Rogabhishagjitiya Vimana

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Rogabhishagjitiya Vimana
Section/Chapter Vimana Sthana Chapter 8
Preceding Chapter Vyadhita Rupiya Vimana
Succeeding Chapter None
Other Sections Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana

Contents

Vimana Sthana Chapter 8, Rogabhishagjitiya Vimana adhyaya (Chapter on the Methods of conquering debate and disease)

Abstract

Rogabhishagjitiya Vimana, the eighth chapter of Vimana Sthana, is about examination of the treatise, the teacher and the disciple, the means for receiving the knowledge from the treatise, method of discussion and its types- friendly or hostile, result of discussion, worth considering or worth discarding. It deals with examination of ten entities to understand the state of health of the patient before starting the treatment. For providing treatment, physician should consider the strength of patient, severity of disease, prakriti, vikriti, potency of drugs, season for purification therapy, and the status of the patients in context to use of drugs. Thus, this chapter gives a glimpse of how advanced the medical education in India was over two thousand years ago and how well the phenomenon of health was understood and managed.

Keywords: Preceptor, student, teaching methodology, learning methods, discussion techniques, examination techniques of patient, prakriti, sara, purification therapies, pharmacovigilance.

Introduction

The preceding chapter Vyadhita Rupiya Vimana the seventh chapter dealt with knowledge of diseased person. The present chapter guides an aspiring student who wishes to be a successful physician. It is important to know the scope, depth and reputation of the branch of health science to be studied which is obtained by shastra pariksha (review of literature). Secondly, the examination of the preceptor (acharya) who teaches the science of Ayurveda is important because it is he, who enlightens the students with the knowledge of the health science. The chapter further deals with means of learning of health sciences (shastra upaya), methodology of study (adhyayana vidhi) and teaching (adhyapana) along with when and how to begin academic session and Do’s and Dont’s by the student have been explained so that a student attains the depth of knowledge about the health science. It also details about medical ethics while in practice and guidelines for behaviour of doctor at a patient’s house.

Along with study (adhyayana) and teaching (adhyapana) it is the seminar and symposia of experts (tadvidya sambhasha) which is essential to improve the quality of knowledge. Types of seminar/symposium, possible types of attendees, how to deal with them for most benefit and rules are mentioned. The description addresses essential information about discussion at a symposium. Those are: when to discuss? where to discuss? what to discuss? how to discuss? and what will be the final conclusion?

The methodology of discussion to be done with the types of assembly. During unfriendly discussion (vigrihya) 44 terms such as vada etc. are worth knowing for the course of discussion among physician. These vada marga not only help in winning discussion but improves knowledge and enhances the thinking.

Similarly, for the physician to improve his medical knowledge karana, (reasoning/doer) karana (knowledge of means), karyayoni (objective), karya (action), karyaphala (attainment of objective and happiness), anubandha (after effect), desha (habitat/patient), kala (year and phase of disease), pravritti (initiation of therapy) and upaya (proper management) are necessary.

Complete knowledge of patient’s condition is required before starting the treatment, which is done by tenfold examination. The specific investigations to be considered are desha (place-habitat and patient’s body), prakṛiti and vikriti according to dosha, sara (essence of body tissues), compactness, structure and body mass, measurement of body parts, specific suitability of a person, sattva (mental status), power of digestion and assimilation, exercise endurance and age.

Seven types of prakriti and their features are explained to understand normal state of body, whereas the pathological condition is termed as vikriti. These factors help the physician to classify the strength of the patient into three categories viz. superior (pravar), medium (madhya) and inferior (avar). It is on this basis that physician decides to give strong (tikshna), mild (mridu) and moderate (madhya) medicaments. The appropriate time for purification therapies is explained with reasoning. Similarly, medicine should be given at appropriate time to the patient (kala) and when not to be given (akala). Lastly initiation of therapy (pravritti) and excellance of physician etc. chatuspada (upaya) have been explained.

All the above ten examinations help in deciding the actual and specific treatment like vamana, virechana, asthapana, anuvasana and shirovirechana. Therefore, in the concluding part of the chapter drugs useful for vamana and virechana have been enlisted. In case of asthapana as per the condition of patient and disease the drug classification can be innumerable therefore to prevent the ativistara (prolonged deliberation/expansion). Drugs are classified on the basis of rasa into six groups for example madhura rasa drugs having madhura vipaka and madhur prabhava are classified into madhur skanda so is the case with other five rasa. The physician has been given freedom to permutate and combine drugs as per requirement in patient and its availability.

The same asthapana gana (group of drugs for non-unctuous enema) can be fortified with specific sneha as per dosha and be administered as anuvasana. Taila for vata, vasa and majja for kapha and ghrita for pitta. Lastly drugs useful in shirovirechana have been explained along with the part of the plant (flower, fruit, bark etc.) to be used.

For the purpose of accurate diagnosis and treatment one must have complete knowledge for which this chapter is designed.

Sanskrit Text, Transliteration and English Translation

अथातोरोगभिषग्जितीयंविमानंव्याख्यास्यामः||१|| इतिहस्माहभगवानात्रेयः||२||

athātō rōgabhiṣagjitīyaṁ vimānaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1|| iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

athAto rogabhiShagjitIyaM vimAnaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||

iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

Now we shall expound the chapter on Rogabhishagjitiya Vimana (the methods of conquering debate and disease). Thus said Lord Atreya. [1-2]

Selection of medical treatise

बुद्धिमानात्मनःकार्यगुरुलाघवंकर्मफलमनुबन्धंदेशकालौचविदित्वायुक्तिदर्शनाद्भिषग्बुभूषुःशास्त्रमेवादितःपरीक्षेत| विविधानिहिशास्त्राणिभिषजांप्रचरन्तिलोके; तत्रयन्मन्येतसुमहद्यशस्विधीरपुरुषासेवितमर्थबहुलमाप्तजनपूजितंत्रिविधशिष्यबुद्धिहितमपगतपुनरुक्तदोषमार्षंसुप्रणीतसूत्रभाष्यसङ्ग्रहक्रमंस्वाधारमनवपतितशब्दमकष्टशब्दं पुष्कलाभिधानंक्रमागतार्थमर्थतत्त्वविनिश्चयप्रधानंसङ्गतार्थमसङ्कुलप्रकरणमाशुप्रबोधकंलक्षणवच्चोदाहरणवच्च,तदभिप्रपद्येतशास्त्रम्|शास्त्रंह्येवंविधममलइवादित्यस्तमोविधूयप्रकाशयतिसर्वम्||३||

buddhimānātmanaḥkāryagurulāghavaṁkarmaphalamanubandhaṁdēśakālaucaviditvā yuktidarśanādbhiṣagbubhūṣuḥśāstramēvāditaḥparīkṣēta|vividhānihiśāstrāṇibhiṣajāṁpracarantilōkē; tatrayanmanyētasumahadyaśasvidhīrapuruṣāsēvitamarthabahulamāptajanapūjitaṁtrividhaśiṣya buddhihitamapagatapunaruktadōṣamārṣaṁsupraṇītasūtrabhāṣyasaṅgrahakramaṁsvādhāramanavapatita śabdamakaṣṭaśabdaṁpuṣkalābhidhānaṁkramāgatārthamarthatattvaviniścayapradhānaṁsaṅgatārthamasaṅkulaprakaraṇamāśuprabōdhakaṁ lakṣaṇavaccōdāharaṇavacca, tadabhiprapadyēta śāstram| śāstraṁ hyēvaṁvidhamamala ivādityastamō vidhūya prakāśayati sarvam||3||

buddhimAnAtmanaH kAryagurulAghavaM [1] karmaphalamanubandhaM deshakAlau ca viditvAyuktidarshanAdbhiShagbubhUShuH shAstramevAditaH parIkSheta| vividhAni hi shAstrANi bhiShajAM pracaranti loke; tatra yanmanyetasumahadyashasvidhIrapuruShAsevitamarthabahulamAptajanapUjitaMtrividhashiShyabuddhihitamapagatapunaruktadoShamArShaM supraNItasUtrabhAShyasa~ggrahakramaMsvAdhAramanavapatitashabdamakaShTashabdaM puShkalAbhidhAnaMkramAgatArthamarthatattvavinishcayapradhAnaMsa~ggatArthamasa~gkulaprakaraNamAshuprabodhakaM lakShaNavaccodAharaNavacca,tadabhiprapadyeta shAstram| shAstraM hyevaMvidhamamala ivAdityastamo vidhUya prakAshayati sarvam||3||

The shrewd who wishes to be a physician, first of all, should analyze his own strength and weakness in profession, the after-impacts of his profession, his inclination, habitat and favourable time (age of learning) and thenafter wisely search for a medical treatise. Different medical treatises (and traditions) are available in society, from which one might select that has following characters:

  • which is comprehensive providing all information
  • successful, followed by prominent and wise men(successful practitioners),
  • with detailed meanings
  • regarded by authorities,
  • useful to all three types of learners ( with good, moderate and poor intellect),
  • free from the deformity of reiteration,
  • descending from the sages (which is written by experienced, intuitive person),
  • with well- formed presentation, discussion and conclusion,
  • having informative title and firm base free from weak and difficult words,
  • having comprehensive knowledge of subject
  • with proper sequencing of its contents
  • committed principally to arriving at the essence of thoughts, which reveals cleary meanings and concrete conclusion
  • focused on the particular subject without wavering ideas and irrelevant content,
  • quicky understandable with separated topics, effectively comprehensible, and having definitions showed with examples.

Such treatise with pure knowledge is similar to sun which enlightens the whole subject while warding off the darkness. [3]

Search of ideal preceptor

ततोऽनन्तरमाचार्यंपरीक्षेत;तद्यथा-पर्यवदातश्रुतंपरिदृष्टकर्माणंदक्षंदक्षिणंशुचिंजितहस्तमुपकरणवन्तंसर्वेन्द्रियोपपन्नंप्रकृतिज्ञंप्रतिपत्तिज्ञमनुपस्कृतविद्यमनहङ्कृतमनसूयकमकोपनंक्लेशक्षमंशिष्यवत्सलमध्यापकंज्ञापनसमर्थंचेत एवङ्गुणोह्याचार्यःसुक्षेत्रमार्तवोमेघइवशस्यगुणैः \सुशिष्यमाशुवैद्यगुणैः सम्पादयति||४||

tatō'nantaramācāryaṁ parīkṣēta; tadyathā- paryavadātaśrutaṁ paridr̥ṣṭakarmāṇaṁ dakṣaṁ dakṣiṇaṁ śuciṁ jitahastamupakaraṇavantaṁ sarvēndriyōpapannaṁ prakr̥tijñaṁ pratipattijñamanupaskr̥tavidyamanahaṅkr̥tamanasūyakamakōpanaṁ klēśakṣamaṁ śiṣyavatsalamadhyāpakaṁ jñāpanasamarthaṁ cēti| ēvaṅguṇō hyācāryaḥ sukṣētramārtavō mēgha iva śasyaguṇaiḥ suśiṣyamāśu vaidyaguṇaiḥ sampādayati||4||

tato~anantaramAcAryaM parIkSheta; tadyathA- paryavadAtashrutaM paridRuShTakarmANaM dakShaMdakShiNaM shuciM jitahastamupakaraNavantaM sarvendriyopapannaM prakRutij~jaMpratipattij~jamanupaskRutavidyamanaha~gkRutamanasUyakamakopanaM [1] kleshakShamaMshiShyavatsalamadhyApakaM j~jApanasamarthaM ceti| eva~gguNo hyAcAryaH sukShetramArtavo megha iva shasyaguNaiH sushiShyamAshu vaidyaguNaiHsampAdayati||4||

Thereafter one should search a preceptor to guide who

  • have clear knowledge of the subject and practical experience,
  • be diligent, dexterous, virtuous, with skilled hand,
  • well equipped, possessing all the senses in normal condition,
  • acquainted with constitutions, well- versed in courses of emergency management and quick actions,
  • having his knowledge uncensured,
  • free from ego, envy, anger, forbearing,
  • paternal to disciples,
  • having characteristics of a good teacher and fit for imbue understanding.

The teacher holding such qualities quickly inculcates physician’s qualities in his disciple as the seasonal cloud furnishes good crop in a suitable land. [4]

Means of learning in medical science

तमुपसृत्यारिराधयिषुरुपचरेदग्निवच्चदेववच्चराजवच्चपितृवच्चभर्तृवच्चाप्रमत्तः| ततस्तत्प्रसादात्कृत्स्नंशास्त्रमधिगम्यशास्त्रस्यदृढतायामभिधानस्य सौष्ठवेऽर्थस्यविज्ञानेवचनशक्तौचभूयोभूयःप्रयतेतसम्यक्||५||

tamupasr̥tyārirādhayiṣurupacarēdagnivacca dēvavacca rājavacca pitr̥vacca bhartr̥vaccāpramattaḥ| tatastatprasādāt kr̥tsnaṁ śāstramadhigamya śāstrasya dr̥ḍhatāyāmabhidhānasya sauṣṭhavē'rthasya vijñānē vacanaśaktau ca bhūyō bhūyaḥ prayatēta samyak||5||

tamupasRutyArirAdhayiShurupacaredagnivacca devavacca rAjavacca pitRuvacca bhartRuvaccApramattaH| tatastatprasAdAt kRutsnaM shAstramadhigamya shAstrasya dRuDhatAyAmabhidhAnasyasauShThave~arthasya vij~jAne vacanashaktau ca bhUyo bhUyaH prayateta samyak||5||

The student desirous of learning from such an ideal preceptor, should sincerely follow him as like worshipping fire, god, king, father and guardian. Subsequently after satisfactorily gaining knowledge of whole medical treatise, the student should always continually attempt to improve further depth of knowledge, understand the (hidden) precise meanings, gain more scientific knowledge, express it impressively with comprehension of ideas and power of speaking. [5]

तत्रोपायाननुव्याख्यास्यामः- अध्ययनम्,अध्यापनं,तद्विद्यसम्भाषाचेत्युपायाः||६||

tatrōpāyānanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ- adhyayanam, adhyāpanaṁ, tadvidyasambhāṣā cētyupāyāḥ||6||

tatropAyAnanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH- adhyayanam, adhyApanaM, tadvidyasambhAShA cetyupAyAH||6||

The means for enhancing depth of knowledge are- study, teaching and discussion with authorities. [6]

Method of study

तत्रायमध्ययनविधिः-कल्यःकृतक्षणःप्रातरुत्थायोपव्यूषंवाकृत्वाऽऽवश्यकमुपस्पृश्योदकंदेवर्षिगोब्राह्मणगुरुवृद्धसिद्धाचार्येभ्यो नमस्कृत्यसमेशुचौदेशेसुखोपविष्टोमनःपुरःसराभिर्वाग्भिःसूत्रमनुक्रामन् पुनःपुनरावर्तयेद्बुद्ध्वासम्यगनुप्रविश्यार्थतत्त्वंस्वदोषपरिहारार्थं परदोषप्रमाणार्थंच;एवंमध्यन्दिनेऽपराह्णेरात्रौचशश्वदपरिहापयन्नध्ययनमभ्यस्येत्|इत्यध्ययनविधिः||७||

tatrāyamadhyayanavidhiḥ- kalyaḥ kr̥takṣaṇaḥ prātarutthāyōpavyūṣaṁ vā kr̥tvāvaśyakamupaspr̥śyōdakaṁ dēvarṣigōbrāhmaṇaguruvr̥ddhasiddhācāryēbhyō namaskr̥tya samē śucau dēśē sukhōpaviṣṭō manaḥpuraḥsarābhirvāgbhiḥsūtramanukrāman punaḥ punarāvartayēd buddhvā samyaganupraviśyārthatattvaṁ svadōṣaparihārārthaṁ paradōṣapramāṇārthaṁ ca; ēvaṁ madhyandinē'parāhṇē rātrau ca śaśvadaparihāpayannadhyayanamabhyasyēt| ityadhyayanavidhiḥ||7||

tatrAyamadhyayanavidhiH- kalyaH kRutakShaNaH prAtarutthAyopavyUShaM vAkRutvA~a~avashyakamupaspRushyodakaM devarShigobrAhmaNaguruvRuddhasiddhAcAryebhyonamaskRutya same shucau deshe sukhopaviShTo manaHpuraHsarAbhirvAgbhiHsUtramanukrAman punaHpunarAvartayed buddhvA [1] samyaganupravishyArthatattvaM svadoShaparihArArthaMparadoShapramANArthaM ca; evaM madhyandine~aparAhNe rAtrau cashashvadaparihApayannadhyayanamabhyasyet| ityadhyayanavidhiH||7||

One desirous of study with a calm mind and at a proper time, should get up early in the morning. After passing the natural urges and cleaning body (as per daily schedule), should do the spiritual rituals like sprinkling water, worshiping gods, sages, cow, brahmana, preceptors, elders, accomplished persons and the teacher. Then sitting comfortably on even and clean ground should present the aphorisms in order as learnt from teacher with clear voice attentively repeating it over and over. At the same time, he should think about the meaning and principle to get rid off his own defects and to know others' defects. In this way, he should proceed the study without squandering time in midday, afternoon, and night. This is the method of study. [7]

Characteristics of ideal student and method of teaching

अथाध्यापनविधिः-अध्यापनेकृतबुद्धिराचार्यःशिष्यमेवादितः परीक्षेत;तद्यथा-प्रशान्तमार्यप्रकृतिकमक्षुद्रकर्माणमृजुचक्षुर्मुखनासावंशं तनुरक्तविशदजिह्वमविकृतदन्तौष्ठममिन्मिनं धृतिमन्तमनहङ्कृतंमेधाविनंवितर्कस्मृतिसम्पन्नमुदारसत्त्वं तद्विद्यकुलजमथवातद्विद्यवृत्तंतत्त्वाभिनिवेशिनमव्यङ्गमव्यापन्नेन्द्रियं निभृतमनुद्धतमर्थतत्त्वभावकमकोपनमव्यसनिनं शीलशौचाचारानुरागदाक्ष्यप्रादक्षिण्योपपन्नमध्ययनाभिकाममर्थविज्ञाने कर्मदर्शनेचानन्यकार्यमलुब्धमनलसंसर्वभूतहितैषिणमाचार्यसर्वानुशिष्टिप्रतिकरमनुरक्तंच,एवङ्गुणसमुदितमध्याप्यमाहुः||८||

athādhyāpanavidhiḥ- adhyāpanē kr̥tabuddhirācāryaḥ śiṣyamēvāditaḥ parīkṣēta; tadyathā- praśāntamāryaprakr̥tikamakṣudrakarmāṇamr̥jucakṣurmukhanāsāvaṁśaṁ tanuraktaviśadajihvamavikr̥tadantauṣṭhamaminminaṁ dhr̥timantamanahaṅkr̥taṁ mēdhāvinaṁ vitarkasmr̥tisampannamudārasattvaṁ tadvidyakulajamathavā tadvidyavr̥ttaṁ tattvābhinivēśinamavyaṅgamavyāpannēndriyaṁ nibhr̥tamanuddhatamarthatattvabhāvakamakōpanamavyasaninaṁ śīlaśaucācārānurāgadākṣyaprādakṣiṇyōpapannamadhyayanābhikāmamarthavijñānē karmadarśanē cānanyakāryamalubdhamanalasaṁ sarvabhūtahitaiṣiṇamācāryasarvānuśiṣṭipratikaramanuraktaṁ ca, ēvaṅguṇasamuditamadhyāpyamāhuḥ||8||

athAdhyApanavidhiH- adhyApane kRutabuddhirAcAryaH shiShyamevAditaH parIkSheta; tadyathA-prashAntamAryaprakRutikamakShudrakarmANamRujucakShurmukhanAsAvaMshaMtanuraktavishadajihvamavikRutadantauShThamaminminaM dhRutimantamanaha~gkRutaM medhAvinaMvitarkasmRutisampannamudArasattvaM tadvidyakulajamathavA tadvidyavRuttaMtattvAbhiniveshinamavya~ggamavyApannendriyaMnibhRutamanuddhatamarthatattvabhAvakamakopanamavyasaninaM [1]shIlashaucAcArAnurAgadAkShyaprAdakShiNyopapannamadhyayanAbhikAmamarthavij~jAnekarmadarshane cAnanyakAryamalubdhamanalasaMsarvabhUtahitaiShiNamAcAryasarvAnushiShTipratikaramanuraktaM [2] ca,eva~gguNasamuditamadhyApyamAhuH||8||

Now following is the method of teaching: The teacher, having decided to teach should, first of all examine the ideal disciple with following characteristics:

  • should be very calm, with superior qualities,
  • not involved in mean acts,
  • with straight eyes, mouth and nasal edge (without any defect in eyes, nose and mouth);
  • having thin, red and clear tongue; with no abnormality in teeth and lips, not talking with nasal utterance,
  • having forebearance, without vanity, intelligent, endowed with logical reasoning and memory,
  • broad minded,
  • born in a family of physicians or aware with the conduct and behavior of physicians
  • desirous of gaining scientific knowledge
  • without any physical deformity or disability of senses,
  • humble, keeping the knowledge safely, un-haughty,
  • having capacity to comprehend essence of the ideas,
  • without anger and addictions,
  • endowed with modesty, purity, good conduct, affection, dexterity and sincerity, interested in study,
  • dedicated to comprehension of ideas and practical knowledge without any distraction,
  • having no greed or idleness, empathetic to all creatures,
  • following all the instructions of the teacher and being attached to his teacher.[8]

Commencement of academic session/teaching

एवंविधमध्ययनार्थिनमुपस्थितमारिराधयिषुमाचार्योऽनुभाषेत उदगयनेशुक्लपक्षेप्रशस्तेऽहनितिष्यहस्तश्रवणाश्वयुजामन्यतमेन नक्षत्रेणयोगमुपगतेभगवतिशशिनिकल्याणेकल्याणेचकरणेमैत्रेमुहूर्तेमुण्डःकृतोपवासःस्नातःकाषायवस्त्रसंवीतःसगन्धहस्तःसमिधोऽग्निमाज्यमुपलेपनमुदकुम्भान् माल्यदामदीपहिरण्यहेमरजतमणिमुक्ताविद्रुमक्षौमपरिधीन् कुशलाजसर्षपाक्षतांश्चशुक्लानि सुमनांसिग्रथिताग्रथितानिमेध्यान्भक्ष्यान्गन्धांश्चघृष्टानादायोपतिष्ठस्वेति||९||

ēvaṁvidhamadhyayanārthinamupasthitamārirādhayiṣumācāryō'nubhāṣēta - udagayanē śuklapakṣē praśastē'hani tiṣyahastaśravaṇāśvayujāmanyatamēna nakṣatrēṇa yōgamupagatē bhagavati śaśini kalyāṇē kalyāṇē ca karaṇē maitrē muhūrtē muṇḍaḥ kr̥tōpavāsaḥ snātaḥ kāṣāyavastrasaṁvītaḥ sagandhahastaḥ samidhō'gnimājyamupalēpanamudakumbhān mālyadāmadīpahiraṇyahēmarajatamaṇimuktāvidrumakṣaumaparidhīn kuśalājasarṣapākṣatāṁśca śuklāni sumanāṁsi grathitāgrathitāni mēdhyān bhakṣyān gandhāṁśca ghr̥ṣṭānādāyōpatiṣṭhasvēti||9||

evaMvidhamadhyayanArthinamupasthitamArirAdhayiShumAcAryo~anubhASheta [1] - udagayaneshuklapakShe prashaste~ahani tiShyahastashravaNAshvayujAmanyatamena nakShatreNa yogamupagatebhagavati shashini kalyANe kalyANe ca karaNe maitre muhUrte muNDaH kRutopavAsaH snAtaHkAShAyavastrasaMvItaH sagandhahastaH samidho~agnimAjyamupalepanamudakumbhAnmAlyadAmadIpahiraNyahemarajatamaNimuktAvidrumakShaumaparidhIn kushalAjasarShapAkShatAMshcashuklAni sumanAMsi grathitAgrathitAni medhyAn bhakShyAn gandhAMshcaghRuShTAnAdAyopatiShThasveti||9||

When such a disciple with desire of study and feeling of commitment approaches the teacher, then teacher should address the student as- “when the sun is in the northernly course and during the full moon phase, on propitious day the benevolent lord moon having conjunction with one of the tishya (pushya), hasta, shravana and ashvayuja constellations in kalyanekarana and maitramuhurta come with shaved head, after following fast, had bath, wearing ochre-colored clothes and sacred thread and with fragrance sacred fire wood, fire, ghee, means of besmearing (cow-dung etc.), water jars, garland, rope, lamp, vessels of gold, silver, jewels, pearls, corals, silken cloth and sticks for edge of the sacrificial ground, holy grass, fried paddy, mustard seeds, barley grains, white-flowers, with or without strung, eatables increasing memory power and paste of fragrant wood.”[9]

सतथाकुर्यात्||१०||

sa tathā kuryāt||10||

sa [2] tathA kuryAt||10||

The student should follow instructions of preceptor. [10]

तमुपस्थितमाज्ञायसमेशुचौदेशेप्राक्प्रवणेउदक्प्रवणेवाचतुष्किष्कुमात्रंचतुरस्रंस्थण्डिलंगोमयोदकेनोपलिप्तंकुशास्तीर्णंसुपरिहितं

परिधिभिश्चतुर्दिशंयथोक्तचन्दनोदकुम्भक्षौमहेमहिरण्यरजतमणिमुक्ताविद्रुमालङ्कृतंमेध्यभक्ष्यगन्धशुक्लपुष्पलाजसर्षपाक्षतोपशोभितंकृत्वा,

तत्रपालाशीभिरैङ्गुदीभिरौदुम्बरीभिर्माधुकीभिर्वासमिद्भिरग्निमुपसमाधायप्राङ्मुखःशुचिरध्ययनविधिमनुविधायमधुसर्पिर्भ्यांत्रिस्त्रिर्जुहुयादग्निमाशीः

सम्प्रयुक्तैर्मन्त्रैर्ब्रह्माणमग्निंधन्वन्तरिंप्रजापतिमश्विनाविन्द्रमृषींश्चसूत्रकारानभिमन्त्रयमाणःपूर्वंस्वाहेति||११||

tamupasthitamājñāya samē śucau dēśē prākpravaṇē udakpravaṇē vā catuṣkiṣkumātraṁ caturasraṁ sthaṇḍilaṁ gōmayōdakēnōpaliptaṁ kuśāstīrṇaṁ

suparihitaṁ paridhibhiścaturdiśaṁ yathōktacandanōdakumbhakṣaumahēmahiraṇyarajatamaṇimuktāvidrumālaṅkr̥taṁ

mēdhyabhakṣyagandhaśuklapuṣpalājasarṣapākṣatōpaśōbhitaṁ kr̥tvā, tatra pālāśībhiraiṅgudībhiraudumbarībhirmādhukībhirvā

samidbhiragnimupasamādhāya prāṅmukhaḥ śuciradhyayanavidhimanuvidhāya madhusarpirbhyāṁ

tristrirjuhuyādagnimāśīḥsamprayuktairmantrairbrahmāṇamagniṁ dhanvantariṁ prajāpatimaśvināvindramr̥ṣīṁśca sūtrakārānabhimantrayamāṇaḥ pūrvaṁ

svāhēti||11||

tamupasthitamAj~jAya same shucau deshe prAkpravaNe [1] udakpravaNe vA catuShkiShkumAtraMcaturasraM sthaNDilaM gomayodakenopaliptaM

kushAstIrNaM suparihitaM [2]

paridhibhishcaturdishaMyathoktacandanodakumbhakShaumahemahiraNyarajatamaNimuktAvidrumAla~gkRutaMmedhyabhakShyagandhashuklapuShpalAjasarShapAk

ShatopashobhitaM kRutvA, tatrapAlAshIbhirai~ggudIbhiraudumbarIbhirmAdhukIbhirvA samidbhiragnimupasamAdhAya

prA~gmukhaHshuciradhyayanavidhimanuvidhAya madhusarpirbhyAMtristrirjuhuyAdagnimAshIHsamprayuktairmantrairbrahmANamagniM

dhanvantariMprajApatimashvinAvindramRuShIMshca sUtrakArAnabhimantrayamANaH pUrvaM svAheti||11||

Knowing that the student has come, the preceptor should make rectangular platform measuring four cubits and sloping eastward or northward, in an even and pure place. This ought to be spread with cow-dung, covered with sacred grass and bound on borders with paridhi. Further it ought to be equipped with the said articles, for example sandal, water jar, silken garment, gold, golden vessel, silver, jewel, pearl and coral and beautified with eatables increasing memory power, aromas, white flowers, fried paddy, mustard and barley grains. Then attending to the fire with the fuel-sticks made of palash, ingudi, udumbara, madhuka while in pure condition and facing eastward, as recommended under the method of study, he should offer oblations of honey and ghee to the fire reciting benedictory mantras first invoking Brahma, Agni, Dhanwantari, Prajapati, Ashvinis, Indra and various sages, the authors of the aphorism and ending with svaaha three times each.[11]

हुत्वाचप्रदक्षिणमग्निमनुपरिक्रामेत्| परिक्रम्यब्राह्मणान्स्वस्तिवाचयेत्;भिषजश्चाभिपूजयेत्||१२||

śiṣyaścainamanvālabhēta| hutvā ca pradakṣiṇamagnimanuparikrāmēt| parikramya brāhmaṇān svasti vācayēt; bhiṣajaścābhipūjayēt||12|| shiShyashcainamanvAlabheta| hutvA ca pradakShiNamagnimanuparikrAmet| parikramya brAhmaNAn svasti vAcayet; bhiShajashcAbhipUjayet||12||

The disciple should follow him. After offering oblations he should go round the fire keeping it to the right side, than brahmanas should recite svasti. At the end, he should pay regards to the physicians in the society. [12]

