajasarṣapamadhukadāruharidrāmustānīti daśēmāni kaṇḍūghnāni bhavanti (14),

akṣīvamaricagaṇḍīrakēbukaviḍaṅganirguṇḍīkiṇihīśvadaṁṣṭrāvr̥ṣaparṇikākhuparṇikā iti daśēmāni krimighnāni bhavanti (15),

haridrāmañjiṣṭhāsuvahāsūkṣmailāpālindīcandanakatakaśirīṣasindhuvāraślēṣmātakā iti daśēmāni viṣaghnāni bhavanti (16),

iti ṣaṭkaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||11||

nAgaracavyacitrakaviDa~ggamUrvAguDUcIvacAmustapippalIpaTolAnIti dashemAni tRuptighnAni bhavanti (11),

kuTajabilvacitrakanAgarAtiviShAbhayAdhanvayAsakadAruharidrAvacAcavyAnIti dashemAnyarshoghnAni bhavanti (12),

khadirAbhayAmalakaharidrAruShkarasaptaparNAragvadhakaravIraviDa~ggajAtIpravAlA iti dashemAni kuShThaghnAni bhavanti (13),

candananaladakRutamAlanaktamAlanimbakuTajasarShapamadhukadAruharidrAmustAnIti dashemAni kaNDUghnAni bhavanti (14),

akShIvamaricagaNDIrakebukaviDa~gganirguNDIkiNihIshvadaMShTrAvRuShaparNikAkhuparNikA iti dashemAni krimighnAni bhavanti (15),

haridrAma~jjiShThAsuvahAsUkShmailApAlindIcandanakatakashirIShasindhuvArashleShmAtakA iti dashemAni viShaghnAni bhavanti (16),

iti ShaTkaHkaShAyavargaH||11||

Group III: Six subgroups of medicines
Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Truptighna (anti-satiety) nagara, chavya, chitraka, vidanga, murva, guduchi, musta, pippali patola
Arshoghna (anti-hemorrhoids) kutaja, bilva, chitraka, nagara, ativisha, abhaya, dhanvayasa, daruharidra, vacha and chavya
Kushthaghna (anti-dermatosis) khadira, abhaya, amalaka, haridra, arushkara, saptaparna, aragvadha, karavira, vidanga, tender leaves of jati
Kandughna (anti-pruritic/itching) chandana, nalada, kritamala, naktamala, nimba, kutaja, sarshapa, madhuka, daruharidra and musta
Krumighna (anti-helmintics) akshiva, maricha, gandira, kebuka, vidanga, nirgundi, kinihi, shwadanshtra, vrishaparnika and akhuparnika
Vishaghna (anti-poisons/anti-dotes) haridra, manjishtha, suvaha, sukshma ela, palindi, chandana, kataka, shirisha, sindhuvara and shleshmantaka

वीरणशालिषष्टिकेक्षुवालिकादर्भकुशकाशगुन्द्रेत्कटकत्तृणमूलानीति दशेमानि स्तन्यजननानि भवन्ति (१७),

पाठामहौषधसुरदारुमुस्तमूर्वागुडूचीवत्सकफलकिराततिक्तककटुरोहिणीसारिवा इति दशेमानि स्तन्यशोधनानि भवन्ति (१८),

जीवकर्षभककाकोलीक्षीरकाकोलीमुद्गपर्णीमाषपर्णीमेदावृद्धरुहाजटिलाकुलिङ्गा इति दशेमानि शुक्रजननानि भवन्ति (१९),

कुष्ठैलवालुककट्फलसमुद्रफेनकदम्बनिर्यासेक्षुकाण्डेक्ष्विक्षुरकवसुकोशीराणीति दशेमानि शुक्रशोधनानि भवन्ति (२०),

इति चतुष्कः कषायवर्गः||१२||

vīraṇaśāliṣaṣṭikēkṣuvālikādarbhakuśakāśagundrētkaṭakattr̥ṇamūlānīti daśēmāni stanyajananāni bhavanti (17),

pāṭhāmahauṣadhasuradārumustamūrvāguḍūcīvatsakaphalakirātatiktakakaṭurōhiṇīsārivā iti daśēmāni stanyaśōdhanāni bhavanti (18),

jīvakarṣabhakakākōlīkṣīrakākōlīmudgaparṇīmāṣaparṇīmēdāvr̥ddharuhājaṭilākuliṅgā iti daśēmāni śukrajananāni bhavanti (19),

kuṣṭhailavālukakaṭphalasamudraphēnakadambaniryāsēkṣukāṇḍēkṣvikṣurakavasukōśīrāṇīti daśēmāni śukraśōdhanāni bhavanti (20),

iti catuṣkaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||12||

vIraNashAliShaShTikekShuvAlikAdarbhakushakAshagundretkaTakattRuNamUlAnIti dashemAni stanyajananAni bhavanti (17),

pAThAmahauShadhasuradArumustamUrvAguDUcIvatsakaphalakirAtatiktakakaTurohiNIsArivA iti dashemAni stanyashodhanAni bhavanti (18),

jIvakarShabhakakAkolIkShIrakAkolImudgaparNImAShaparNImedAvRuddharuhAjaTilAkuli~ggA iti dashemAni shukrajananAni bhavanti (19),

kuShThailavAlukakaTphalasamudraphenakadambaniryAsekShukANDekShvikShurakavasukoshIrANIti dashemAni shukrashodhanAni bhavanti (20),

iti catuShkaH kaShAyavargaH||12||

Group IV: Four subgroups of medicines
Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Stanyajanana(galactogogues) Roots of the following: virana, shali, shashtik shali, ikshuvalika, darbha, kusha, kash, gundra itkata, katruna
Stanyashodhana(galacto-purifiers) patha, mahaushadha, suradaru, musta, murva, guduchi, vatsaka phala, kiratatikta, katukrohini and sariva
Shukra janana(semen promoting) jívaka, rishabhaka, kakoií, kshirakakoli, mudgaparni, mashaparni, meda, vriddharuha, jatila, kulinga
Shukra shodhana(semen purifiers) kushtha, elavaluka, katphala, samudraphena, kadambaniryasa, ikshu, kandekshu, ikshuraka,vasuka and ushira

मृद्वीकामधुकमधुपर्णीमेदाविदारीकाकोलीक्षीरकालोलीजीवकजीवन्तीशालपर्ण्य इति दशेमानि स्नेहोपगानि भवन्ति (२१),

शोभाञ्जनकैरण्डार्कवृश्चीरपुनर्नवायवतिलकुलत्थमाषबदराणीति दशेमानि स्वेदोपगानि भवन्ति (२२),

मधुमधुककोविदारकर्बुदारनीपविदुलबिम्बीशणपुष्पीसदापुष्पाप्रत्यक्पुष्पा इति दशेमानि वमनोपगानि भवन्ति (२३),

द्राक्षाकाश्मर्यपरूषकाभयामलकबिभीतककुवलबदरकर्कन्धुपीलूनीति दशेमानि विरेचनोपगानि भवन्ति (२४),

त्रिवृद्बिल्वपिप्पलीकुष्ठसर्षपवचावत्सकफलशतपुष्पामधुकमदनफलानीति दशेमान्यास्थापनोपगानि भवन्ति (२५),

रास्नासुरदारुबिल्वमदनशतपुष्पावृश्चीरपुनर्नवाश्वदंष्ट्राग्निमन्थश्योनाका इति दशेमान्यनुवासनोपगानि भवन्ति (२६),

ज्योतिष्मतीक्षवकमरिचपिप्पलीविडङ्गशिग्रुसर्षपापामार्गतण्डुलश्वेतामहाश्वेता इति दशेमानि शिरोविरेचनोपगानि भवन्ति (२७),

इति सप्तकः कषायवर्गः||१३||

mr̥dvīkāmadhukamadhuparṇīmēdāvidārīkākōlīkṣīrakālōlījīvakajīvantīśālaparṇya iti daśēmāni snēhōpagāni bhavanti (21),

śōbhāñjanakairaṇḍārkavr̥ścīrapunarnavāyavatilakulatthamāṣabadarāṇīti daśēmāni svēdōpagāni bhavanti (22),

madhumadhukakōvidārakarbudāranīpavidulabimbīśaṇapuṣpīsadāpuṣpāpratyakpuṣpā iti daśēmāni vamanōpagāni bhavanti (23),

drākṣākāśmaryaparūṣakābhayāmalakabibhītakakuvalabadarakarkandhupīlūnīti daśēmāni virēcanōpagāni bhavanti (24),

trivr̥dbilvapippalīkuṣṭhasarṣapavacāvatsakaphalaśatapuṣpāmadhukamadanaphalānīti daśēmānyāsthāpanōpagāni bhavanti (25),

rāsnāsuradārubilvamadanaśatapuṣpāvr̥ścīrapunarnavāśvadaṁṣṭrāgnimanthaśyōnākā iti daśēmānyanuvāsanōpagāni bhavanti (26),

jyōtiṣmatīkṣavakamaricapippalīviḍaṅgaśigrusarṣapāpāmārgataṇḍulaśvētāmahāśvētā iti daśēmāni śirōvirēcanōpagāni bhavanti (27),

iti saptakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||13||

mRudvIkAmadhukamadhuparNImedAvidArIkAkolIkShIrakAlolIjIvakajIvantIshAlaparNya iti dashemAni snehopagAni bhavanti (21),

shobhA~jjanakairaNDArkavRushcIrapunarnavAyavatilakulatthamAShabadarANIti dashemAni svedopagAni bhavanti (22),

madhumadhukakovidArakarbudAranIpavidulabimbIshaNapuShpIsadApuShpApratyakpuShpA iti dashemAni vamanopagAni bhavanti (23),

drAkShAkAshmaryaparUShakAbhayAmalakabibhItakakuvalabadarakarkandhupIlUnIti dashemAni virecanopagAni bhavanti (24),

trivRudbilvapippalIkuShThasarShapavacAvatsakaphalashatapuShpAmadhukamadanaphalAnIti dashemAnyAsthApanopagAni bhavanti (25),

rAsnAsuradArubilvamadanashatapuShpAvRushcIrapunarnavAshvadaMShTrAgnimanthashyonAkA iti dashemAnyanuvAsanopagAni bhavanti (26),

jyotiShmatIkShavakamaricapippalIviDa~ggashigrusarShapApAmArgataNDulashvetAmahAshvetA iti dashemAni shirovirecanopagAni bhavanti (27),

iti saptakaHkaShAyavargaH||13||

Group V: Seven subgroups of medicines
Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Snehopaga(helping oleation) mrudwika, madhuka, madhuparni, meda, vidari, kakoli, kshirakakoli, jivaka, jivanti and shalparni
Swedopaga(helping dia-phoresis/sudation) shobhanjana, eranda, arka, vruschira, punaranva, yava, tila, kulattha, masha and badara
Vamanopaga(helping emesis) madhu, madhuka, kovidara, karbudara, nipa, vidula, bimbi, shanapushpi, sadapushpi, and apamarga
Virechanopaga(helping purgation) draksha, kashmarya, parushaka, abhaya, amalaka, bibhitaka, kuvala, badara, karkandhu and pilu
Asthapanopaga(helping corrective enema) trivrut, bilwa, pippali, kushtha, sarshapa, vacha, vatsakaphala, shatapushpa, madhuka, madanaphala
Anuvasanopaga(unctuous enema) rasna, surdaru, bilwa, madana, shatapushpa, vrishchira, punarnava, gokshura, agnimantha, and shyonaka
Shirovirechanopaga( helping nasal errhine therapy) jyotishmatí, kshavaka, maricha, pippali, vidanga, shigru, sarshapa, apamarga (seeds), shweta and mahashweta

जम्ब्वाम्रपल्लवमातुलुङ्गाम्लबदरदाडिमयवयष्टिकोशीरमृल्लाजा इति दशेमानि छर्दिनिग्रहणानि भवन्ति (२८),

नागरधन्वयवासकमुस्तपर्पटकचन्दनकिराततिक्तकगुडूचीह्रीवेरधान्यकपटोलानीति दशेमानि तृष्णानिग्रहणानि भवन्ति (२९),