Code of conduct for medical student and professional

अथैनमग्निसकाशेब्राह्मणसकाशेभिषक्सकाशेचानुशिष्यात्-ब्रह्मचारिणा श्मश्रुधारिणसत्यवादिनाऽमांसादेनमेध्यसेविनानिर्मत्सरेणाशस्त्रधारिणाचभवितव्यं,नचतेमद्वचनात्किञ्चिदकार्यंस्यादन्यत्रराजद्विष्टात्प्राणहराद्विपुलादधर्म्यादनर्थसम्प्रयुक्ताद्वाऽप्यर्थात्; मदर्पणेनमत्प्रधानेनमदधीनेनमत्प्रियहितानुवर्तिनाचशश्वद्भवितव्यं, पुत्रवद्दासवदर्थिवच्चोपचरताऽनुवस्तव्योऽहम्अनुत्सेकेनावहितेनानन्यमनसाविनीतेनावेक्ष्यावेक्ष्यकारिणाऽनसूयकेनचाभ्यनुज्ञातेनप्रविचरितव्यम्, अनुज्ञातेन(चाननुज्ञातेनच)प्रविचरतापूर्वंगुर्वर्थोपाहरणेयथाशक्तिप्रयतितव्यं,कर्मसिद्धिमर्थसिद्धंयशोलाभंप्रेत्यचस्वर्गमिच्छताभिषजात्वया गोब्राह्मणमादौकृत्वासर्वप्राणभृतांशर्माशासितव्यमहरहरुत्तिष्ठताचोपविशताच,सर्वात्मनाचातुराणामारोग्यायप्रयतितव्यं, जीवितहेतोरपिचातुरेभ्योनाभिद्रोग्धव्यं, मनसाऽपिचपरस्त्रियोनाभिगमनीयास्तथासर्वमेवपरस्वं,निभृतवेशपरिच्छदेनभवितव्यम्, अशौण्डेनापापेनापापसहायेनच, श्लक्ष्णशुक्लधर्म्यशर्म्यधन्यसत्यहितमितवचसादेशकालविचारिणास्मृतिमताज्ञानोत्थानोपकरणसम्पत्सुनित्यंयत्नवताच; नचकदाचिद्राजद्विष्टानांराजद्वेषिणांवामहाजनद्विष्टानांमहाजनद्वेषिणांवाऽप्यौषधमनुविधातव्यं,तथा सर्वेषामत्यर्थविकृतदुष्टदुःखशीलाचारोपचाराणामनपवादप्रतिकारणां मुमूर्षूणांच,तथैवासन्निहितेश्वराणांस्त्रीणामनध्यक्षाणांवा;नच कदाचित्स्त्रीदत्तमामिषमादातव्यमननुज्ञातंभर्त्राऽथवाऽध्यक्षेण,आतुरकुलं चानुप्रविशताविदितेनानुमतप्रवेशिनासार्धंपुरुषेणसुसंवीतेनावाक्शिरसास्मृतिमतास्तिमितेनावेक्ष्यावेक्ष्यमनसासर्वमाचरतासम्यगनुप्रवेष्टव्यम्,अनुप्रविश्यचवाङ्मनोबुद्धीन्द्रियाणिनक्वचित् प्रणिधातव्यान्यन्यत्रातुरादातुरोपकारार्थादातुरगतेष्वन्येषुवाभावेषु,नचातुरकुलप्रवृत्तयोबहिर्निश्चारयितव्याः, ह्रसितंचायुषःप्रमाणमातुरस्यजानताऽपित्वयानवर्णयितव्यंतत्रयत्रोच्यमानमातुरस्यान्यस्यवाऽप्युपघातायसम्पद्यते;ज्ञानवताऽपिचनात्यर्थमात्मनोज्ञानेविकत्थितव्यम्,आप्तादपिहि विकत्थमानादत्यर्थमुद्विजन्त्यनेके||१३||

athainamagnisakāśē brāhmaṇasakāśē bhiṣaksakāśē cānuśiṣyāt- brahmacāriṇā śmaśrudhāriṇa satyavādinā'māṁsādēna mēdhyasēvinā nirmatsarēṇāśastradhāriṇā ca bhavitavyaṁ, na ca tē madvacanāt kiñcidakāryaṁ syādanyatra rājadviṣṭāt prāṇaharādvipulādadharmyādanarthasamprayuktādvā'pyarthāt; madarpaṇēna matpradhānēna madadhīnēna matpriyahitānuvartinā ca śaśvadbhavitavyaṁ, putravaddāsavadarthivaccōpacaratā'nuvastavyō'ham,anutsēkēnāvahitēnānanyamanasā vinītēnāvēkṣyāvēkṣyakāriṇā'nasūyakēna cābhyanujñātēna pravicaritavyam, anujñātēna (cānanujñātēna ca) pravicaratā pūrvaṁ gurvarthōpāharaṇē yathāśakti prayatitavyaṁ, karmasiddhimarthasiddhaṁ yaśōlābhaṁ prētya ca svargamicchatā bhiṣajā tvayā gōbrāhmaṇamādau kr̥tvā sarvaprāṇabhr̥tāṁ śarmāśāsitavyamaharaharuttiṣṭhatā cōpaviśatā ca, sarvātmanā cāturāṇāmārōgyāya prayatitavyaṁ, jīvitahētōrapi cāturēbhyō nābhidrōgdhavyaṁ, manasā'pi ca parastriyō nābhigamanīyāstathā sarvamēva parasvaṁ, nibhr̥tavēśaparicchadēna bhavitavyam, aśauṇḍēnāpāpēnāpāpasahāyēna ca, ślakṣṇaśukladharmyaśarmyadhanyasatyahitamitavacasā dēśakālavicāriṇā smr̥timatā jñānōtthānōpakaraṇasampatsu nityaṁ yatnavatā ca; na ca kadācidrājadviṣṭānāṁ rājadvēṣiṇāṁ vā mahājanadviṣṭānāṁmahājanadvēṣiṇāṁvā'pyauṣadhamanuvidhātavyaṁ,tathāsarvēṣāmatyarthavikr̥taduṣṭaduḥkhaśīlācārōpacārāṇāmanapavādapratikāraṇāṁ mumūrṣūṇāṁ ca, tathaivāsannihitēśvarāṇāṁ strīṇāmanadhyakṣāṇāṁ vā; na ca kadācit strīdattamāmiṣamādātavyamananujñātaṁ bhartrā'thavā'dhyakṣēṇa, āturakulaṁ cānupraviśatā viditēnānumatapravēśinā sārdhaṁ puruṣēṇa susaṁvītēnāvākśirasā smr̥timatā stimitēnāvēkṣyāvēkṣya manasā sarvamācaratā samyaganupravēṣṭavyam, anupraviśya ca vāṅmanōbuddhīndriyāṇi na kvacit praṇidhātavyānyanyatrāturādāturōpakārārthādāturagatēṣvanyēṣu vā bhāvēṣu, na cāturakulapravr̥ttayō bahirniścārayitavyāḥ, hrasitaṁ cāyuṣaḥ pramāṇamāturasya jānatā'pi tvayā na varṇayitavyaṁ tatra yatrōcyamānamāturasyānyasya vā'pyupaghātāya sampadyatē; jñānavatā'pi ca nātyarthamātmanō jñānē vikatthitavyam, āptādapi hi vikatthamānādatyarthamudvijantyanēkē||13||

athainamagnisakAshe brAhmaNasakAshe bhiShaksakAshe cAnushiShyAt- brahmacAriNA shmashrudhAriNasatyavAdinA~amAMsAdena medhyasevinA nirmatsareNAshastradhAriNA ca bhavitavyaM, na ca temadvacanAt ki~jcidakAryaM syAdanyatra rAjadviShTAtprANaharAdvipulAdadharmyAdanarthasamprayuktAdvA~apyarthAt; madarpaNena matpradhAnenamadadhInena matpriyahitAnuvartinA ca shashvadbhavitavyaM,putravaddAsavadarthivaccopacaratA~anuvastavyo~aham [1] , anutsekenAvahitenAnanyamanasAvinItenAvekShyAvekShyakAriNA~anasUyakena cAbhyanuj~jAtena pravicaritavyam, anuj~jAtena(cAnanuj~jAtena ca) pravicaratA pUrvaM gurvarthopAharaNe yathAshakti prayatitavyaM,karmasiddhimarthasiddhaM yasholAbhaM pretya ca svargamicchatA bhiShajA tvayA gobrAhmaNamAdaukRutvA sarvaprANabhRutAM sharmAshAsitavyamaharaharuttiShThatA copavishatA ca, sarvAtmanAcAturANAmArogyAya prayatitavyaM, jIvitahetorapi cAturebhyo nAbhidrogdhavyaM, manasA~api caparastriyo nAbhigamanIyAstathA sarvameva parasvaM, nibhRutaveshaparicchadena bhavitavyam,ashauNDenApApenApApasahAyena ca, shlakShNashukladharmyasharmyadhanyasatyahitamitavacasAdeshakAlavicAriNA smRutimatA j~jAnotthAnopakaraNasampatsu nityaM yatnavatA ca; na cakadAcidrAjadviShTAnAM rAjadveShiNAM vA mahAjanadviShTAnAM mahAjanadveShiNAMvA~apyauShadhamanuvidhAtavyaM, tathAsarveShAmatyarthavikRutaduShTaduHkhashIlAcAropacArANAmanapavAdapratikAraNAM [2]mumUrShUNAM ca, tathaivAsannihiteshvarANAM strINAmanadhyakShANAM vA; na ca kadAcitstrIdattamAmiShamAdAtavyamananuj~jAtaM bhartrA~athavA~adhyakSheNa, AturakulaM cAnupravishatAviditenAnumatapraveshinA sArdhaM puruSheNa susaMvItenAvAkshirasA smRutimatAstimitenAvekShyAvekShya manasA sarvamAcaratA samyaganupraveShTavyam, anupravishya cavA~gmanobuddhIndriyANi na kvacitpraNidhAtavyAnyanyatrAturAdAturopakArArthAdAturagateShvanyeShu vA bhAveShu, nacAturakulapravRuttayo bahirnishcArayitavyAH, hrasitaM cAyuShaH pramANamAturasya jAnatA~api tvayAna varNayitavyaM tatra yatrocyamAnamAturasyAnyasya vA~apyupaghAtAya sampadyate; j~jAnavatA~apica nAtyarthamAtmano j~jAne vikatthitavyam, AptAdapi hi vikatthamAnAdatyarthamudvijantyaneke||13||

Now the teacher should instruct the student in presence of sacred fire, brahmanas and physicians,

  • “You shall follow abstinence, keep beard and mustaches,
  • speak truth only,
  • shall not eat meat,
  • follow pure and intellectual functions,
  • do things without jealousy and weapons.
  • You should always follow my (teacher’s) instructions except in case they lead to king’s wrath, end of life, great unrighteousness and other such calamity.
  • You should always entrust me, see me as head, be submissive to me and follow the course which is liked by and advantageous to me. You should live with me behaving as son, servant and suppliant.
  • You should live with modesty, alertness, with focused mind, humbleness and constant vigilance about work, without seeing defect in other’s qualities, and not leave without my permission.
  • When permitted to move out, you should first make effort as far as possible to furnish things told by the teacher.
  • When you join the medical profession and wish success in work(treating patients), in purposes of life (purushartha like dharma, artha, kama and moksha), fame and heaven after death then you should always pray for the welfare of cow, brahmana and all the living creatures.
  • You should try to furnish health to the patients and all creatures by all means.
  • You should not hate the patients even at your daily expenses (even if the poor patient is not able to pay your fees).
  • You should not think bad about other women and any other’s property even in imagination.
  • Your dress and accessories should be modest.
  • You should not be addicted to alcohol, indulged in sins and accompanied by sinners;
  • You should be soft spoken, talking flawless, righteous, blissful, thankful, truthful, useful and measured statements keeping in mind place and season or time. with good remembrance, striving constantly for knowledge, progress and excellence of equipment (medicines etc.).
  • You should not treat the persons disliked by the king (thieves etc.) or disliking the king (rebellions), disliked by good persons or disliking them and all those who are excessively diseased, wicked; having troublesome conduct, behavior and management, have never counteracted their censors and one nearing death;
  • You should not treat the women in absence of their husbands or guardians, you should not accept meat provided by the women without permission of their husband or guardian.
  • At the time of entering into the patient's house you should take along a known individual whose entrance is allowed; should be well-dressed, with head lowered, having good memory, with stability, thinking deliberately and moving as needs be; having entered there, you should never engage your speech, mind and sense organs any place except the patient, his well-being and other entities of the patient's body respectively. The matters of the patient's house should never be revealed outside, in spite of the fact that you know the diminution in life-span of the patient, you should not specify it where it is liable to cause harm to the patient or others. Even though you are learned enough you should not boast too much for your knowledge because mostly the people become anxious for the excessive boasting even it comes from an authority. [13]

नचैवह्यस्तिसुतरमायुर्वेदस्यपारं, तस्मादप्रमत्तःशश्वदभियोगमस्मिन्गच्छेत्, एतच्चकार्यम्, एवम्भूयश्चवृत्तसौष्ठवमनसूयतापरेभ्योऽप्यागमयितव्यं, कृत्स्नोहिलोकोबुद्धिमतामाचार्यःशत्रुश्चाबुद्धिमताम्, अतश्चाभिसमीक्ष्यबुद्धिमताऽमित्रस्यापिधन्यंयशस्यमायुष्यंपौष्टिकंलौक्यमभ्युपदिशतोवचःश्रोतव्यमनुविधातव्यंचेति| अतःपरमिदंब्रूयात्- देवताग्निद्विजगुरुवृद्धसिद्धाचार्येषुतेनित्यंसम्यग्वर्तितव्यं, तेषुतेसम्यग्वर्तमानस्यायमग्निःसर्वगन्धरसरत्नबीजानियथेरिताश्चदेवताःशिवायस्युः, अतोऽन्यथावर्तमानस्याशिवायेति| एवंब्रुवतिचाचार्येशिष्यः‘तथा’इतिब्रूयात्| यथोपदेशं चकुर्वन्नध्याप्यः, अतोऽन्यथात्वनध्याप्यः| अध्याप्यमध्यापयन्ह्याचार्योयथोक्तैश्चाध्यापनफलैर्योगमाप्नोत्यन्यैश्चानुक्तैः श्रेयस्करैर्गुणैःशिष्यमात्मानंचयुनक्ति| इत्यध्यापनविधिरुक्तः||१४||

na caiva hyasti sutaramāyurvēdasya pāraṁ, tasmādapramattaḥ śaśvadabhiyōgamasmin gacchēt, ētacca kāryam, ēvambhūyaśca vr̥ttasauṣṭhavamanasūyatā parēbhyō'pyāgamayitavyaṁ, kr̥tsnō hi lōkō buddhimatāmācāryaḥ śatruścābuddhimatām, ataścābhisamīkṣya buddhimatā'mitrasyāpi dhanyaṁ yaśasyamāyuṣyaṁ pauṣṭikaṁ laukyamabhyupadiśatō vacaḥ śrōtavyamanuvidhātavyaṁ cēti| ataḥ paramidaṁ brūyāt- dēvatāgnidvijaguruvr̥ddhasiddhācāryēṣu tē nityaṁ samyagvartitavyaṁ, tēṣutēsamyagvartamānasyāyamagniḥsarvagandharasaratnabījāniyathēritāśca dēvatāḥśivāyasyuḥ,atō'nyathāvartamānasyāśivāyēti|ēvaṁbruvaticācāryēśiṣyaḥ‘tathā’itibrūyāt| yathōpadēśaṁcakurvannadhyāpyaḥ,atō'nyathātvanadhyāpyaḥ| adhyāpyamadhyāpayanhyācāryōyathōktaiścādhyāpanaphalairyōgamāpnōtyanyaiścānuktaiḥśrēyaskarairguṇaiḥ śiṣyamātmānaṁ ca yunakti| ityadhyāpanavidhiruktaḥ||14||

na caiva hyasti sutaramAyurvedasya pAraM, tasmAdapramattaH shashvadabhiyogamasmin gacchet,etacca [1] kAryam, evambhUyashca vRuttasauShThavamanasUyatA parebhyo~apyAgamayitavyaM,kRutsno hi loko buddhimatAmAcAryaH shatrushcAbuddhimatAm, atashcAbhisamIkShyabuddhimatA~amitrasyApi dhanyaM yashasyamAyuShyaM pauShTikaM laukyamabhyupadishato [2] vacaHshrotavyamanuvidhAtavyaM ceti| ataH paramidaM brUyAt- devatAgnidvijaguruvRuddhasiddhAcAryeShu te nityaM samyagvartitavyaM, teShute samyagvartamAnasyAyamagniH sarvagandharasaratnabIjAni yatheritAshca devatAH shivAya syuH,ato~anyathA vartamAnasyAshivAyeti| evaM bruvati cAcArye shiShyaH ‘tathA’ iti brUyAt| yathopadeshaM ca kurvannadhyApyaH, ato~anyathA tvanadhyApyaH| adhyApyamadhyApayan hyAcAryo yathoktaishcAdhyApanaphalairyogam ApnotyanyaishcAnuktaiHshreyaskarairguNaiH shiShyamAtmAnaM ca yunakti| ityadhyApanavidhiruktaH||14||

There is no limit for knowing the science of life i.e. Ayurveda. Therefore, one should dedicate himself to it (i.e., study Ayurveda) continuously and without any carelessness. This is worth-doing and to be followed.

Further one should keep good behavior with everyone, without pointing the defect in other’s qualities. Because for the wise the whole world is a teacher, while for the unwise it is enemy. Consequently, the wise, after due consideration, should follow the advice which is prosperous, promoting fame, life-span, strength and useful to the society even if it comes from an enemy.

After that he (the teacher) should speak this, “You should always behave properly (worship) to gods, fire, brahmanas, preceptors, elders, accomplished ones and teacher, thus this fire along with all the perfumes, eatables, gem, grins and aforesaid gods would bless you with prosperity, and if you behave in opposite manner they would curse you. When the teacher has said like this, the disciple should say ‘Yes’ (will behave similarly).

If the disciple follows these instructions then he should be taught, otherwise not. The teacher when teaches such a worthy disciple obtains the aforesaid fruits of teaching and enjoins the disciple and himself with other not mentioned beneficial qualities. Thus, the method of teaching is said. [14]

Method of conducting discussion in seminars and symposia of experts

सम्भाषाविधिमतऊर्ध्वंव्याख्यास्यामः- भिषक्भिषजासहसम्भाषेत| तद्विद्यसम्भाषाहिज्ञानाभियोगसंहर्षकरीभवति, वैशारद्यमपिचाभिनिर्वर्तयति, वचनशक्तिमपिचाधत्ते, यशश्चाभिदीपयति, पूर्वश्रुतेचसन्देहवतःपुनःश्रवणाच्छ्रुतसंशयमपकर्षति, श्रुतेचासन्देहवतोभूयोऽध्यवसायमभिनिर्वर्तयति, अश्रुतमपिचकञ्चिदर्थंश्रोत्रविषयमापादयति, यच्चाचार्यःशिष्यायशुश्रूषवेप्रसन्नःक्रमेणोपदिशतिगुह्याभिमतमर्थजातंतत्परस्परेणसहजल्पन्पिण्डेनविजिगीषुराहसंहर्षात्, तस्मात्तद्विद्यसम्भाषामभिप्रशंसन्तिकुशलाः||१५||

sambhāṣāvidhimata ūrdhvaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ- bhiṣak bhiṣajā saha sambhāṣēta| tadvidyasambhāṣā hi jñānābhiyōgasaṁharṣakarī bhavati, vaiśāradyamapi cābhinirvartayati, vacanaśaktimapi cādhattē, yaśaścābhidīpayati, pūrvaśrutē ca sandēhavataḥ punaḥ śravaṇācchrutasaṁśayamapakarṣati, śrutē cāsandēhavatō bhūyō'dhyavasāyamabhinirvartayati, aśrutamapi ca kañcidarthaṁ śrōtraviṣayamāpādayati, yaccācāryaḥ śiṣyāya śuśrūṣavē prasannaḥ kramēṇōpadiśati guhyābhimatamarthajātaṁ tat parasparēṇa saha jalpan piṇḍēna vijigīṣurāha saṁharṣāt, tasmāttadvidyasambhāṣāmabhipraśaṁsanti kuśalāḥ||15||

sambhAShAvidhimata UrdhvaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH- bhiShak bhiShajA saha sambhASheta| tadvidyasambhAShA hi j~jAnAbhiyogasaMharShakarI bhavati, vaishAradyamapi cAbhinirvartayati,vacanashaktimapi cAdhatte, yashashcAbhidIpayati, pUrvashrute ca sandehavataH punaHshravaNAcchrutasaMshayamapakarShati, shrute cAsandehavato bhUyo~adhyavasAyamabhinirvartayati,ashrutamapi ca ka~jcidarthaM shrotraviShayamApAdayati, yaccAcAryaH shiShyAya shushrUShaveprasannaH krameNopadishati guhyAbhimatamarthajAtaM tat paraspareNa saha jalpan piNDena [1]vijigIShurAha saMharShAt, tasmAttadvidyasambhAShAmabhiprashaMsanti kushalAH||15||

Henceforth, I shall expound the method of discussion. A physician should discuss with physicians. Discussion with experts promotes pursuit and advancement of knowledge, provides dexterity, improves power of speaking, illumines fame, removes doubts in scriptures, if any, by repeatedly listening the topics, and creates confidence with doubtless knowledge, , brings forth some new ideas hitherto unknown, the reason is that whatever secret ideas are gradually delivered by the teacher pleased over the devoted disciple, the same are expressed by him in enthusiasm during discussion in order to gain victory. Hence the experts recommend discussion with the specialists. [15]

Two types of discussions

द्विविधातुखलुतद्विद्यसम्भाषाभवति- सन्धायसम्भाषा, विगृह्यसम्भाषाच||१६||

dvividhā tu khalu tadvidyasambhāṣā bhavati- sandhāyasambhāṣā, vigr̥hyasambhāṣā ca||16||

dvividhA tu khalu tadvidyasambhAShA bhavati- sandhAyasambhAShA, vigRuhyasambhAShA ca||16||

Discussion with experts is of two types- friendly discussion and hostile discussion. [16]

Friendly discussion

तत्रज्ञानविज्ञानवचनप्रतिवचनशक्तिसम्पन्नेनाकोपनेनानुपस्कृतविद्येनानसूयकेनानुनेयेनानुनयकोविदेनक्लेशक्षमेणप्रियसम्भाषणेनचसहसन्धायसम्भाषाविधीयते| तथाविधेनसहकथयन्विस्रब्धःकथयेत्, पृच्छेदपिचविस्रब्धः, पृच्छतेचास्मैविस्रब्धायविशदमर्थंब्रूयात्, नचनिग्रहभयादुद्विजेत, निगृह्यचैनंनहृष्येत्, नचपरेषुविकत्थेत, नचमोहादेकान्तग्राहीस्यात्, नचाविदितमर्थमनुवर्णयेत्, सम्यक्चानुनयेनानुनयेत्, तत्रचावहितःस्यात्| इत्यनुलोमसम्भाषाविधिः||१७||

tatra jñānavijñānavacanaprativacanaśaktisampannēnākōpanēnānupaskr̥tavidyēnānasūyakēnānunēyēnānunayakōvidēna klēśakṣamēṇa priyasambhāṣaṇēna ca saha sandhāyasambhāṣā vidhīyatē| tathāvidhēna saha kathayan visrabdhaḥ kathayēt, pr̥cchēdapi ca visrabdhaḥ, pr̥cchatē cāsmai visrabdhāya viśadamarthaṁ brūyāt, na ca nigrahabhayādudvijēta, nigr̥hya cainaṁ na hr̥ṣyēt, na ca parēṣu vikatthēta, na ca mōhādēkāntagrāhī syāt, na cāviditamarthamanuvarṇayēt, samyak cānunayēnānunayēt, tatra cāvahitaḥ syāt| ityanulōmasambhāṣāvidhiḥ||17||

tatraj~jAnavij~jAnavacanaprativacanashaktisampannenAkopanenAnupaskRutavidyenAnasUyakenAnuneyenAnunayakovidenakleshakShameNa priyasambhAShaNena ca saha sandhAyasambhAShA vidhIyate| tathAvidhena saha kathayan visrabdhaH kathayet, pRucchedapi ca visrabdhaH, pRucchate cAsmai visrabdhAyavishadamarthaM brUyAt, na ca nigrahabhayAdudvijeta, nigRuhya cainaM na hRuShyet, na ca pareShu vikattheta, na camohAdekAntagrAhI syAt, na cAviditamarthamanuvarNayet, samyak [1] cAnunayenAnunayet, tatra cAvahitaH syAt| ityanulomasambhAShAvidhiH||17||

The friendly discussion is held as follow:

  • It is discussed with one who is endowed with general and specific knowledge of related topic, opinions and counter-opinions, powerful expressions, devoid of irritability, having uncensored knowledge, without jealously, able to be convinced and who can convince others, enduring and adept in art of sweet conversation.
  • When discussion with such a person one should speak confidently, put question unhesitatingly, reply to the sincere questioner with elaborateness, not be agitated with fear of defeat, not be exhilarated on defeating the partner, not boast before others, not hold fastly his solitary view due to attachment, not explain what is unknown to him, convince the other party with politeness and be caution in that. This is the method of friendly discussion. [17]

Hostile discussion

अतऊर्ध्वमितरेणसहविगृह्यसम्भाषायांजल्पेच्छ्रेयसायोगमात्मनःपश्यन्| प्रागेवचजल्पाज्जल्पान्तरंपरावरान्तरंपरिषद्विशेषांश्चसम्यक्परीक्षेत| सम्यक्परीक्षाहिबुद्धिमतांकार्यप्रवृत्तिनिवृत्तिकालौशंसति, तस्मात्परीक्षामभिप्रशंसन्तिकुशलाः| परीक्षमाणस्तुखलुपरावरान्तरमिमान्जल्पकगुणाञ्श्रेयस्करान्दोषवतश्चपरीक्षेतसम्यक्; तद्यथा- श्रुतंविज्ञानंधारणंप्रतिभानंवचनशक्तिरिति, एतान्गुणान्श्रेयस्करानाहुः; इमान्पुनर्दोषवतः, तद्यथा- कोपनत्वमवैशारद्यंभीरुत्वमधारणत्वमनवहितत्वमिति| एतान्गुणान्गुरुलाघवतःपरस्यचैवात्मनश्चतुलयेत्||१८||

ata ūrdhvamitarēṇa saha vigr̥hya sambhāṣāyāṁ jalpēcchrēyasā yōgamātmanaḥ paśyan| prāgēva ca jalpājjalpāntaraṁ parāvarāntaraṁ pariṣadviśēṣāṁśca samyak parīkṣēta| samyakparīkṣā hi buddhimatāṁ kāryapravr̥ttinivr̥ttikālau śaṁsati, tasmāt parīkṣāmabhipraśaṁsanti kuśalāḥ| parīkṣamāṇastu khalu parāvarāntaramimān jalpakaguṇāñ śrēyaskarāndōṣavataśca parīkṣēta samyak; tadyathā- śrutaṁ vijñānaṁ dhāraṇaṁ pratibhānaṁ vacanaśaktiriti, ētān guṇān śrēyaskarānāhuḥ; imān punardōṣavataḥ, tadyathā- kōpanatvamavaiśāradyaṁ bhīrutvamadhāraṇatvamanavahitatvamiti| ētān guṇān gurulāghavataḥ parasya caivātmanaśca tulayēt||18||

ata UrdhvamitareNa saha vigRuhya sambhAShAyAM [1] jalpecchreyasA yogamAtmanaH pashyan| prAgeva ca jalpAjjalpAntaraM [2] parAvarAntaraM pariShadvisheShAMshca samyak parIkSheta| samyakparIkShA hi buddhimatAM kAryapravRuttinivRuttikAlau shaMsati, tasmAtparIkShAmabhiprashaMsanti kushalAH| parIkShamANastu khalu parAvarAntaramimAn jalpakaguNA~j shreyaskarAndoShavatashca parIkShetasamyak; tadyathA- shrutaM vij~jAnaM dhAraNaM pratibhAnaM vacanashaktiriti, etAn guNAnshreyaskarAnAhuH; imAn punardoShavataH, tadyathA- kopanatvamavaishAradyaMbhIrutvamadhAraNatvamanavahitatvamiti| etAn guNAn gurulAghavataH parasya caivAtmanashca tulayet||18||

Further one should take part in hostile discussion with others after understansing the self benefit. Before arguing, he should examine properly the difference of opinion with opponent, superiority or inferiority of opponent, and the nature of the participants in the discussion. This proper examination guides the wise about the initiation and cessation of discussion, hence the experts recomend the examination. While examining the difference, between him and the opponent, one should also examine the merits and demerits of the speaker properly – merits such as scriptural knowledge, understanding, retention, imagination and eloquence and demerits such as irritability, lack of skill, cowardice, lack of retention and carelessness. One should compare himself and the opponent in superiority- inferiority with respect to these qualities.[18]

Three categories of opponent

तत्रत्रिविधःपरःसम्पद्यते- प्रवरः, प्रत्यवरः, समोवा, गुणविनिक्षेपतः; नत्वेवकार्त्स्न्येन||१९||

tatra trividhaḥ paraḥ sampadyatē- pravaraḥ, pratyavaraḥ, samō vā,guṇavinikṣēpataḥ; natvēva kārtsnyēna||19||

tatra trividhaH paraH sampadyate- pravaraH, pratyavaraH, samo vA, guNavinikShepataH; natvevakArtsnyena||19||

The opponent may be of three types – superior, inferior or equal, according to the above mentioned qualities for discussion and not all aspects .[19]

Types of assembly

परिषत्तुखलुद्विविधा- ज्ञानवती, मूढपरिषच्च| सैवद्विविधासतीत्रिविधापुनरनेनकारणविभागेन- सुहृत्परिषत्, उदासीनपरिषत्, प्रतिनिविष्टपरिषच्चेति | तत्रप्रतिनिविष्टायांपरिषदिज्ञानविज्ञानवचनप्रतिवचनशक्तिसम्पन्नायांमूढायांवानकथंचित्केनचित्सहजल्पोविधीयते; मूढायांतुसुहृत्परिषद्युदासीनायांवाज्ञानविज्ञानवचनप्रतिवचनशक्तीरन्तरेणाप्यदीप्तयशसा महाजनविद्विष्टेनापिसहजल्पोविधीयते| तद्विधेनचसहकथयताआविद्धदीर्घसूत्रसङ्कुलैर्वाक्यदण्डकैःकथयितव्यम्, अतिहृष्टंमुहुर्मुहुरुपहसतापरंनिरूपयताचपर्षदमाकारैर्ब्रुवतश्चास्यवाक्यावकाशोनदेयः; कष्टशब्दंचब्रुवतावक्तव्योनोच्यते, अथवापुनर्हीनातेप्रतिज्ञा, इति| पुनश्चाहू(ह्व)यमानःप्रतिवक्तव्यः- परिसंवत्सरोभवान्शिक्षस्वतावत्; नत्वयागुरुरुपासितोनूनम्, अथवापर्याप्तमेतावत्ते; सकृदपिहिपरिक्षेपिकंनिहतंनिहतमाहुरितिनास्ययोगःकर्तव्यःकथञ्चित्| अप्येवंश्रेयसासहविगृह्यवक्तव्यमित्याहुरेके; नत्वेवंज्यायसासहविग्रहंप्रशंसन्तिकुशलाः||२०||

pariṣattu khalu dvividhā- jñānavatī, mūḍhapariṣacca| saiva dvividhā satī trividhā punaranēna kāraṇavibhāgēna- suhr̥tpariṣat, udāsīnapariṣat, pratiniviṣṭapariṣaccēti | tatra pratiniviṣṭāyāṁ pariṣadi jñānavijñānavacanaprativacanaśaktisampannāyāṁ mūḍhāyāṁ vā na kathaṁ cit kēnacit saha jalpō vidhīyatē; mūḍhāyāṁ tu suhr̥tpariṣadyudāsīnāyāṁ vā jñānavijñānavacanaprativacanaśaktīrantarēṇāpyadīptayaśasā mahājanavidviṣṭēnāpi saha jalpō vidhīyatē| tadvidhēna ca saha kathayatā āviddhadīrghasūtrasaṅkulairvākyadaṇḍakaiḥ kathayitavyam, atihr̥ṣṭaṁ muhurmuhurupahasatā paraṁ nirūpayatā ca parṣadamākārairbruvataścāsya vākyāvakāśō na dēyaḥ; kaṣṭaśabdaṁ ca bruvatā vaktavyō nōcyatē, athavā punarhīnā tē pratijñā, iti| punaścāhū(hva)yamānaḥ prativaktavyaḥ- parisaṁvatsarō bhavān śikṣasva tāvat; na tvayā gururupāsitō nūnam, athavā paryāptamētāvattē; sakr̥dapi hi parikṣēpikaṁ nihataṁ nihatamāhuriti nāsya yōgaḥ kartavyaḥ kathañcit| apyēvaṁ śrēyasā saha vigr̥hya vaktavyamityāhurēkē; natvēvaṁ jyāyasā saha vigrahaṁ praśaṁsanti kuśalāḥ||20||

pariShattu khalu dvividhA- j~jAnavatI, mUDhapariShacca| saiva dvividhA satI trividhA punaranena kAraNavibhAgena- suhRutpariShat, udAsInapariShat,pratiniviShTapariShacceti [1] | tatra pratiniviShTAyAM pariShadi j~jAnavij~jAnavacanaprativacanashaktisampannAyAM mUDhAyAM vA nakathaM cit kenacit saha jalpo vidhIyate; mUDhAyAM tu suhRutpariShadyudAsInAyAM vAj~jAnavij~jAnavacanaprativacanashaktIrantareNApyadIptayashasA [2] mahAjanavidviShTenApi saha jalpovidhIyate| tadvidhena ca saha kathayatA AviddhadIrghasUtrasa~gkulairvAkyadaNDakaiH kathayitavyam,atihRuShTaM muhurmuhurupahasatA paraM nirUpayatA ca parShadamAkArairbruvatashcAsyavAkyAvakAsho na deyaH; kaShTashabdaM ca bruvatA [3] vaktavyo nocyate, athavA punarhInA te pratij~jA,iti| punashcAhU(hva)yamAnaH prativaktavyaH- parisaMvatsaro [4] bhavAn shikShasva tAvat; na tvayAgururupAsito nUnam, athavA paryAptametAvatte; sakRudapi hi parikShepikaM nihataM nihatamAhuritinAsya yogaH kartavyaH katha~jcit| apyevaM shreyasA saha vigRuhya vaktavyamityAhureke; natvevaM jyAyasA saha vigrahaM prashaMsantikushalAH||20||

Assembly may also be of two types - learned and ignorant. Again from the other point of view, it is of three types – friendly, neutral and prejudiced. One should not disucss anything, or anything cannot be discussed in the the assembly of learned prejudiced persons endowed with general and specific knowledge, powerful expressions,discussion techniques and assembly of ignorant prejudiced persons. In the ignorant friendly or ignorant neutral assembly, however, one may discuss with another who is devoid of learning, understanding, discussion techniques, and is not famous and is despised by great men. While discussing with such a person one should use long sentences having incomprehensible and long aphorisms.One should ridicule the opponent again and again with body guestures before the gathering and should not give opportunity to him to speak, while using difficult words one should remind the opponent that he is not speaking or his proposition does not stand. Again calling him one should say- you should learn for one year, perhaps you have not learnt from a preceptor or it is sufficient for you. The opponent, having defeated once, is always considered defeated and should not be entertained again. Some say that the same method is applicable in case of hostile discussion with a superior opponent but, in fact, confrontation with a superior person is not at all desirable. [20]

प्रत्यवरेणतुसहसमानाभिमतेनवाविगृह्यजल्पतासुहृत्परिषदिकथयितव्यम्,अथवाऽप्युदासीनपरिषद्यवधानश्रवणज्ञानविज्ञानोपधारणवचनप्रतिवचनशक्तिसम्पन्नायांकथयताचावहितेनपरस्यसाद्गुण्यदोष
बलमवेक्षितव्यं, समवेक्ष्यचयत्रैनंश्रेष्ठंमन्येतनास्यतत्रजल्पंयोजयेदनाविष्कृतमयोगंकुर्वन्; यत्रत्वेनमवरंमन्येततत्रैवैनमाशुनिगृह्णीयात्| तत्रखल्विमेप्रत्यवराणामाशुनिग्रहेभवन्त्युपायाः; तद्यथा- श्रुतहीनंमहतासूत्रपाठेनाभिभवेत्, विज्ञानहीनंपुनःकष्टशब्देनवाक्येन, वाक्यधारणाहीनमाविद्धदीर्घसूत्रसङ्कुलैर्वाक्यदण्डकैः, प्रतिभाहीनंपुनर्वचनेनैकविधेनानेकार्थवाचिना , वचनशक्तिहीनमर्धोक्तस्यवाक्यस्याक्षेपेणअविशारदमपत्रपणेन, कोपनमायासनेन, भीरुंवित्रासनेन, अनवहितंनियमनेनेति| एवमेतैरुपायैःपरमवरमभिभवेच्छीघ्रम्||२१||

pratyavarēṇa tu saha samānābhimatēna vā vigr̥hya jalpatā suhr̥tpariṣadikathayitavyam,athavā'pyudāsīnapariṣadyavadhānaśravaṇajñānavijñānōpadhāraṇavacanaprativacanaśaktisampannāyāṁ kathayatā cāvahitēna parasya sādguṇyadōṣabalamavēkṣitavyaṁ, samavēkṣya ca yatrainaṁ śrēṣṭhaṁ manyēta nāsya tatra jalpaṁ yōjayēdanāviṣkr̥tamayōgaṁ kurvan; yatra tvēnamavaraṁ manyēta tatraivainamāśu nigr̥hṇīyāt| tatra khalvimē pratyavarāṇāmāśu nigrahē bhavantyupāyāḥ; tadyathā- śrutahīnaṁ mahatā sūtrapāṭhēnābhibhavēt, vijñānahīnaṁ punaḥ kaṣṭaśabdēna vākyēna, vākyadhāraṇāhīnamāviddhadīrghasūtrasaṅkulairvākyadaṇḍakaiḥ, pratibhāhīnaṁ punarvacanēnaikavidhēnānēkārthavācinā, vacanaśaktihīnamardhōktasya vākyasyākṣēpēṇa, aviśāradamapatrapaṇēna, kōpanamāyāsanēna, bhīruṁ vitrāsanēna, anavahitaṁ niyamanēnēti| ēvamētairupāyaiḥ paramavaramabhibhavēcchīghram||21||

pratyavareNa tu saha samAnAbhimatena vA vigRuhya jalpatA suhRutpariShadi kathayitavyam,athavA~apyudAsInapariShadyavadhAnashravaNaj~jAnavij~jAnopadhAraNavacanaprativacanashaktisampannAyAMkathayatA cAvahitena parasya sAdguNyadoShabalamavekShitavyaM, samavekShya ca yatrainaM shreShThaMmanyeta nAsya tatra jalpaM yojayedanAviShkRutamayogaM kurvan; yatra tvenamavaraM manyetatatraivainamAshu nigRuhNIyAt| tatra khalvime pratyavarANAmAshu nigrahe bhavantyupAyAH; tadyathA- shrutahInaM mahatAsUtrapAThenAbhibhavet, vij~jAnahInaM punaH kaShTashabdena vAkyena,vAkyadhAraNAhInamAviddhadIrghasUtrasa~gkulairvAkyadaNDakaiH, pratibhAhInaMpunarvacanenaikavidhenAnekArthavAcinA [1] , vacanashaktihInamardhoktasya vAkyasyAkShepeNa [2] ,avishAradamapatrapaNena, kopanamAyAsanena, bhIruM vitrAsanena, anavahitaM niyamaneneti| evametairupAyaiH paramavaramabhibhavecchIghram||21||

In a learned friendly or ignorant friendly assembly, one should initiate hostile discussion with an inferior or equal opponent. Or in a friendly neutral assembly having persons with attentive listening, learning, understanding abilities, power of discussion one should initiate discussion after carefully examining the strength and weakness of the opponent. If opponent is stronger then one should not continue discussion giving it up without any apparent sign; but where the opponent is weak he should be subdued immediately. The means adopted to subdue the inferior opponent immediately are as follows: opponent having no scriptural knowledge should be defeated by quoting long aphorisms; opponent devoid of confirmed meaning of sentences should be defeated by using sentences with incomprehensible and long aphorisms; one devoid of imagination should be defeated with similar sentences having various meanings; one devoid of power of speaking should be defeated by contradicting the half-said sentence; one devoid of skill should be defeated by putting him in embarrassing situation; one with irritability should be defeated by teasing him; one with cowardice should be defeated by terrorizing; one devoid of carefulness should be defeated by imposing discipline. Thus by these means one should subdue the inferior opponent immediately. [21]

Summary of discussion technique

तत्रश्लोकौ- विगृह्यकथयेद्युक्त्यायुक्तंचननिवारयेत्| विगृह्यभाषातीव्रंहिकेषाञ्चिद्द्रोहमावहेत्||२२||

नाकार्यमस्तिक्रुद्धस्यनावाच्यमपिविद्यते| कुशलानाभिनन्दन्तिकलहंसमितौसताम्||२३||

एवंप्रवृत्तेवादेकुर्यात्||२४||

tatra ślōkau- vigr̥hya kathayēdyuktyā yuktaṁ ca na nivārayēt| vigr̥hyabhāṣā tīvraṁ hi kēṣāñciddrōhamāvahēt||22||

nākāryamasti kruddhasya nāvācyamapi vidyatē| kuśalā nābhinandanti kalahaṁ samitau satām||23||

ēvaṁ pravr̥ttē vādē kuryāt||24||

tatra shlokau- vigRuhya kathayedyuktyA yuktaM ca na nivArayet| vigRuhyabhAShA tIvraM hi keShA~jciddrohamAvahet||22||

nAkAryamasti kruddhasya nAvAcyamapi vidyate| kushalA nAbhinandanti kalahaM samitau satAm||23||

evaM pravRutte vAde kuryAt||24||

In a hostile discussion, one should speak reasonably and should not withdraw the words once spoken. A hostile speech gives rise to strong agitation in some persons. The agitated person, may do some unfavourable things or may speak some unwanted words. Hence the wise do not recommend quarrel in the assembly of noble persons. Thus one should perform in discussion initiated. [22-24]

Guidelines for preparation before initiation and recording the debate

प्रागेवतावदिदंकर्तुंयतेत- सन्धायपर्षदाऽयनभूतमात्मनःप्रकरणमादेशयितव्यं, यद्वापरस्यभृशदुर्गंस्यात्, पक्षमथवापरस्यभृशंविमुखमानयेत्; परिषदिचोपसंहितायामशक्यमस्माभिर्वक्तुम्, एषैवतेपरिषद्यथेष्टंयथायोगंयथाभिप्रायंवादंवादमर्यादांचस्थापयिष्यतीत्युक्त्वातूष्णीमासीत||२५||

prāgēva tāvadidaṁ kartuṁ yatēta- sandhāya parṣadā'yanabhūtamātmanaḥ prakaraṇamādēśayitavyaṁ, yadvā parasya bhr̥śadurgaṁ syāt, pakṣamathavā parasya bhr̥śaṁ vimukhamānayēt; pariṣadi cōpasaṁhitāyāmaśakyamasmābhirvaktum, ēṣaiva tē pariṣadyathēṣṭaṁ yathāyōgaṁ yathābhiprāyaṁ vādaṁ vādamaryādāṁ ca sthāpayiṣyatītyuktvā tūṣṇīmāsīta||25||

prAgeva [1] tAvadidaM kartuM yateta- sandhAya parShadA~ayanabhUtamAtmanaHprakaraNamAdeshayitavyaM, yadvA parasya bhRushadurgaM syAt, pakShamathavA parasya bhRushaMvimukhamAnayet; pariShadi copasaMhitAyAmashakyamasmAbhirvaktum, eShaiva te pariShadyatheShTaMyathAyogaM yathAbhiprAyaM vAdaM vAdamaryAdAM ca sthApayiShyatItyuktvA tUShNImAsIta||25||

Before discussion, one should follow like this: In connivance with the participants of assembly, one should get the topic selected as is favourable to him or which is very difficult for the opponent or the opponent should be given such topic of discussion which will be quite adverse to the assembly’s views. Nothing can be discussed if the participants of assembly are congregated together. Then one should speak, ‘I have nothing to say more, now this assembly itself will take proper decision about the discussion and its result according to its choice, circumstances and views of the members’, having said this he should keep quiet. [25]

तत्रेदंवादमर्यादालक्षणंभवति- इदंवाच्यम्, इदमवाच्यम्, एवंपराजितोभवतीति||२६||

tatrēdaṁ vādamaryādālakṣaṇaṁ bhavati- idaṁ vācyam, idamavācyam, ēvaṁ parājitō bhavatīti||26||

tatredaM vAdamaryAdAlakShaNaM bhavati- idaM vAcyam, idamavAcyam, evaM parAjito bhavatIti||26||

The result of the discussion should be recorded like this; this is worth-speaking, this is not worth-speaking, therefore one has been defeated. [26]

Terms for debate

इमानितुखलुपदानिभिषग्वादमार्गज्ञानार्थमधिगम्यानिभवन्ति; तद्यथा- वादः, द्रव्यं, गुणाः, कर्म, सामान्यं, विशेषः, समवायः, प्रतिज्ञा,स्थापना, प्रतिष्ठापना, हेतुः, दृष्टान्तः, उपनयः, निगमनम्, उत्तरं, सिद्धान्तः, शब्दः, प्रत्यक्षम्, अनुमानम्, ऐतिह्यम्, औपम्यं, संशयः, प्रयोजनं, सव्यभिचारं, जिज्ञासा, व्यवसायः, अर्थप्राप्तिः, सम्भवः, अनुयोज्यम्, अननुयोज्यम्, अनुयोगः, प्रत्यनुयोगः, वाक्यदोषः, वाक्यप्रशंसा, छलम्, अहेतुः, अतीतकालम्, उपालम्भः, परिहारः, प्रतिज्ञाहानिः, अभ्यनुज्ञा, हेत्वन्तरम्, अर्थान्तरं, निग्रहस्थानमिति||२७||

imāni tu khalu padāni bhiṣagvādamārgajñānārthamadhigamyāni bhavanti; tadyathā- vādaḥ, dravyaṁ, guṇāḥ, karma, sāmānyaṁ, viśēṣaḥ, samavāyaḥ, pratijñā, sthāpanā, pratiṣṭhāpanā, hētuḥ, dr̥ṣṭāntaḥ, upanayaḥ, nigamanam, uttaraṁ, siddhāntaḥ, śabdaḥ, pratyakṣam, anumānam, aitihyam, aupamyaṁ, saṁśayaḥ, prayōjanaṁ, savyabhicāraṁ, jijñāsā, vyavasāyaḥ, arthaprāptiḥ, sambhavaḥ, anuyōjyam, ananuyōjyam, anuyōgaḥ, pratyanuyōgaḥ, vākyadōṣaḥ, vākyapraśaṁsā, chalam, ahētuḥ, atītakālam, upālambhaḥ, parihāraḥ, pratijñāhāniḥ, abhyanujñā, hētvantaram, arthāntaraṁ, nigrahasthānamiti||27||

imAni tu khalu padAni bhiShagvAdamArgaj~jAnArthamadhigamyAni [1] bhavanti; tadyathA- vAdaH,dravyaM, guNAH, karma, sAmAnyaM, visheShaH, samavAyaH, pratij~jA, sthApanA, pratiShThApanA,hetuH, dRuShTAntaH, upanayaH, nigamanam, uttaraM, siddhAntaH, shabdaH, pratyakSham, anumAnam,aitihyam, aupamyaM, saMshayaH, prayojanaM, savyabhicAraM, jij~jAsA, vyavasAyaH, arthaprAptiH,sambhavaH, anuyojyam, ananuyojyam, anuyogaH, pratyanuyogaH, vAkyadoShaH, vAkyaprashaMsA,chalam, ahetuH, atItakAlam, upAlambhaH, parihAraH, pratij~jAhAniH, abhyanuj~jA, hetvantaram,arthAntaraM, nigrahasthAnamiti||27||

These terms are worth-knowing for acquaintance of the course of discussion among physicians such as – vada, dravya, guna, karma, samanya, vishesha, samavaya, pratijna, sthapana, pratishthapana, hetu, drishtanta, upanaya, nigamana, uttara, siddhanta, shabda, pratyaksha, anumana, aitihya, aupamya, samshaya, prayojana, savyabhichara, jijnasa, vyavasaya, arthaprapti, sambhava, anuyojya, ananuyojya, anuyoga, pratyanuyoga, vakyadosha, vakyaprashamsa, chhala, ahetu, atitakala, upalambha, parihara, pratijnahani, abhyanujna, hetvantara, arthantara, nigrahasthana. [27]

1. Vada (debate)

तत्रवादोनामसयत्परेणसहशास्त्रपूर्वकंविगृह्यकथयति| सचद्विविधःसङ्ग्रहेण- जल्पः, वितण्डाच| तत्रपक्षाश्रितयोर्वचनंजल्पः, जल्पविपर्ययोवितण्डा| यथा- एकस्यपक्षःपुनर्भवोऽस्तीति,नास्तीत्यपरस्य; तौचस्वस्वपक्षहेतुभिःस्वस्वपक्षंस्थापयतः, परपक्षमुद्भावयतः, एषजल्पः| जल्पविपर्ययोवितण्डा| वितण्डानामपरपक्षेदोषवचनमात्रमेव||२८||

tatra vādō nāma sa yat parēṇa saha śāstrapūrvakaṁ vigr̥hya kathayati| sa ca dvividhaḥ saṅgrahēṇa- jalpaḥ, vitaṇḍā ca| tatra pakṣāśritayōrvacanaṁ jalpaḥ, jalpaviparyayō vitaṇḍā| yathā- ēkasya pakṣaḥ punarbhavō'stīti, nāstītyaparasya; tau ca svasvapakṣahētubhiḥ svasvapakṣaṁ sthāpayataḥ, parapakṣamudbhāvayataḥ, ēṣa jalpaḥ| jalpaviparyayō vitaṇḍā| vitaṇḍā nāma parapakṣē dōṣavacanamātramēva||28||

tatra vAdo nAma sa yat pareNa saha shAstrapUrvakaM vigRuhya kathayati| sa ca dvividhaH sa~ggraheNa- jalpaH, vitaNDA ca| tatra pakShAshritayorvacanaM jalpaH, jalpaviparyayo vitaNDA| yathA- ekasya pakShaH punarbhavo~astIti, nAstItyaparasya; tau ca svasvapakShahetubhiHsvasvapakShaM sthApayataH, parapakShamudbhAvayataH, eSha jalpaH| jalpaviparyayo vitaNDA| vitaNDA nAma parapakShe doShavacanamAtrameva||28||

Vada is that in which one holds academic discussion with a contending opponent. This is briefly of two types – jalpa, vitanda. Jalpa is the statement of speaker’s own view contradicting the opponent’s view. Vitanda is opposite to jalpa. For instance, one holds the view that rebirth exist while the other holds the view just against it. During such discussion (vada), they (participants) advance arguments in support of their own views and contradict the opponent’s view, this is jalpa. Vitanda is opposite to jalpa in which the speaker without having any positive approach only finds faults in the opponent’s view point. [28]

2-7: Dravya to Samavaya

द्रव्य-गुण-कर्म-सामान्य-विशेष-समवायाः स्वलक्षणैःश्लोकस्थानेपूर्वमुक्ताः||२९||

dravya-guṇa-karma-sāmānya-viśēṣa-samavāyāḥ svalakṣaṇaiḥ ślōkasthānē pūrvamuktāḥ||29||

dravya-guNa-karma-sAmAnya-visheSha-samavAyAH svalakShaNaiH shlokasthAne pUrvamuktAH||29||

Dravya, guna, karma, samanya, vishesha and samavaya– these are mentioned earlier along with their definitions in shloka sthana (Sutra Sthana chapters). [29]

8. Pratijna (proposition)

अथप्रतिज्ञा- प्रतिज्ञानामसाध्यवचनं; यथा- नित्यःपुरुषइति||३०||

atha pratijñā- pratijñā nāma sādhyavacanaṁ; yathā- nityaḥ puruṣa iti||30||

atha pratij~jA- pratij~jA nAma sAdhyavacanaM; yathA- nityaH puruSha iti||30||

Pratijna(proposition) is the statement which is to be proved. For instance, purusha is eternal. [30]

9. Sthapana (establishment)

अथस्थापना- स्थापनानामतस्याएवप्रतिज्ञायाहेतुदृष्टान्तोपनयनिगमनैःस्थापना| पूर्वंहिप्रतिज्ञा, पश्चातस्थापना, किंह्यप्रतिज्ञातंस्थापयिष्यति; यथा- नित्यःपुरुषइतिप्रतिज्ञा; हेतुः- अकृतकत्वादिति; दृष्टान्तः- यथाऽऽकाशमिति; उपनयः- यथाचाकृतकमाकाशं, तच्चनित्यं, तथापुरुषइति; निगमनं- तस्मान्नित्यइति||३१||

atha sthāpanā- sthāpanā nāma tasyā ēva pratijñāyā hētudr̥ṣṭāntōpanayanigamanaiḥ sthāpanā| pūrvaṁ hi pratijñā, paścāt sthāpanā, kiṁ hyapratijñātaṁ sthāpayiṣyati; yathā- nityaḥ puruṣa iti pratijñā; hētuḥ- akr̥takatvāditi; dr̥ṣṭāntaḥ - yathākāśamiti; upanayaḥ- yathā cākr̥takamākāśaṁ, tacca nityaṁ, tathā puruṣa iti; nigamanaṁ- tasmānnitya iti||31||

atha sthApanA- sthApanA nAma tasyA eva pratij~jAyA hetudRuShTAntopanayanigamanaiH sthApanA| pUrvaM [1] hi pratij~jA, pashcAt sthApanA, kiM hyapratij~jAtaM sthApayiShyati; yathA- nityaH puruSha itipratij~jA; hetuH- akRutakatvAditi; dRuShTAntaH [2] - yathA~a~akAshamiti; upanayaH- yathAcAkRutakamAkAshaM, tacca nityaM, tathA puruSha iti; nigamanaM- tasmAnnitya iti||31||

Sthapana is establishing the same proposition on firm ground with the help of hetu (reason), drishtanta (instance), upanaya (correlation) and nigamana (conclusion). First there is proposition (pratijna) and then establishment (sthapana) because what can be established (nothing) in absence of proposition? For instance, ‘purusha is eternal’ – this is proposition, reason (hetu) is - ‘because of not being created’; instance (drishtanta) is – ‘as sky’; correlation (upanaya) is – ‘as the sky is uncreated and is eternal so is purusha’; conclusion (nigamana) is - ‘therefore, purusha is eternal.’[31]

10. Pratishthapana (counter-assertion)

अथप्रतिष्ठापना- प्रतिष्ठापनानामयातस्याएवपरप्रतिज्ञायाविपरीतार्थस्थापना| यथा- अनित्यःपुरुषइतिप्रतिज्ञा; हेतुः- ऐन्द्रियकत्वादिति; दृष्टान्तः- यथाघटइति, उपनयो- यथाघटऐन्द्रियकःचानित्यः, तथाचायमिति; निगमनं- तस्मादनित्यइति||३२||

atha pratiṣṭhāpanā- pratiṣṭhāpanā nāma yā tasyā ēva parapratijñāyā viparītārthasthāpanā| yathā- anityaḥ puruṣa iti pratijñā ; hētuḥ- aindriyakatvāditi; dr̥ṣṭāntaḥ- yathā ghaṭa iti, upanayō- yathā ghaṭa aindriyakaḥ sa cānityaḥ, tathā cāyamiti; nigamanaṁ- tasmādanitya iti||32||

atha pratiShThApanA- pratiShThApanA nAma yA tasyA eva parapratij~jAyA [1] viparItArthasthApanA| yathA- anityaH puruSha iti pratij~jA [2] ; hetuH- aindriyakatvAditi; dRuShTAntaH- yathA ghaTa [3] iti,upanayo- yathA ghaTa aindriyakaH sa cAnityaH, tathA cAyamiti; nigamanaM- tasmAdanitya iti||32||

Pratishthapana is giving a contrary statement to the opponent’s proposition. For instance, ‘self is non-eternal’ is proposition (pratijna); reason (hetu) is-‘because of being perceived by senses’; instance (drishtanta) is – ‘as pitcher’; correlation (upanaya) is – ‘as pitcher is perceived by senses and is non-eternal so is ‘self’; conclusion (nigamana) is – therefore, self is non eternal.[32]

11. Hetu (cause)

अथहेतुः- हेतुर्नामोपलब्धिकारणं; तत्प्रत्यक्षम्, अनुमानम्, ऐतिह्यम्, औपम्यमिति; एभिर्हेतुभिर्यदुपलभ्यतेतत्तत्त्वम्||३३||

atha hētuḥ- hēturnāmōpalabdhikāraṇaṁ; tat pratyakṣam, anumānam, aitihyam, aupamyamiti; ēbhirhētubhiryadupalabhyatē tat tattvam||33||

atha hetuH- heturnAmopalabdhikAraNaM; tat pratyakSham, anumAnam, aitihyam, aupamyamiti;ebhirhetubhiryadupalabhyate tat tattvam||33||

Hetu is the cause of knowledge such as pratyaksha (direct perception), anumana (inference), aitihya (traditional instruction) and aupamya (analogy). That which is revealed by these reasons is tattva (truth).[33]

12. Drishtanta (instance)

अथदृष्टान्तः- दृष्टान्तोनामयत्रमूर्खविदुषांबुद्धिसाम्यं, योवर्ण्यंवर्णयति| यथा- अग्निरुष्णः, द्रवमुदकं, स्थिरापृथिवी, आदित्यःप्रकाशकइति; यथाआदित्यःप्रकाशकस्तथासाङ्ख्यज्ञानंप्रकाशकमिति||३४||

atha dr̥ṣṭāntaḥ- dr̥ṣṭāntō nāma yatra mūrkhaviduṣāṁ buddhisāmyaṁ, yō varṇyaṁ varṇayati | yathā- agniruṣṇaḥ, dravamudakaṁ, sthirā pr̥thivī, ādityaḥ prakāśaka iti; yathā ādityaḥ prakāśakastathā sāṅkhyajñānaṁ prakāśakamiti||34||

atha dRuShTAntaH- dRuShTAnto nAma yatra mUrkhaviduShAM buddhisAmyaM, yo varNyaM varNayati [1] | yathA- agniruShNaH, dravamudakaM, sthirA pRuthivI, AdityaH prakAshaka iti; yathA AdityaH [2]prakAshakastathA sA~gkhyaj~jAnaM [3] prakAshakamiti||34||

Drishtanta is that which arouses alike understanding in the fools and the learned. It presents a picturesque image of the objective to be defined. For instance, hot like fire, fluid like water, stable like earth and illuminating like the sun, as the sun illuminates similarly the knowledge of the Sankhya is also illuminating. [34]

13-14. Upanaya (correlation) and Nigamana(conclusion)

उपनयोनिगमनंचोक्तंस्थापनाप्रतिष्ठापनाव्याख्यायाम्||३५||

upanayō nigamanaṁ cōktaṁ sthāpanāpratiṣṭhāpanāvyākhyāyām||35||

upanayo nigamanaM coktaM sthApanApratiShThApanAvyAkhyAyAm||35||

Upanaya and Nigamana are explained under the headings sthapana and pratishthapana.[35]

15. Uttara (rejoinder)

अथोत्तरम्- उत्तरंनामसाधर्म्योपदिष्टेहेतौवैधर्म्यवचनं, वैधर्म्योपदिष्टेवाहेतौसाधर्म्यवचनम्| यथा- ‘हेतुसधर्माणोविकाराः, शीतकस्यहिव्याधेर्हेतुभिःसाधर्म्यंहिमशिशिरवातसंस्पर्शाः’, इतिब्रुवतःपरोब्रूयात्- हेतुविधर्माणोविकाराः, यथाशरीरावयवानांदाहौष्ण्यकोथप्रपचनेहेतुवैधर्म्यंहिमशिशिरवातसंस्पर्शाइति| एतत्सविपर्ययमुत्तरम्||३६||

athōttaram- uttaraṁ nāma sādharmyōpadiṣṭē hētau vaidharmyavacanaṁ, vaidharmyōpadiṣṭē vā hētau sādharmyavacanam| yathā- ‘hētusadharmāṇō vikārāḥ, śītakasya hi vyādhērhētubhiḥ sādharmyaṁ himaśiśiravātasaṁsparśāḥ’, iti bruvataḥ parō brūyāt- hētuvidharmāṇō vikārāḥ, yathā śarīrāvayavānāṁ dāhauṣṇyakōthaprapacanē hētuvaidharmyaṁ himaśiśiravātasaṁsparśā iti| ētat saviparyayamuttaram||36||

athottaram- uttaraM nAma sAdharmyopadiShTe hetau vaidharmyavacanaM, vaidharmyopadiShTe vAhetau sAdharmyavacanam| yathA- ‘hetusadharmANo vikArAH, shItakasya hi vyAdherhetubhiH sAdharmyaMhimashishiravAtasaMsparshAH’, iti bruvataH paro brUyAt- hetuvidharmANo vikArAH, yathAsharIrAvayavAnAM dAhauShNyakothaprapacane hetuvaidharmyaM [1] himashishiravAtasaMsparshA iti| etat saviparyayamuttaram||36||