शटीपुष्करमूलबदरबीजकण्टकारिकाबृहतीवृक्षरुहाभयापिप्पलीदुरालभाकुलीरशृङ्ग्य इति दशेमानि हिक्कानिग्रहणानि भवन्ति (३०), इति त्रिकः कषायवर्गः||१४||

jambvāmrapallavamātuluṅgāmlabadaradāḍimayavayaṣṭikōśīramr̥llājā iti daśēmāni chardinigrahaṇāni bhavanti (28),

nāgaradhanvayavāsakamustaparpaṭakacandanakirātatiktakaguḍūcīhrīvēradhānyakapaṭōlānīti daśēmāni tr̥ṣṇānigrahaṇāni bhavanti(29),

śaṭīpuṣkaramūlabadarabījakaṇṭakārikābr̥hatīvr̥kṣaruhābhayāpippalīdurālabhākulīraśr̥ṅgya iti daśēmāni hikkānigrahaṇāni bhavanti (30),

iti trikaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||14||

jambvAmrapallavamAtulu~ggAmlabadaradADimayavayaShTikoshIramRullAjA iti dashemAni chardinigrahaNAni bhavanti (28),

nAgaradhanvayavAsakamustaparpaTakacandanakirAtatiktakaguDUcIhrIveradhAnyakapaTolAnIti dashemAni tRuShNAnigrahaNAni bhavanti (29),

shaTIpuShkaramUlabadarabIjakaNTakArikAbRuhatIvRukSharuhAbhayApippalIdurAlabhAkulIrashRu~ggya iti dashemAni hikkAnigrahaNAni bhavanti (30),

iti trikaHkaShAyavargaH||14||

Group VI: Three subgroups of medicines
Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Chhardi nigrahana(reducing vomiting) jambu, amra pallava (tender leaves), matulunaga, amla badara, dadima, yava, yashtika, ushira, mrut (earth) and laja (fired paddy)
Trishna nigrahana(reducing thirst) nagara, dhanvayavasaka, musta, parpataka, chandana, kiratatiktaka, guduchi, hribera, dhanyaka and patola
Hikka nigrahana (reducing hiccups) shati, pushkaramula, badara beeja (seeds), kantakarika, bruhati, vruksharuha, abhaya, pippali, duralabha and kulira-shrunga

प्रियङ्ग्वनन्ताम्रास्थिकट्वङ्गलोध्रमोचरससमङ्गाधातकीपुष्पपद्मापद्मकेशराणीति दशेमानि पुरीषसङ्ग्रहणीयानि भवन्ति (३१),

जम्बुशल्लकीत्वक्कच्छुरामधूकशाल्मलीश्रीवेष्टकभृष्टमृत्पयस्योत्पलतिलकणा इति दशेमानि पुरीषविरजनीयानि भवन्ति (३२),

जम्ब्वाम्रप्लक्षवटकपीतनोडुम्बराश्वत्थभल्लातकाश्मन्तकसोमवल्का इति दशेमानि मूत्रसङ्ग्रहणीयानि भवन्ति (३३),

पद्मोत्पलनलिनकुमुदसौगन्धिकपुण्डरीकशतपत्रमधुकप्रियङ्गुधातकीपुष्पाणीति दशेमानि मूत्रविरजनीयानि भवन्ति (३४),

वृक्षादनीश्वदंष्ट्रावसुकवशिरपाषाणभेददर्भकुशकाशगुन्द्रेत्कटमूलानीति दशेमानि मूत्रविरेचनीयानि भवन्ति (३५),

इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः||१५||

priyaṅgvanantāmrāsthikaṭvaṅgalōdhramōcarasasamaṅgādhātakīpuṣpapadmāpadmakēśarāṇīti daśēmāni purīṣasaṅgrahaṇīyānibhavanti (31),

jambuśallakītvakkacchurāmadhūkaśālmalīśrīvēṣṭakabhr̥ṣṭamr̥tpayasyōtpalatilakaṇā iti daśēmāni purīṣavirajanīyāni bhavanti (32),

jambvāmraplakṣavaṭakapītanōḍumbarāśvatthabhallātakāśmantakasōmavalkā iti daśēmāni mūtrasaṅgrahaṇīyāni bhavanti (33),

padmōtpalanalinakumudasaugandhikapuṇḍarīkaśatapatramadhukapriyaṅgudhātakīpuṣpāṇīti daśēmāni mūtravirajanīyāni bhavanti (34),

vr̥kṣādanīśvadaṁṣṭrāvasukavaśirapāṣāṇabhēdadarbhakuśakāśagundrētkaṭamūlānīti daśēmāni mūtravirēcanīyāni bhavanti (35),

iti pañcakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||15||

priya~ggvanantAmrAsthikaTva~ggalodhramocarasasama~ggAdhAtakIpuShpapadmApadmakesharANIti dashemAni purIShasa~ggrahaNIyAni bhavanti (31),

jambushallakItvakkacchurAmadhUkashAlmalIshrIveShTakabhRuShTamRutpayasyotpalatilakaNA iti dashemAni purIShavirajanIyAni bhavanti (32),

jambvAmraplakShavaTakapItanoDumbarAshvatthabhallAtakAshmantakasomavalkA iti dashemAni mUtrasa~ggrahaNIyAni bhavanti (33),

padmotpalanalinakumudasaugandhikapuNDarIkashatapatramadhukapriya~ggudhAtakIpuShpANIti dashemAni mUtravirajanIyAni bhavanti (34),

vRukShAdanIshvadaMShTrAvasukavashirapAShANabhedadarbhakushakAshagundretkaTamUlAnIti dashemAni mUtravirecanIyAni bhavanti (35),

iti pa~jcakaHkaShAyavargaH||15||

Group VII: Five subgroups
Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Purisha samgrahaniya(faecal astringents) priyangu, ananta, amrasthi, katvanga, lodhra, mocharasa, samanga, dhatakipushpa (flowers), padma and padmakeshara
Purisha virajaniya(faecal depigmentors) jambu, shallakítwak (bark), kacchura, madhooka, shalmali, shriveshtaka, bhrist mruda (fried earth), payasya, utpala and tila kana grains
Mutra samgrahaniya(anti-diuretics) jambu, amra, plaksha, vata, kapitana, udumbara, ashwattha, bhallataka, ashmantaka, somavalka
Mutra virajaniya(urinary depigmenters) padma, utpala, nalina, kumuda, saugandhika, pundaríka, shatapatra, madhuka, priyangu and dhataki (flowers)
Mutrala(diuretics) vrukshadani, shwadanshtra, vasuka, vashira, pashanabheda, darbha, kusha, kasha, gundra, itkatamoola (roots)

द्राक्षाभयामलकपिप्पलीदुरालभाशृङ्गीकण्टकारिकावृश्चीरपुनर्नवातामलक्य इति दशेमानि कासहराणि भवन्ति (३६),

शटीपुष्करमूलाम्लवेतसैलाहिङ्ग्वगुरुसुरसातामलकीजीवन्तीचण्डा इति दशेमानि श्वासहराणि भवन्ति (३७),

पाटलाग्निमन्थश्योनाकबिल्वकाश्मर्यकण्टकारिकाबृहतीशालपर्णीपृश्निपर्णीगोक्षुरका इति दशेमानि श्वयथुहराणि भवन्ति (३८),

सारिवाशर्करापाठामञ्जिष्ठाद्राक्षापीलुपरूषकाभयामलकबिभीतकानीति दशेमानि ज्वरहराणि भवन्ति (३९),

द्राक्षाखर्जूरप्रियालबदरदाडिमफल्गुपरूषकेक्षुयवषष्टिका इति दशेमानि श्रमहराणि भवन्ति (४०),

इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः||१६||

drākṣābhayāmalakapippalīdurālabhāśr̥ṅgīkaṇṭakārikāvr̥ścīrapunarnavātāmalakya iti daśēmāni kāsaharāṇi bhavanti (36),

śaṭīpuṣkaramūlāmlavētasailāhiṅgvagurusurasātāmalakījīvantīcaṇḍā iti daśēmāni śvāsaharāṇi bhavanti (37),

pāṭalāgnimanthaśyōnākabilvakāśmaryakaṇṭakārikābr̥hatīśālaparṇīpr̥śniparṇīgōkṣurakā iti daśēmāni śvayathuharāṇi bhavanti (38),

sārivāśarkarāpāṭhāmañjiṣṭhādrākṣāpīluparūṣakābhayāmalakabibhītakānīti daśēmāni jvaraharāṇi bhavanti (39),

drākṣākharjūrapriyālabadaradāḍimaphalguparūṣakēkṣuyavaṣaṣṭikā iti daśēmāni śramaharāṇi bhavanti (40),

iti pañcakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||16||

drAkShAbhayAmalakapippalIdurAlabhAshRu~ggIkaNTakArikAvRushcIrapunarnavAtAmalakya iti dashemAni kAsaharANi bhavanti (36),

shaTIpuShkaramUlAmlavetasailAhi~ggvagurusurasAtAmalakIjIvantIcaNDA iti dashemAni shvAsaharANi bhavanti (37),

pATalAgnimanthashyonAkabilvakAshmaryakaNTakArikAbRuhatIshAlaparNIpRushniparNIgokShurakA iti dashemAni shvayathuharANi bhavanti (38),

sArivAsharkarApAThAma~jjiShThAdrAkShApIluparUShakAbhayAmalakabibhItakAnIti dashemAni jvaraharANi bhavanti (39),

drAkShAkharjUrapriyAlabadaradADimaphalguparUShakekShuyavaShaShTikA iti dashemAni shramaharANi bhavanti (40),

iti pa~jcakaH kaShAyavargaH||16||

Group VIII: Five subgroups of medicines
Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Kasahara(relieving cough) draksha, abhaya , amalaka , pippali , duralabha , shringi , kantakari, vrushchir , punarnava , tamalaki
Shwasahara(relieving respiratory distress) shati, pushkaramula, amlavetasa, ela, hingu, aguru, surasa, Tamalaki, jivanti, chanda
Shothahara(relieving oedema) patola, angimantha, shyonaka, bilwa, kashamarya, kantakarika, bruhatí, shalaparní, prushniparni and gokshura
Jwarahara(relieving fever) sariva, sharkara, patha, manjishtha, draksha, pilu, parushaka, abhaya, amalaka and bibhitaka
Shramahara(relieving fatigue) draksha, kharjura, priyala, badara, dadima, phalgu, parushaka, ikshu, yava and shashtika

लाजाचन्दनकाश्मर्यफलमधूकशर्करानीलोत्पलोशीरसारिवागुडूचीह्रीबेराणीति दशेमानि दाहप्रशमनानि भवन्ति (४१),

तगरागुरुधान्यकशृङ्गवेरभूतीकवचाकण्टकार्यग्निमन्थश्योनाकपिप्पल्य इति दशेमानि शीतप्रशमनानि भवन्ति (४२),

तिन्दुकप्रियालबदरखदिरकदरसप्तपर्णाश्वकर्णार्जुनासनारिमेदा इति दशेमान्युदर्दप्रशमनानि भवन्ति (४३),

विदारीगन्धापृश्निपर्णीबृहतीकण्टकारिकैरण्डकाकोलीचन्दनोशीरैलामधुकानीति दशेमान्यङ्गमर्दप्रशमनानि भवन्ति (४४),

पिप्पलीपिप्पलीमूलचव्यचित्रकशृङ्गवेरमरिचाजमोदाजगन्धाजाजीगण्डीराणीति दशेमानि शूलप्रशमनानि भवन्ति (४५), इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः||१७||

lājācandanakāśmaryaphalamadhūkaśarkarānīlōtpalōśīrasārivāguḍūcīhrībērāṇīti daśēmāni dāhapraśamanāni bhavanti (41),

tagarāgurudhānyakaśr̥ṅgavērabhūtīkavacākaṇṭakāryagnimanthaśyōnākapippalya iti daśēmāni śītapraśamanāni bhavanti (42),

tindukapriyālabadarakhadirakadarasaptaparṇāśvakarṇārjunāsanārimēdā iti daśēmānyudardapraśamanāni bhavanti (43),

vidārīgandhāpr̥śniparṇībr̥hatīkaṇṭakārikairaṇḍakākōlīcandanōśīrailāmadhukānīti daśēmānyaṅgamardapraśamanāni bhavanti (44),

pippalīpippalīmūlacavyacitrakaśr̥ṅgavēramaricājamōdājagandhājājīgaṇḍīrāṇīti daśēmāni śūlapraśamanāni bhavanti (45),

iti pañcakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||17||

lAjAcandanakAshmaryaphalamadhUkasharkarAnIlotpaloshIrasArivAguDUcIhrIberANIti dashemAni dAhaprashamanAni bhavanti (41),

tagarAgurudhAnyakashRu~ggaverabhUtIkavacAkaNTakAryagnimanthashyonAkapippalya iti dashemAni shItaprashamanAni bhavanti (42),

tindukapriyAlabadarakhadirakadarasaptaparNAshvakarNArjunAsanArimedA iti dashemAnyudardaprashamanAni bhavanti (43),

vidArIgandhApRushniparNIbRuhatIkaNTakArikairaNDakAkolIcandanoshIrailAmadhukAnIti dashemAnya~ggamardaprashamanAni bhavanti (44),

pippalIpippalImUlacavyacitrakashRu~ggaveramaricAjamodAjagandhAjAjIgaNDIrANIti dashemAni shUlaprashamanAni bhavanti (45),

iti pa~jcakaHkaShAyavargaH||17||

Group IX: Five subgroups of medicines
Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Dahaprashamana(pacifying burning sensation) laja, chandana, kashmarya phala (fruits), madhuka, sharkara, nílotpala, ushira, sariva, guduchi and hribera
Sheeta prashamana(pacifying cold) tagara, aguru, dhanyaka, shringabera, bhutíka, vacha, kantakari, agnimantha, syonaka and pippali
Udardaprashamana(pacifying allergies) tinduka, priyala, badara, khadira, kadara, saptaparna, ashwakarna, arjuna, asana and arimeda
Angamrdaprashamana(relieving body-ache) vidarigandha, prushniparni, bruhati, kantakarika, eranda, kakoli, chandana, ushira, ela and madhuka
Shula prashamana(anti-spasmodics) pippali, pippalimula, chavya, chitraka, shringavera, maricha, ajamoda, ajagandha, ajaji and gandira

मधुमधुकरुधिरमोचरसमृत्कपाललोध्रगैरिकप्रियङ्गुशर्करालाजा इति दशेमानि शोणितस्थापनानि भवन्ति (४६),

शालकट्फलकदम्बपद्मकतुम्बमोचरसशिरीषवञ्जुलैलवालुकाशोका इति दशेमानि वेदनास्थापनानि भवन्ति (४७),

हिङ्गुकैटर्यारिमेदावचाचोरकवयस्थागोलोमीजटिलापलङ्कषाशोकरोहिण्य इति दशेमानि सञ्ज्ञास्थापनानि भवन्ति (४८),

ऐन्द्रीब्राह्मीशतवीर्यासहस्रवीर्याऽमोघाऽव्यथाशिवाऽरिष्टावाट्यपुष्पीविष्वक्सेनकान्ता इति दशेमानि प्रजास्थापनानि भवन्ति (४९),

अमृताऽभयाधात्रीमुक्ताश्वेताजीवन्त्यतिरसामण्डूकपर्णीस्थिरापुनर्नवा इति दशेमानि वयःस्थापनानि भवन्ति (५०),

इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः||१८||

madhumadhukarudhiramōcarasamr̥tkapālalōdhragairikapriyaṅguśarkarālājā iti daśēmāni śōṇitasthāpanāni bhavanti (46),

śālakaṭphalakadambapadmakatumbamōcarasaśirīṣavañjulailavālukāśōkā iti daśēmāni vēdanāsthāpanāni bhavanti (47),

hiṅgukaiṭaryārimēdāvacācōrakavayasthāgōlōmījaṭilāpalaṅkaṣāśōkarōhiṇya iti daśēmāni sañjñāsthāpanāni bhavanti (48),

aindrībrāhmīśatavīryāsahasravīryā'mōghā'vyathāśivā'riṣṭāvāṭyapuṣpīviṣvaksēnakāntā iti daśēmāni prajāsthāpanāni bhavanti (49),

amr̥tā'bhayādhātrīmuktāśvētājīvantyatirasāmaṇḍūkaparṇīsthirāpunarnavā iti daśēmāni vayaḥsthāpanāni bhavanti (50),

iti pañcakaḥ kaṣāyavargaḥ||18||

madhumadhukarudhiramocarasamRutkapAlalodhragairikapriya~ggusharkarAlAjA iti dashemAni shoNitasthApanAni bhavanti (46),

shAlakaTphalakadambapadmakatumbamocarasashirIShava~jjulailavAlukAshokA iti dashemAni vedanAsthApanAni bhavanti (47),

hi~ggukaiTaryArimedAvacAcorakavayasthAgolomIjaTilApala~gkaShAshokarohiNya iti dashemAni sa~jj~jAsthApanAni bhavanti (48),

aindrIbrAhmIshatavIryAsahasravIryA~amoghA~avyathAshivA~ariShTAvATyapuShpIviShvaksenakAntA iti dashemAni prajAsthApanAni bhavanti (49),

amRutA~abhayAdhAtrImuktAshvetAjIvantyatirasAmaNDUkaparNIsthirApunarnavA iti dashemAni vayaHsthApanAni bhavanti (50),

iti pa~jcakaH kaShAyavargaH||18||

Group X: Five subgroups of medicines
Name of Subgroup Medicines (herbs)
Shonita sthapana(hemostatics) madhu, madhuka, rudhira, mocharasa, mrut-kapala (pieces of earthen pot), lodhra, gairika, priyangu, sharkara and laja
Vedana sthapana(stopping sensation of pain) shala, katphala, kadamba, padmaka, tumba, mocharasa, shirisha, vanjula, elavaluka, and ashoka
Sanjna sthapana(restoring consciousness) hingu, katarya, arimeda, vacha, choraka, vayastha, golomí, jatila, palankasha, ashokarohinya
Praja sthapana(promoting conception & foetus growth) aindri, brahmi, shatavirya, sahasaravirya, amogha, avyatha, shiva, arishta, vatyapushpi, viswakasenakranta
Vaya sthapana(anti-ageing) amruta (guduchi), abhaya, dhatri, yukta, shweta, jivanti, atirasa, mandookaparni, sthira and punarnava

इति पञ्चकषायशतान्यभिसमस्य पञ्चाशन्महाकषाया महतां च कषायाणां लक्षणोदाहरणार्थं व्याख्याता भवन्ति||१९||

iti pañcakaṣāyaśatānyabhisamasya pañcāśanmahākaṣāyā mahatāṁ ca kaṣāyāṇāṁ lakṣaṇōdāharaṇārthaṁ vyākhyātā bhavanti||19||

iti pa~jcakaShAyashatAnyabhisamasya pa~jcAshanmahAkaShAyA mahatAM ca kaShAyANAM lakShaNodAharaNArthaM vyAkhyAtA bhavanti||19||

Thus five hundred medicines grouped in fifty classes have been mentioned alongwith definition and examples. [19]

Limitations of description in Samhita

नहि विस्तरस्य प्रमाणमस्ति, न चाप्यतिसङ्क्षेपोऽल्पबुद्धीनां सामर्थ्यायोपकल्पते, तस्मादनतिसङ्क्षेपेणानतिविस्तरेण चोपदिष्टाः| एतावन्तो ह्यलमल्पबुद्धीनां व्यवहाराय, बुद्धिमतां च स्वालक्षण्यानुमानयुक्तिकुशलानामनुक्तार्थज्ञानायेति||२०||

nahi vistarasya pramāṇamasti, na cāpyatisaṅkṣēpō'lpabuddhīnāṁ sāmarthyāyōpakalpatē, tasmādanatisaṅkṣēpēṇānativistarēṇa cōpadiṣṭāḥ| ētāvantō hyalamalpabuddhīnāṁ vyavahārāya, buddhimatāṁcasvālakṣaṇyānumānayuktikuśalānāmanuktārthajñānāyēti||20||

nahi vistarasya pramANamasti, na cApyatisa~gkShepo~alpabuddhInAM sAmarthyAyopakalpate, tasmAdanatisa~gkShepeNAnativistareNa copadiShTAH| etAvanto hyalamalpabuddhInAM vyavahArAya, buddhimatAM ca svAlakShaNyAnumAnayuktikushalAnAmanuktArthaj~jAnAyeti||20||

There is no limit of expansion, nor too much briefness can be sufficient for comprehending to those having low intelligence, hence (these) have been mentioned in neither too exhaustive nor too concise (style). These as such are enough for practice to the less intelligent and for the knowledge of hidden ideas to the intelligent and proficient in inference and rationale on the basis of self-definition. [20]

एवंवादिनं भगवन्तमात्रेयमग्निवेश उवाच- नैतानि भगवन्! पञ्च कषायशतानि पूर्यन्ते, तानि तानि ह्येवाङ्गान्युपप्लवन्ते तेषु तेषु महाकषायेष्विति||२१||

ēvaṁvādinaṁ bhagavantamātrēyamagnivēśa uvāca- naitāni bhagavan! pañca kaṣāyaśatāni pūryantē, tāni tāni hyēvāṅgānyupaplavantē tēṣu tēṣu mahākaṣāyēṣviti||21||

evaMvAdinaM bhagavantamAtreyamagnivesha uvAca- naitAni bhagavan! pa~jca kaShAyashatAni pUryante, tAni tAni hyevA~ggAnyupaplavante [1] teShu teShumahAkaShAyeShviti||21||

While Lord Atreya was saying thus, Agnivesha, inquired, “Sir, the number five hundred does not match with regards to medicines (or medicinal herbs) because the same constituents are repeated in these classes of medicines.” [21]

Importance of knowing synonyms

तमुवाच भगवानात्रेयः- नैतदेवं बुद्धिमता द्रष्टव्यमग्निवेश| एकोऽपि ह्यनेकां सञ्ज्ञां लभते कार्यान्तराणि कुर्वन्, तद्यथा- पुरुषो बहूनां कर्मणां करणे समर्थो भवति, स यद्यत् कर्म करोति तस्य तस्य कर्मणः कर्तृ-करण-कार्यसम्प्रयुक्तं तत्तद्गौणं नामविशेषं प्राप्नोति, तद्वदौषधद्रव्यमपिद्रष्टव्यम्|यदिचैकमेवकिञ्चिद्द्रव्यमासादयामस्तथागुणयुक्तं यत् सर्वकर्मणां करणे समर्थं स्यात्, कस्ततोऽन्यदिच्छेदुपधारयितुमुपदेष्टुं वा शिष्येभ्य इति||२२||

tamuvāca bhagavānātrēyaḥ- naitadēvaṁ buddhimatā draṣṭavyamagnivēśa| ēkō'pi hyanēkāṁ sañjñāṁ labhatē kāryāntarāṇi kurvan, tadyathā- puruṣō bahūnāṁ karmaṇāṁ karaṇē samarthō bhavati, sa yadyat karma karōti tasya tasya karmaṇaḥ kartr̥-karaṇa-kāryasamprayuktaṁ tattadgauṇaṁ nāmaviśēṣaṁ prāpnōti, tadvadauṣadhadravyamapi draṣṭavyam| yadi caikamēva kiñciddravyamāsādayāmastathāguṇayuktaṁ yat sarvakarmaṇāṁ karaṇē samarthaṁ syāt, kastatō'nyadicchēdupadhārayitumupadēṣṭuṁ vā śiṣyēbhya iti||22||

tamuvAca bhagavAnAtreyaH- naitadevaM buddhimatA draShTavyamagnivesha| eko~api hyanekAM sa~jj~jAM labhate kAryAntarANi kurvan, tadyathA- puruSho bahUnAM karmaNAM karaNe samartho bhavati, sa yadyat karma karoti tasya tasyakarmaNaH kartRu-karaNa-kAryasamprayuktaM tattadgauNaM nAmavisheShaM prApnoti, tadvadauShadhadravyamapi draShTavyam| yadi caikameva ki~jciddravyamAsAdayAmastathAguNayuktaM yat sarvakarmaNAM karaNe samarthaM syAt, kastato~anyadicchedupadhArayitumupadeShTuM vAshiShyebhya iti||22||

Lord Atreya replied to him, “Agnivesha! These should not be looked at in this way by the intelligent. If a person acquires multiple skills, then he is identified by different names as per his skills based on instruments and his profession. Likewise, a single medicine can work in different ways depending upon the properties and interaction with biological systems and performance of multiple functions. If we could find such a certain single drug that is able to exert all the actions, who would intend to know or teach the students about the other drugs?” [22]

Summary

तत्र श्लोकाः- यतो यावन्ति यैर्द्रव्यैर्विरेचनशतानि षट्| उक्तानि सङ्ग्रहेणेह तथैवैषां षडाश्रयाः||२३||

रसा लवणवर्ज्याश्च कषाय इति सञ्ज्ञिताः| तस्मात् पञ्चविधा योनिः कषायाणामुदाहृता||२४||