Uttara is the statement made in opposition (heterogeneous) to the homologous nature shown between hetu and karya and vice versa. For instance , if somebody says – disorders are similar to cause, as shitaka disease has similar causes like exposure to snow and cold wave, the opponent may say – disorders are dissimilar to cause as burning sensation, heat, sloughing and suppuration of body parts are caused by cold wave which is dissimilar. This is uttara (rejoinder) with contrary statements.[36]

16. Siddhanta (theory/doctrine)

अथसिद्धान्तः- सिद्धान्तोनामसयःपरीक्षकैर्बहुविधंपरीक्ष्यहेतुभिश्चसाधयित्वास्थाप्यतेनिर्णयः| सचतुर्विधः- सर्वतन्त्रसिद्धान्तः, प्रतितन्त्रसिद्धान्तः, अधिकरणसिद्धान्तः, अभ्युपगमसिद्धान्तश्चेति| तत्रसर्वतन्त्रसिद्धान्तोनामतस्मिंस्तस्मिन्सर्वस्मिंस्तन्त्रेतत्तत्प्रसिद्धं; यथासन्तिनिदानानि, सन्तिव्याधयः, सन्तिसिद्ध्युपायाःसाध्यानामिति| प्रतितन्त्रसिद्धान्तोनामतस्मिंस्तस्मिन्नेकैकस्मिंस्तन्त्रेतत्तत्प्रसिद्धं; यथा- अन्यत्राष्टौरसाःषडत्र, पञ्चेन्द्रियाण्यत्रषडिन्द्रियाण्यन्यत्रतन्त्रे, वातादिकृताःसर्वेविकारायथाऽन्यत्र, अत्रवातादिकृताभूतकृताश्चप्रसिद्धाः| अधिकरणसिद्धान्तोनामसयस्मिन्नधिकरणेप्रस्तूयमानेसिद्धान्यन्यान्यप्यधिकरणानिभवन्ति, यथा- ‘नमुक्तःकर्मानुबन्धिकंकुरुते, निस्पृहत्वात्इतिप्रस्तुतेसिद्धाःकर्मफल-मोक्ष-पुरुष-प्रेत्यभावाभवन्ति| अभ्युपगमसिद्धान्तोनामसयमर्थमसिद्धमपरीक्षितमनुपदिष्टमहेतुकंवावादकालेऽभ्युपगच्छन्तिभिषजः; तद्यथा- द्रव्यंप्रधानमितिकृत्वावक्ष्यामः, गुणाःप्रधानमितिकृत्वावक्ष्यामः, वीर्यंप्रधानमितिकृत्वावक्ष्यामः, इत्येवमादिः| इतिचतुर्विधःसिद्धान्तः||३७||

atha siddhāntaḥ- siddhāntō nāma sa yaḥ parīkṣakairbahuvidhaṁ parīkṣya hētubhiśca sādhayitvā sthāpyatē nirṇayaḥ| sa caturvidhaḥ- sarvatantrasiddhāntaḥ, pratitantrasiddhāntaḥ, adhikaraṇasiddhāntaḥ, abhyupagamasiddhāntaścēti| tatra sarvatantrasiddhāntō nāma tasmiṁstasmin sarvasmiṁstantrē tattat prasiddhaṁ; yathā santi nidānāni, santi vyādhayaḥ, santi siddhyupāyāḥ sādhyānāmiti| pratitantrasiddhāntō nāma tasmiṁstasminnēkaikasmiṁstantrē tattat prasiddhaṁ; yathā- anyatrāṣṭau rasāḥ ṣaḍatra, pañcēndriyāṇyatra ṣaḍindriyāṇyanyatra tantrē, vātādikr̥tāḥ sarvē vikārā yathā'nyatra, atra vātādikr̥tā bhūtakr̥tāśca prasiddhāḥ| adhikaraṇasiddhāntō nāma sa yasminnadhikaraṇē prastūyamānē siddhānyanyānyapyadhikaraṇāni bhavanti, yathā- ‘na muktaḥ karmānubandhikaṁ kurutē, nispr̥hatvāt iti prastutē siddhāḥ karmaphala-mōkṣa-puruṣa-prētyabhāvā bhavanti| abhyupagamasiddhāntō nāma sa yamarthamasiddhamaparīkṣitamanupadiṣṭamahētukaṁ vā vādakālē'bhyupagacchanti bhiṣajaḥ; tadyathā- dravyaṁ pradhānamiti kr̥tvā vakṣyāmaḥ, guṇāḥ pradhānamiti kr̥tvā vakṣyāmaḥ, vīryaṁ pradhānamiti kr̥tvā vakṣyāmaḥ, ityēvamādiḥ| iti caturvidhaḥ siddhāntaḥ||37||

atha siddhAntaH- siddhAnto nAma sa yaH parIkShakairbahuvidhaM parIkShya hetubhishca sAdhayitvAsthApyate nirNayaH| sa caturvidhaH- sarvatantrasiddhAntaH, pratitantrasiddhAntaH, adhikaraNasiddhAntaH,abhyupagamasiddhAntashceti| tatra sarvatantrasiddhAnto nAma tasmiMstasmin sarvasmiMstantre tattat prasiddhaM; yathA santinidAnAni, santi vyAdhayaH, santi siddhyupAyAH sAdhyAnAmiti| pratitantrasiddhAnto nAma tasmiMstasminnekaikasmiMstantre tattat prasiddhaM; yathA- anyatrAShTaurasAH ShaDatra, pa~jcendriyANyatra ShaDindriyANyanyatra tantre, vAtAdikRutAH sarve vikArAyathA~anyatra, atra vAtAdikRutA bhUtakRutAshca prasiddhAH| adhikaraNasiddhAnto nAma sa yasminnadhikaraNe prastUyamAne siddhAnyanyAnyapyadhikaraNAnibhavanti, yathA- ‘na muktaH karmAnubandhikaM kurute, nispRuhatvAt iti prastute siddhAH karmaphala-mokSha-puruSha-pretyabhAvA bhavanti| abhyupagamasiddhAnto nAma sa yamarthamasiddhamaparIkShitamanupadiShTamahetukaM vAvAdakAle~abhyupagacchanti bhiShajaH; tadyathA- dravyaM pradhAnamiti kRutvA vakShyAmaH, guNAHpradhAnamiti kRutvA vakShyAmaH, vIryaM [1] pradhAnamiti kRutvA vakShyAmaH, ityevamAdiH| iti caturvidhaH siddhAntaH||37||

Siddhanta is the conclusion established by scientists/investigators after testing in several ways and on proving it with reasoning. It is of four types – sarvatantra siddhanta, pratitantra siddhanta, adhikaraṇa siddhanta, and abhyupagama siddhanta.

  • Sarvatantra siddhanta is that which is accepted universally by all the treatises such as – there are causes, there are diseases and there are remedies for the curable disorders.
  • Pratitantra siddhanta is that which is not universal in nature and is held by only one of the treatises such as – in other treatises there are eight rasas but here are six; here are the five sense organs while in other texts there are six sense organs; per other texts all diseases are caused by vata, etc. , but in this text they are considered to be caused by vata and other dosha as well as bhutas.
  • Adhikarana siddhanta is that which is established by implication of other proofs. Such as – the emancipated cannot show any good or bad consequent effect of deeds because of absence of desires. This proves the effects of deeds, emancipation, presence of self and the other world.
  • Abhyupagama siddhanta is that which is held up by physicians temporarily and hypothetically during debate though the idea is unproved, untested, uninstructed and irrational such as – proposing that dravya is predominant or guna or properties are predominant or veerya is predominant.

These are four types of doctrines. [37]

17. Shabda (word/correct expression)

अथशब्दः- शब्दोनामवर्णसमाम्नायः; सचतुर्विधः- दृष्टार्थश्च, अदृष्टार्थश्च, सत्यश्च, अनृतश्चेति| तत्रदृष्टार्थोनाम- त्रिभिर्हेतुभिर्दोषाःप्रकुप्यन्ति, षड्भिरुपक्रमैश्चप्रशाम्यन्ति, सतिश्रोत्रादिसद्भावेशब्दादिग्रहणमिति| अदृष्टार्थःपुनः- अस्तिप्रेत्यभावः, अस्तिमोक्षइति| सत्योनाम- यथार्थभूतः; सन्त्यायुर्वेदोपदेशाः, सन्तिसिद्ध्युपायाःसाध्यानांव्याधीनां, सन्त्यारम्भफलानीति| सत्यविपर्ययश्चानृतः||३८||

śabdaḥ- śabdō nāma varṇasamāmnāyaḥ; sa caturvidhaḥ- dr̥ṣṭārthaśca, adr̥ṣṭārthaśca, satyaśca, anr̥taścēti| tatra dr̥ṣṭārthō nāma- tribhirhētubhirdōṣāḥ prakupyanti, ṣaḍbhirupakramaiśca praśāmyanti, sati śrōtrādisadbhāvē śabdādigrahaṇamiti| adr̥ṣṭārthaḥ punaḥ- asti prētyabhāvaḥ, asti mōkṣa iti| satyō nāma- yathārthabhūtaḥ; santyāyurvēdōpadēśāḥ, santi siddhyupāyāḥ sādhyānāṁ vyādhīnāṁ, santyārambhaphalānīti| satyaviparyayaścānr̥taḥ||38||

atha shabdaH- shabdo nAma varNasamAmnAyaH; sa caturvidhaH- dRuShTArthashca, adRuShTArthashca,satyashca, anRutashceti| tatra dRuShTArtho nAma- tribhirhetubhirdoShAH prakupyanti, ShaDbhirupakramaishca prashAmyanti, satishrotrAdisadbhAve shabdAdigrahaNamiti| adRuShTArthaH punaH- asti pretyabhAvaH, asti mokSha iti| satyo nAma- yathArthabhUtaH; santyAyurvedopadeshAH, santi siddhyupAyAH sAdhyAnAM vyAdhInAM,santyArambhaphalAnIti| satyaviparyayashcAnRutaH||38||

Shabda is an aggregate of letters. This is of four types – drishtartha, adrishtartha, satya, and anrita.

Drishtartha is that which connotes observable meanings; such as dosha are aggravated by three etiological factors; they are pacified by six therapeutic measures; the sense objects are perceived through the sense organs.

Adrishtartha is that which connotes unobservable ideas, such as the other world exists; there is emancipation.

Satya is that which is consistent to the facts, such as these are instructions of Ayurveda; these are the remedial measures for the curable diseases and there exist a result of every action.

Anrita is contrary to satya (that which is not consistent with facts).[38]

18. Pratyaksha (direct perception)

अथप्रत्यक्षं- प्रत्यक्षंनामतद्यदात्मनाचेन्द्रियैश्चस्वयमुपलभ्यते; तत्रात्मप्रत्यक्षाःसुखदुःखेच्छाद्वेषादयः, शब्दादयस्त्विन्द्रियप्रत्यक्षाः||३९||

atha pratyakṣaṁ- pratyakṣaṁ nāma tadyadātmanā cēndriyaiśca svayamupalabhyatē; tatrātmapratyakṣāḥ sukhaduḥkhēcchādvēṣādayaḥ, śabdādayastvindriyapratyakṣāḥ||39||

atha pratyakShaM- pratyakShaM nAma tadyadAtmanA cendriyaishca svayamupalabhyate;tatrAtmapratyakShAH sukhaduHkhecchAdveShAdayaH, shabdAdayastvindriyapratyakShAH||39||

Pratyaksha is the knowledge which is directly perceived by the self and the sense organs. Self-perceived are pleasure, pain, desire, aversion etc., while sound etc. are perceived by the sense organs.[39]

19. Anumana (inference)

अथानुमानम्- अनुमानंनामतर्कोयुक्त्यपेक्षः; यथा- अग्निंजरणशक्त्या, बलंव्यायामशक्त्या, श्रोत्रादीनिशब्दादिग्रहणेनेत्येवमादि||४०||

athānumānam- anumānaṁ nāma tarkō yuktyapēkṣaḥ; yathā- agniṁ jaraṇaśaktyā, balaṁ vyāyāmaśaktyā, śrōtrādīni śabdādigrahaṇēnētyēvamādi||40||

athAnumAnam- anumAnaM nAma tarko yuktyapekShaH; yathA- agniM jaraNashaktyA, balaMvyAyAmashaktyA, shrotrAdIni shabdAdigrahaNenetyevamAdi||40||

Anumana is the reasoning supported by invariable concomitance such as the knowledge of agni (is examined) by the power of digestion; that of strength of a person by examining the power to exercise, auditory organ etc. by the ability of perception of sound, etc.[40]

20. Aitihya (traditional instruction)

अलौकिकाप्तोपदेशऐतिह्यपदेनोच्यतइत्याह- वेदादिरिति||४१||

athaitihyam- aitihyaṁ nāmāptōpadēśō vēdādiḥ||41||

athaitihyam- aitihyaM nAmAptopadesho vedAdiH||41||

Aitihya is the divine authoritative (or traditional) source of knowledge such as veda etc.[41]

21.Aupamya (analogy)

अथौपम्यम्- औपम्यंनामयदन्येनान्यस्यसादृश्यमधिकृत्यप्रकाशनं; यथा- दण्डेनदण्डकस्य, धनुषाधनुःस्तम्भस्य, इष्वासेनाऽऽरोग्यदस्येति||४२||

athaupamyam- aupamyaṁ nāma yadanyēnānyasya sādr̥śyamadhikr̥tya prakāśanaṁ; yathā- daṇḍēna daṇḍakasya, dhanuṣā dhanuḥstambhasya, iṣvāsēnārōgyadasyēti||42||

athaupamyam- aupamyaM nAma yadanyenAnyasya sAdRushyamadhikRutya prakAshanaM; yathA-daNDena daNDakasya, dhanuShA dhanuHstambhasya, iShvAsenA~a~arogyadasyeti||42||

Aupamya is the description of similarity between things such as analogy of dandaka (a disease in which body is rigid like rod) with danda (rod); that of dhanustambha (tetany) with bow and that of the health provider with the archer.[42]

22. Samshayah (uncertainity)

अथसंशयः- संशयोनामसन्देहलक्षणानुसन्दिग्धेष्वर्थेष्वनिश्चयः  ; यथा- दृष्टाह्यायुष्मल्लक्षणैरुपेताश्चानुपेताश्चतथासक्रियाश्चाक्रियाश्चपुरुषाःशीघ्रभङ्गाश्चिरजीविनश्च, एतदुभयदृष्टत्वात्संशयः- किमस्तिखल्वकालमृत्युरुतनास्तीति||४३||

athasaṁśayaḥ-saṁśayō nāma sandēhalakṣaṇānusandigdhēṣvarthēṣvaniścayaḥ; yathā- dr̥ṣṭā hyāyuṣmallakṣaṇairupētāścānupētāśca tathā sakriyāścākriyāśca puruṣāḥ śīghrabhaṅgāścirajīvinaśca, ētadubhayadr̥ṣṭatvāt saṁśayaḥ- kimasti khalvakālamr̥tyuruta nāstīti ||43||

atha saMshayaH- saMshayo nAma sandehalakShaNAnusandigdheShvartheShvanishcayaH [1] ; yathA-dRuShTA hyAyuShmallakShaNairupetAshcAnupetAshca tathA sakriyAshcAkriyAshca puruShAHshIghrabha~ggAshcirajIvinashca, etadubhayadRuShTatvAt saMshayaH- kimasti khalvakAlamRutyurutanAstIti||43||

Samshayaḥ is the state of indecision about the concerned entity. For instance, on observing that both types of persons having signs of longevity or not and they adopting the therapeutic measures or not – die early or live long life, therefore doubt arises as whether there is untimely death or not .[43]

23. Prayojana (purpose or intention)

अथप्रयोजनं- प्रयोजनंनामयदर्थमारभ्यन्तआरम्भाः; यथा- यद्यकालमृत्युरस्तिततोऽहमात्मानमायुष्यैरुपचरिष्याम्यनायुष्याणिचपरिहरिष्यामि, कथंमामकालमृत्युःप्रसहेतेति||४४||

atha prayōjanaṁ- prayōjanaṁ nāma yadarthamārabhyanta ārambhāḥ; yathā- yadyakālamr̥tyurasti tatō'hamātmānamāyuṣyairupacariṣyāmyanāyuṣyāṇi ca parihariṣyāmi, kathaṁ māmakālamr̥tyuḥ prasahētēti||44||

atha prayojanaM- prayojanaM nAma yadarthamArabhyanta ArambhAH; yathA- yadyakAlamRutyurastitato~ahamAtmAnamAyuShyairupacariShyAmyanAyuShyANi ca parihariShyAmi, kathaMmAmakAlamRutyuH prasaheteti||44||

Prayojana is that for which the actions is initiated. Such as – ‘if there is untimely death then I will use life-promoting measures and avoid the contrary ones. In such condition how would the untimely death subdue me?[44]

24. Savyabhichara (incompatible argument)

अथसव्यभिचारं- सव्यभिचारंनामयद्व्यभिचरणं; यथा- भवेदिदमौषधमस्मिन्व्याधौयौगिकमथवानेति||४५||

atha savyabhicāraṁ- savyabhicāraṁ nāma yadvyabhicaraṇaṁ; yathā- bhavēdidamauṣadhamasmin vyādhau yaugikamathavā nēti||45||

atha savyabhicAraM- savyabhicAraM nAma yadvyabhicaraNaM; yathA- bhavedidamauShadhamasminvyAdhau yaugikamathavA neti||45||

Savyabhicharais that argument incompatible with the conclusion drawn from it, such as ‘this medicine may or may not be applicable to this disease.’[45]

25. Jijnasa (examination)

अथजिज्ञासा- जिज्ञासानामपरीक्षा; यथाभेषजपरीक्षोत्तरकालमुपदेक्ष्यते||४६||

atha jijñāsā- jijñāsā nāma parīkṣā; yathā bhēṣajaparīkṣōttarakālamupadēkṣyatē||46||

atha jij~jAsA- jij~jAsA nAma parIkShA; yathA bheShajaparIkShottarakAlamupadekShyate||46||

Jijnasa is the examination. Such as- the examination of drugs will be described later on.[46]

26. Vyavasaya (resolution)

अथव्यवसायः- व्यवसायोनामनिश्चयः; यथा- वातिकएवायंव्याधिः, इदमेवास्यभेषजंचेति||४७||

atha vyavasāyaḥ- vyavasāyō nāma niścayaḥ; yathā- vātika ēvāyaṁ vyādhiḥ, idamēvāsya bhēṣajaṁ cēti||47||

atha vyavasAyaH- vyavasAyo nAma nishcayaH; yathA- vAtika evAyaM vyAdhiH, idamevAsya [1] bheShajaMceti||47||

Vyavasaya is resolution or firm decision, such as- this disease is certainly vataja and this is the medicament for this.[47]

27. Arthaprapti ( attainment of meaning)

अथार्थप्राप्तिः- अर्थप्राप्तिर्नामयत्रैकेनार्थेनोक्तेनापरस्यार्थस्यानुक्तस्यापिसिद्धिः; यथा- नायंसन्तर्पणसाध्योव्याधिरित्युक्तेभवत्यर्थप्राप्तिः- अपतर्पणसाध्योऽयमिति, नानेनदिवाभोक्तव्यमित्युक्तेभवत्यर्थप्राप्तिः- निशिभोक्तव्यमिति||४८||

athārthaprāptiḥ- arthaprāptirnāma yatraikēnārthēnōktēnāparasyārthasyānuktasyāpi siddhiḥ; yathā- nāyaṁ santarpaṇasādhyō vyādhirityuktē bhavatyarthaprāptiḥ- apatarpaṇasādhyō'yamiti, nānēna divā bhōktavyamityuktē bhavatyarthaprāptiḥ- niśi bhōktavyamiti||48||

athArthaprAptiH- arthaprAptirnAma yatraikenArthenoktenAparasyArthasyAnuktasyApi siddhiH; yathA-nAyaM santarpaNasAdhyo vyAdhirityukte bhavatyarthaprAptiH- apatarpaNasAdhyo~ayamiti, nAnena divAbhoktavyamityukte bhavatyarthaprAptiH- nishi bhoktavyamiti||48||

Arthaprapti is that where another unsaid idea is conveyed by the said one, such as when one says that the disease is not to be managed with saturating therapy it implies that it is to be managed with desaturation therapy. He should not eat during day, implies that he should eat during night. [48]

28. Sambhava (source)

अथसम्भवः- योयतःसम्भवतिसतस्यसम्भवः; यथा- षड्धातवोगर्भस्य, व्याधेरहितं, हितमारोग्यस्येति||४९||

atha sambhavaḥ- yō yataḥ sambhavati sa tasya sambhavaḥ; yathā- ṣaḍdhātavō garbhasya, vyādhērahitaṁ, hitamārōgyasyēti||49||

atha sambhavaH- yo yataH sambhavati sa tasya sambhavaH; yathA- ShaDdhAtavo garbhasya,vyAdherahitaM, hitamArogyasyeti||49||

Sambhava is that from which something is originated, such as six dhatus from which foetus has origin, disease have origin from unwholesome things and health have origin from wholesome things.[49]

29. Anuyojya (censurable)

अथानुयोज्यम्- अनुयोज्यंनामयद्वाक्यंवाक्यदोषयुक्तंतत्| सामान्यतोव्याहृतेष्वर्थेषुवाविशेषग्रहणार्थंयद्वाक्यंतदप्यनुयोज्यं; यथा- ‘संशोधनसाध्योऽयंव्याधिः’इत्युक्ते‘किंवमनसाध्योऽयं, किंवाविरेचनसाध्यः’इत्यनुयुज्यते||५०||

athānuyōjyam- anuyōjyaṁ nāma yadvākyaṁ vākyadōṣayuktaṁ tat| sāmānyatō vyāhr̥tēṣvarthēṣu vā viśēṣagrahaṇārthaṁ yadvākyaṁ tadapyanuyōjyaṁ; yathā- ‘saṁśōdhanasādhyō'yaṁ vyādhiḥ’ ityuktē ‘kiṁ vamanasādhyō'yaṁ, kiṁvā virēcanasādhyaḥ’ ityanuyujyatē||50||

athAnuyojyam- anuyojyaM nAma yadvAkyaM vAkyadoShayuktaM tat| sAmAnyato [1] vyAhRuteShvartheShu vA visheShagrahaNArthaM yadvAkyaM tadapyanuyojyaM; yathA-‘saMshodhanasAdhyo~ayaM vyAdhiH’ ityukte ‘kiM vamanasAdhyo~ayaM, kiMvA virecanasAdhyaH’ityanuyujyate||50||

Anuyojya–is that where sentence is defective or has unspecified meaning inviting further questions, such as if somebody says ‘the disease is to be managed with evacuative therapy’ it invites further question as to ‘whether it is to be managed with emesis or purgation.[50]

30. Ananuyojya (incensurable)

अथाननुयोज्यम्- अननुयोज्यंनामातोविपर्ययेण; यथा- अयमसाध्यः||५१||

athānanuyōjyam- ananuyōjyaṁ nāmātō viparyayēṇa; yathā- ayamasādhyaḥ||51||

athAnanuyojyam- ananuyojyaM nAmAto viparyayeNa; yathA- ayamasAdhyaH||51||

Ananuyojya is contrary to the above. Such as this is incurable.[51]

31. Anuyoga (query with example)

अथानुयोगः- अनुयोगोनामसयत्तद्विद्यानांतद्विद्यैरेवसार्धंतन्त्रेतन्त्रैकदेशेवाप्रश्नःप्रश्नैकदेशोवाज्ञानविज्ञानवचनप्रतिवचनपरीक्षार्थमादिश्यते| यथा- ‘नित्यःपुरुषः’इतिप्रतिज्ञातेयत्परः‘कोहेतुः’इत्याह, सोऽनुयोगः||५२||

athānuyōgaḥ- anuyōgō nāma sa yat tadvidyānāṁ tadvidyairēva sārdhaṁ tantrē tantraikadēśē vā praśnaḥpraśnaikadēśō vā jñānavijñānavacanaprativacanaparīkṣārthamādiśyatē| yathā- ‘nityaḥ puruṣaḥ’ iti pratijñātē yat paraḥ ‘kō hētuḥ’ ityāha, sō'nuyōgaḥ||52||

athAnuyogaH- anuyogo nAma sa yat tadvidyAnAM tadvidyaireva sArdhaM tantre tantraikadeshe vAprashnaHprashnaikadesho vA j~jAnavij~jAnavacanaprativacanaparIkShArthamAdishyate| yathA- ‘nityaH puruShaH’ iti pratij~jAte yat paraH ‘ko hetuH’ ityAha, so~anuyogaH||52||

Anuyoga is that which is put as query, wholly or partly, on the text or its part during discussion of experts for the test of learning, understanding, speaking and contradiction, such as on the statement of self eternal, somebody says, what is the reason, this is anuyoga. [52]

32. Pratyanuyoga(counter-question)

अथप्रत्यनुयोगः- प्रत्यनुयोगोनामानुयोगस्यानुयोगः; यथा- अस्यानुयोगस्यपुनःकोहेतुरिति||५३||

atha pratyanuyōgaḥ- pratyanuyōgō nāmānuyōgasyānuyōgaḥ; yathā- asyānuyōgasya punaḥ kō hēturiti||53||

atha pratyanuyogaH- pratyanuyogo nAmAnuyogasyAnuyogaH; yathA- asyAnuyogasya punaH koheturiti||53||

Pratyanuyoga is questioning the questions, such as when anuyoga i.e query has been raised then again questioning what is the reason of this query is called as pratyanuyoga .[53]

33. Vakyadosha (syntactical defects)

अथवाक्यदोषः- वाक्यदोषोनामयथाखल्वस्मिन्नर्थेन्यूनम्, अधिकम्, अनर्थकम्, अपार्थकं, विरुद्धंचेति; एतानिह्यन्तरेणनप्रकृतोऽर्थःप्रणशयेत्| तत्रन्यूनं- प्रतिज्ञाहेतूदाहरणोपनयनिगमनानामन्यतमेनापिन्यूनंन्यूनंभवति; यद्वाबहूपदिष्टहेतुकमेकेनहेतुनासाध्यतेतच्चन्यूनम्| अथाधिकम्- अधिकंनामयन्न्यूनविपरीतं, यद्वाऽऽयुर्वेदेभाष्यमाणेबार्हस्पत्यमौशनसमन्यद्वायत्किञ्चिदप्रतिसम्बद्धार्थमुच्यते, यद्वासम्बद्धार्थमपिद्विरभिधीयतेतत्पुनरुक्तदोषत्वादधिकं; तच्चपुनरुक्तंद्विविधम्- अर्थपुनरुक्तं, शब्दपुनरुक्तंच; तत्रार्थपुनरुक्तंयथा- भेषजमौषधंसाधनमिति, शब्दपुनरुक्तंपुनर्भेषजंभेषजमिति| अथानर्थकम्- अनर्थकंनामयद्वचनमक्षरग्राममात्रमेवस्यात्पञ्चवर्गवन्नचार्थतोगृह्यते| अथापार्थकम्- अपार्थकंनामयदर्थवच्चपरस्परेणासंयुज्यमानार्थकं; यथा- चक्र-न(त)क्र-वंश-वज्र-निशाकराइति| अथविरुद्धं- विरुद्धंनामयद्दृष्टान्तसिद्धान्तसमयैर्विरुद्धं; तत्रपूर्वंदृष्टान्तसिद्धान्तावुक्तौःसमयःपुनस्त्रिधाभवति; यथा- आयुर्वैदिकसमयः, याज्ञिकसमयः, मोक्षशास्त्रिकसमयश्चेति; तत्रायुर्वैदिकसमयः- चतुष्पादंभेषजमिति, याज्ञिकसमयः- आलभ्यायजमानैःपशवइति, मोक्षशास्त्रिकसमयः- सर्वभूतेष्वहिंसेति; तत्रस्वसमयविपरीतमुच्यमानंविरुद्धंभवति| इतिवाक्यदोषाः||५४||

atha vākyadōṣaḥ- vākyadōṣō nāma yathā khalvasminnarthē nyūnam, adhikam, anarthakam, apārthakaṁ, viruddhaṁ cēti; ētāni hyantarēṇa na prakr̥tō'rthaḥ praṇaśayēt| tatra nyūnaṁ- pratijñāhētūdāharaṇōpanayanigamanānāmanyatamēnāpi nyūnaṁ nyūnaṁ bhavati; yadvā bahūpadiṣṭahētukamēkēna hētunā sādhyatē tacca nyūnam| athādhikam- adhikaṁ nāma yannyūnaviparītaṁ, yadvā yurvēdē bhāṣyamāṇē bārhaspatyamauśanasamanyadvā yatkiñcidapratisambaddhārthamucyatē, yadvā sambaddhārthamapi dvirabhidhīyatē tat punaruktadōṣatvādadhikaṁ; tacca punaruktaṁ dvividham- arthapunaruktaṁ, śabdapunaruktaṁ ca; tatrārthapunaruktaṁ yathā- bhēṣajamauṣadhaṁ sādhanamiti, śabdapunaruktaṁ punarbhēṣajaṁ bhēṣajamiti| athānarthakam- anarthakaṁ nāma yadvacanamakṣaragrāmamātramēva syāt pañcavargavanna cārthatō gr̥hyatē| athāpārthakam- apārthakaṁ nāma yadarthavacca parasparēṇāsaṁyujyamānārthakaṁ; yathā- cakra-na(ta)kra-vaṁśa-vajra-niśākarā iti| atha viruddhaṁ- viruddhaṁ nāma yaddr̥ṣṭāntasiddhāntasamayairviruddhaṁ; tatra pūrvaṁ dr̥ṣṭāntasiddhāntāvuktauḥ samayaḥ punastridhā bhavati; yathā- āyurvaidikasamayaḥ, yājñikasamayaḥ, mōkṣaśāstrikasamayaścēti; tatrāyurvaidikasamayaḥ- catuṣpādaṁ bhēṣajamiti, yājñikasamayaḥ- ālabhyā yajamānaiḥ paśava iti, mōkṣaśāstrikasamayaḥ- sarvabhūtēṣvahiṁsēti; tatra svasamayaviparītamucyamānaṁ viruddhaṁ bhavati| iti vākyadōṣāḥ||54||

atha vAkyadoShaH- vAkyadoSho nAma yathA khalvasminnarthe nyUnam, adhikam, anarthakam,apArthakaM, viruddhaM ceti; etAni hyantareNa na prakRuto~arthaH praNashayet| tatra nyUnaM- pratij~jAhetUdAharaNopanayanigamanAnAmanyatamenApi nyUnaM nyUnaM bhavati;yadvA bahUpadiShTahetukamekena hetunA sAdhyate tacca nyUnam| athAdhikam- adhikaM nAma yannyUnaviparItaM, yadvA~a~ayurvede bhAShyamANebArhaspatyamaushanasamanyadvA yatki~jcidapratisambaddhArthamucyate, yadvA sambaddhArthamapidvirabhidhIyate tat punaruktadoShatvAdadhikaM; tacca punaruktaM dvividham- arthapunaruktaM,shabdapunaruktaM ca; tatrArthapunaruktaM yathA- bheShajamauShadhaM sAdhanamiti,shabdapunaruktaM punarbheShajaM bheShajamiti| athAnarthakam- anarthakaM nAma yadvacanamakSharagrAmamAtrameva syAt pa~jcavargavannacArthato gRuhyate| athApArthakam- apArthakaM nAma yadarthavacca paraspareNAsaMyujyamAnArthakaM; yathA- cakra-na(ta)kra-vaMsha-vajra-nishAkarA iti| atha viruddhaM- viruddhaM nAma yaddRuShTAntasiddhAntasamayairviruddhaM; tatra pUrvaMdRuShTAntasiddhAntAvuktauH samayaH punastridhA bhavati; yathA- AyurvaidikasamayaH,yAj~jikasamayaH, mokShashAstrikasamayashceti; tatrAyurvaidikasamayaH- catuShpAdaM bheShajamiti,yAj~jikasamayaH- AlabhyA yajamAnaiH pashava iti, mokShashAstrikasamayaH- sarvabhUteShvahiMseti;tatra svasamayaviparItamucyamAnaM viruddhaM bhavati| iti vAkyadoShAH||54||

Vakyadosha (syntactical defects), in this context, is of five types – nyunam, adhikam, anarthakam, aparthakam, viruddham. Without these there is no damage to the contextual sense.