तथा कल्पनमप्येषामुक्तं पञ्चविधं पुनः| महतां च कषायाणां पञ्चाशत् परिकीर्तिता||२५||

पञ्च चापि कषायाणां शतान्युक्तानि भागशः| लक्षणार्थं, प्रमाणं हि विस्तरस्य न विद्यते||२६||

न चालमतिसङ्क्षेपः सामर्थ्यायोपकल्पते| अल्पबुद्धेरयं तस्मान्नातिसङ्क्षेपविस्तरः||२७||

मन्दानां व्यवहाराय, बुधानां बुद्धिवृद्धये| पञ्चाशत्को ह्ययं वर्गः कषायाणामुदाहृतः||२८||

तेषां कर्मसु बाह्येषु योगमाभ्यन्तरेषु च| संयोगं च प्रयोगं च यो वेद स भिषग्वरः||२९||

tatra ślōkāḥ- yatō yāvanti yairdravyairvirēcanaśatāni ṣaṭ| uktāni saṅgrahēṇēha tathaivaiṣāṁ ṣaḍāśrayāḥ||23||

rasā lavaṇavarjyāśca kaṣāya iti sañjñitāḥ| tasmāt pañcavidhā yōniḥ kaṣāyāṇāmudāhr̥tā||24||

tathā kalpanamapyēṣāmuktaṁ pañcavidhaṁ punaḥ| mahatāṁ ca kaṣāyāṇāṁ pañcāśat parikīrtitā||25||

pañca cāpi kaṣāyāṇāṁ śatānyuktāni bhāgaśaḥ| lakṣaṇārthaṁ, pramāṇaṁ hi vistarasya na vidyatē||26||

na cālamatisaṅkṣēpaḥ sāmarthyāyōpakalpatē| alpabuddhērayaṁ tasmānnātisaṅkṣēpavistaraḥ||27||

mandānāṁ vyavahārāya, budhānāṁ buddhivr̥ddhayē| pañcāśatkō hyayaṁ vargaḥ kaṣāyāṇāmudāhr̥taḥ||28||

tēṣāṁ karmasu bāhyēṣu yōgamābhyantarēṣu ca| saṁyōgaṁ ca prayōgaṁ ca yō vēda sa bhiṣagvaraḥ||29||

tatra shlokAH- yato yAvanti yairdravyairvirecanashatAni ShaT| uktAni sa~ggraheNeha tathaivaiShAM ShaDAshrayAH||23||

rasA lavaNavarjyAshca kaShAya iti sa~jj~jitAH| tasmAt [1] pa~jcavidhA yoniH kaShAyANAmudAhRutA||24||

tathA kalpanamapyeShAmuktaM pa~jcavidhaM punaH| mahatAM ca kaShAyANAM pa~jcAshat parikIrtitA||25||

pa~jca cApi kaShAyANAM shatAnyuktAni bhAgashaH| lakShaNArthaM, pramANaM hi vistarasya na vidyate||26||

na cAlamatisa~gkShepaH sAmarthyAyopakalpate| alpabuddherayaM tasmAnnAtisa~gkShepavistaraH||27||

mandAnAM vyavahArAya, budhAnAM buddhivRuddhaye| pa~jcAshatko hyayaM vargaH kaShAyANAmudAhRutaH||28||

teShAM karmasu bAhyeShu yogamAbhyantareShu ca| saMyogaM ca prayogaM ca yo veda sa bhiShagvaraH||29||

Now, to summarize all this body of knowledge:

Six hundred evacuatives with their number of formulations and ingredients have been mentioned in this chapter in brief along with their six resources. Rasas, except lavana, are known as kashaya and as such five sources of medicines have been mentioned. Their five forms of preparations have also been mentioned. Further, fifty subgroups of medicines have also been mentioned along with the five hundred medicines as ingredients for the sake of definition. While there is no limit to elaboration, too much brevity would make things incomprehensible for the less intelligent. This description about fifty groups of medicines is neither too exhaustive nor too concise, which should be enough for the practice to the dull and for (further) advancement of knowledge to the scholars.

He is the best among physicians who knows the application for external as well as internal actions, as well as combination and rational administration of these drugs. [23-29]

Tattva vimarsha

  • Six sources of evacuatives (sourced from plant parts) are latex, root, bark, leaf, flower and fruit. Classification of medicinal herbs has been done on the basis of their specific action. [verse 5]
  • Five origins of medicines in this compendium are based on their tastes: sweet, sour, pungent, bitter and astringent. These basic tastes can produce various medicine forms. However, the salty taste cannot produce any other medicinal form as it is soluble in water. [verse 6]
  • A drug can be prepared in five forms viz. juices, pastes, decoctions, cold infusions and hot infusions. Fresh juice is more potent/effective than paste; the paste is more potent than decoction; the decoction is more potent than cold infusion; and, cold infusion is more potent than hot infusion. Here, potency refers to active potential of the drug as well as expected bio-availability of the drug inside the body. The dosage of medication is decided depending upon the strength of the patient and the severity of disease. The digestive power of the patient is also an important consideration when deciding the form or mode of administration. If the digestive power of patient is weak, then swarasa (juice) should be avoided because it is strong and heavy to digest. In that case, one should recommend phanta (hot infusion). There are many new forms of medicine available these days. However, the basic forms will remain five as described above. [verse 7]
  • A single medicine can work in different ways and depending upon the properties and modes of interaction with biological systems, may lead to different pharmacological effects. Similarly, different drugs could result in similar patterns to produce a common cumulative pharmacological effect. Therefore, these drugs have been grouped into specific mahakashaya [verse 22].

Vidhi vimarsha

The chapter describes fifty classes of medicines per their selective action on biological systems and their expected pharmacological effects. These medicines are clinically used in various disease conditions and for indicated benefit:

  1. Jivaniya (vitaliser): Drugs which promote vitality are called jivaniya. They promote formation of good quality body tissues and are used in the management of ojas disorders. These drugs are predominant in prithví + jala mahabhuta and are mostly madhura (sweet in taste) and sheeta veerya (cool in potency). These drugs are used in immunocompromised and chronic debilitating diseases.
  2. Brimhaniya (strength promoting): Drugs that increase body strength and bulk of muscles (weight), and anabolic activities by nourishing the dhatus are termed brimhaniya. Thus, brimhaniya drugs make body strong and firm. Prithvi and jala mahabhutas are predominant in brimhaniya drugs. These drugs are indicated in degenerative diseases like neuromuscular diseases.
  3. Lekhaniya (lightness producing): Drugs that reduce excessively increased dhatus and make person lean and thin along with feeling of lightness are said lekhaniya. Vayu and agni mahabhutas are predominant in such type of drugs. These drugs are indicated in diseases like obesity that are caused due to overnutrition.
  4. Bhedaniya (useful for probing and depressurizing): Those drugs that break the accumulation of dosha, fecal material, gulma (abdominal lump) or any type of growth are called bhedaniya. Bhedana action of these drugs is due to their tikshna property (sharp, piercing properties). These are indicated in diseases with obstructive pathology.
  5. Sandhaniya (union promoter): The drugs that are helpful for uniting tissues, wound healing and treatment of fractures are called sandhaniya. Mostly kashaya rasa dravyas are included in this group.
  6. Dipaniya (appetiser): The drugs which increase appetite are called dipaniya. These drugs stimulate appetite as they possess predominantly agni mahabhuta. These drugs are pungent, sour and salty in taste, hot in potency, and with light and strong properties.
  7. Balya (tonic): Balya has been defined as a class of drugs that have upachaya (firm) and shakti (strength) as their key properties. So balya means that which enhances strength by promoting ojas (Dalhana– Su.Su. 45.26). Bala has been considered as action of ojas. In absence of ojas body becomes unable to perform its own natural function. Balya dravyas are considered as of two types:
    1. Samanya (general) – These drugs promote general bodily strength, such as shatavari etc. Being dhatu promoting they potentiate the formation of ojas.
    2. Vishishta (specific) – Some drugs provide strength to specific organs, such as
      1. Tiktarasa dravyas, effective for amashaya (stomach)
      2. Arjuna, effective for hridaya (heart)
  8. Varnya (complexion promoting): Drugs that are useful in the maintenance and improvement of natural body complexion are called varnya. Bhrajaka pitta situated in the skin is responsible for the complexion of the skin. These drugs (e.g., chandana, ushira, manjishtha, sariva etc.) pacify bhrajaka pitta and improve the complexion, and therefore are used in cosmetics .
  9. Kanthya (beneficial for throat and voice): Drugs which alleviate defect in the vocal cord and restore the normalcy of voice are called kanthya or svarya. Disorders of throat are considered tridoshaja (since all the doshas are vitiated in these disorders), however vata and kapha are predominant. Therefore, vata-kapha pacifying drugs are beneficial in alleviating throat disorders and improving voice.
  10. Hridya (cardiac tonic): The ten hridya drugs are generally mildly sour tasting and liked by most people. The word hridya denotes that which is beneficial to the heart (cardiac tonic) i.e. arjuna, gold. etc.
  11. Truptighna (anti-satiety): Trupti (satiety) is a specific disorder of kapha in which feeling of fullness or bloatedness is experienced. The drugs of this group are mostly pungent and bitter tasting.
  12. Arshodhna (anti-hemorrhoids): These drugs alleviate the cause of doshas of arsha (haemorrhoids) are called arshoghna.
  13. Kushthaghna (anti-dermatosis): These drugs mainly pacify the vitiation of blood and alleviate skin disorders and are called kushthaghna. Most of the drugs of this group act as vyadhipratyanika (anti-disease) but this property is also gauged by the prabhava (specific potency) of a drug. Khadira is an example of a kushthaghna (alleviating skin diseases).
  14. Kandughna (anti-pruritic): These drugs alleviate itching and therefore are called kandughna. Aggravated kapha localized to skin or membrane produces itching (kandu). Thus, the drug is effective in pacifying kapha and is very effective in keeping the skin healthy.
  15. Krimighna (anthelmintic or vermicidal): The drugs that destroy external and internal worms and expel them out of the body are termed krimighna. These have been classified into two groups by their mode of action:
    1. Antahkrimighna (wormicidal) –Drugs that destroy worms (especially those residing in the intestines) - either by killing them or rendering them immobile.
    2. Bahyakrimighna (affecting external microbes)
  16. Vishaghna (antidote for poison): Drugs eliminating the toxic effects of visha (poison) are called vishaghna.
  17. Stanyajanana (galactogogue): The sweet essence of rasa dhatu that reaches the breast from entire body is stanya (breast milk). In the process of breast milk formation and secretion, emotions and affection of the mother for the baby play an important role. Drugs that enhance the production and secretion of breast milk are called stanyajanana.
  18. Stanyashodhana (galacto-purifiers): Vitiated doshas reaching the breast vitiate the breast milk by affecting the rasa, rakta, mamsa dhatus. The drugs that alleviate these disorders are known as stanyashodhana.
  19. Shukrajanana (semen promoting): The drugs that promote or enhance production of shukra (semen) are called shukrajanana, or shukrala. Shukra is liquid, unctuous, sweet, smelling like honey, cold, and slimy by nature. These drugs also possess properties similar to those of shukra, thus aiding and enhancing the formation of shukra. This group includes seven medicines of the jivaniya class.
  20. Shukrashodhana (semen purifiers): These drugs eliminate the disorders of semen and purify it.

Drugs that assist or aid in evacuative therapies are called upaga. Besides the medications described above, there are snehopaga (sneha + upaga) and swedopaga (sweda + upaga) medicines are used for purvakarma (precleansing procedure) while the rest find use in Panchakarma procedures.

  1. Snehopaga (aiding in oleation): This group of drugs help to promote unctuousness are called snehopaga. These are useful for internal oleation in cases of dryness produced in channels.
  2. Swedopaga (aiding in diaphoresis/sudation): These drugs are helpful in diaphoresis/sudations and are termed as swedopaga. These are indicated to remove impurities through sweat.
  3. Vamanopaga (aiding in emesis): These drugs help in the process of therapeutic emesis and avoid complications and are called vamanopaga.
  4. Virecanopaga (aiding in purgation): These drugs are useful during therapeutic purgation and are effective in dealing with complications and mucosal irritation produced by purgatives.
  5. Asthapanopaga (aiding in ununctuous enema): Ununctuous enema is generally administered with medicated decoctions for purification of channels and removing obstructions. Due to their “churning” properties, these drugs aid in eliminating the accumulated doshas of channels.
  6. Anuvasanopaga (aiding in unctuous enema): Unctuous enema is generally administered with oil for oleation of channels and improving strength of body.
  7. Shirovirechanopaga (supporting in nasal drug delivery): These drugs are useful in removing impurities from organs and channels in the head, neck and supraclavicular regions. These are generally indicated in congestive and suppurative diseases of nose, ear, eyes and head regions.
  8. Chardi nigrahna (reduce/check vomiting): Drugs that check emesis and pacify its root cause.
  9. Trushnánigrahana (reduce thirst/polydypsia): Drugs that pacify excessive thirst.
  10. Hikkanigrahana (reduce/check hiccups): These drugs check hiccups. Hiccups are caused by vitiated vata and kapha doshas.
  11. Purishasarugrahaniya (reducing frequency and liquidity of stool): These drugs reduce the frequency of defecation and excessively watery stool.
  12. Purishavirajaniya (eliminating the abnormal colour of faces): These drugs eliminate the abnormal colour of faces and convert it into normal state. Mainly ranjaka pitta is responsible for colouring the stool. Therefore, for purishavirajana action mostly pitta pacifying drugs are useful.
  13. Mutrasarugrahaniya (anti-diuretic): These drugs reduce the frequency of urination in diabetes like conditions. In this group bhallataka has ushna virya (or is hot in potency), which decreases the quantity of urine produced in the bladder. Panchaavalkala reduces the urine output by increasing vata by virtue of sheeta, kashaya and ruksha properties.
  14. Mutravirajaniya (reducing abnormal colour of urine): These drugs correct abnormality in the colour of urine. Drugs of this group are sheetavirya and pacify pitta.
  15. Mutravirechaniya (diuretic): These drugs increase the flow and formation of urine. In panchabhautika composition jala and agni mahabhutas are predominant, so both sheeta and ushna vírya drugs increase urination.

In relation to chardi etc., word nigrahana and sangrahana with purisha etc. are used. Nigrahana means to check, control or stop, while sangrahana means to increase absorption of water, restrain and/or collect. This is the difference between above two words.

  1. Kasahara (antitussive and mucolytic): These drugs reduce the impulse to cough. Vitiated pranavayu associated with udanavayu comes out from the mouth with force in an abnormal manner, producing sound like that of “a cracked utensil of bell metal”. As such vata pacifying madhura, snigdha and ushna drugs pacify vata and alleviate kasa.
  2. Shwasahara (relieving dyspnea/bronchodilator): Pranavayu excessively moves upward resulting in bhastrikadhmana (distended leather bag) like movement of chest. Clinically, it is dyspnea due to airway obstruction commonly caused by histamine and other inflammatory peptides. Shatti contains antihistamine properties and pushkarmoola has bronchodilator properties.
  3. Shothahara (relieve swelling): Aggravated kapha, rakta and pitta obstruct vayu resulting in accumulation of fluid in interstitial space resulting in shotha (swelling).

All the ten drugs in this group are called dashamoola and they all pacify all the three doshas.

  1. Jwarahara (relieving fever): Increase in heat in the body and the mind are cardinal signs of fever. According to Ayurveda , amadosha entering the amashaya causes jwara. The drugs for jwara have been grouped as follows:
    1. Santapahara (anti-pyretic)
    2. Amapachana (digesting ama)
    3. Vishamajvaraghna (relieving fever of periodic pattern)
  2. Drugs of this group may also be classified as:
    1. Drugs pacifying pitta
    2. Drugs that digest ama and cleanse the channels.
  3. Shramahara (relieving fatigue): These drugs help in overcoming fatigue. Fatigue is caused due to increased vata. Shramahara drugs, by virtue of madhura and snigdha properties, pacify vata and help in treating hypoglycemia, generalized debility etc.
  4. Dahaprashamana (pacifying burning sensation): These drugs pacify daha (internal and external burning sensations). Daha is a cardinal sign of pitta. In this group, the drugs are mostly sheetavirya and of madhura and tikta rasa, thus pitta-pacifying. This combination can also be used in hyperpyrexia.
  5. Sheetaprashamana (pacifying cold): These drugs pacify coldness in the body. Feeling cold is caused by vitiated vata and kapha. Ushnavirya drugs pacify vata and kapha while removing coldness. As such they are useful in curing fever with rigour and in vata-kapha disorders.
  6. Udaradaprashamana (alleviating allergic rashes): Allergic rashes on skin that look like insect bite are called udarda. Drugs that cure udarda are known as udaradaprashamana. In this disease, vitiated vata and kapha are predominant and have partial involvement of pitta. So udaradaprashamana drugs pacify all the three doshas.
  7. Angamardaprashamana (alleviating malaise/bodyache): Angamarda is a cardinal sign of vatika disorders that manifest specially in the stage of dhatukshaya or general debility. Most of the drugs of this group possess madhura-snigdha properties that are opposite to the properties of vata. So, they promote strength and increase nutrition of dhatus. As such these drugs restore the natural functions of the body and therefore called angamardaprashamana.
  8. Shoolaprashamana (anti-spasmodic, anticolic, analgesic): The root-cause of shoola is vata. Natural movement of the intestines is altered by vitiated vata and it moves in the pratiloma-gati (i.e., in the reverse manner). Drugs that pacify vata in the abdomen and promote the passing out of flatus and stool while removing colic are called shoolaprashamana. This group of drugs includes shadushana type of medicines/herbs.
  9. Shonitasthapana (hemostatics and blood purifiers): Drugs that promote the quality of blood by enhancing its formation, alleviating abnormalities and checking bleeding are called shonitasthapana. Shonitasthapana drugs could be categorized as follows:
    1. Raktaposhan (haematinic)
    2. Raktastambhaka (haemostatic)
    3. Raktaprosadana (blood purification)
  10. Vedanasthapana (relieving pain sensations): In Ayurveda , the word vedana is said to provide a general feeling of sensation. It is of two types – sukhatmaka (pleasant) and dukhatmaka (unpleasant) (Cha.Sha. 1.133). As such vedanasthapana means drugs that stabilize sensory sensations in the body. They are useful in conditions where a sensation is lost or damaged due to various reasons. These drugs also relieve pain and bring body back to normalcy.
  11. Sanjnasthapana (re-establishing consciousness): Drugs that resuscitate or revive the sense of consciousness are called sanjnasthapana. Such drugs overcome the effect of losing consciousness or fainting and help the patient in regaining consciousness.
  12. Prajasthapana (conception promoting, foetus stabilizing): These drugs promote conception by enhancing the health of the reproductive organs before pregnancy and providing adequate nourishment to the foetus to help nurture it and keep it healthy.
  13. Vayasthapana (stabilize age or anti-ageing): These drugs delay the aging process and prevent senility. Most drugs in this group contain natural antioxidants and free radical inhibitors.

An important inference from the description of these classes is that while several drugs may perform one action (and therefore be grouped together by a specific function or property), a single drug can also perform many actions depending upon its properties, interactions with the biological systems, and other circumstances. Samyoga stands for an optimum combination of drugs that helps achieve maximum efficacy. Prayoga is the application of drugs takes into consideration time, constitution (of the patient), and disease to achieve maximum efficacy.

The following list of 256 medicines (herbs) are permuted and combined to formulate a total of 500 preparations:

  1. Jívaka: jeevaniya, shukra janana, snēhōpagā
  2. Rishabhaka: jeevaniya, shukra janana
  3. Meda: jeevaniya, shukra janana, snehopaga
  4. Mahāmēdā: jeevaniya
  5. Kakoli: jeevaniya, brimhaniya, shukra janana, snehopaga, angamrdaprashamana
  6. Kshirakakoli: jeevaniya, brimhaniya, shukra janana, snehopaga
  7. Mudgaparṇī: jeevaniya, shukra janana
  8. Māṣaparṇi: jeevaniya, shukra janana
  9. Jivanti: jeevaniya, snehopaga, vaya sthapana, shwasahara
  10. Madhuka: jeevaniya, shonita sthapana, angamrdaprashamana, dahaprashamana, mutra virajaniya, asthapanopaga, vamanopaga, snehopaga, kandughna, kanthya, varnya, sandhaniya, purīṣavirajanīyāni
  11. Kṣīriṇī: br̥ṁhaṇīya
  12. Rājakṣavaka: br̥ṁhaṇīya
  13. Aśvagandhā: br̥ṁhaṇīya, balya
  14. Vāṭyāyanī: br̥ṁhaṇīya
  15. Bhadraudanī: br̥ṁhaṇīya
  16. Bhardwaji: br̥ṁhaṇīya
  17. Payasya: br̥ṁhaṇīya, balya, varnya, purisha virajaniya
  18. Rishyagandha: br̥ṁhaṇīya
  19. Musta: lekhaniya, tr̥Ptighnā, kandughna, stanyashodhana, tr̥ṣṇānigrahaṇāni
  20. Kuṣṭha: lekhaniya, sukraśōdhanāni, asthāpanōpagāni
  21. Haridra: lekhaniya, kushthaghna, vishaghna
  22. Dāruharidrā: lekhaniya, arśōghnāni, kaṇḍūghnāni
  23. Vacha: lekhaniya, tr̥Ptighnāni, arśōghnāni, asthapanopaga, sheeta prashamana, sanjna sthapana
  24. Ativiṣā: lekhaniya, arśōghnāni
  25. Katurohini: lekhaniya, stanyaśōdhanāni (sakulādanī) bhēdanīyāni, (arishtha ) prajasthapana
  26. Chitraka: lekhaniya, bhēdanīyāni, dīpanīyāni, tr̥Ptighnāni, arśōghnāni, sūlapraśamanāni
  27. Chirabilva: lekhaniya, bhēdanīyāni
  28. Haimavati: lekhaniya
  29. Arka: bhēdanīyāni, swedopaga, (sadāpuṣpa) vamanōpagāni
  30. Urubuka: bhēdanīyāni
  31. Āgnimukhī: (langhali) bhēdanīyāni
  32. Chitrā: bhēdanīyāni
  33. Śaṅkhinī: bhēdanīyāni
  34. Svarṇakṣīri: bhēdanīyāni
  35. Madhuparṇī: sandhānīyāni snēhōpagāni
  36. Prushniparni: sandhānīyāni, shothahara, angamrdaprashamana
  37. Ambaṣṭha: sandhānīyāni
  38. Samanga: sandhānīyāni, purisha samgrahaniya
  39. Mocharasa: sandhānīyāni, purisha samgrahaniya, shonita sthapana, vedana sthapana
  40. Dhātakī: sandhānīyāni, purisha samgrahaniya, mūtravirajanīyāni
  41. Lodhra: sandhānīyāni, purisha samgrahaniya, shonita sthapana
  42. Priyaṅgu: sandhānīyāni, mūtravirajanīyā, shōṇitasthāpanāni, purīṣasaṅgrahaṇīyā (viswakasenakranta) prajasthapana
  43. Katphala: sandhānīyāni, shukra shodhana, vedana sthapana
  44. Pippalī: dīpanīyāni, kaṇṭhyāni, tr̥Ptighnāni, asthāpanōpagāni, hikkānigrahaṇāni, kāsaharāṇi, sūlapraśamanāni, sirōvirēcanōpagāni, sheeta prashamana
  45. Pippalimula: dīpanīyāni, shula prashamana
  46. Cavya: dīpanīyāni, tr̥ptighnāni, sūlapraśamanāni, arshoghna
  47. Āmlavētas: dīpanīyāni, hr̥dyāni, svāsaharāṇi
  48. Maricha: dīpanīyāni, krumighna shiro-virechanopaga, shula prashamana
  49. Ajamōdā: dīpanīyāni, shula prashamana
  50. Bhallataka: dīpanīyāni, mutra samgrahaniya (arushkara) kushthaghna
  51. Hingu: dīpanīyāni, shwasahara, sanjna sthapana
  52. Aindri: balya, prajāsthāpanāni
  53. R̥ṣabhi: balya
  54. Atirasa (shatavari): balya, vaya sthapana
  55. Rishyaprokta: balyani
  56. Sthira: balya, vaya sthapana
  57. Rōhiṇī: balyāni
  58. Balā: balyāni
  59. Atibalā: balyāni
  60. Chandana: varṇyāni, kaṇḍūghnāni, viṣaghnāni, tr̥ṣṇānigrahaṇāni, dāhapraśamanāni, angamrdaprashamana
  61. Tuṅga: varṇyāni
  62. Padmaka: varṇyāni, purīṣasaṅgrahaṇīyāni (padmakēśarāṇī), vēdanāsthāpanāni
  63. Uśīra: varṇyāni, shukra shodhana, dahaprashamana, angamrdaprashamana
  64. Manjishtha: varṇyāni, vishaghn , jwarahara
  65. Sārivā: varṇyāni, stanyaśōdhanāni, jwaraharāṇi, dāhapraśamanāni, kanthya
  66. Sitā: varṇyāni
  67. Lata: varṇyāni
  68. Ikṣu: kanthya, shukra shodhana, shramahara
  69. Drākṣā: kanthya, virēcanōpagāni, kāsaharāṇi, jvaraharāṇi, sramaharāṇi
  70. Vidari: kanthya, snehopaga, angamrdaprashamana
  71. Kaiṭarya: kanthya
  72. Haṁsapādī: kanthya
  73. Br̥hatī: kanthya hikkānigrahaṇāni, svayathuharāṇi, aṅgamardapraśamanāni
  74. Kantakari: kanthya, hikkānigrahaṇāni, kasahara, svayathuharāṇi, sheeta prashamana, angamrdaprashamana
  75. Amra: hr̥dyāni, chardinigrahaṇāni (amra pallava), purīṣasaṅgrahaṇīyāni (amra asthi), mūtrasaṅgrahaṇīyāni
  76. Āmrātaka: hr̥dyāni
  77. Likuca: hr̥dyāni
  78. Karamarda: hr̥dyāni
  79. Vr̥kṣāmlā: hr̥dyāni
  80. Kuvala: hr̥dyāni, virēchanōpagāni
  81. Badara: hr̥dyāni, virēcanōpagāni swedopaga, chardinigrahaṇāni, hikkānigrahaṇāni, sramaharāṇi, udardapraśamanāni
  82. Dāḍima: hr̥dyāni chardinigrahaṇāni sramaharāṇi
  83. Matulunga: hr̥dyāni, chardinigrahaṇāni
  84. Nāgara: tr̥ptighnāni, tr̥ṣṇānigrahaṇāni, arshoghna (shringavera) dīpanīyāni, shula prashamana, sītapraśamanāni
  85. Viḍaṅga: trptighnāni, kuṣṭhaghnāni, krimighnāni, sirōvirēcanōpagāni
  86. Murva: trptighnāni, stanyashodhana
  87. Guḍūcī: trptighnāni, tr̥ṣṇānigrahaṇāni, dāhapraśamanāni stanyashodhana
  88. Patola: trptighnāni, trishna nigrahana,
  89. Kuṭaja: arśōghnāni, kaṇḍūghnāni
  90. Bilva: arśōghnāni, asthāpanōpagāni, anuvāsanōpagāni, svayathuharāṇi
  91. Abhaya: arśōghnāni, kushthaghna, virechanopaga, hikka nigrahana, kasahara, jwarahara, vaya sthapana
  92. Dhanvayasa: arśōghnāni (duralabha) hikka nigrahana, kasahara
  93. Khadira: kushthaghna, udardapraśamanāni (somavalka) mutra samgrahaniya
  94. Amalaki: kushthaghna, virechanopaga, kasahara, jwarahara
  95. Saptaparna: kushthaghna, udardaprashamana
  96. Āragvadha: kushthaghna
  97. Karavira: kushthaghna
  98. Jātīpravālā: kushthaghna
  99. Nalada: kaṇḍūghnāni
  100. Kritamala: kaṇḍūghnāni
  101. Naktamala: kaṇḍūghnāni
  102. Nimba: kaṇḍūghnāni
  103. Sarṣapa: kaṇḍūghnāni, asthāpanōpagāni, shiro-virechanopaga
  104. Akshiva: krimighnāni
  105. Gandira: krimighnāni, shula prashamana
  106. Kēbuka: krimighnāni
  107. Nirguṇḍī: krimighnāni
  108. Kiṇihī: krimighnāni
  109. Shwadanshtra: krimighnāni, mutrala, anuvāsanōpagāni
  110. Vr̥ṣaparṇi: krimighnāni
  111. Ākhuparṇi: krimighnāni
  112. Ela: vishaghna, shwasahara, angamrdaprashamana
  113. Palindi: vishaghna
  114. Kataka: vishaghna
  115. Śirīṣa: vishaghna, vēdanāsthāpanāni
  116. Sindhuvara: vishaghna
  117. Shleshmantaka: vishaghna
  118. Vīraṇa: stanyajananāni
  119. Shali: stanyajananāni
  120. Shashtik Shali: stanyajananāni, sramaharāṇi
  121. Ēkṣuvālikā: stanyajananāni
  122. Darbha: stanyajananāni mūtravirēcanīyāni
  123. Kusha: stanyajananāni mūtravirēcanīyāni
  124. Kasha: stanyajananāni mūtravirēcanīyāni
  125. Gundra: stanyajananāni mūtravirēcanīyāni
  126. Itkata: stanyajananāni mūtravirēcanīyāni
  127. Katruna: stanyajananāni
  128. Patha: stanyashodhana, jwarahara
  129. Mahaushadha: stanyashodhana
  130. Suradāru: stanyashodhana, anuvāsanōpagāni
  131. Vatsakaphala: stanyashodhana, asthāpanōpagāni
  132. Kirātatikta: stanyashodhana, tr̥ṣṇānigrahaṇāni
  133. Vr̥ddharu: shukrajananāni
  134. Jaṭilā: shukrajananāni, sañjñāsthāpanāni
  135. Kuliṅgā: shukrajananāni
  136. Elavaluka: shukra shodhana, vedana sthapana
  137. Kaṭphala: shukra shodhana, vedana sthapana
  138. Samudraphēna: shukra shodhana
  139. Kadamba: shukra shodhana, vedana sthapana
  140. Ēkṣu: shukra shodhana, shramaharāṇi
  141. Kāṇḍēksu: shukra shodhana
  142. Ikṣuraka: shukra Shodhana
  143. Vasuka: Shukra shodhana, mūtravirēcanīyāni
  144. Mr̥dvīkā: snehopaga
  145. Śālaparṇi: snehopaga, svayathuharāṇi
  146. Śōbhāñjana: svēdōpagāni
  147. Eranda: svēdōpagāni, angamrdaprashamana
  148. Vr̥Shcīra: svēdōpagāni, anuvāsanōpagāni, kāsaharāṇi
  149. Punarnavā: svēdōpagāni, anuvāsanōpagāni, kāsaharāṇi,vayaḥsthāpanāni
  150. Yava: svēdōpagāni, chardinigrahaṇāni, shramaharāṇi
  151. Tila: svēdōpagāni, purisha virajaniya (tila kana)
  152. Kulattha: svēdōpagāni
  153. Māṣha: svēdōpagāni
  154. Madhu: vamanōpagāni sōṇitasthāpanāni
  155. Kōvidāra: vamanōpagāni
  156. Karbudara: vamanōpagāni
  157. Nipa: vamanōpagāni
  158. Vidula: vamanōpagāni
  159. Bimbi: vamanōpagāni
  160. Śaṇapuṣpi: vamanōpagāni
  161. Pratyakpuṣpa: vamanōpagāni (apāmārga) sirōvirēcanōpagāni
  162. Kāśmarya: virēchanōpagāni svayathuharāṇi, dāhapraśamanāni
  163. Parushaka: virēchanōpagāni, jwarahara, shramahara
  164. Bibhītak: virēchanōpagāni, jwarahara
  165. Karkandhu: virēchanōpagāni
  166. Pilu: virēchanōpagāni, jwarahara
  167. Trivr̥t: asthāpanōpagāni, (suvahā) bhēdanīyāni, viṣaghnāni
  168. Śatapuṣpā: asthāpanōpagāni, anuvāsanōpagāni
  169. Madanaphala: asthāpanōpagāni
  170. Rāsnā: anuvāsanōpagāni
  171. Agnimantha: anuvāsanōpagāni sītapraśamanāni shothahara
  172. Śyōnākā: anuvāsanōpagāni sītapraśamanāni shothahara
  173. Jyōtiṣmatī: sirōvirēcanōpagāni
  174. Kṣavaka: sirōvirēcanōpagāni
  175. Śigru: sirōvirēcanōpagāni
  176. Śvētā: sirōvirēcanōpagāni vaya sthapana
  177. Mahāśvētā: sirōvirēcanōpagāni
  178. Jambu: chardinigrahaṇāni, purīṣavirajanīyāni, mūtrasaṅgrahaṇīyāni
  179. Yastika: chardinigrahaṇāni
  180. Mruti: chardinigrahaṇāni purisha virajaniya
  181. Laja: chardinigrahaṇāni, dahaprashamana, shonita sthapana
  182. Dhanvayavas: trishna nigrahana
  183. Parpataka: trishna nigrahana
  184. Hribera: trishna nigrahana dahaprashamana
  185. Dhanyaka: trishna nigrahana, sheeta prashamana
  186. Shati: hikka nigrahana, shwasahara
  187. Pushkaramula: hikka nigrahana, shwasahara
  188. Vruksharuha: hikka nigrahana
  189. Kulīraśr̥ṅgya: hikka nigrahana
  190. Ananta: purīṣasaṅgrahaṇīyāni
  191. Katvanga: purīṣasaṅgrahaṇīyāni
  192. Dhataki: purīṣasaṅgrahaṇīyāni, mutra virajaniya
  193. Padma: purīṣasaṅgrahaṇīyāni mutra virajaniya
  194. Śallakītvak: purisha virajaniya
  195. Kacchurā: purisha virajaniya
  196. Śālmalī: purisha virajaniya
  197. Śrīvēṣṭaka: purisha virajaniya
  198. Utpala: purisha virajaniya mutra virajaniya
  199. Plaksha: mutra samgrahaniya
  200. Vata: mutra samgrahaniya
  201. Kapitana: mutra samgrahaniya
  202. Udumbara: mutra samgrahaniya
  203. Ashwattha: mutra samgrahaniya
  204. Ashmantaka: mutra samgrahaniya
  205. Nalina: mutra virajaniya
  206. Kumuda: mutra virajaniya
  207. Saugandhika: mutra virajaniya
  208. Pundarika: mutra virajaniya
  209. Shatapatra: mutra virajaniya
  210. Vrukshadani: mutrala
  211. Vaśira: mutrala
  212. Pāṣāṇabhēda: mutrala
  213. Śr̥ṅgī: kasahara
  214. Tamalaki: kasahara shwasahara
  215. Aguru: shwasahara sheeta prashamana
  216. Surasa: shwashara
  217. Chanda: shwashara
  218. Patala: shothahara (amogha ) prajasthapana
  219. Shalaparní: shothahara
  220. Kashamarya: shothahara
  221. Sharkara: jwarahara, dahaprashamana, shonita sthapana
  222. Kharjura: shramahara
  223. Priyala: shramahara, udardaprashamana
  224. Phalgu: shramahara
  225. Shashtika: shramahara
  226. Nílotpala: dahaprashaman
  227. Tagara: sheeta prashamana
  228. Bhutíka: sheeta prashamana
  229. Tinduka: udardaprashamana
  230. Kadara: udardaprashamana
  231. Ashwakarna: udardaprashamana
  232. Arjuna: udardaprashamana
  233. Asana: udardaprashamana
  234. Arimeda: udardaprashamana, sanjna sthapana
  235. Pippalimula: shula prashamana
  236. Ajagandha: shula prashamana
  237. Ajaji: shula prashamana
  238. Rudhira: shōṇitasthāpanāni
  239. Gairika: shōṇitasthāpanāni
  240. Shala: vedanasthapana
  241. Tumba: vedanasthapana
  242. Vanjula: vedanasthapana
  243. Ashoka: vedanasthapana
  244. Ashokarohinya: sanjna sthapana
  245. Katarya: sanjna sthapana
  246. Choraka: sanjna sthapana
  247. Vayastha: sanjna sthapana (brahmi) prajasthapan
  248. Golomi: sanjna sthapana
  249. Palankasha: sanjna sthapana
  250. Shatavirya: prajasthapana
  251. Sahasravirya: prajasthapana
  252. Avyatha: prajasthapana
  253. Shiva: prajasthapana
  254. Vatyapushpi: prajasthapana
  255. Yukta: vayasthapana
  256. Mandukaparni: vayasthapana