  1. Nyunam (semantic deficiency) such as – if there is lack of even one of the five – proposition (pratijna), reason (hetu), instance (udaharan), correlation (upanaya) and conclusion (nigaman) or if there be many reasons and only one reason is resorted to for proving something than it is defined as nyunam.
  2. Adhikam (superfluity) is just contrary to nyunam such as while talking about Ayurveda one says about some irrelevant texts such as that composed by Barhaspatyam or Aushana or even if relevant it is repeated unnecessarily than the repetition (punarikti) also comes under adhikam (superfluity). Repetition (punarikta) is of two types – arthapunaruktam (semantic repetition) and shabdapunaruktam (verbal repetition). The former (arthapunaruktam) consists of the repetition of the same idea by different synonymous words such as bheshajam, aushadham and sadhanam and the repetition of the same word such as, bheshaja is called as shabdapunaruktam.
  3. Anarthakam (nonessential statement) is that where there is only jumble of alphabets devoid of any sense. Aparthakam is deprivation of meaning due to lack of mutual connection of otherwise meaningful words such as, chakra-na(ta)kra-vamsha-vajra-nishakara.
  4. Viruddham(Incongruity) is considered in relation to instance (drishtanta), theory (siddhanta) and convention (samaya).

Instance (drishtanta) and theory have already been described earlier.

Now convention (samaya) is of three types – Ayurvedic samaya, yajnika samaya, (ritual) and ethical (mokshashastrika). Ayurvedic samaya (ayurvedic convention) such as four aspects of health care, yajnika samaya (ritual convention) such as animals are to be sacrificed by persons following rituals, mokshashastrika (ethical convention) such as non-violence towards all creatures. The statement incongruous in respect of the respective convention is taken as viruddha (incongruity). Thus are the vakyadosha (syntactical defects).[54]

34.Vakyaprashamsa (syntactical excellence)

अथवाक्यप्रशंसा- वाक्यप्रशंसानामयथाखल्वस्मिन्नर्थेत्वन्यूनम्, अनधिकम्, अर्थवत्, अनपार्थकम्, अविरुद्धम्, अधिगतपदार्थंचेतियत्तद्वाक्यमननुयोज्यमितिप्रशस्यते||५५||

atha vākyapraśaṁsā- vākyapraśaṁsā nāma yathā khalvasminnarthē tvanyūnam, anadhikam, arthavat, anapārthakam, aviruddham, adhigatapadārthaṁ cēti yattadvākyamananuyōjyamiti praśasyatē||55||

atha vAkyaprashaMsA- vAkyaprashaMsA nAma yathA khalvasminnarthe tvanyUnam, anadhikam, arthavat, anapArthakam, aviruddham, adhigatapadArthaM ceti yattadvAkyamananuyojyamiti prashasyate||55||

Vakyaprashamsa (syntactical excellence) is that where the statement is free from deficiency (anyunam) and superfluity (anadhikam), is meaningful (arthavat), devoid of deprivation of meaning (anaparthaka) and incongruity (aviruddham) and comprehensible (adhigatapadartham). Further there is no room for any question. Such statement is commended. [55]

35. Chhala (knavery)

अथच्छलं- छलंनामपरिशठमर्थाभासमनर्थकंवाग्वस्तुमात्रमेव| तद्द्विविधं- वाक्छलं, सामान्यच्छलंच| तत्रवाक्छलंनामयथा- कश्चिद्ब्रूयात्- नवतन्त्रोऽयंभिषगिति, अथभिषग्ब्रूयात्- नाहंनवतन्त्रएकतन्त्रोऽहमिति; परोब्रूयात्- नाहंब्रवीमिनवतन्त्राणितवेति, अपितुनवाभ्यस्तंतेतन्त्रमिति; भिषक्ब्रूयात्- नमयानवाभ्यस्तंतन्त्रम्, अनेकधाऽभ्यस्तंमयातन्त्रमिति; एतद्वाक्छलम्| सामान्यच्छलंनामयथा- व्याधिप्रशमनायौषधमित्युक्ते, परोब्रूयात्- सत्सत्प्रशमनायेतिकिंनुभवानाह; सन्हिरोगः, सदौषधं; यदिचसत्सत्प्रशमनायभवति, तत्रसत्कासः, सत्क्षयः, सत्सामान्यात्कासस्तेक्षयप्रशमनायभविष्यतीति| एतत्सामान्यच्छलम्||५६||

atha chhalaṁ- chalaṁ nāma pariśaṭhamarthābhāsamanarthakaṁ vāgvastumātramēva| taddvividhaṁ- vākchalaṁ, sāmānyacchalaṁ ca| tatra vākchalaṁ nāma yathā- kaścidbrūyāt- navatantrō'yaṁ bhiṣagiti, atha bhiṣag brūyāt- nāhaṁ navatantra ēkatantrō'hamiti; parō brūyāt- nāhaṁ bravīmi nava tantrāṇi tavēti, api tu navābhyastaṁ tē tantramiti; bhiṣak brūyāt- na mayā navābhyastaṁ tantram, anēkadhā'bhyastaṁ mayā tantramiti; ētadvākchalam| sāmānyacchalaṁ nāma yathā- vyādhipraśamanāyauṣadhamityuktē, parō brūyāt- sat satpraśamanāyēti kiṁ nu bhavānāha; san hi rōgaḥ, sadauṣadhaṁ; yadi ca sat satpraśamanāya bhavati, tatra sat kāsaḥ, sat kṣayaḥ, satsāmānyāt kāsastē kṣayapraśamanāya bhaviṣyatīti| ētat sāmānyacchalam||56||

atha cchalaM- chalaM nAma parishaThamarthAbhAsamanarthakaM vAgvastumAtrameva| taddvividhaM- vAkchalaM, sAmAnyacchalaM ca| tatra vAkchalaM nAma yathA- kashcidbrUyAt- navatantro~ayaM bhiShagiti, atha bhiShag brUyAt- nAhaMnavatantra ekatantro~ahamiti; paro brUyAt- nAhaM bravImi nava tantrANi taveti, api tu navAbhyastaM tetantramiti; bhiShak brUyAt- na mayA navAbhyastaM tantram, anekadhA~abhyastaM mayA tantramiti;etadvAkchalam| sAmAnyacchalaM nAma yathA- vyAdhiprashamanAyauShadhamityukte, paro brUyAt- satsatprashamanAyeti kiM nu bhavAnAha; san hi rogaH, sadauShadhaM; yadi ca sat satprashamanAyabhavati, tatra sat kAsaH, sat kShayaH, satsAmAnyAt kAsaste kShayaprashamanAya bhaviShyatIti| etat sAmAnyacchalam||56||

Chhala is only a jugglery of words in which the words are used knavishly, with apparent meaning or without meaning. This is of two types – vakchchalam and samanyachhala.

Vakchhala (verbal knavery), such as – if somebody says – this physician is navatantra, then the physician retorts – I have not studied nine texts but only one tantra. Opponent if replies that I do not mean you have read nine tantra but you are new in this field. On this the physician says – I have not practiced the text nine times but many times. This is verbal knavery.

Samanya chhala (knavery in general), such as – when somebody says – medicament is for alleviating the disease. The other says – how do you say the existent is for alleviating the existent because disease is existent and also the medicament, if the existent is capable of alleviating the existent, then both cough and wasting being existent, cough may be able to alleviate wasting. This is a knavery in general. [56]

36. Ahetu (fallacious reason)

अथाहेतुः- अहेतुर्नामप्रकरणसमः, संशयसमः, वर्ण्यसमश्चेति| तत्रप्रकरणसमोनामाहेतुर्यथा- अन्यःशरीरादात्मानित्यइति; परोब्रूयात्- यस्मादन्यःशरीरादात्मा, तस्मान्नित्यः; शरीरंह्यनित्यमतोविधर्मिणाचात्मनाभवितव्यमित्येषचाहेतुः; नहियएवपक्षःसएवहेतुरिति| संशयसमोनामाहेतुर्यएवसंशयहेतुःसएवसंशयच्छेदहेतुः; यथा- अयमायुर्वेदैकदेशमाह, किन्न्वयंचिकित्सकःस्यान्नवेतिसंशयेपरोब्रूयात्- यस्मादयमायुर्वेदैकदेशमाहतस्माच्चिकित्सकोऽयमिति, नचसंशयच्छेदहेतुंविशेषयति, एषचाहेतुः; नहियएवसंशयहेतुः, सएवसंशयच्छेदहेतुर्भवति| वर्ण्यसमोनामाहेतुः- योहेतुर्वर्ण्याविशिष्टः; यथा- कश्चिद्बूयात्- अस्पर्शत्वाद्बुद्धिरनित्याशब्दवदिति; अत्रवर्ण्यःशब्दोबुद्धिरपिवर्ण्या, तदुभयवर्ण्याविशिष्टत्वाद्वर्ण्यसमोऽप्यहेतुः||५७||

athāhētuḥ- ahēturnāmaprakaraṇasamaḥ, saṁśayasamaḥ, varṇyasamaścēti| tatra prakaraṇasamō nāmāhēturyathā- anyaḥ śarīrādātmā nitya iti; parō brūyāt- yasmādanyaḥ śarīrādātmā, tasmānnityaḥ; śarīraṁ hyanityamatō vidharmiṇā cātmanā bhavitavyamityēṣa cāhētuḥ; nahi ya ēva pakṣaḥ sa ēva hēturiti| saṁśayasamō nāmāhēturya ēva saṁśayahētuḥ sa ēva saṁśayacchēdahētuḥ; yathā- ayamāyurvēdaikadēśamāha, kinnvayaṁ cikitsakaḥ syānna vēti saṁśayē parō brūyāt- yasmādayamāyurvēdaikadēśamāha tasmāccikitsakō'yamiti, na ca saṁśayacchēdahētuṁ viśēṣayati, ēṣa cāhētuḥ; na hi ya ēva saṁśayahētuḥ, sa ēva saṁśayacchēdahēturbhavati| varṇyasamō nāmāhētuḥ- yō hēturvarṇyāviśiṣṭaḥ; yathā- kaścidbūyāt- asparśatvādbuddhiranityā śabdavaditi; atra varṇyaḥ śabdō buddhirapi varṇyā, tadubhayavarṇyāviśiṣṭatvādvarṇyasamō'pyahētuḥ||57||

athAhetuH- aheturnAmaprakaraNasamaH, saMshayasamaH, varNyasamashceti| tatra prakaraNasamo nAmAheturyathA- anyaH sharIrAdAtmA nitya iti; paro brUyAt- yasmAdanyaHsharIrAdAtmA, tasmAnnityaH; sharIraM hyanityamato vidharmiNA cAtmanA [1] bhavitavyamityeShacAhetuH; nahi ya eva pakShaH sa eva heturiti| saMshayasamo nAmAheturya eva saMshayahetuH sa eva saMshayacchedahetuH; yathA-ayamAyurvedaikadeshamAha, kinnvayaM cikitsakaH syAnna veti saMshaye paro brUyAt-yasmAdayamAyurvedaikadeshamAha tasmAccikitsako~ayamiti, na ca saMshayacchedahetuMvisheShayati, eSha cAhetuH; na hi ya eva saMshayahetuH, sa eva saMshayacchedaheturbhavati| varNyasamo nAmAhetuH- yo heturvarNyAvishiShTaH; yathA- kashcidbUyAt- asparshatvAdbuddhiranityAshabdavaditi; atra varNyaH shabdo buddhirapi varNyA,tadubhayavarNyAvishiShTatvAdvarNyasamo~apyahetuH||57||

Ahetu is of three types – prakaranasamah, samshayasamaḥ, varnyasama.

Prakaranasama ahetu is like saying – ‘the atma (soul) other than the body is eternal.’ On this opponent says that ‘because the self is other than the body, it is eternal, then as the body is non-eternal the dissimilar self must be eternal. This is ahetu (fallacious reason) because here the paksha (minor term) itself has been used as reason.

Samshayasama ahetu the reason similar to doubt is that which though being cause of doubt is used as cause of eliminating the same such as, if someone says only a part of Ayurveda , it creates doubt as to whether he is a physician or not; On this opponent says – ‘as he has said a part of Ayurveda, he is a physician.’ The doubt can not be the cause of removing the same.

Varnyasam ahetu- the reason (hetu) given is similar to object and not different from the object, such as somebody says – buddhi (intellect) is non-eternal because of the absence of touch like shabda (sound). Here both buddhi (intellect) and shabda (sound)are objects; hence because of the absence of difference between them, the reason is similar to object and as such is fallacious.[57]

37. Atitakala (delayed performance)

अथातीतकालम्- अतीतकालंनामयत्पूर्वंवाच्यंतत्पश्चादुच्यते, तत्कालातीतत्वादग्राह्यंभवतीति; पूर्वंवानिग्रहप्राप्तमनिगृह्यपरिगृह्यपक्षान्तरितंपश्चान्निगृहीते, तत्तस्यातीतकालत्वान्निग्रहवचनमसमर्थंभवतीति||५८||

athātītakālam- atītakālaṁ nāma yat pūrvaṁ vācyaṁ tat paścāducyatē, tat kālātītatvādagrāhyaṁ bhavatīti; pūrvaṁ vā nigrahaprāptamanigr̥hya parigr̥hya pakṣāntaritaṁ paścānnigr̥hītē, tattasyātītakālatvānnigrahavacanamasamarthaṁ bhavatīti||58||

athAtItakAlam- atItakAlaM nAma yat pUrvaM vAcyaM tat pashcAducyate, tat kAlAtItatvAdagrAhyaMbhavatIti; pUrvaM [1] vA nigrahaprAptamanigRuhya parigRuhya pakShAntaritaM pashcAnnigRuhIte,tattasyAtItakAlatvAnnigrahavacanamasamarthaM bhavatIti||58||

Atitakala is that which actually was to be said earlier but is said later, and because of delayed presentation becomes unacceptable. For instance, if somebody does not defeat the opponent at the opportune moment but applies it on some other point later on, then, because of delayed application that becomes quite ineffective. [58]

38. Upalambha (pointing defects in causality)

अथोपालम्भः- उपालम्भोनामहेतोर्दोषवचनं; यथा- पूर्वमहेतवोहेत्वाभासाव्याख्याताः||५९||

athōpālambhaḥ- upālambhō nāma hētōrdōṣavacanaṁ; yathā- pūrvamahētavō hētvābhāsā vyākhyātāḥ||59||

athopAlambhaH- upAlambho nAma hetordoShavacanaM; yathA- pUrvamahetavo hetvAbhAsAvyAkhyAtAH||59||

Upalambha is pointing out defects in causality as explained earlier under the heading hetu fallacious or apparent reason which is unable to prove the sadhya.[59]

39. Parihara (refuting defects)

अथपरिहारः- परिहारोनामतस्यैवदोषवचनस्यपरिहरणं; यथा- नित्यमात्मनिशरीरस्थेजीवलिङ्गान्युपलभ्यन्ते, तस्यचापगमान्नोपलभ्यन्ते, तस्मादन्यःशरीरादात्मानित्यश्चेति||६०||

atha parihāraḥ- parihārō nāma tasyaiva dōṣavacanasya pariharaṇaṁ; yathā- nityamātmani śarīrasthē jīvaliṅgānyupalabhyantē, tasya cāpagamānnōpalabhyantē, tasmādanyaḥ arīrādātmā nityaścēti||60||

atha parihAraH- parihAro nAma tasyaiva doShavacanasya pariharaNaM; yathA- nityamAtmani sharIrasthejIvali~ggAnyupalabhyante, tasya cApagamAnnopalabhyante, tasmAdanyaH sharIrAdAtmAnityashceti||60||

Parihara is refuting the above points out of defects, such as the signs of life are available constantly till the life is in the body, and are not available after it goes out. Therefore, the atma (self) is different from the body and is eternal.[60]

40. Pratijnahani (change of proposition)

अथप्रतिज्ञाहानिः- प्रतिज्ञाहानिर्नामसापूर्वपरिगृहीतांप्रतिज्ञांपर्यनुयुक्तोयत्परित्यजति, यथाप्राक्प्रतिज्ञांकृत्वानित्यःपुरुषइति, पर्यनुयुक्तस्त्वाह- अनित्यइति||६१||

atha pratijñāhāniḥ- pratijñāhānirnāma sā pūrvaparigr̥hītāṁ pratijñāṁ paryanuyuktō yat parityajati, yathā prāk pratijñāṁ kr̥tvā nityaḥ puruṣa iti, paryanuyuktastvāha- anitya iti||61||

atha pratij~jAhAniH- pratij~jAhAnirnAma sA pUrvaparigRuhItAM pratij~jAM paryanuyukto yat parityajati,yathA prAk pratij~jAM kRutvA nityaH puruSha iti, paryanuyuktastvAha- anitya iti||61||

Pratijnahani is defined as when one gives up the original proposition after having been questioned. For instance, somebody puts proposition in the beginning as, the self (purusha) is eternal, but when questioned says that it is non-eternal then such change of proposition after questioning is called as Pratijnahani.[61]

41. Abhyanujna (acceptance)

अथाभ्यनुज्ञा- अभ्यनुज्ञानामसायइष्टानिष्टाभ्युपगमः||६२||

athābhyanujñā- abhyanujñā nāma sā ya iṣṭāniṣṭābhyupagamaḥ||62||

athAbhyanuj~jA- abhyanuj~jA nAma sA ya iShTAniShTAbhyupagamaH||62||

Abhyanujna is acceptance of the desired as well as the undesired situations.[62]

42. Hetvantara (change in statement of cause)

अथहेत्वन्तरं- हेत्वन्तरंनामप्रकृतहेतौवाच्येयद्विकृतहेतुमाह||६३||

atha hētvantaraṁ- hētvantaraṁ nāma prakr̥tahētau vācyē yadvikr̥tahētumāha||63||

atha hetvantaraM- hetvantaraM nAma prakRutahetau vAcye yadvikRutahetumAha||63||

Hetvantara is that where some imperfect reason (vikritahetu) is stated instead of perfect reason (prakritahetu). [63]

43. Arthantara (statement of irrelevant meaning)

अथार्थान्तरम्- अर्थान्तरंनामैकस्मिन्वक्तव्येऽपरंयदाह| यथा- ज्वरलक्षणेवाच्येप्रमेहलक्षणमाह||६४||

athārthāntaram- arthāntaraṁ nāmaikasmin vaktavyē'paraṁ yadāha| yathā- jvaralakṣaṇē vācyē pramēhalakṣaṇamāha||64||

athArthAntaram- arthAntaraM nAmaikasmin vaktavye~aparaM yadAha| yathA- jvaralakShaNe vAcye pramehalakShaNamAha||64||

Arthantara is that where some other thing is said instead of the relevant one. For instance, one has to say the symptoms of jwara (fever) but instead he says those of prameha.[64]

44.Nigrahasthana (stage of defeat and its reasons)

अथनिग्रहस्थानं- निग्रहस्थानंनामपराजयप्राप्तिः; तच्चत्रिरभिहितस्यवाक्यस्यापरिज्ञानंपरिषदिविज्ञानवत्यां, यद्वाअननुयोज्यस्यानुयोगोऽनुयोज्यस्यचाननुयोगः| प्रतिज्ञाहानिः, अभ्यनुज्ञा, कालातीतवचनम्, अहेतुः, न्यूनम्, अधिकं, व्यर्थम्, अनर्थकं, पुनरुक्तं, विरुद्धं, हेत्वन्तरम्, अर्थान्तरंचनिग्रहस्थानम्||६५||

atha nigrahasthānaṁ- nigrahasthānaṁ nāma parājayaprāptiḥ; tacca trirabhihitasya vākyasyāparijñānaṁ pariṣadi vijñānavatyāṁ, yadvā ananuyōjyasyānuyōgō'nuyōjyasya cānanuyōgaḥ| pratijñāhāniḥ, abhyanujñā, kālātītavacanam, ahētuḥ, nyūnam, adhikaṁ, vyartham, anarthakaṁ, punaruktaṁ, viruddhaṁ, hētvantaram, arthāntaraṁ ca nigrahasthānam||65||

atha nigrahasthAnaM- nigrahasthAnaM nAma parAjayaprAptiH; tacca trirabhihitasya vAkyasyAparij~jAnaMpariShadi vij~jAnavatyAM, yadvA ananuyojyasyAnuyogo~anuyojyasya cAnanuyogaH| pratij~jAhAniH, abhyanuj~jA, kAlAtItavacanam, ahetuH, nyUnam, adhikaM, vyartham, anarthakaM,punaruktaM, viruddhaM, hetvantaram, arthAntaraM ca nigrahasthAnam||65||

Nigrahasthana is that by which one is defeated. It consists of not understanding a statement even if repeated thrice in a learned assembly or questioning where it is not pertinent and not questioning where it is pertinent. Over and above, pratijnahani, abhyanujna, kalatita vachana, ahetu, nyuna, adhika, vyartha, anarthaka, punarukta, viruddha, hetvantara and arthantara are reasons of defeat.[65]

इतिवादमार्गपदानियथोद्देशमभिनिर्दिष्टानिभवन्ति||६६||

iti vādamārgapadāni yathōddēśamabhinirdiṣṭāni bhavanti||66||

iti vAdamArgapadAni yathoddeshamabhinirdiShTAni bhavanti||66||

Thus the terms used in course of debate are explained as proposed.[66]

Importance of debate

वादस्तुखलुभिषजांप्रवर्तमानोप्रवर्तेतायुर्वेदएव, नान्यत्र| अत्रहिवाक्यप्रतिवाक्यविस्तराःकेवलाश्चोपपत्तयःसर्वाधिकरणेषु| ताःसर्वाःसमवेक्ष्यावेक्ष्यसर्वंवाक्यंब्रूयात्, नाप्रकृतकमशास्त्रमपरीक्षितमसाधकमाकुलमव्यापकंवा| सर्वंचहेतुमद्ब्रूयात्| हेतुमन्तोह्यकलुषाःसर्वएववादविग्रहाश्चिकित्सितेकारणभूताः, प्रशस्तबुद्धिवर्धकत्वात्; सर्वारम्भसिद्धिंह्यावहत्यनुपहताबुद्धिः||६७||

vādastu khalu bhiṣajāṁ pravartamānō pravartētāyurvēda ēva, nānyatra| atra hi vākyaprativākyavistarāḥ kēvalāścōpapattayaḥ sarvādhikaraṇēṣu| nāprakr̥takamaśāstramaparīkṣitamasādhakamākulamavyāpakaṁ vā| sarvaṁ ca hētumadbrūyāt| hētumantō hyakaluṣāḥ sarva ēva vādavigrahāścikitsitē kāraṇabhūtāḥ, praśastabuddhivardhakatvāt; sarvārambhasiddhiṁ hyāvahatyanupahatā buddhiḥ||67||

vAdastu khalu bhiShajAM pravartamAno pravartetAyurveda eva, nAnyatra| atra hi vAkyaprativAkyavistarAH kevalAshcopapattayaH sarvAdhikaraNeShu| tAH sarvAH samavekShyAvekShya sarvaM vAkyaM brUyAt,nAprakRutakamashAstramaparIkShitamasAdhakamAkulamavyApakaM vA| sarvaM ca hetumadbrUyAt| hetumanto hyakaluShAH sarva eva vAdavigrahAshcikitsite kAraNabhUtAH, prashastabuddhivardhakatvAt;sarvArambhasiddhiM hyAvahatyanupahatA buddhiH||67||

The debate among physicians should be held only on Ayurveda and not on any other topic. Here, in detail the statements and counter-statements and also all the arguments have been mentioned in the entire text. After keeping them in mind one should speak something and not anything which is irrelevant, unscriptural, unexamined, inappropriate, confused and unpervasive. He should speak everything with reasoning. All the conflicts of debate if endowed with reasoning, are devoid of malice and promote the medicine due to its property of enhancing the excellence of intellect, because indefective intellect leads to success in all actions. [67]

Ten means of knowledge for physician

इमानिखलुतावदिहकानिचित्प्रकरणानिभिषजांज्ञानार्थमुपदेक्ष्यामः| ज्ञानपूर्वकंहिकर्मणांसमारम्भंप्रशंसन्तिकुशलाः| ज्ञात्वाहिकारण-करण-कार्ययोनि-कार्य-कार्यफलानुबन्ध-देश-काल-प्रवृत्त्युपायान्सम्यगभिनिर्वर्तमानःकार्याभिनिर्वृत्ताविष्टफलानुबन्धंकार्यमभिनिर्वर्तयत्यनतिमहतायत्नेनकर्ता||६८||

imāni khalu tāvadiha kānicit prakaraṇāni bhiṣajāṁ jñānārthamupadēkṣyāmaḥ| jñānapūrvakaṁ hi karmaṇāṁ samārambhaṁ praśaṁsanti kuśalāḥ| jñātvā hi kāraṇa-karaṇa-kāryayōni-kārya-kāryaphalānubandha-dēśa-kāla-pravr̥ttyupāyān samyagabhinirvartamānaḥ kāryābhinirvr̥ttāviṣṭaphalānubandhaṁ kāryamabhinirvartayatyanatimahatā yatnēna kartā||68||

imAni khalu tAvadiha kAnicit prakaraNAni bhiShajAM j~jAnArthamupadekShyAmaH| j~jAnapUrvakaM hi karmaNAM samArambhaM prashaMsanti kushalAH| j~jAtvA hi kAraNa-karaNa-kAryayoni-kArya-kAryaphalAnubandha-desha-kAla-pravRuttyupAyAnsamyagabhinirvartamAnaH kAryAbhinirvRuttAviShTaphalAnubandhaM kAryamabhinirvartayatyanatimahatAyatnena kartA||68||

Now I shall explain some topics for the knowledge of physicians because the wise commend initiation of all actions with prior knowledge. If after knowing well karana, karana, karyayoni, karya, karyaphala, anubandha, desha, kala, pravritti and upaya one proceeds for some action, he obtains the desired fruit and subsequent benefit in that without any great effort.[68]

Karana (cause or doer)

तत्रकारणंनामतद्यत्करोति, सएवहेतुः, सकर्ता||६९||

tatra kāraṇaṁ nāma tad yat karōti, sa ēva hētuḥ, sa kartā||69||

tatra kAraNaM nAma tad yat [1] karoti, sa eva hetuH, sa kartA||69||

Karana is defined as the one who does the action, he is the cause and doer.[69]

Karana (means or equipments)

करणंपुनस्तद्यदुपकरणायोपकल्पतेकर्तुःकार्याभिनिर्वृत्तौप्रयतमानस्य||७०||

karaṇaṁ punastad yadupakaraṇāyōpakalpatē kartuḥ kāryābhinirvr̥ttau prayatamānasya||70||

karaNaM punastad yadupakaraNAyopakalpate kartuH kAryAbhinirvRuttau prayatamAnasya||70||

Karana is that which serves as means or equipment for the karana (doer) making effort for performing the action.[70]

Karyayoni (source)

कार्ययोनिस्तुसायाविक्रियमाणाकार्यत्वमापद्यते||७१||

kāryayōnistu sā yā vikriyamāṇā kāryatvamāpadyatē||71||

kAryayonistu sA yA vikriyamANA kAryatvamApadyate||71||

Karyayoni is that which (intimate cause) is converted into action (karya) after transformation. [71]

Karya (action)

कार्यंतुतद्यस्याभिनिर्वृत्तिमभिसन्धायकर्ताप्रवर्तते||७२||

kāryaṁ tu tadyasyābhinirvr̥ttimabhisandhāya kartā pravartatē||72||

kAryaM tu tadyasyAbhinirvRuttimabhisandhAya kartA pravartate||72||

Karya is that action which the doer performs with the objective of accomplishment. [72]

Karyaphala (expected outcome)

कार्यफलंपुनस्तद्यत्प्रयोजनाकार्याभिनिर्वृत्तिरिष्यते||७३||

kāryaphalaṁ punastad yatprayōjanā kāryābhinirvr̥ttiriṣyatē||73||

kAryaphalaM punastad yatprayojanA kAryAbhinirvRuttiriShyate||73||

Karyaphala is the aim (expected outcome) with which the action is performed. [73]

Anubandha(consequence)