Glossary

  1. ābhayā (AbhayAभया) Terminaliachebula
  2. agnimantha (ग्निमन्थ):Clerodandrumphlomoides / Premnaintegrifolia
  3. āgnimukhī (AgnimukhI ग्निमुखी) Gloriosasuperba
  4. aindrī (aindrI ऐन्द्री): Citruluscolosynthesis
  5. airaṇḍ (airaNDA कैरण्डा) Ricinuscommunis
  6. ājagandhā (AjagandhA जगन्धा): Gynandropsisgynandra
  7. ajājī (jAjI जाजी): Cuminimumcynminum
  8. ajamōdā (jamodA जमोदा) Apium graveolens
  9. ākhuparṇikā (khuparNikA खुपर्णिका) Ipomoeareniformis
  10. akṣīva (akShIva अक्षीव) Moringaoleifera
  11. alpabuddhīnāṁ (alpabuddhInAM ?ल्पबुद्धीनां): Low intellectual
  12. āmalaka (Amalak मलक) Phyllanthusemblica
  13. ambaṣṭhakī (mbaShThakI म्बष्ठकी) Cessampelos paraira
  14. amlavētasa (mlavetasa म्लवेतस) Garcinia pedunculata
  15. ā'mōghā' (~amoghA ऽमोघा): Emblicaofficinalis
  16. āmra (AmrA आम्रा) Mangiferaindica
  17. āmrapallava (म्रपल्लव): leaves of Mangifera indica
  18. āmrātaka (AmrAtak म्रातक) Spondiaspinnata
  19. apāpāmārgataṇḍula (ApAmArgataNDula पामार्गतण्डुल) Achyranthusaspera
  20. ārimēdā (ArimedA रिमेदा): Variety ofacaciacatechu
  21. ark (rka ?र्क) Calotropisprocera
  22. āruṣkara (AruShkaraरुष्कर) Semicarpusanacardium
  23. asan (Asan सना): Terminaliatomentosa
  24. āśmantaka (Shmantaka श्मन्तक) Bauhinia racemosa
  25. aśōkā (AshokA शोका): Saracaindica
  26. āsthāpanōpagō (AsthApanopago आस्थापनोपगो): A type of enema predominant with Kashaya
  27. āśvagandhā śvagandhā (AshvagandhA ?श्वगन्धा) Withaniasomnifera
  28. āśvakarṇā (AshvakarNA ?श्वकर्णा): Dipterocarpusalatus
  29. aśvattha (Ashvattha ?श्वत्थ) Ficusreligiosa
  30. atibalā (तिबला): Abutilonindicum
  31. atirasā (तिरस):Asparagusracemosus
  32. atisaṅkṣēp (atisa~gkShepo तिसङ्क्षेपो):in precise manner
  33. ātiviṣā (AtiviShA तिविषा) Aconitusheterophyllum
  34. badara (badaraबदर) Zizyphusjujuba
  35. balā (बला): sidacordifolia
  36. balya (balyo बल्यो): strength
  37. bhadraudanī (bhadraudanI भद्रौदनी) Sidacordifolia
  38. bhāradvājī (bhAradvAjI भारद्वाजी) Thespesialampas
  39. bhēdanīyaḥ (bhedanIyaH भेदनीयः) Cathertic
  40. bhr̥ṣṭamr̥t (bhRuShTamRut भृष्टमृत्प) fried clay
  41. bhūtīka (bhUtIka भूतीक): Trachyspermumammi
  42. bibhītaka (bibhItaka बिभीतक) Terminaliabelerica
  43. bilva (bilva बिल्व) Aeglemarmelos
  44. bimbī (bimbI बिम्बी) cocciniaindica
  45. brāhmī (brAhmI ब्राह्मी): Bacopamonnieri
  46. br̥hatī (bRuhatI बृहती) Solanumindicum
  47. br̥ṁhaṇīyāni (bRuMhaNIyo बृंहणीयो) Nourishing drugs
  48. buddhimatāṁ (buddhimatAM बुद्धिमतां): Intellectual
  49. candana (Candana चन्दन) Santalumalbum
  50. cavya (cavya चव्य) Piperchaba
  51. chardinigrahaṇ (chardinigrahaNa छर्दिनिग्रहण): Antiemetic
  52. cirabilva (cirabilva चिरबिल्व) Holopteliaindica / Pongamiapinnata
  53. citrā (citrA चित्रा) Baliospermummontanum
  54. citraka (citraka चित्रक) Plumbagozeylanica
  55. cōraka (coraka चोरक): Angelicaglauca
  56. dāḍima dADimaदाडिम) PunicaGranatum
  57. dāhapraśamanaḥ (dAhaprashamanaH दाहप्रशमनः) : Allivative burning sensation
  58. darbha (दर्भ): Desmostachysbipinnata
  59. dāruharidrā (dAruharidrA दारुहरिद्रा) berberisaristata
  60. dhanvayāsaka (dhanvayAsakधन्वयासक) Fagoniacretica
  61. dhānyaka (dhAnyaka धान्यक) Coriandersativum
  62. dhātakī (dhAtakI धातकी) Woodfordiafloribunda
  63. dīpanīya (dIpanIya दीपनीय) digestive / appetizers
  64. drākṣā (drAkShA द्राक्षा) Vitisvinifera
  65. durālabhā (durAlabhA दुरालभा): Fagonia cretica
  66. ēkṣumūla (ekShumUla क्षुमूल) Root of Sacccharum officinarum
  67. ēkṣuvālikā (क्षुवालिका): Astercanthalongifolia
  68. gairika (गैरिक): Ferrumhaematite
  69. gaṇḍīra (gaNDIr गण्डीरा): Euphorbiaantiquorum
  70. gaṇḍīrā (gundre गुन्द्रे) Soccharumsara
  71. gōlōmī (golomI गोलोमी): a veriety of acoruscalamus
  72. guḍūcī (गुडूची): Tinnosporacordifolia
  73. haimavatya (haimavatya हैमवत्य) Irisgermanica
  74. haṁsapādī (haMsapAdI हंसपादी) Adiantumlanulatum
  75. hikkānigrahaṇa (hikkAnigrahaNa हिक्कानिग्रहण)
  76. hiṅguniryāsā (~gguniryAsA हिङ्गुनिर्यासा): exudates of Ferula narthex
  77. hr̥dya (hRudya हृद्य) Cardiactonics
  78. hrībērā (hrIvera ह्रीवेर) Pavoniaodorata
  79. ikṣuraka (ikShura क्षुर): Astercantha longifolia
  80. ilavālukā (ilavAlukaka ष्ठैलवालु) Brunuscerasus
  81. jambu (Jambu जम्बु) Eugeniajumbolana
  82. jambv (जम्ब्वा): Syzygium cumini
  83. jaṭilā (jaTilA जटिला) Nardostachysjatamansi
  84. jātīpravālā (jAtIpravAlA जातीप्रवाला) Tender shoot of Jasminumofficinale
  85. jīvaka (jIvaka जीवक): Microstylis wallichii
  86. jīvanīyō (jIvanIyo जीवनीयो) Invigorators
  87. jīvantī (jIvantI जीवन्ती) Leptadenisreticulate
  88. jvaraharaḥ (jvaraharaH ज्वरहर) Antipyretic
  89. jyōtiṣmatī (jyotiShmatI ज्योतिष्मती) Celastruspaniculatus
  90. kacchurā (cchurA क्कच्छुरा) Mucunaprurience
  91. kadambaniryās (kadambaniryA कदम्बनिर्यासे) Gum of anthocephalusindicus
  92. kadara (kadara कदर): Variety ofacasiacatechu
  93. kaiṭarya (kaiTarya कैटर्य) Myricanagi
  94. kākōlī (kAkolI काकोली): Roscoea procera
  95. kalkaḥ (kalkaH, कल्कः,) : Bolus
  96. kāṇḍēkṣu (kANDekShv काण्डेक्ष्वि): Stem of Sacccharum officinarum
  97. kaṇḍūghnaḥ (kaNDUghnaH कण्डूघ्न) Anti itching
  98. kaṇṭakārikā (kaNTakArikA कण्टकारिका) Solanumxanthocarpum
  99. kaṇṭhyō (kaNThyo कण्ठ्यो) Useful for throat
  100. kapītan (kapItan कपीतनो) Albizzialebbeck
  101. karamarda (karamardकरमर्द) Carrisacarandas
  102. karbudāra (karbudAra कर्बुदार) White veriety of bauhiniaveriegata
  103. karkandhu (karkandhu कर्कन्धु) Zizyphus nummularia
  104. kāśa (काश): Saccharaumspontaneum
  105. kāsaharaḥ (kAsaharaH कासहरः): anti cough
  106. kaṣāya (kaShAya कषाय): water extract
  107. kāśmarya (kAshmarya काश्मर्य): Gmelina arborea
  108. kataka (kataka कतक) Strychnospotatorum
  109. kaṭphala (kaTphalA कट्फला) Myricanagi
  110. kattr̥ṇamūlā (कत्तृणमूला): Roots of cymbopogonschoenanthus
  111. kaṭurōhiṇī (kaTurohiNI कटुरोहिणी) Picrorrhizakurroa
  112. kēbuka (kebuka केबुक) Costus speciosus
  113. khadira (Khadir खदिरा) Acasiacatechu
  114. kharjūra (kharjUra खर्जूर): Phoenixsylvestries
  115. kiṇihī (kiNihI किणिही) Achyrantusaspera
  116. kirātatiktaka (kirAtatiktakaka किराततिक्त) Swetiachiraita
  117. kōvidāra (kovidAra कोविदार) Red veriety of bauhiniaveriegata
  118. krimighnō (krimighno क्रिमिघ्नो) Anti microbial
  119. kr̥tamāla (kRutamA कृतमाल) Cassiafistula
  120. kṣavaka (kShavaka क्षवक): Centipeda minima
  121. kṣīrakākōlī (kShIrakAkolI क्षीरकाकोली): Tuberous Root of Roscoea procera
  122. kṣīriṇī (kShIriNI क्षीरिणी) Mimusops hexandra
  123. kulattha (kulattha कुलत्थ) Dolichosbiflorus
  124. kuliṅgā (kuli~ggA कुलिङ्गा): Blefaris edulis
  125. kulīra (kulIra कुलीर) Rhussuccedanea
  126. kumuda (kumuda कुमुद) Nymphaea alba
  127. kuśa (कुश): variety ofDesmostachysbipinnata
  128. kuṣṭhaghnaḥ (kuShThaghnaH कुष्ठघ्नः): various skin diseases
  129. kuṭaja (kuTajaकुटज) Holarrhenaantydesenterica
  130. kuvala (kuvala कुवल) Zizyphussativa
  131. lājā (लाजा): Fried paddy
  132. lātā (latA लता) Black veriety of cynodondactylon
  133. lēkhanīyō (lekhanIyo लेखनीयो) Reducing corpulency
  134. likuca (likucaलिकुच) Artocarpuslakooca
  135. lōdhra (lodhra लोध्र) Symplocosracemosa
  136. madhuka (madhuka मधुक) Glycyrrhiza glabra
  137. madhūka (मधूक): Madhukaindica
  138. madhuparṇī (madhuparNI मधुपर्णी) Tinnosporacordifolia
  139. mahāmēdā (mahAmedA महामेदा): Polygonatum verticilatum
  140. mahāśvētā (mahAshvetA महाश्वेता veriety of clitoreaternatea
  141. mahauṣadha (mahauShadha महौषध) Zingiberofficinale
  142. maṇḍūkaparṇī (maNDUkaparNI मण्डूकपर्णी): Centeliaasiatica
  143. mañjiṣṭhā (ma~jjiShThA मञ्जिष्ठा) Rubiacardifolia
  144. marica (marica मरिच) Pipernigrum
  145. māṣa (mASha माष): Phaseolus mungo
  146. māṣaparṇyau (mAShaparNyau माषपर्ण्यौ)Taramnuslabialis
  147. mātuluṅgā (mAtulu~ggAमातुलुङ्ग) Citrusdecumana
  148. mēdā (medA मेदा ): Polygonatum verticilatum
  149. mōcarasa (mocarasa मोचरस) exudates of Shalmaliamalabarica
  150. mr̥dvīkā (मृद्वीका): Vitisvinifera
  151. mudgaparṇī (mudgaparNI मुद्गपर्णी) Phaseolustrilobus
  152. muktā (muktA मुक्ता): pearl
  153. mūrvā (musta मूर्वा) Clematistriloba
  154. mūtrasaṅgrahaṇīyō (mUtrasa~ggrahaNIyo मूत्रसङ्ग्रहणीयो) Anti-diuretics
  155. mūtravirajanīyō (mUtravirajanIyo मूत्रविरजनीयो) Urine pigment normalizer
  156. mūtravirēcanīya (mUtravirecanIya मूत्रविरेचनीय) diuretics
  157. naktamāla (naktamAla नक्तमाल) Pongamiapinnata
  158. nalada (Nalada नलद) Nardostachysjatamansi
  159. nalina (nalina नलिन) Nelumbo nucifera
  160. ṅgamardapraśamanaḥ (~a~ggamardaprashamanaH ऽङ्गमर्दप्रशमन) anti bodyache
  161. nīlōtpalō (नीलोत्पलो) Nympheastelata
  162. nīpa (nIpa नीप) Anthocephalusindicus
  163. nirguṇḍī (nirguNDI निर्गुण्डी) Vitexnegundo
  164. nuvāsanōpagaḥ (~anuvAsanopagaH ऽनुवासनोपग) Enema predominant with oil
  165. ōḍumbarā (UDumbar डुम्बरा) Ficusglomarata
  166. padmaka (padmak पद्मको) Prunuscerasoides
  167. padmakēśarā (पद्मकेशरा) Stamens of Nelumbo nucifera
  168. palaṅkaṣā (pala~gkaShA पलङ्कषा) Commiphoramukul
  169. pālindī (pAlindI पालिन्दी) Operculina terpethum
  170. parpaṭaka (parpaTaka पर्पटक) Fumariaparviflora
  171. parūṣak (parUShak परूषका) Greviaasiatica
  172. parūṣakā (parUShak परूषका) Grewia asiatica
  173. pāṣāṇabhēda (pAShANabheda पाषाणभेद) Bergenia ligulata
  174. pāṭalā (पाटला) Stereospermumsuaveolens
  175. pāṭhā (pAThA पाठा) Cessampelosparaeria
  176. paṭōlā (पटोला) Trochiosanthusdioeca
  177. payasya (payasyA पयस्या ) Ipomoeapaniculata
  178. payasyā (पयस्या) Tylophora indica
  179. phalgu (phalgu फल्गु) Ficushispida
  180. phāṇṭaḥ (phANTaH, फाण्ट) warm water extract
  181. pīlū (pIlU पीलू) Salvadorapersica
  182. pippalī (pippalI पिप्पली) Piperlongum
  183. pippalīmūla (pippalImUla पिप्पलीमूल) Roots of Piperlongum
  184. plakṣa (plakSha प्लक्ष) Ficuslacor
  185. prajāsthāpanō (prajAsthApano प्रजास्थापनो) Anti infertility
  186. pramāṇamasti (pramANamasti, प्रमाणमस्ति) as per dimentions
  187. pratyakpuṣpā (pratyakpuShpA प्रत्यक्पुष्पा) Achyranthus aspera
  188. priyāla (priyAla प्रियाल) Buchananialanzan
  189. priyaṅgu (priya~ggu प्रियङ्गु) Callicarpamicrophylla
  190. pr̥śniparṇī (pRushniparNya पृश्निपर्ण्य) Urariapicta
  191. puṇḍarīka (puNDarIka पुण्डरीक) Variety of lotus
  192. purīṣasaṅgrahaṇīyaḥ (purIShasa~ggrahaNIyaH पुरीषसङ्ग्रहणीय) Constipating
  193. purīṣavirajanīyō (purIShavirajanIyo पुरीषविरजनीयो) Stool pigment normalizer
  194. rājakṣavakā (rAjakShavak राजक्षवका) Euphorbia microphylla
  195. rāsnā (rAsnA रास्ना) Pluchealanceolata
  196. rṣabhaka(rShabhakauर्षभकौ) Microstylis wallichii
  197. rśōghnaḥ (~arshoghnaH ऽर्शोघ्न) Anti-haemorrhoids
  198. rṣyagandhā (rShyagandhA र्ष्यगन्धा)??? Argeria speciosa
  199. rṣyaprōktā (र्ष्यप्रोक्ता): Abutilon indicum
  200. rudhira (रुधिर) crocussativus
  201. sadāpuṣpā (sadApuShpA सदापुष्पा) Calotropis procera
  202. sahasravīry (sahasravIryA सहस्रवीर्या) variety of cynodondactylon
  203. śakulādanī (shakulAdanI शकुलादनी) Picrorrhizakurroa
  204. śāla (shAla शाल) Shorearobusta
  205. śālaparṇī (शालपर्ण्य): Desmodiumgangeticum
  206. śāli (शालि) oryzasativa
  207. śallakī (shallakI शल्लकी) Boswelliaserrata
  208. śālmalī (shAlmalI शाल्मली) Shalmaliamalabarica
  209. samaṅgā (sama~ggA समङ्गा) Rubiacordifolia
  210. Sāmarthyāyō (sAmarthyA सामर्थ्या) able
  211. samudraphēna (samudraphena समुद्रफेन) ??
  212. śaṇapuṣpī (shaNapuShpI शणपुष्पी) Crotalariaverrucosa
  213. sandhānīyō (sandhAnIyo सन्धानीयो) wound healers
  214. sañjñāsthāpanaḥ (sa~jj~jAsthApanaH सञ्ज्ञास्थापन) Restorative of conciousness
  215. śaṅkhinī (sha~gkhinI शङ्खिनी) Canscoraducussata
  216. sārivā (sArivA सारिवा) Hemidesmusindicus
  217. ṣaṣṭik (षष्टिके): veriety of Oryzasativa
  218. śatapatra (shatapatra शतपत्र) variety of nelumbonucifera
  219. śatapuṣpā (shatapuShpA शतपुष्पा) Anathumsova
  220. śatavīryā (shatavIryA शतवीर्या) cynodondactylon
  221. śaṭī (shaTI शटी) Hedychiumspicatum
  222. saugandhika (saugandhika सौगन्धिक) Variety of Utpala
  223. śigru (shigru शिग्रु) Moringaoleifera
  224. sindhuvāra (sindhuvAra सिन्धुवार) vitexnegundi
  225. śirīṣa (shirISha शिरीष) Albizzialebbek
  226. śirōvirēcanōpaga (Shirovirecanopaga शिरोविरेचनोपग)??
  227. śīta (sitA सिता) Sugar
  228. śītaḥ (shItaH, शीत) Room Temperature water extract
  229. śītapraśamana (shItaprashamana शीतप्रशमन)
  230. ślēṣmātakā (shleShmAtakA श्लेष्मातका) Cordiadicotoma
  231. snēhōpagaḥ (snehopagaH स्नेहोपग) Supportive to oleation
  232. śōbhāñjana (shobhA~jjana शोभाञ्जन) Moringaoleifera
  233. sōmavalkā (somavalkA सोमवल्का): White variety of Khadeera
  234. śōṇitasthāpanō (shoNitasthApano शोणितस्थापनो): Haemostatic
  235. śōthaharō (shothaharo शोथहरो) Anti inflammatory
  236. śramahara (shramahara श्रमहर) Anti fatigue
  237. śrīvēṣṭaka (shrIveShTaka श्रीवेष्टक) Extract of pinusroxburghii
  238. śr̥ṅgavēra (shRu~ggaverA शृङ्गवेरा) Zinhiberofficinale
  239. śr̥ṅgī (shRu~ggya शृङ्ग्य) Karkatashringi Pistachia integerima
  240. śr̥taḥ (shRutaH, शृत) Hot water extract
  241. stanyajananaḥ (stanyajananaH स्तन्यजनन) Galactogogues
  242. stanyaśōdhanaḥ (stanyashodhanaH स्तन्यशोधन) Lactation quality improver
  243. sthirā (स्थिरा): Desmodium gangitium
  244. śukrajananaḥ (shukrajananaH शुक्रजनन) spermatogenesis
  245. śukraśōdhana (shukrashodhana शुक्रशोधन) sperm quality improver
  246. sūkṣmailā (sUkShmailA सूक्ष्मैला) elettariacardamomum
  247. śūlapraśamana (shUlaprashamana शूलप्रशमन) Abdominal pain reliever
  248. suradāru (suradAru सुरदारु) Cedrusdeodar
  249. suvahā (suvahA सुवहा) Operculinaterpethum / Pluchealanceolata
  250. śvadaṁṣṭrā (shvadaMShTrA श्वदंष्ट्रा) Tribulusteriestris
  251. svarasaḥ (svarasaH, स्वरस) Juice extract
  252. svarṇakṣīri (svarNakShIri स्वर्णक्षीरि) ArgemoneMexicana / Euphorbiathomsonia
  253. śvāsaharaḥ (shvAsaharaH श्वासहर) Anti asthmatic
  254. svēdōpagō (svedopago स्वेदोपगो) Supportive to swetting agents
  255. śvētā (shvetA श्वेता) White veriety of clitoreaternatea
  256. śyōnākā (shyonAkA श्योनाका): Oroxylumindicum
  257. tagarā (tagarA तगरा) Valeraniawallichii
  258. tāmalakī (तामलकी) Phyllanthus niruiri
  259. ṭilā (tila तिल) Sesamumindicum
  260. tinduka (tinduka तिन्दुक): Diospyrosperegrima
  261. trivr̥d (trivRud त्रिवृद्) Operculinaterpethum
  262. tr̥ptighnō (tRuptighno तृप्तिघ्नो) Removes the sense of Psuedo-contentment
  263. tr̥ṣṇānigrahaṇān (stRuShNAnigrahaNo स्तृष्णानिग्रहणो): Thirst preventive
  264. tumba (tumba तुम्ब): Xanthoxylonalatum
  265. tuṅga (tu~gga तुङ्ग) Callophyllusanophyllum
  266. tvak (tvakka त्वक्क): Cinnamomum zeylanicum
  267. udardapraśamanō (udardaprashamano उदर्दप्रशमनो): Anti urticaria
  268. urubukā (rubuk रुबुका): Ricimus communis
  269. uśīra (oshIra कोशीर)Vetiveria zizanioides
  270. utpala (Utpala त्पल) Nymphaeaalba
  271. vamanōpagō (vamanopago वमनोपगो): Supportive to vomiting
  272. vañjula (va~jjula वञ्जुलै): Salixcaprea
  273. varṇyaḥ (varNyaH वर्ण्य) complexion promoters
  274. vasuka (vasuk वसुको) indigoferaenneaphylla
  275. vaṭa (vaTa वट) Ficus bengalensis
  276. vatsakaphala (vatsakaphala वत्सकफल) fruit of Holarrhenaantydesenterica
  277. vāṭyapuṣpī vATyapuShpI- वाट्यपुष्पी) Sidarhombifolia
  278. vāṭyāyanī (vATyAyanI वाट्यायनी) Sidarhombifolia
  279. vayaḥsthāpana (vayaHsthApana वयःस्थापन) Longivity
  280. vayasthā (vayasthA वयस्था) Bacopamonnieri
  281. vēdanāsthāpanaḥ (vedanAsthApanaH वेदनास्थापनः) Pain reliever
  282. vidārī (vidArI विदारी) Purariatuberose
  283. vidula (vidula विदुल) Barringtoniaacutangula
  284. vīraṇa (वीरण) Viteveriazizanioides
  285. virēcanōpaga (virecanopaga विरेचनोपग) supportive to laxative
  286. viṣaghna (viShaghna विषघ्न) Anti-toxic
  287. vistarasya (vistarasya विस्तरस्य) Expanded
  288. viṣvaksēnakāntā (viShvaksenakAntA विष्वक्सेनकान्ता) Calicarpamicrophylla
  289. vr̥ddharuhā (vRuddharuhA वृद्धरुहा): Dendrophthoefalcata
  290. vr̥kṣādanī (vRukShAdanI वृक्षादनी): Dendrophthoefalcata
  291. vr̥kṣāml (vRukShAml वृक्षाम्ला) Tamarindusindica
  292. vr̥kṣaruhā (vRukSharuhA वृक्षरुहा) Dendrophthoefalcata
  293. vr̥ṣaparṇikā (vRuShaparNikA वृषपर्णिका) A veriety of ipomoeareniformis
  294. vr̥ścīra (vRushcIra वृश्चीर) White veriety of boerhaaviadiffusa
  295. vyavahārāya (vyavahArAya, व्यवहाराय) in common business
  296. yaṣṭi (यष्टिको): Glycyrrhiza glabra
  297. yava (yava यव): Hordeumvulgare