अनुबन्धःखलुसयःकर्तारमवश्यमनुबध्नाति कार्यादुत्तरकालंकार्यनिमित्तःशुभोवाऽप्यशुभोभावः||७४||

anubandhaḥ khalu sa yaḥ kartāramavaśyamanubadhnāti kāryāduttarakālaṁ kāryanimittaḥ śubhō vā'pyaśubhō bhāvaḥ||74||

anubandhaH khalu sa yaH kartAramavashyamanubadhnAti kAryAduttarakAlaM kAryanimittaH shubhovA~apyashubho bhAvaH||74||

Anubandha is that which essentially enjoins the doer as after-effect of the action, good or bad. [74]

Desha(place)

देशस्त्वधिष्ठानम्||७५||

dēśastvadhiṣṭhānam||75||

deshastvadhiShThAnam||75||

Desha is location/ place.[75]

Kala (time required for transformation)

कालःपुनःपरिणामः||७६||

kālaḥ punaḥ pariṇāmaḥ||76||

kAlaH punaH pariNAmaH||76||

Kala is the one which undergoes transformation.[76]

Pravritti (consistent efforts)

प्रवृत्तिस्तुखलुचेष्टाकार्यार्था; सैवक्रिया, कर्म, यत्नः, कार्यसमारम्भश्च||७७||

pravr̥ttistu khalu cēṣṭā kāryārthā; saiva kriyā, karma, yatnaḥ, kāryasamārambhaśca||77||

pravRuttistu khalu ceShTA kAryArthA; saiva kriyA, karma, yatnaH, kAryasamArambhashca||77||

Pravritti is the effort taken for the accomplishment of objective. This is also known as kriya, karma (action), yatna(effort), karyasamarambha (commencement). [77]

Upaya (means of successful management)

उपायःपुनस्त्रयाणांकारणादीनांसौष्ठवमभिविधानंचसम्यक्कार्यकार्यफलानुबन्धवर्ज्यानां, कार्याणामभिनिर्वर्तकइत्यतस्तूपायः  ; कृतेनोपायार्थोऽस्ति, नचविद्यतेतदात्वे, कृताच्चोत्तरकालंफलं, फलाच्चानुबन्धइति||७८||

upāyaḥ punastrayāṇāṁ kāraṇādīnāṁ sauṣṭhavamabhividhānaṁ ca samyak kāryakāryaphalānubandhavarjyānāṁ, kāryāṇāmabhinirvartaka ityatastūpāyaḥ ; kr̥tē nōpāyārthō'sti, na ca vidyatē tadātvē, kr̥tāccōttarakālaṁ phalaṁ, phalāccānubandha iti||78||

upAyaH punastrayANAM kAraNAdInAM sauShThavamabhividhAnaM [1] ca samyakkAryakAryaphalAnubandhavarjyAnAM, kAryANAmabhinirvartaka ityatastUpAyaH [2] ; kRutenopAyArtho~asti, na ca vidyate tadAtve, kRutAccottarakAlaM phalaM, phalAccAnubandha iti||78||

Upaya is excellence of the first three factors, karana etc., and their proper management leaving aside the karya, karyaphala and anubandha. Procedure leads to performance of an action and thus it is said as upaya. After the action is performed there is no function of procedure nor is it at the time of performance, after action is the result and thereafter consequence.[78]

Importance of ten fold examinations

एतद्दशविधमग्रेपरीक्ष्यं, ततोऽनन्तरंकार्यार्थाप्रवृत्तिरिष्टा| तस्माद्भिषक्कार्यंचिकीर्षुःप्राक्कार्यसमारम्भात्परीक्षयाकेवलंपरीक्ष्यंपरीक्ष्यकर्मसमारभेतकर्तुम्||७९||

ētaddaśavidhamagrē parīkṣyaṁ, tatō'nantaraṁ kāryārthā pravr̥ttiriṣṭā| tasmādbhiṣak kāryaṁ cikīrṣuḥ prāk kāryasamārambhāt parīkṣayā kēvalaṁ parīkṣyaṁ parīkṣya karma samārabhēta kartum||79||

etaddashavidhamagre parIkShyaM, tato~anantaraM kAryArthA pravRuttiriShTA| tasmAdbhiShak kAryaM cikIrShuH prAk kAryasamArambhAt parIkShayA kevalaM parIkShyaM parIkShyakarma samArabheta kartum||79||

These ten entities should be examined first and thereafter one should proceed for action. Hence the physician desirous of taking up action should beforehand examine the entire situation by proper methods and then initiate the action(treatment). [79]

Questions for discussion

तत्रचेद्भिषगभिषग्वाभिषजंकश्चिदेवंखलुपृच्छेद्- वमनविरेचनास्थापनानुवासनशिरोविरेचनानिप्रयोक्तुकामेनभिषजाकतिविधयापरीक्षयाकतिविधमेवपरीक्ष्यं, कश्चात्रपरीक्ष्यविशेषः, कथंचपरीक्षितव्यः, किम्प्रयोजनाचपरीक्षा, क्वचवमनादीनांप्रवृत्तिः, क्वचनिवृत्तिः, प्रवृत्तिनिवृत्तिलक्षणसंयोगेचकिंनैष्ठिकं, कानिचवमनादीनांभेषजद्रव्याण्युपयोगंगच्छन्तीति||८०||

tatra cēdbhiṣagabhiṣagvā bhiṣajaṁ kaścidēvaṁ khalu pr̥cchēd- vamanavirēcanāsthāpanānuvāsanaśirōvirēcanāni prayōktukāmēna bhiṣajā katividhayā parīkṣayā katividhamēva parīkṣyaṁ, kaścātra parīkṣyaviśēṣaḥ, kathaṁ ca parīkṣitavyaḥ, kimprayōjanā ca parīkṣā, kva ca vamanādīnāṁ pravr̥ttiḥ, kva ca nivr̥ttiḥ, pravr̥ttinivr̥ttilakṣaṇasaṁyōgē ca kiṁ naiṣṭhikaṁ, kāni ca vamanādīnāṁ bhēṣajadravyāṇyupayōgaṁ gacchantīti||80||

tatra cedbhiShagabhiShagvA bhiShajaM kashcidevaM khalu pRucched-vamanavirecanAsthApanAnuvAsanashirovirecanAni prayoktukAmena bhiShajA katividhayA parIkShayAkatividhameva parIkShyaM, kashcAtra parIkShyavisheShaH, kathaM ca parIkShitavyaH, kimprayojanA caparIkShA, kva ca vamanAdInAM pravRuttiH, kva ca nivRuttiH, pravRuttinivRuttilakShaNasaMyoge ca kiMnaiShThikaM, kAni ca vamanAdInAM bheShajadravyANyupayogaM gacchantIti||80||

There, if some other physician or person asks this physician –“how many types of examination should be adopted by the physician desirous of applying therapeutic emesis, purgation, non-unctuous and unctuous enema and nasal errhines? How many types of entities are to be examined? What are the entities to be examined? How are they to be examined? What is the object of examination? In which condition are emesis etc. purificatory procedures to be applied or contra-indicated? What is to be done in combination of the situations for both application and contra- indication? What drugs are useful for emesis etc.?[80]

सएवंपृष्टोयदिमोहयितुमिच्छेत्, ब्रूयादेनं- बहुविधाहिपरीक्षातथापरीक्ष्यविधिभेदः, कतमेनविधिभेदप्रकृत्यन्तरेणभिन्नयापरीक्षयाकेनवाविधिभेदप्रकृत्यन्तरेणपरीक्ष्यस्यभिन्नस्यभेदाग्रंभवान्पृच्छत्याख्यायमानं  ;नेदानींभवतोऽन्येनविधिभेदप्रकृत्यन्तरेणभिन्नयापरीक्षयाऽन्येनवाविधिभेदप्रकृत्यन्तरेणपरीक्ष्यस्यभिन्नस्याभिलषितमर्थंश्रोतुमहमन्येनपरीक्षाविधिभेदेनान्येनवाविधिभेदप्रकृत्यन्तरेणपरीक्ष्यंभित्त्वाऽ
न्यथाऽऽचक्षाणइच्छांपूरयेयमिति||८१||

sa ēvaṁ pr̥ṣṭō yadi mōhayitumicchēt, brūyādēnaṁ- bahuvidhā hi parīkṣā tathā parīkṣyavidhibhēdaḥ, katamēna vidhibhēdaprakr̥tyantarēṇa bhinnayā parīkṣayā kēna vāvidhibhēdaprakr̥tyantarēṇa parīkṣyasya bhinnasya bhēdāgraṁ bhavān pr̥cchatyākhyāyamānaṁ ; nēdānīṁ bhavatō'nyēna vidhibhēdaprakr̥tyantarēṇa bhinnayā parīkṣayā'nyēna vā vidhibhēdaprakr̥tyantarēṇa parīkṣyasya bhinnasyābhilaṣitamarthaṁ śrōtumahamanyēna parīkṣāvidhibhēdēnānyēna vā vidhibhēdaprakr̥tyantarēṇa parīkṣyaṁ bhittvā'nyathācakṣāṇa icchāṁ pūrayēyamiti||81||

sa evaM pRuShTo yadi mohayitumicchet, brUyAdenaM- bahuvidhA hi parIkShA tathAparIkShyavidhibhedaH, katamena vidhibhedaprakRutyantareNa bhinnayA parIkShayA kena vAvidhibhedaprakRutyantareNa parIkShyasya bhinnasya bhedAgraM bhavAn pRucchatyAkhyAyamAnaM [1] ;nedAnIM bhavato~anyena vidhibhedaprakRutyantareNa bhinnayA parIkShayA~anyena vAvidhibhedaprakRutyantareNa parIkShyasya bhinnasyAbhilaShitamarthaM shrotumahamanyenaparIkShAvidhibhedenAnyena vA vidhibhedaprakRutyantareNa parIkShyaMbhittvA~anyathA~a~acakShANa [2] icchAM pUrayeyamiti||81||

If he wants to confuse the questioner he should say – there are many types of examination and groups of the types of entities to be examined. Kindly tell me from what point of view grouped examination or entities to be examined you mean, because I can not satisfy you if I explain them taking as grouped from another point of view when, in case, you want to be examined them as grouped from another point of view.[81]

सयदुत्तरंब्रूयात्तत्समीक्ष्योत्तरंवाच्यंस्याद्यथोक्तंचप्रतिवचनविधिमवेक्ष्य; सम्यक्यदितुब्रूयान्नचैनंमोहयितुमिच्छेत्, प्राप्तंतुवचनकालंमन्येत, काममस्मैब्रूयादाप्तमेवनिखिलेन||८२||

sa yaduttaraṁ brūyāttat samīkṣyōttaraṁ vācyaṁ syādyathōktaṁ ca prativacanavidhimavēkṣya; samyak yadi tu brūyānna cainaṁ mōhayitumicchēt, prāptaṁ tu vacanakālaṁ manyēta, kāmamasmai brūyādāptamēva nikhilēna||82||

sa yaduttaraM brUyAttat samIkShyottaraM vAcyaM syAdyathoktaM ca prativacanavidhimavekShya;samyak [1] yadi tu brUyAnna cainaM mohayitumicchet, prAptaM tu vacanakAlaM manyeta, kAmamasmaibrUyAdAptameva nikhilena||82||

After considering the reply given by opponent, one should analyze and further say according to the method of contradiction. In case, he speaks properly one should not try to confuse him, rather he should explain in detail as explained by the apta (authority). [82]

Types of examinations

द्विविधातुखलुपरीक्षाज्ञानवतां- प्रत्यक्षम्, अनुमानंच| एतद्धिद्वयमुपदेशश्चपरीक्षास्यात्| एवमेषाद्विविधापरीक्षा, त्रिविधावासहोपदेशेन||८३||

dvividhā tu khalu parīkṣā jñānavatāṁ- pratyakṣam, anumānaṁ ca| ētaddhi dvayamupadēśaśca parīkṣā syāt| ēvamēṣā dvividhā parīkṣā, trividhā vā sahōpadēśēna||83||

dvividhA tu khalu parIkShA j~jAnavatAM- pratyakSham, anumAnaM ca| etaddhi dvayamupadeshashca parIkShA syAt| evameShA dvividhA parIkShA, trividhA vA sahopadeshena||83||

There are two types of examination for learned persons – direct perception (pratyaksha) and inference (anumana). These two along with the authoritative instruction constitute the examination. This examination is of two types or of three types including authoritative instruction (upadesha).[83]

Ten factors for examination in therapeutics

दशविधंतुपरीक्ष्यंकारणादियदुक्तमग्रे, तदिहभिषगादिषुसंसार्यसन्दर्शयिष्यामः- इहकार्यप्राप्तौकारणंभिषक्, करणंपुनर्भेषजं, कार्ययोनिर्धातुवैषम्यं, कार्यंधातुसाम्यं, कार्यफलंसुखावाप्तिः, अनुबन्धःखल्वायुः, देशोभूमिरातुरश्च, कालःपुनःसंवत्सरश्चातुरावस्थाच, प्रवृत्तिःप्रतिकर्मसमारम्भः, उपायस्तुभिषगादीनांसौष्ठवमभिविधानंचसम्यक्| इहाप्यस्योपायस्यविषयःपूर्वेणैवोपायविशेषेणव्याख्यातः| इतिकारणादीनिदशदशसुभिषगादिषुसंसार्यसन्दर्शितानि, तथैवानुपूर्व्यैतद्दशविधंपरीक्ष्यमुक्तंच||८४||

daśavidhaṁ tu parīkṣyaṁ kāraṇādi yaduktamagrē, tadiha bhiṣagādiṣu saṁsārya sandarśayiṣyāmaḥ- iha kāryaprāptau kāraṇaṁ bhiṣak, karaṇaṁ punarbhēṣajaṁ, kāryayōnirdhātuvaiṣamyaṁ, kāryaṁ dhātusāmyaṁ, kāryaphalaṁ sukhāvāptiḥ, anubandhaḥ khalvāyuḥ, dēśō bhūmirāturaśca, kālaḥ punaḥ saṁvatsaraścāturāvasthā ca, pravr̥ttiḥ pratikarmasamārambhaḥ, upāyastu bhiṣagādīnāṁ sauṣṭhavamabhividhānaṁ ca samyak| ihāpyasyōpāyasya viṣayaḥ pūrvēṇaivōpāyaviśēṣēṇa vyākhyātaḥ| iti kāraṇādīni daśa daśasu bhiṣagādiṣu saṁsārya sandarśitāni, tathaivānupūrvyaitaddaśavidhaṁ parīkṣyamuktaṁ ca||84||

dashavidhaM tu parIkShyaM kAraNAdi yaduktamagre, tadiha bhiShagAdiShu saMsAryasandarshayiShyAmaH- iha kAryaprAptau kAraNaM bhiShak, karaNaM punarbheShajaM,kAryayonirdhAtuvaiShamyaM, kAryaM dhAtusAmyaM, kAryaphalaM sukhAvAptiH, anubandhaH khalvAyuH,desho bhUmirAturashca, kAlaH punaH saMvatsarashcAturAvasthA ca, pravRuttiHpratikarmasamArambhaH, upAyastu bhiShagAdInAM sauShThavamabhividhAnaM [1] ca samyak| ihApyasyopAyasya viShayaH pUrveNaivopAyavisheSheNa vyAkhyAtaH| iti kAraNAdIni dasha dashasu bhiShagAdiShu saMsArya sandarshitAni, tathaivAnupUrvyaitaddashavidhaMparIkShyamuktaM ca||84||

Previously explained karana etc. ten entities are elaborately discussed in relation to specific features of therapeutics diseases ten entities are to be examined such as physician acts like a doer (karana),drugs act like instrument (karan), imbalance of dhatu (karyayoni), balance of dhatu (karya), attainment of health and happiness (karyaphala), life-span (anubandha), land as well as patient (desha), year and phase of disease (kala), initiation of therapy (pravritti) and excellence of physician etc. and proper management (upaya).[84]

तस्ययोयोविशेषोयथायथाचपरीक्षितव्यः, सतथातथाव्याख्यास्यते||८५||

tasya yō yō viśēṣō yathā yathā ca parīkṣitavyaḥ, sa tathā tathā vyākhyāsyatē||85||

tasya yo yo visheSho [1] yathA yathA ca parIkShitavyaH, sa tathA tathA vyAkhyAsyate||85||

So, these entities should be specifically examined with great emphasis.[85]

Assessment of physician and qualities of good physician

कारणंभिषगित्युक्तमग्रे, तस्यपरीक्षा- भिषङ्नामयोभिषज्यति, यःसूत्रार्थप्रयोगकुशलः, यस्यचायुःसर्वथाविदितंयथावत्| सचसर्वधातुसाम्यंचिकीर्षन्नात्मानमेवादितःपरीक्षेतगुणिषुगुणतःकार्याभिनिर्वृत्तिंपश्यन्, कच्चिदहमस्यकार्यस्याभिनिर्वर्तनेसमर्थोनवेति; तत्रेमेभिषग्गुणायैरुपपन्नोभिषग्धातुसाम्याभिनिर्वर्तनेसमर्थोभवति; तद्यथा- पर्यवदातश्रुतता, परिदृष्टकर्मता, दाक्ष्यं, शौचं, जितहस्तता, उपकरणवत्ता, सर्वेन्द्रियोपपन्नता, प्रकृतिज्ञता, प्रतिपत्तिज्ञाताचेति||८६||

kāraṇaṁ bhiṣagityuktamagrē, tasya parīkṣā- bhiṣaṅnāma yō bhiṣajyati, yaḥ sūtrārthaprayōgakuśalaḥ, yasya cāyuḥ sarvathā viditaṁ yathāvat| sa ca sarvadhātusāmyaṁ cikīrṣannātmānamēvāditaḥ parīkṣēta guṇiṣu guṇataḥ kāryābhinirvr̥ttiṁ paśyan, kaccidahamasya kāryasyābhinirvartanē samarthō na vēti; tatrēmē bhiṣagguṇā yairupapannō bhiṣagdhātusāmyābhinirvartanē samarthō bhavati; tadyathā- paryavadātaśrutatā, paridr̥ṣṭakarmatā, dākṣyaṁ, śaucaṁ, jitahastatā, upakaraṇavattā, sarvēndriyōpapannatā, prakr̥tijñatā, pratipattijñātā cēti||86||

kAraNaM bhiShagityuktamagre, tasya parIkShA- bhiSha~gnAma yo bhiShajyati, yaHsUtrArthaprayogakushalaH, yasya cAyuH sarvathA viditaM yathAvat| sa ca sarvadhAtusAmyaM cikIrShannAtmAnamevAditaH parIkSheta guNiShu guNataH kAryAbhinirvRuttiMpashyan, kaccidahamasya kAryasyAbhinirvartane samartho na veti; tatreme bhiShagguNA yairupapannobhiShagdhAtusAmyAbhinirvartane samartho bhavati; tadyathA- paryavadAtashrutatA,paridRuShTakarmatA, dAkShyaM, shaucaM, jitahastatA, upakaraNavattA, sarvendriyopapannatA,prakRutij~jatA, pratipattij~jAtA ceti||86||

Earlier, physician has been mentioned as doer (karana). Bhishak is the one who should be able to win over the diseases and expert in applying the ideas of the aphorisms and knows the pros and cons of life (science) properly from all aspects. He should know how to bring about balance between dhatus (dhatu samya), must be learned, trained in scriptures and qualified enough for the same and has received practical training and expertise in duties. He should be introspective, desirous of maintaining balance of all dhatus, considering the consequence of treatment in appropriate patients, with proper qualities of management, with due considerations of one’s own capabilities and limitations.

The physician endowed with the following qualities is capable of bringing forth the equilibrium of dhatus: clear scientific knowledge , practical knowledge, alert, purity, skill, and possession of all required equipment, with proper sense perceptions (all sense and motor organs), acquaintance with human constitution and the knowledge of the course of action. [86]

Assessment of medicine and categories

करणंपुनर्भेषजम्| भेषजंनामतद्यदुपकरणायोपकल्पतेभिषजोधातुसाम्याभिनिर्वृत्तौप्रयतमानस्यविशेषतश्चोपायान्तेभ्यः| तद्द्विविधंव्यपाश्रयभेदात्- दैवव्यपाश्रयं, युक्तिव्यपाश्रयंचेति|तत्रदैवव्यपाश्रयंमन्त्रौषधिमणिमङ्गलबल्युपहारहोमनियमप्रायश्चित्तोपवासस्वस्त्ययनप्रणिपातगमनादि, युक्तिव्यपाश्रयं- संशोधनोपशमनेचेष्टाश्चदृष्टफलाः| एतच्चैवभेषजमङ्गभेदादपिद्विविधं- द्रव्यभूतमः, अद्रव्यभूतंच| तत्रयदद्रव्यभूतंतदुपायाभिप्लुतम्| उपायोनामभयदर्शनविस्मापनविस्मारणक्षोभणहर्षणभर्त्सनवधबन्धस्वप्नसंवाहनादिरमूर्तोभावविशेषोयथोक्ताःसिद्ध्युपायाश्चोपायाभिप्लुताइति| यत्तुद्रव्यभूतंतद्वमनादिषुयोगमुपैति| तस्यापीयंपरीक्षा- इदमेवम्प्रकृत्यैवङ्गुणमेवम्प्रभावमस्मिन्देशेजातमस्मिन्नृतावेवंगृहीतमेवंनिहितमेवमुपस्कृतमनयाचमात्रयायुक्तमस्मिन्व्याधावेवंविधस्यपुरुषस्यैवतावन्तंदोषमपकर्षत्युपशमयतिवा, यदन्यदपिचैवंविधंभेषजंभवेत्तच्चानेनविशेषेणयुक्तमिति||८७||

karaṇaṁ punarbhēṣajam|bhēṣajaṁ nāma tadyadupakaraṇāyōpakalpatē bhiṣajō dhātusāmyābhinirvr̥ttau prayatamānasya viśēṣataścōpāyāntēbhyaḥ| taddvividhaṁ vyapāśrayabhēdāt- daivavyapāśrayaṁ, yuktivyapāśrayaṁ cēti| tatra daivavyapāśrayaṁ- mantrauṣadhimaṇimaṅgalabalyupahārahōmaniyamaprāyaścittōpavāsasvastyayanapraṇipātagamanādi, yuktivyapāśrayaṁ- saṁśōdhanōpaśamanē cēṣṭāśca dr̥ṣṭaphalāḥ| ētaccaiva bhēṣajamaṅgabhēdādapi dvividhaṁ- dravyabhūtamḥ, adravyabhūtaṁ ca| tatra yadadravyabhūtaṁ tadupāyābhiplutam| upāyō nāma bhayadarśanavismāpanavismāraṇakṣōbhaṇaharṣaṇabhartsanavadhabandhasvapnasaṁvāhanādiramūrtō bhāvaviśēṣō yathōktāḥ siddhyupāyāścōpāyābhiplutā iti| yattu dravyabhūtaṁ tadvamanādiṣu yōgamupaiti| tasyāpīyaṁ parīkṣā- idamēvamprakr̥tyaivaṅguṇamēvamprabhāvamasmin dēśē jātamasminnr̥tāvēvaṁ gr̥hītamēvaṁ nihitamēvamupaskr̥tamanayā ca mātrayā yuktamasmin vyādhāvēvaṁvidhasya puruṣasyaivatāvantaṁ dōṣamapakarṣatyupaśamayati vā, yadanyadapi caivaṁvidhaṁ bhēṣajaṁ bhavēttaccānēna viśēṣēṇa yuktamiti||87||

karaNaM punarbheShajam| bheShajaM nAma tadyadupakaraNAyopakalpate bhiShajo dhAtusAmyAbhinirvRuttau prayatamAnasyavisheShatashcopAyAntebhyaH| taddvividhaM vyapAshrayabhedAt- daivavyapAshrayaM, yuktivyapAshrayaM ceti| tatra daivavyapAshrayaM-mantrauShadhimaNima~ggalabalyupahArahomaniyamaprAyashcittopavAsasvastyayanapraNipAtagamanAdi,yuktivyapAshrayaM- saMshodhanopashamane ceShTAshca dRuShTaphalAH| etaccaiva bheShajama~ggabhedAdapi dvividhaM- dravyabhUtamH, adravyabhUtaM ca| tatra yadadravyabhUtaM tadupAyAbhiplutam| upAyo nAmabhayadarshanavismApanavismAraNakShobhaNaharShaNabhartsanavadhabandhasvapnasaMvAhanAdiramUrtobhAvavisheSho yathoktAH siddhyupAyAshcopAyAbhiplutA [1] iti| yattu dravyabhUtaM tadvamanAdiShu yogamupaiti| tasyApIyaM parIkShA- idamevamprakRutyaiva~gguNamevamprabhAvamasmin deshejAtamasminnRutAvevaM gRuhItamevaM nihitamevamupaskRutamanayA ca mAtrayA yuktamasminvyAdhAvevaMvidhasya puruShasyaivatAvantaM doShamapakarShatyupashamayati vA, yadanyadapicaivaMvidhaM bheShajaM bhavettaccAnena [2] visheSheNa yuktamiti||87||

The medicament has been mentioned here as instrument (karana) which serves as equipment for the physician making effort for effective balance of dhatus particularly different from the entities ending with procedure (original source, inclination, place, time and procedure). In view of agents applied medicament or therapy is advocated as of two types – spiritual (daivavyapashraya) and rational (yuktivyapashayam).

In spiritual therapy, incantation, roots, gems, auspicious rites, expiation, fasting, blessings, bowing, visit to temples(sacred places) etc. are employed.

In rational therapy, evacuative and pacifying measures as well as fruitful activities are employed. According to form of medicament, it is again of two types – material and non-material. The non-material therapy includes drug less therapies (upayas). Upaya means formless entity like terrorizing, creating surprise, forgetfulness, agitation, exhilaration, hiding, threatening for murder, binding, inducing sleep, gentle massage etc. It also includes the aforesaid means of treatment. The material therapy consists of drugs which are used for emesis etc.

The drugs are examined in respect of nature (natural composition), properties, action, habit, time and mode of collection, storage, processing dosage, indication for use, the constitution of patient and the effect on disorder whether eliminates it or pacifies it, any other drug of this type should have the same characters.[87]

Assessment of disequilibrium of dhatu

कार्ययोनिर्धातुवैषम्यं, तस्यलक्षणंविकारागमः| परीक्षात्वस्यविकारप्रकृतेश्चैवोनातिरिक्तलिङ्गविशेषावेक्षणंविकारस्यचसाध्यासाध्यमृदुदारुणलिङ्गविशेषावेक्षणमिति||८८||

kāryayōnirdhātuvaiṣamyaṁ, tasya lakṣaṇaṁ vikārāgamaḥ| parīkṣā tvasya vikāraprakr̥tēścaivōnātiriktaliṅgaviśēṣāvēkṣaṇaṁ vikārasya ca sādhyāsādhyamr̥dudāruṇaliṅgaviśēṣāvēkṣaṇamiti||88||

kAryayonirdhAtuvaiShamyaM, tasya lakShaNaM vikArAgamaH| parIkShA tvasya vikAraprakRuteshcaivonAtiriktali~ggavisheShAvekShaNaM vikArasya casAdhyAsAdhyamRududAruNali~ggavisheShAvekShaNamiti||88||

The original source is disequilibrium of dhatus known by the emergence of signs of the disorder. Examination regarding this and the material cause of the disorder consists of the observation of the characters of their diminution or aggravation and also of those denoting curability, incurability, mildness and severity of the disorder.[88]

Assessment of equilibrium of dhatu

कार्यंधातुसाम्यं, तस्यलक्षणंविकारोपशमः| परीक्षात्वस्य- रुगुपशमनं, स्वरवर्णयोगः, शरीरोपचयः, बलवृद्धिः, अभ्यवहार्याभिलाषः, रुचिराहारकाले, अभ्यवहृतस्यचाहारस्यकालेसम्यग्जरणं, निद्रालाभोयथाकालं, वैकारिणांचस्वप्नानामदर्शनं, सुखेनचप्रतिबोधनं, वातमूत्रपुरीषरेतसांमुक्तिः, सर्वाकारैर्मनोबुद्धीन्द्रियाणांचाव्यापत्तिरिति||८९||

kāryaṁ dhātusāmyaṁ, tasya lakṣaṇaṁ vikārōpaśamaḥ| parīkṣā tvasya- rugupaśamanaṁ, svaravarṇayōgaḥ, śarīrōpacayaḥ, balavr̥ddhiḥ, abhyavahāryābhilāṣaḥ, rucirāhārakālē, abhyavahr̥tasya cāhārasya kālē samyagjaraṇaṁ, nidrālābhō yathākālaṁ, vaikāriṇāṁ ca svapnānāmadarśanaṁ, sukhēna ca pratibōdhanaṁ, vātamūtrapurīṣarētasāṁ muktiḥ, sarvākārairmanōbuddhīndriyāṇāṁ cāvyāpattiriti||89||

kAryaM dhAtusAmyaM, tasya lakShaNaM vikAropashamaH| parIkShA tvasya- rugupashamanaM, svaravarNayogaH, sharIropacayaH, balavRuddhiH,abhyavahAryAbhilAShaH, rucirAhArakAle, abhyavahRutasya cAhArasya kAle samyagjaraNaM, nidrAlAbhoyathAkAlaM, vaikAriNAM ca svapnAnAmadarshanaM, sukhena ca pratibodhanaM,vAtamUtrapurISharetasAM muktiH, sarvAkArairmanobuddhIndriyANAM cAvyApattiriti||89||

Action (karya) is to bring about equilibrium of dhatus and its feature is absence of disease. Its examination is based on following criteria: alleviation of the disorder, normalcy of voice and complexion, nourishment of body, increase in strength, desire for food, relish at meal time, proper and timely digestion of the ingested food, timely sleep, non-appearance of abnormal dreams, easy awakening, easy elimination of urine, feces and semen, overall normalcy of mind, intellect and sense organs and associated with no other unhealthy features.[89]

Outcome of therapeutic management

कार्यफलंसुखावाप्तिः, तस्यलक्षणं- मनोबुद्धीन्द्रियशरीरतुष्टिः||९०||

kāryaphalaṁ sukhāvāptiḥ, tasya lakṣaṇaṁ- manōbuddhīndriyaśarīratuṣṭiḥ||90||

kAryaphalaM sukhAvAptiH, tasya lakShaNaM- manobuddhIndriyasharIratuShTiH||90||

The result of the act (karyaphala) is attainment of happiness. It is featured as satisfaction of mind, intellect, sense organs and the body pleasure.[90]

Consequence of therapeutic management

अनुबन्धस्तुखल्वायुः, तस्यलक्षणं- प्राणैःसहसंयोगः||९१||

anubandhastu khalvāyuḥ, tasya lakṣaṇaṁ- prāṇaiḥ saha saṁyōgaḥ||91||

anubandhastu khalvAyuH, tasya lakShaNaM- prANaiH saha saMyogaH||91||

After effect (anubandha) is life and it is characterized by union with prana(vitality).[91]

Field of action and its assessment

देशस्तुभूमिरातुरश्च||९२||

तत्रभूमिपरीक्षाआतुरपरिज्ञानहेतोर्वास्यादौषधपरिज्ञानहेतोर्वा| तत्रतावदियमातुरपरिज्ञानहेतोः| तद्यथा- अयंकस्मिन्भूमिदेशेजातःसंवृद्धोव्याधितोवा; तस्मिंश्चभूमिदेशेमनुष्याणामिदमाहारजातम्, इदंविहारजातम्, इदमाचारजातम्, एतावच्चबलम्, एवंविधंसत्त्वम्, एवंविधंसात्म्यम्, एवंविधोदोषः, भक्तिरियम्, इमेव्याधयः, हितमिदम्, अहितमिदमितिप्रायोग्रहणेन| औषधपरिज्ञानहेतोस्तुकल्पेषुभूमिपरीक्षावक्ष्यते||९३||

dēśastu bhūmirāturaśca||92||

tatra bhūmiparīkṣā āturaparijñānahētōrvā syādauṣadhaparijñānahētōrvā| tatra tāvadiyamāturaparijñānahētōḥ| tadyathā- ayaṁ kasmin bhūmidēśē jātaḥ saṁvr̥ddhō vyādhitō vā; tasmiṁśca bhūmidēśē manuṣyāṇāmidamāhārajātam, idaṁ vihārajātam, idamācārajātam, ētāvacca balam, ēvaṁvidhaṁ sattvam, ēvaṁvidhaṁ sātmyam, ēvaṁvidhō dōṣaḥ, bhaktiriyam, imē vyādhayaḥ, hitamidam, ahitamidamiti prāyōgrahaṇēna | auṣadhaparijñānahētōstu kalpēṣu bhūmiparīkṣā vakṣyatē||93||

deshastu bhUmirAturashca||92||

tatra bhUmiparIkShA Aturaparij~jAnahetorvA syAdauShadhaparij~jAnahetorvA| tatra tAvadiyamAturaparij~jAnahetoH| tadyathA- ayaM kasmin bhUmideshe jAtaH saMvRuddho vyAdhito vA; tasmiMshca bhUmideshemanuShyANAmidamAhArajAtam, idaM vihArajAtam, idamAcArajAtam, etAvacca balam, evaMvidhaMsattvam, evaMvidhaM sAtmyam, evaMvidho doShaH, bhaktiriyam, ime vyAdhayaH, hitamidam,ahitamidamiti prAyograhaNena [1] | auShadhaparij~jAnahetostu kalpeShu bhUmiparIkShA vakShyate||93||

The place of living and patients’ body constitutes the field of action (karya desha).

Assessment of place of living is done with a view considering the patient and medicine. Regarding patient the things to be considered are – in which area patient is born, grown or diseased; in that particular area, the people mostly have such diet, such lifestyle, such behavior and conduct, such strength, such mind setup, this particular things are naturally accustomed, these are the wrong habits/ or the domination of dosha, liking, area associated disorders, these are the wholesome entities and unwholesome entities for the people. The knowledge regarding place of living examination about drugs will be described in Kalpa Sthana section. [92-93]

Examination of patient

आतुरस्तुखलुकार्यदेशः| तस्यपरीक्षाआयुषःप्रमाणज्ञानहेतोर्वास्याद्, बलदोषप्रमाणज्ञानहेतोर्वा| तत्रतावदियंबलदोषप्रमाणज्ञानहेतोः; दोषप्रमाणानुरूपोहिभेषजप्रमाणविकल्पोबलप्रमाणविशेषापेक्षोभवति| सहसाह्यतिबलमौषधमपरीक्षकप्रयुक्तमल्पबलमातुरमतिपातयेत्; नह्यतिबलान्याग्नेयवायवीयान्यौषधान्यग्निक्षारशस्त्रकर्माणिवाशक्यन्तेऽल्पबलैःसोढुम्; असह्यातितीक्ष्णवेगत्वाद्धितानिसद्यःप्राणहराणिस्युः| एतच्चैवकारणमपेक्षमाणाहीनबलमातुरमविषादकरैर्मृदुसुकुमारप्रायैरुत्तरोत्तरगुरुभिरविभ्रमैरनात्ययिकैश्चोपचरन्त्यौषधैः; विशेषतश्चनारीः, ताह्यनवस्थितमृदुविवृतविक्लवहृदयाःप्रायःसुकुमार्योऽबलाःपरसंस्तभ्याश्च| तथाबलवतिबलवद्व्याधिपरिगतेस्वल्पबलमौषधमपरीक्षकप्रयुक्तमसाधकमेवभवति| तस्मादातुरंपरीक्षेतप्रकृतितश्च, विकृतितश्च, सारतश्च, संहननतश्च, प्रमाणतश्च, सात्म्यतश्च, सत्त्वतश्च, आहारशक्तितश्च, व्यायामशक्तितश्च, वयस्तश्चेति, बलप्रमाणविशेषग्रहणहेतोः||९४||

āturastu khalu kāryadēśaḥ| tasya parīkṣā āyuṣaḥ pramāṇajñānahētōrvā syād, baladōṣapramāṇajñānahētōrvā| tatra tāvadiyaṁ baladōṣapramāṇajñānahētōḥ; dōṣapramāṇānurūpō hi bhēṣajapramāṇavikalpō balapramāṇaviśēṣāpēkṣō bhavati| sahasā hyatibalamauṣadhamaparīkṣakaprayuktamalpabalamāturamatipātayēt; na hyatibalānyāgnēyavāyavīyānyauṣadhānyagnikṣāraśastrakarmāṇi vā śakyantē'lpabalaiḥ sōḍhum; asahyātitīkṣṇavēgatvāddhitāni sadyaḥprāṇaharāṇi syuḥ| ētaccaiva kāraṇamapēkṣamāṇā hīnabalamāturamaviṣādakarairmr̥dusukumāraprāyairuttarōttaragurubhiravibhramairanātyayikaiścōpacarantyauṣadhaiḥ; viśēṣataśca nārīḥ, tā hyanavasthitamr̥duvivr̥taviklavahr̥dayāḥ prāyaḥ sukumāryō'balāḥ parasaṁstabhyāśca| tathā balavati balavadvyādhiparigatē svalpabalamauṣadhamaparīkṣakaprayuktamasādhakamēva bhavati| tasmādāturaṁ parīkṣēta prakr̥titaśca, vikr̥titaśca, sārataśca, saṁhananataśca, pramāṇataśca, sātmyataśca, sattvataśca, āhāraśaktitaśca, vyāyāmaśaktitaśca, vayastaścēti, balapramāṇaviśēṣagrahaṇahētōḥ||94||

Aturastu khalu kAryadeshaH| tasya parIkShA AyuShaH pramANaj~jAnahetorvA syAd, baladoShapramANaj~jAnahetorvA| tatra tAvadiyaM baladoShapramANaj~jAnahetoH; doShapramANAnurUpo hi bheShajapramANavikalpo [1]balapramANavisheShApekSho bhavati| sahasA hyatibalamauShadhamaparIkShakaprayuktamalpabalamAturamatipAtayet; nahyatibalAnyAgneyavAyavIyAnyauShadhAnyagnikShArashastrakarmANi vA shakyante~alpabalaiH soDhum;asahyAtitIkShNavegatvAddhitAni sadyaHprANaharANi syuH| etaccaiva kAraNamapekShamANAhInabalamAturamaviShAdakarairmRudusukumAraprAyairuttarottaragurubhiravibhramairanAtyayikaishcopacarantyauShadhaiH;visheShatashca nArIH, tA hyanavasthitamRuduvivRutaviklavahRudayAH prAyaH sukumAryo~abalAH parasaMstabhyAshca| tathA balavati balavadvyAdhiparigate svalpabalamauShadhamaparIkShakaprayuktamasAdhakameva bhavati| tasmAdAturaM parIkSheta prakRutitashca, vikRutitashca, sAratashca, saMhananatashca, pramANatashca, sAtmyatashca,sattvatashca, AhArashaktitashca, vyAyAmashaktitashca, vayastashceti, balapramANavisheShagrahaNahetoH||94||

Patient is the substratum of the act (karyadesha). Examination of the patient is conducted for the knowledge of life span or the degree of strength and morbidity. The variations in dosage and potency of prescribed drugs is according to the degree of morbidity and the degree of strength of patient, because if potent drug is administered suddenly by a physician having not been examined properly, it may kill the weak patient; the weak patients are not able to bear intensely potent drugs which are predominant in agni and vayu or cauterization, application of alkali and surgical operation. They may cause instantaneous death due to unbearable and over intense impulse of the drug. Keeping this fact in mind, the physician should treat the weak patient with drug which is not harmful, mild, delicate, and progressively strong in order, without complication and not creating any emergent condition, particularly ladies, because they have unstable, soft, bare and timid heart, they are mostly delicate, weak and dependent on others. On the other hand, the drugs having low potency and applied by one who has not been examined properly in strong patients having severe disorder becomes ineffective. Hence the patient should be examined in respect of constitution (prakriti), morbidty (vikriti), constitution of dhatu (sara), compactness (samhanana), measurement (pramana), suitability (satmya), psyche (sattva), power of intake and digestion of food (aharashakti), power of exercise (vyayamashakti) and age (vaya) for the knowledge of the degree of strength.[94]

Prakriti pariksha (Assessment of basic constitution of patient)

तत्रप्रकृत्यादीन्भावाननुव्याख्यास्यामः| तद्यथा- शुक्रशोणितप्रकृतिं, कालगर्भाशयप्रकृतिं, आतुराहारविहारप्रकृतिं, महाभूतविकारप्रकृतिंचगर्भशरीरमपेक्षते| एतानियेनयेनदोषेणाधिकेनैकेनानेकेनवासमनुबध्यन्ते, तेनतेनदोषेणगर्भोऽनुबध्यते; ततःसासादोषप्रकृतिरुच्यतेमनुष्याणांगर्भादिप्रवृत्ता| तस्माच्छ्लेष्मलाःप्रकृत्याकेचित्, पित्तलाःकेचित्, वातलाःकेचित्, संसृष्टाःकेचित्, समधातवःकेचिद्भवन्ति| तेषांहिलक्षणानिव्याख्यास्यामः||९५||

tatra prakr̥tyādīn bhāvānanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ | tadyathā- śukraśōṇitaprakr̥tiṁ, kālagarbhāśayaprakr̥tiṁ, āturāhāravihāraprakr̥tiṁ, mahābhūtavikāraprakr̥tiṁ ca garbhaśarīramapēkṣatē| ētāni hi yēna yēna dōṣēṇādhikēnaikēnānēkēna vā samanubadhyantē, tēna tēna dōṣēṇa garbhō'nubadhyatē; tataḥ sā sā dōṣaprakr̥tirucyatē manuṣyāṇāṁ garbhādipravr̥ttā| tasmācchlēṣmalāḥ prakr̥tyā kēcit, pittalāḥ kēcit, vātalāḥ kēcit, saṁsr̥ṣṭāḥ kēcit, samadhātavaḥ kēcidbhavanti| tēṣāṁ hi lakṣaṇāni vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||95||

tatra prakRutyAdIn bhAvAnanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH [1] | tadyathA- shukrashoNitaprakRutiM, kAlagarbhAshayaprakRutiM, AturAhAravihAraprakRutiM,mahAbhUtavikAraprakRutiM ca garbhasharIramapekShate| etAni [2] hi yena yena doSheNAdhikenaikenAnekena [3] vA samanubadhyante, tena tena doSheNagarbho~anubadhyate; tataH sA sA doShaprakRutirucyate manuShyANAM garbhAdipravRuttA| tasmAcchleShmalAH prakRutyA kecit, pittalAH kecit, vAtalAH kecit, saMsRuShTAH kecit, samadhAtavaHkecidbhavanti| teShAM hi lakShaNAni vyAkhyAsyAmaH||95||

Explanation regarding factors prakriti etc. are explained henceforth– the constitution (prakriti) associated with fetus (garbha) is determined by constitution of sperm and ovum, the time (of conception) and status of health of uterus, diet and lifestyle of mother (during pregnancy) and interaction of mahabhutas. Body humors (dosha), one or more than one which predominates in these factors gets attached to the fetus which is called physical or doshika constitution (dosha prakriti) of human beings which is emerged from the initial stage of fetus. Hence some persons are constitutionally having predominance of kapha(shleshma) some pittala, some vatala some having, combined dosha and some with balanced dhatus. Their characters are described here. [95]

Characteristics of kapha prakriti

श्लेष्माहिस्निग्धश्लक्ष्णमृदुमधुरसारसान्द्रमन्दस्तिमितगुरुशीतविज्जलाच्छः| तस्यस्नेहाच्छ्लेष्मलाःस्निग्धाङ्गाः, श्लक्ष्णत्वाच्छ्लक्ष्णाङ्गाः, मृदुत्वाद्दृष्टिसुखसुकुमारावदातगात्राः, माधुर्यात्प्रभूतशुक्रव्यवायापत्याः, सारत्वात्सारसंहतस्थिरशरीराः, सान्द्रत्वादुपचितपरिपूर्णसर्वाङ्गाः, मन्दत्वान्मन्दचेष्टाहारव्याहाराः, स्तैमित्यादशीघ्रारम्भक्षोभविकाराः, गुरुत्वात्साराधिष्ठितावस्थितगतयः, शैत्यादल्पक्षुत्तृष्णासन्तापस्वेददोषाः, विज्जलत्वात्सुश्लिष्टसारसन्धिबन्धनाः, तथाऽच्छत्वात्प्रसन्नदर्शनाननाःप्रसन्नस्निग्धवर्णस्वराश्चभवन्ति| तएवङ्गुणयोगाच्छ्लेष्मलाबलवन्तोवसुमन्तोविद्यावन्तओजस्विनःशान्ताआयुष्मन्तश्चभवन्ति||९६||

ślēṣmā hi snigdhaślakṣṇamr̥dumadhurasārasāndramandastimitaguruśītavijjalācchaḥ| tasya snēhācchlēṣmalāḥ snigdhāṅgāḥ, ślakṣṇatvācchlakṣṇāṅgāḥ, mr̥dutvāddr̥ṣṭisukhasukumārāvadātagātrāḥ, mādhuryāt prabhūtaśukravyavāyāpatyāḥ, sāratvāt sārasaṁhatasthiraśarīrāḥ, sāndratvādupacitaparipūrṇasarvāṅgāḥ, mandatvānmandacēṣṭāhāravyāhārāḥ, staimityādaśīghrārambhakṣōbhavikārāḥ, gurutvāt sārādhiṣṭhitāvasthitagatayaḥ, śaityādalpakṣuttr̥ṣṇāsantāpasvēdadōṣāḥ, vijjalatvāt suśliṣṭasārasandhibandhanāḥ, tathā'cchatvāt prasannadarśanānanāḥ prasannasnigdhavarṇasvarāśca bhavanti| ta ēvaṅguṇayōgācchlēṣmalā balavantō vasumantō vidyāvanta ōjasvinaḥ śāntā āyuṣmantaśca bhavanti||96||

shleShmA hi snigdhashlakShNamRudumadhurasArasAndramandastimitagurushItavijjalAcchaH| tasya snehAcchleShmalAH snigdhA~ggAH, shlakShNatvAcchlakShNA~ggAH,mRudutvAddRuShTisukhasukumArAvadAtagAtrAH, mAdhuryAt prabhUtashukravyavAyApatyAH, sAratvAtsArasaMhatasthirasharIrAH, sAndratvAdupacitaparipUrNasarvA~ggAH,mandatvAnmandaceShTAhAravyAhArAH, staimityAdashIghrArambhakShobhavikArAH, gurutvAtsArAdhiShThitAvasthitagatayaH, shaityAdalpakShuttRuShNAsantApasvedadoShAH, vijjalatvAtsushliShTasArasandhibandhanAH, tathA~acchatvAt prasannadarshanAnanAHprasannasnigdhavarNasvarAshca bhavanti| ta eva~gguNayogAcchleShmalA balavanto vasumanto vidyAvanta ojasvinaH shAntA AyuShmantashcabhavanti||96||

Shleshma is unctuous (snigdha), smooth (shlakshna), soft (mridu), sweet (madhura), essence (sara), dense (sandra), slow acting (manda), stable (stimita), heavy (guru), cold (sheeta), slimy (vijjala) and clear (acchah). Because of its unctuousness the person with predominance of kapha has unctuous organs; due to smoothness smooth organs; due to softness he has pleasing, delicate and fair organs; due to sweetness person has abundant semen, libido and more progeny; due to nature of essence excellent person has compact and stable body; due to density, all organs are well developed and perfect; due to slowness, dull/ slow in activities, diet and speech; due to stability delayed initiation, irritation and slow in change of attitude /(disorders are slowly progressive); due to heaviness movements are supported with essence and stability; due to coldness little hunger, thirst, heat and perspiration, due to sliminess well united and strong joint ligaments, due to clarity clear eyes, face with clear and unctuous complexion and affectionate voice. Because of presence of these qualities the kapha dominated personality(shleshmala) persons are strong, wealthy, learned, brave, calm and long lived.[96]

Characteristics of pitta prakriti

पित्तमुष्णंतीक्ष्णंद्रवंविस्रमम्लंकटुकञ्च| तस्यौष्ण्यात्पित्तलाभवन्त्युष्णासहा, उष्णमुखाः, सुकुमारावदातगात्राः , प्रभूतविप्लुव्यङ्गतिलपिडकाः, क्षुत्पिपासावन्तः, क्षिप्रवलीपलितखालित्यदोषाः, प्रायोमृद्वल्पकपिलश्मश्रुलोमकेशाश्च; तैक्ष्ण्यात्तीक्ष्णपराक्रमाः, तीक्ष्णाग्नयः, प्रभूताशनपानाः, क्लेशासहिष्णवो, दन्दशूकाः; द्रवत्वाच्छिथिलमृदुसन्धिमांसाः, प्रभूतसृष्टस्वेदमूत्रपुरीषाश्च; विस्रत्वात्प्रभूतपूतिकक्षास्यशिरःशरीरगन्धाः; कट्वम्लत्वादल्पशुक्रव्यवायापत्याः; तएवङ्गुणयोगात्पित्तलामध्यबलामध्यायुषोमध्यज्ञानविज्ञानवित्तोपकरणवन्तश्चभवन्ति||९७||

pittamuṣṇaṁ tīkṣṇaṁ dravaṁ visramamlaṁ kaṭukañca| tasyauṣṇyāt pittalā bhavantyuṣṇāsahā, uṣṇamukhāḥ, sukumārāvadātagātrāḥ , prabhūtavipluvyaṅgatilapiḍakāḥ, kṣutpipāsāvantaḥ, kṣipravalīpalitakhālityadōṣāḥ, prāyōmr̥dvalpakapilaśmaśrulōmakēśāśca; taikṣṇyāttīkṣṇaparākramāḥ, tīkṣṇāgnayaḥ, prabhūtāśanapānāḥ, klēśāsahiṣṇavō, dandaśūkāḥ; dravatvācchithilamr̥dusandhimāṁsāḥ, prabhūtasr̥ṣṭasvēdamūtrapurīṣāśca; visratvāt prabhūtapūtikakṣāsyaśiraḥśarīragandhāḥ; kaṭvamlatvādalpaśukravyavāyāpatyāḥ; ta ēvaṅguṇayōgāt pittalā madhyabalā madhyāyuṣō madhyajñānavijñānavittōpakaraṇavantaśca bhavanti||97||

pittamuShNaM tIkShNaM dravaM visramamlaM kaTuka~jca| tasyauShNyAt pittalA bhavantyuShNAsahA, uShNamukhAH, sukumArAvadAtagAtrAH [1] ,prabhUtavipluvya~ggatilapiDakAH, kShutpipAsAvantaH, kShipravalIpalitakhAlityadoShAH,prAyomRudvalpakapilashmashrulomakeshAshca; taikShNyAttIkShNaparAkramAH, tIkShNAgnayaH,prabhUtAshanapAnAH, kleshAsahiShNavo, dandashUkAH; dravatvAcchithilamRudusandhimAMsAH,prabhUtasRuShTasvedamUtrapurIShAshca; visratvAt prabhUtapUtikakShAsyashiraHsharIragandhAH;kaTvamlatvAdalpashukravyavAyApatyAH; ta eva~gguNayogAt pittalA madhyabalA madhyAyuShomadhyaj~jAnavij~jAnavittopakaraNavantashca bhavanti||97||

Pitta is hot (ushna), sharply/acutely acting (tikshna), liquid (drava), of fleshy smell (visram), sour (amla) and pungent (katu). Due to hotness, the persons having predominance of pitta are intolerant to heat, vulnerable to disorders due to heat delicate and beautiful body, plenty of moles, freckles, black-moles and pimples, excessive hunger and thirst, early appearance of wrinkles, graying and falling of hairs, mostly soft, scanty and brown beard/mustaches, hairs; due to sharpness/acuteness, sharply acting and valor, intense digestive power, intake of plenty of food and drink, lack of endurance, frequently eating; due to liquidity, lax and soft joints and muscles, excess perspiration, urination and defecation; due to fleshy smell foul smell in axilla, mouth, head and body; due to pungency and sourness there is less semen, libido and few progeny; because of presence of these qualities persons having predominance of pitta are moderate in strength, lifespan, knowledge, understanding, wealth and means.[97]

Characteristics of vata prakriti

वातस्तुरूक्षलघुचलबहुशीघ्रशीतपरुषविशदः| तस्यरौक्ष्याद्वातलारूक्षापचिताल्पशरीराःप्रततरूक्षक्षामसन्नसक्तजर्जरस्वराजागरूकाश्चभवन्ति, लघुत्वाल्लघुचपलगतिचेष्टाहारव्याहाराः, चलत्वादनवस्थितसन्ध्यक्षिभ्रूहन्वोष्ठजिह्वाशिरःस्कन्धपाणिपादाः, बहुत्वाद्बहुप्रलापकण्डरासिराप्रतानाः, शीघ्रत्वाच्छ्रीघ्रसमारम्भक्षोभविकाराःशीघ्रत्रासरागविरागाःश्रुतग्राहिणोऽल्पस्मृतयश्च, शैत्याच्छीतासहिष्णवःप्रततशीतकोद्वेपकस्तम्भाः, पारुष्यात्परुषकेशश्मश्रुरोमनखदशनवदनपाणिपादाः, वैशद्यात्स्फुटिताङ्गावयवाःसततसन्धिशब्दगामिनश्चभवन्ति; तएवङ्गुणयोगाद्वातलाःप्रायेणाल्पबलाश्चाल्पायुषश्चाल्पापत्याश्चाल्पसाधनाश्चाल्पधनाश्चभवन्ति||९८||

vātastu rūkṣalaghucalabahuśīghraśītaparuṣaviśadaḥ| tasya raukṣyādvātalā rūkṣāpacitālpaśarīrāḥ pratatarūkṣakṣāmasannasaktajarjarasvarā jāgarūkāśca bhavanti,laghutvāllaghucapalagaticēṣṭāhāravyāhārāḥ, calatvādanavasthitasandhyakṣibhrūhanvōṣṭhajihvāśiraḥskandhapāṇipādāḥ, bahutvādbahupralāpakaṇḍarāsirāpratānāḥ, śīghratvācchrīghrasamārambhakṣōbhavikārāḥ śīghratrāsarāgavirāgāḥ śrutagrāhiṇō'lpasmr̥tayaśca, śaityācchītāsahiṣṇavaḥ pratataśītakōdvēpakastambhāḥ, pāruṣyāt paruṣakēśaśmaśrurōmanakhadaśanavadanapāṇipādāḥ, vaiśadyāt sphuṭitāṅgāvayavāḥ satatasandhiśabdagāminaśca bhavanti; ta ēvaṅguṇayōgādvātalāḥ prāyēṇālpabalāścālpāyuṣaścālpāpatyāścālpasādhanāścālpadhanāśca bhavanti||98||

vAtastu rUkShalaghucalabahushIghrashItaparuShavishadaH| tasya raukShyAdvAtalA rUkShApacitAlpasharIrAH pratatarUkShakShAmasannasaktajarjarasvarA [1]jAgarUkAshca bhavanti, laghutvAllaghucapalagaticeShTAhAravyAhArAH,calatvAdanavasthitasandhyakShibhrUhanvoShThajihvAshiraHskandhapANipAdAH,bahutvAdbahupralApakaNDarAsirApra
tAnAH, shIghratvAcchrIghrasamArambhakShobhavikArAHshIghratrAsarAgavirAgAH shrutagrAhiNo~alpasmRutayashca, shaityAcchItAsahiShNavaHpratatashItakodvepakastambhAH, pAruShyAtparuShakeshashmashruromanakhadashanavadanapANipAdAH, vaishadyAt sphuTitA~ggAvayavAHsatatasandhishabdagAminashca bhavanti; ta eva~gguNayogAdvAtalAHprAyeNAlpabalAshcAlpAyuShashcAlpApatyAshcAlpasAdhanAshcAlpadhanAshca bhavanti||98||

Vata is rough (ruksha), light (laghu), mobile (chala), abundant (bahu), swift (shighra), cold (sheeta), coarse (parusha) and non-slimy (vishada).

Due to roughness the persons with predominance of vata have rough, underdeveloped and short stature, constant rough, weak, low, adhered and hoarse voice, wakeful; due to lightness, light and fickle movements, activities, diet and speech; due to mobility, unstable joints, eye brows, jaw, lips, tongue, head, shoulder, hands and feet; due to abundance, talkativeness and visually abundance of tendons and venous network; due to swiftness hasty initiation, quick irritation and disorder, quick in fear attachment and disenchantment, quick in acquisition but with a poor memory (retention); due to coldness intolerance to cold, continuously infliction with cold, shivering and stiffness; due to coarseness, coarse hairs, beard-mustaches, hairs, nails, teeth, face, hands and feet, due to non-sliminess cracked body parts and constant sound in joints during movement. Because of presence of these qualities the persons having predominance of vata have mostly low degree of strength, life-span, progeny, means and wealth. [98]

संसर्गात्संसृष्टलक्षणाः||९९||

saṁsargāt saṁsr̥ṣṭalakṣaṇāḥ||99||

saMsargAt saMsRuShTalakShaNAH||99||

And due to combination of doshas, characters are found accordingly.[99]

सर्वगुणसमुदितास्तुसमधातवः| इत्येवंप्रकृतितःपरीक्षेत||१००||

sarvaguṇasamuditāstu samadhātavaḥ| ityēvaṁ prakr̥titaḥ parīkṣēta||100||

sarvaguNasamuditAstu samadhAtavaH| ityevaM prakRutitaH parIkSheta||100||

In persons having equilibrium of all dhatus, the characters of all of the three are found. Thus one should examine the constitution.[100]

Assessment of vikriti (disorder)

विकृतितश्चेतिविकृतिरुच्यतेविकारः| तत्रविकारंहेतु-दोष-दूष्य-प्रकृति-देश-काल-बलविशेषैर्लिङ्गतश्चपरीक्षेत, नह्यन्तरेणहेत्वादीनांबलविशेषंव्याधिबलविशेषोपलब्धिः| यस्यहिव्याधेर्दोष-दूष्य-प्रकृति-देश-काल-बलसाम्यंभवति, महच्चहेतुलिङ्गबलं, सव्याधिर्बलवान्भवति; तद्विपर्ययाच्चाल्पबलः; मध्यबलस्तुदोषदूष्यादीनामन्यतमसामान्याद्धेतुलिङ्गमध्यबलत्वाच्चोपलभ्यते||१०१||

vikr̥titaścēti vikr̥tirucyatē vikāraḥ| tatra vikāraṁ hētu-dōṣa-dūṣya-prakr̥ti-dēśa-kāla-balaviśēṣairliṅgataśca parīkṣēta, na hyantarēṇa hētvādīnāṁ balaviśēṣaṁ vyādhibalaviśēṣōpalabdhiḥ| yasya hi vyādhērdōṣa-dūṣya-prakr̥ti-dēśa-kāla-balasāmyaṁ bhavati, mahacca hētuliṅgabalaṁ, sa vyādhirbalavān bhavati; tadviparyayāccālpabalaḥ; madhyabalastu dōṣadūṣyādīnāmanyatamasāmānyāddhētuliṅgamadhyabalatvāccōpalabhyatē||101||

vikRutitashceti vikRutirucyate vikAraH| tatra vikAraM hetu-doSha-dUShya-prakRuti-desha-kAla-balavisheShairli~ggatashca parIkSheta, nahyantareNa hetvAdInAM balavisheShaM vyAdhibalavisheShopalabdhiH| yasya hi vyAdherdoSha-dUShya-prakRuti-desha-kAla-balasAmyaM bhavati, mahacca hetuli~ggabalaM, savyAdhirbalavAn bhavati; tadviparyayAccAlpabalaH; madhyabalastudoShadUShyAdInAmanyatamasAmAnyAddhetuli~ggamadhyabalatvAccopalabhyate||101||

Patient examination should be done with respect of vikriti as well. Vikriti is vikara (disorder or pathological manifestation). The disorder should be examined in terms of the strength of the cause (hetu), dosha(vitiating factors), dushya(vitiated factors), constitution (prakriti), place (desha), time (kala) and the symptoms. The severity of the disease cannot be known without knowing the strength of the cause etc. factors. The disease having common dushya, constitution, place and time along with strong cause and severity of symptoms is more, then such diseases are severe. The contrary is mild. The moderate disease has similarity in one of the dosha, dushya etc. and as such moderate strength of cause and severity of symptoms.[101]

Assessment of sara (best qualities of body tissues)

सारतश्चेतिसाराण्यष्टौपुरुषाणांबलमानविशेषज्ञानार्थमुपदिश्यन्ते; तद्यथा- त्वग्रक्तमांसमेदोऽस्थिमज्जशुक्रसत्त्वानीति||१०२||

sārataścēti sārāṇyaṣṭau puruṣāṇāṁ balamānaviśēṣajñānārthamupadiśyantē; tadyathā- tvagraktamāṁsamēdō'sthimajjaśukrasattvānīti||102||

sAratashceti sArANyaShTau puruShANAM balamAnavisheShaj~jAnArthamupadishyante; tadyathA-tvagraktamAMsamedo~asthimajjashukrasattvAnIti||102||

Moreover a patient should be examined in respect of sara i.e. (best qualities of body tissues). There are eight types of sara in human beings which are described here for the knowledge of degree of strength such as –tvak, rakta, mamsa, meda, asthi, majja, shukra and sattva.[102]

Characteristics of twak sara (best quality of skin)

तत्रस्निग्धश्लक्ष्णमृदुप्रसन्नसूक्ष्माल्पगम्भीरसुकुमारलोमासप्रभेवचत्वक्त्वक्साराणाम्| सासारतासुखसौभाग्यैश्वर्योपभोगबुद्धिविद्यारोग्यप्रहर्षणान्यायुष्यत्वंचाचष्टे||१०३||

tatra snigdhaślakṣṇamr̥duprasannasūkṣmālpagambhīrasukumāralōmā saprabhēva ca tvak tvaksārāṇām| sā sāratā sukhasaubhāgyaiśvaryōpabhōgabuddhividyārōgyapraharṣaṇānyāyuṣyatvaṁ cācaṣṭē||103||

tatra snigdhashlakShNamRuduprasannasUkShmAlpagambhIrasukumAralomA saprabheva ca tvaktvaksArANAm| sA sAratA sukhasaubhAgyaishvaryopabhogabuddhividyArogyapraharShaNAnyAyuShyatvaMcAcaShTe||103||

In persons who are tvaksara (having constitutional essence of skin), the skin is unctuous (snigdha), smooth (shlakshna), soft (mridu), clean and adorable (prasanna) with fine (sukshma), thin (alpa), deep rooted (gambhira) and delicate (sukumara) hairs and is lustrous (prabha). This essence indicates happiness, good fortune, power, enjoyment, intelligence, knowledge, health, cheerfulness and longevity. [103]

Characteristics of rakta sara (best quality of blood tissue)

कर्णाक्षिमुखजिह्वानासौष्ठपाणिपादतलनखललाटमेहनंस्निग्धरक्तवर्णंश्रीमद्भ्राजिष्णुरक्तसाराणाम्| सासारतासुखमुद्धतांमेधांमनस्वित्वंसौकुमार्यमनतिबलमक्लेशसहिष्णुत्वमुष्णासहिष्णुत्वंचाचष्टे||१०४||

karṇākṣimukhajihvānāsauṣṭhapāṇipādatalanakhalalāṭamēhanaṁ snigdharaktavarṇaṁ śrīmadbhrājiṣṇu raktasārāṇām| sā sāratā sukhamuddhatāṁ mēdhāṁ manasvitvaṁ saukumāryamanatibalamaklēśasahiṣṇutvamuṣṇāsahiṣṇutvaṁ cācaṣṭē||104||

karNAkShimukhajihvAnAsauShThapANipAdatalanakhalalATamehanaM snigdharaktavarNaMshrImadbhrAjiShNu raktasArANAm| sA sAratA sukhamuddhatAM medhAM manasvitvaMsaukumAryamanatibalamakleshasahiShNutvamuShNAsahiShNutvaM cAcaShTe||104||

In persons with essence of rakta have there ear, eye, face, tongue, nose, lips, palms, soles, nails, forehead and genitals to be unctuous, red, beautiful and shining. This essence indicates happiness, sharp intellect, magnanimity, tenderness, moderate strength, lack for endurance and intolerance to heat.[104]

Characteristics of mamsa sara (best quality of muscular tissue)

शङ्खललाटकृकाटिकाक्षिगण्डहनुग्रीवास्कन्धोदरकक्षवक्षःपाणिपादसन्धयःस्थिरगुरुशुभमांसोपचितामांससाराणाम्| सासारताक्षमांधृतिमलौल्यंवित्तंविद्यांसुखमार्जवमारोग्यंबलमायुश्चदीर्घमाचष्टे||१०५||

śaṅkhalalāṭakr̥kāṭikākṣigaṇḍahanugrīvāskandhōdarakakṣavakṣaḥpāṇipādasandhayaḥ sthiraguruśubhamāṁsōpacitā māṁsasārāṇām| sā sāratā kṣamāṁ dhr̥timalaulyaṁ vittaṁ vidyāṁ sukhamārjavamārōgyaṁ balamāyuśca dīrghamācaṣṭē||105||

sha~gkhalalATakRukATikAkShigaNDahanugrIvAskandhodarakakShavakShaHpANipAdasandhayaHsthiragurushubhamAMsopacitA mAMsasArANAm| sA sAratA kShamAM dhRutimalaulyaM vittaM vidyAM sukhamArjavamArogyaM balamAyushcadIrghamAcaShTe||105||

The persons having essence of mamsa have their temples (shankha), forehead (lalata), nape (krikatika), eyes (akshi), cheek (ganda), jaws (hanu), neck (griva), shoulder (skandha), abdomen (udara), axillae (kaksha), chest (vaksha), hands (pani), feet (pada)and joints (sandhi) well developed with firm, heavy and good looking muscles. This essence indicates forbearance, restraint, and lack of greed, wealth, knowledge, happiness, simplicity, health, strength and longevity.[105]

Characteristics of meda sara (best quality of lipid tissues)

वर्णस्वरनेत्रकेशलोमनखदन्तौष्ठमूत्रपुरीषेषुविशेषतःस्नेहोमेदःसाराणाम्| सासारतावित्तैश्वर्यसुखोपभोगप्रदानान्यार्जवंसुकुमारोपचारतांचाचष्टे||१०६||

varṇasvaranētrakēśalōmanakhadantauṣṭhamūtrapurīṣēṣu viśēṣataḥ snēhōmēdaḥsārāṇām|sāsāratāvittaiśvaryasukhōpabhōgapradānānyārjavaṁ sukumārōpacāratāṁ cā caṣṭē||106||

varNasvaranetrakeshalomanakhadantauShThamUtrapurISheShu visheShataH sneho medaHsArANAm| sA sAratA vittaishvaryasukhopabhogapradAnAnyArjavaM sukumAropacAratAM cA caShTe||106||

The person endowed with essence of meda have significant unctuousness specifically in complexion, voice, eyes, hair, skin hairs, nails, teeth, lips, urine and feces. This indicates wealth, power, happiness, enjoyment, charity, simplicity and delicacy in dealings.[106]

Characteristics of asthi sara (best quality of bone)

पार्ष्णिगुल्फजान्वरत्निजत्रुचिबुकशिरःपर्वस्थूलाःस्थूलास्थिनखदन्ताश्चास्थिसाराः| तेमहोत्साहाःक्रियावन्तःक्लेशसहाःसारस्थिरशरीराभवन्त्यायुष्मन्तश्च||१०७||

pārṣṇigulphajānvaratnijatrucibukaśiraḥparvasthūlāḥ |sthūlāsthinakhadantāścāsthisārāḥ|tēmahōtsāhāḥkriyāvantaḥ klēśasahāḥ sārasthiraśarīrā bhavantyāyuṣmantaśca||107||

pArShNigulphajAnvaratnijatrucibukashiraHparvasthUlAH sthUlAsthinakhadantAshcAsthisArAH| te mahotsAhAH kriyAvantaH kleshasahAH sArasthirasharIrA bhavantyAyuShmantashca||107||

Person with asthi sara has prominent heels (parshni), ankles (gulpha), knee joint (janu), elbows (aratni), collarbones (jatru), chin (chibuka), head (shira), flanks (parshva) and joints and also bones and teeth. Such persons are excess enthusiastic, very active, enduring, having strong and firm body as well as longevity.[107]

Characteristics of majja sara(best quality of bone marrow tissue)

मृद्वङ्गाबलवन्तःस्निग्धवर्णस्वराःस्थूलदीर्घवृत्तसन्धयश्चमज्जसाराः| तेदीर्घायुषोबलवन्तःश्रुतवित्तविज्ञानापत्यसम्मानभाजश्चभवन्ति||१०८||

mr̥dvaṅgā balavantaḥ snigdhavarṇasvarāḥ sthūladīrghavr̥ttasandhayaśca majjasārāḥ| tē dīrghāyuṣō balavantaḥ śrutavittavijñānāpatyasammānabhājaśca bhavanti||108||

mRudva~ggA balavantaH snigdhavarNasvarAH sthUladIrghavRuttasandhayashca majjasArAH| te dIrghAyuSho balavantaH shrutavittavij~jAnApatyasammAnabhAjashca bhavanti||108||

The persons with soft body parts, strong, unctuous complexion and sweet voice, prominent (sthula), long (dirgha) and rounded joints should be known as majjasara (or the essence ofmajja). They are long-lived, strong and endowed with learning ability, wealth, understanding, progeny and respectful image.[108]

Characteristics of shukra sara(best quality of reproductive tissues)

सौम्याःसौम्यप्रेक्षिणःक्षीरपूर्णलोचनाइवप्रहर्षबहुलाःस्निग्धवृत्तसारसमसंहतशिखरदशनाःप्रसन्नस्निग्धवर्णस्वराभ्राजिष्णवोमहास्फिचश्चशुक्रसाराः| तेस्त्रीप्रियोपभोगा बलवन्तःसुखैश्वर्यारोग्यवित्तसम्मानापत्यभाजश्चभवन्ति||१०९||

saumyāḥsaumyaprēkṣiṇaḥkṣīrapūrṇalōcanāivapraharṣabahulāḥsnigdhavr̥ttasārasamasaṁhataśikharadaśanāḥprasannasnigdhavarṇasvarābhrājiṣṇavōmahāsphicaścaśukr
asārāḥ|tēstrīpriyōpabhōgā balavantaḥsukhaiśvaryārōgyavittasammānāpatyabhājaścabhavanti||109||

saumyAH saumyaprekShiNaH kShIrapUrNalocanA iva praharShabahulAHsnigdhavRuttasArasamasaMhatashikharadashanAH prasannasnigdhavarNasvarA bhrAjiShNavomahAsphicashca shukrasArAH| te strIpriyopabhogA [1] balavantaH sukhaishvaryArogyavittasammAnApatyabhAjashca bhavanti||109||

The shukra sara (having essence in form of reproductive tissues) individuals are gentle and charming (saumya), charming and gentle look (saumyaprekshina), have beautiful eyes as if filled with milk (kshirapurnalochana), immensely exhilarated (praharshabahula), teeth are unctuous, rounded, firm, even and compact; having pleasant and unctuous complexion and voice, brilliant, having prominent buttocks.

They are liked by women for enjoyment, are strong and endowed with happiness, leisure, health, wealth, honor and progeny.[109]

Characteristics of sattva sara (best quality of mind)

स्मृतिमन्तोभक्तिमन्तःकृतज्ञाःप्राज्ञाःशुचयोमहोत्साहादक्षाधीराःसमरविक्रान्तयोधिनस्त्यक्तविषादाःसुव्यवस्थितगतिगम्भीरबुद्धिचेष्टाःकल्याणाभिनिवेशिनश्चसत्त्वसाराः| तेषांस्वलक्षणैरेवगुणाव्याख्याताः||११०||

smr̥timantōbhaktimantaḥkr̥tajñāḥprājñāḥśucayōmahōtsāhādakṣādhīrāḥsamaravikrāntayōdhinastyaktaviṣādāḥsuvyavasthitagatigambhīrabuddhicēṣṭāḥkalyāṇābhinivēśinaścas
attvasārāḥ|tēṣāṁsvalakṣaṇairēvaguṇāvyākhyātāḥ||110||

smRutimanto bhaktimantaH kRutaj~jAH prAj~jAH shucayo mahotsAhA dakShA dhIrAHsamaravikrAntayodhinastyaktaviShAdAH suvyavasthitagatigambhIrabuddhiceShTAHkalyANAbhiniveshinashca sattvasArAH| teShAM svalakShaNaireva guNA vyAkhyAtAH||110||

The sattva sara persons are endowed with memory (smriti), devotion (bhakti), are grateful (kritajna), knowledgeable (prajna), cleanliness (shuchi), enthusiastic (mahotsaha), skillful (daksha), courageous (dhira), fighting in battle with valor, free from anxiety (tyaktavishada), having well-organized activities and highly intellectual abilities engaged in virtuous act.

Their characters are explained by their qualities mentioned above. [110]

Characteristics of sarva sara (best quality of all tissues)

तत्रसर्वैःसारैरुपेताःपुरुषाभवन्त्यतिबलाःपरमसुखयुक्ताः] क्लेशसहाःसर्वारम्भेष्वात्मनिजातप्रत्ययाःकल्याणाभिनिवेशिनःस्थिरसमाहितशरीराःसुसमाहितगतयःसानुनादस्निग्धगम्भीरमहास्वराःसुखैश्वर्यवित्तोपभोगसम्मानभाजोमन्दजरसोमन्दविकाराः
प्रायस्तुल्यगुणविस्तीर्णापत्याश्चिरजीविनश्च||१११||

tatrasarvaiḥsārairupētāḥpuruṣābhavantyatibalāḥ paramasukhayuktāḥklēśasahāḥsarvārambhēṣvātmanijātapratyayāḥkalyāṇābhinivēśinaḥsthirasamāhitaśarīrāḥsusamāhitagatayaḥsānunādasnigdhagambhī
ramahāsvarāḥsukhaiśvaryavittōpabhōgasammānabhājōmandajarasōmandavikārāḥprāyastulyaguṇavistīrṇāpatyāścirajīvinaśca||111||

tatra sarvaiH sArairupetAH puruShA bhavantyatibalAH paramasukhayuktAH [2] kleshasahAHsarvArambheShvAtmani jAtapratyayAH kalyANAbhiniveshinaH sthirasamAhitasharIrAHsusamAhitagatayaH sAnunAdasnigdhagambhIramahAsvarAH sukhaishvaryavittopabhogasammAnabhAjomandajaraso mandavikArAH prAyastulyaguNavistIrNApatyAshcirajIvinashca||111||

The persons having all essences are very strong and happy, enduring, confident in all actions, inclined to benevolent acts, having firm and balanced body with balanced movements; resonant, melodious, deep and high voice; endowed with happiness supremacy, wealth, enjoyment and honor; with slow ageing and pathogenic process, mostly having similar and numerous offspring and which are long-lived.[111]

Characteristics of Asara (no/low quality of tissues)

अतोविपरीतास्त्वसाराः||११२||

atōviparītāstvasārāḥ||112||

ato viparItAstvasArAH||112||

And those persons having no or less essence of tissues are contrary to these individual.[112]

Characteristics of madhya sara(moderate quality of tissues)

मध्यानांमध्यैःसारविशेषैर्गुणविशेषाव्याख्याताभवन्ति||११३||

madhyānāṁmadhyaiḥsāraviśēṣairguṇaviśēṣāvyākhyātābhavanti||113||

madhyAnAM madhyaiHsAravisheShairguNavisheShA vyAkhyAtA bhavanti||113||

Individual having moderate essence should be known by their respective qualities in moderate degrees. [113]

इतिसाराण्यष्टौपुरुषाणांबलप्रमाणविशेषज्ञानार्थमुपदिष्टानिभवन्ति||११४||

itisārāṇyaṣṭaupuruṣāṇāṁbalapramāṇaviśēṣajñānārthamupadiṣṭānibhavanti||114||

iti sArANyaShTau puruShANAM balapramANavisheShaj~jAnArthamupadiShTAni bhavanti||114||

Thus eight types of essence of persons have been described for the knowledge of the degree of strength. [114]

कथंनुशरीरमात्रदर्शनादेवभिषङ्मुह्येदयमुपचितत्वाद्बलवान्, अयमल्पबलःकृशत्वात्, महाबलोऽयंमहाशरीरत्वात्, अयमल्पशरीरत्वादल्पबलइति; दृश्यन्तेह्यल्पशरीराःकृशाश्चैकेबलवन्तः; तत्रपिपीलिकाभारहरणवत्सिद्धिः| अतश्चसारतःपरीक्षेतेत्युक्तम्] ||११५||

kathaṁ nu śarīramātradarśanādēva bhiṣaṅmuhyēdayamupacitatvādbalavān, ayamalpabalaḥ kr̥śatvāt, mahābalō'yaṁ mahāśarīratvāt, ayamalpaśarīratvādalpabala iti; dr̥śyantē hyalpaśarīrāḥ kr̥śāścaikē balavantaḥ; tatra pipīlikābhāraharaṇavat siddhiḥ| ataśca sārataḥ parīkṣētētyuktam ||115||

kathaM nu sharIramAtradarshanAdeva bhiSha~gmuhyedayamupacitatvAdbalavAn, ayamalpabalaHkRushatvAt, mahAbalo~ayaM mahAsharIratvAt, ayamalpasharIratvAdalpabala iti; dRushyantehyalpasharIrAH kRushAshcaike balavantaH; tatra pipIlikAbhAraharaNavat siddhiH| atashca sArataH parIkShetetyuktam [3] ||115||

Physician may sometimes take wrong decision only by looking at the patient such as the patient is strong because of being corpulent, he is weak because of leanness, he is very strong because of possessing big body and he is very weak because of possessing small body. But it is observed that some persons having small body and leanness are strong like the small ants carrying a big load. This is the reason why essence (sarata) of dhatus is to be examined before understanding the bala of a patient.[115]

Assessment of samhanana (compactness)

संहननतश्चेतिसंहननं, संहतिः], संयोजनमित्येकोऽर्थः| तत्रसमसुविभक्तास्थि, सुबद्धसन्धि, सुनिविष्टमांसशोणितं, सुसंहतंशरीरमित्युच्यते| तत्रसुसंहतशरीराःपुरुषाबलवन्तः, विपर्ययेणाल्पबलाः, मध्यत्वात्संहननस्यमध्यबलाभवन्ति||११६||

saṁhananataścēti saṁhananaṁ, saṁhatiḥ , saṁyōjanamityēkō'rthaḥ| tatra samasuvibhaktāsthi, subaddhasandhi, suniviṣṭamāṁsaśōṇitaṁ, susaṁhataṁ śarīramityucyatē| tatra susaṁhataśarīrāḥ puruṣā balavantaḥ, viparyayēṇālpabalāḥ, madhyatvāt saṁhananasya madhyabalā bhavanti||116||

saMhananatashceti saMhananaM, saMhatiH [1] , saMyojanamityeko~arthaH| tatra samasuvibhaktAsthi, subaddhasandhi, suniviShTamAMsashoNitaM, susaMhataM sharIramityucyate| tatra susaMhatasharIrAH puruShA balavantaH, viparyayeNAlpabalAH, madhyatvAt saMhananasyamadhyabalA bhavanti||116||

The patient should also be examined by samhanana (compactness). Samhanana, Samhati and Samyojana are synonymous. A well compact body is known by evenly well demarcated bones (samasuvibhaktasthi), well bound joints (subaddhasandhi), well formed muscles and blood (sunivishtamamsashonitam). Those having well compact body are strong, otherwise weak and those having moderate compactness have medium strength. [116]

Assessment of pramana (proportion and measurements)

प्रमाणतश्चेतिशरीरप्रमाणंपुनर्यथास्वेनाङ्गुलिप्रमाणेनोपदेक्ष्यतेउत्सेधविस्तारायामैर्यथाक्रमम्| तत्रपादौ] चत्वारिषट्चतुर्दशाङ्गुलानि, जङ्घेत्वष्टादशाङ्गुलेषोडशाङ्गुलपरिक्षेपेच, जानुनीचतुरङ्गुलेषोडशाङ्गुलपरिक्षेपे, त्रिंशदङ्गुलपरिक्षेपावष्टादशाङ्गुलावूरु, षडङ्गुलदीर्घौवृषणावष्टाङ्गुलपरिणाहौ, शेफःषडङ्गुलदीर्घंपञ्चाङ्गुलपरिणाहं, द्वादशाङ्गुलिपरिणाहोभगः, षोडशाङ्गुलविस्ताराकटी, दशाङ्गुलंबस्तिशिरः, दशाङ्गुलविस्तारंद्वादशाङ्गुलमुदरं, दशाङ्गुलविस्तीर्णेद्वादशाङ्गुलायामेपार्श्वे, द्वादशाङ्गुलंस्तनान्तरं, द्व्यङ्गुलंस्तनपर्यन्तं, चतुर्विशत्यङ्गुलविशालंद्वादशाङ्गुलोत्सेधमुरः, द्व्यङ्गुलं] हृदयम्, अष्टाङ्गुलौस्कन्धौ, षडङ्गुलावंसौ, षोडशाङ्गुलौप्रबाहू, पञ्चदशाङ्गुलौप्रपाणी, हस्तौद्वादशाङ्गुलौ] , कक्षावष्टाङ्गुलौ, त्रिकंद्वादशाङ्गुलोत्सेधम्, अष्टादशाङ्गुलोत्सेधंपृष्ठं, चतुरङ्गुलोत्सेधाद्वाविंशत्यङ्गुलपरिणाहाशिरोधरा, द्वादशाङ्गुलोत्सेधंचतुर्विंशत्यङ्गुलपरिणाहमाननं, पञ्चाङ्गुलमास्यं, चिबुकौष्ठकर्णाक्षिमध्यनासिकाललाटंचतुरङ्गुलं, षोडशाङ्गुलोत्सेधंद्वात्रिंशदङ्गुलपरिणाहंशिरः; इतिपृथक्त्वेनाङ्गावयवानांमानमुक्तम्| केवलंपुनःशरीरमङ्गुलिपर्वाणिचतुरशीतिः| तदायामविस्तारसमंसमुच्यते| तत्रायुर्बलमोजःसुखमैश्वर्यंवित्तमिष्टाश्चापरेभावाभवन्त्यायत्ताःप्रमाणवतिशरीरे; विपर्ययस्त्वतोहीनेऽधिकेवा||११७||

pramāṇataścēti śarīrapramāṇaṁ punaryathāsvēnāṅgulipramāṇēnōpadēkṣyatē utsēdhavistārāyāmairyathākramam| tatra pādau catvāri ṣaṭ caturdaśāṅgulāni, jaṅghē tvaṣṭādaśāṅgulē ṣōḍaśāṅgulaparikṣēpē ca, jānunī caturaṅgulē ṣōḍaśāṅgulaparikṣēpē, triṁśadaṅgulaparikṣēpāvaṣṭādaśāṅgulāvūru, ṣaḍaṅguladīrghau vr̥ṣaṇāvaṣṭāṅgulapariṇāhau, śēphaḥ ṣaḍaṅguladīrghaṁ pañcāṅgulapariṇāhaṁ, dvādaśāṅgulipariṇāhō bhagaḥ, ṣōḍaśāṅgulavistārā kaṭī, daśāṅgulaṁ bastiśiraḥ, daśāṅgulavistāraṁ dvādaśāṅgulamudaraṁ, daśāṅgulavistīrṇē dvādaśāṅgulāyāmē pārśvē, dvādaśāṅgulaṁ stanāntaraṁ, dvyaṅgulaṁ stanaparyantaṁ, caturviśatyaṅgulaviśālaṁ dvādaśāṅgulōtsēdhamuraḥ, dvyaṅgulaṁ hr̥dayam, aṣṭāṅgulau skandhau, ṣaḍaṅgulāvaṁsau, ṣōḍaśāṅgulau prabāhū, pañcadaśāṅgulau prapāṇī, hastau dvādaśāṅgulau , kakṣāvaṣṭāṅgulau, trikaṁ dvādaśāṅgulōtsēdham, aṣṭādaśāṅgulōtsēdhaṁ pr̥ṣṭhaṁ, caturaṅgulōtsēdhā dvāviṁśatyaṅgulapariṇāhā śirōdharā, dvādaśāṅgulōtsēdhaṁ caturviṁśatyaṅgulapariṇāhamānanaṁ, pañcāṅgulamāsyaṁ, cibukauṣṭhakarṇākṣimadhyanāsikālalāṭaṁ caturaṅgulaṁ, ṣōḍaśāṅgulōtsēdhaṁ dvātriṁśadaṅgulapariṇāhaṁ śiraḥ; iti pr̥thaktvēnāṅgāvayavānāṁ mānamuktam| kēvalaṁ punaḥśarīramaṅguliparvāṇi caturaśītiḥ| tadāyāmavistārasamaṁ samucyatē| tatrāyurbalamōjaḥ sukhamaiśvaryaṁ vittamiṣṭāścāparē bhāvā bhavantyāyattāḥ pramāṇavati śarīrē; viparyayastvatō hīnē'dhikē vā||117||

pramANatashceti sharIrapramANaM punaryathAsvenA~ggulipramANenopadekShyateutsedhavistArAyAmairyathAkramam| tatra pAdau [1] catvAri ShaT caturdashA~ggulAni, ja~gghe tvaShTAdashA~gguleShoDashA~ggulaparikShepe ca, jAnunI catura~ggule ShoDashA~ggulaparikShepe,triMshada~ggulaparikShepAvaShTAdashA~ggulAvUru, ShaDa~gguladIrghauvRuShaNAvaShTA~ggulapariNAhau, shephaH ShaDa~gguladIrghaM pa~jcA~ggulapariNAhaM,dvAdashA~ggulipariNAho bhagaH, ShoDashA~ggulavistArA kaTI, dashA~ggulaM bastishiraH,dashA~ggulavistAraM dvAdashA~ggulamudaraM, dashA~ggulavistIrNe dvAdashA~ggulAyAme pArshve,dvAdashA~ggulaM stanAntaraM, dvya~ggulaM stanaparyantaM, caturvishatya~ggulavishAlaMdvAdashA~ggulotsedhamuraH, dvya~ggulaM [2] hRudayam, aShTA~ggulau skandhau,ShaDa~ggulAvaMsau, ShoDashA~ggulau prabAhU, pa~jcadashA~ggulau prapANI, hastaudvAdashA~ggulau [3] , kakShAvaShTA~ggulau, trikaM dvAdashA~ggulotsedham,aShTAdashA~ggulotsedhaM pRuShThaM, catura~ggulotsedhA dvAviMshatya~ggulapariNAhA shirodharA,dvAdashA~ggulotsedhaM caturviMshatya~ggulapariNAhamAnanaM, pa~jcA~ggulamAsyaM,cibukauShThakarNAkShimadhyanAsikAlalATaM catura~ggulaM, ShoDashA~ggulotsedhaMdvAtriMshada~ggulapariNAhaM shiraH; iti pRuthaktvenA~ggAvayavAnAM mAnamuktam| kevalaM punaHsharIrama~gguliparvANi caturashItiH| tadAyAmavistArasamaM samucyate| tatrAyurbalamojaH sukhamaishvaryaM vittamiShTAshcApare bhAvA bhavantyAyattAH pramANavatisharIre; viparyayastvato hIne~adhike vA||117||

Examination regarding measurement of body is to be described by the measure of individual fingers in terms of height, breadth, and length respectively. It is dealt under anthropometry. Feet are four (H.) six (B.) and fourteen (L) fingers; Calf region are eighteen fingers long and with sixteen fingers circumference; knees four fingers long with sixteen fingers circumference; thighs eighteen fingers (long) with thirty finger circumference; testicles six fingers long with eight fingers circumference; penis six fingers long with five fingers circumference; vulva with twelve fingers circumference; waist sixteen fingers broad, bastishira ten fingers, abdomen ten fingers broad and twelve finger long; sides ten fingers broad and twelve fingers long; interval between the breasts twelve fingers, (apex of the) heart two fingers, blades six fingers, arms sixteen fingers (long) forearms fifteen fingers (long); hands twelve fingers (long), axillae eighth fingers, sacral region twelve fingers height, back eighteen fingers height, neck four fingers height with twenty two fingers circumference, face twelve finger high with twenty four fingers circumference; mouth five fingers; chin, lips, ears, middle of the eyes, nose and forehead four fingers; head sixteen fingers high with thirty two fingers circumference. Thus measurement of the body parts has been said separately. The entire body measures eighty four fingers in height and also in breadth such individuals possess longevity, strength, immunity, happiness, supremacy, wealth and other desired facilities. Those having body with less or more measurement have qualities contrary to these.[117]

Assessment of satmya (suitability)

सात्म्यतश्चेतिसात्म्यंनामतद्यत्सातत्येनोपसेव्यमानमुपशेते| तत्रयेघृतक्षीरतैलमांसरससात्म्याःसर्वरससात्म्याश्चतेबलवन्तःक्लेशसहाश्चिरजीविनश्चभवन्ति, रूक्षसात्म्याःपुनरेकरससात्म्याश्चयेतेप्रायेणाल्पबलाअल्पक्लेशसहाअल्पायुषोऽल्पसाधनाश्चभवन्ति, व्यामिश्रसात्म्यास्तुयेतेमध्यबलाःसात्म्यनिमित्ततोभवन्ति||११८||

sātmyataścēti sātmyaṁ nāma tadyat sātatyēnōpasēvyamānamupaśētē| tatra yē ghr̥takṣīratailamāṁsarasasātmyāḥ sarvarasasātmyāśca tē balavantaḥ klēśasahāścirajīvinaśca bhavanti, rūkṣasātmyāḥ punarēkarasasātmyāśca yē tē prāyēṇālpabalā alpaklēśasahā alpāyuṣō'lpasādhanāśca bhavanti, vyāmiśrasātmyāstu yē tē madhyabalāḥ sātmyanimittatō bhavanti||118||

sAtmyatashceti sAtmyaM nAma tadyat sAtatyenopasevyamAnamupashete| tatra ye ghRutakShIratailamAMsarasasAtmyAH sarvarasasAtmyAshca te balavantaHkleshasahAshcirajIvinashca bhavanti, rUkShasAtmyAH punarekarasasAtmyAshca ye te prAyeNAlpabalAalpakleshasahA alpAyuSho~alpasAdhanAshca bhavanti, vyAmishrasAtmyAstu ye te madhyabalAHsAtmyanimittato bhavanti||118||

Examination in respect to suitability by practice (satmya) should also be done. Suitable is that, which being used constantly has wholesome effect, those suited to ghee, milk, oil and meat soup, and to all rasas are strong, enduring and long-lived. On the contrary, those suited to rough diet and single rasa are often weak, unenduring, and short-lived and are with little means. Those having mixed suitability have medium strength.[118]

Assessment of Sattva (psyche/mental strength)

सत्त्वतश्चेतिसत्त्वमुच्यतेमनः| तच्छरीरस्यतन्त्रकमात्मसंयोगात्| तत्त्रिविधंबलभेदेन- प्रवरं, मध्यम्, अवरंचेति; अतश्चप्रवरमध्यावरसत्त्वाःपुरुषाभवन्ति| तत्रप्रवरसत्त्वाःसत्त्वसारास्तेसारेषूपदिष्टाः, स्वल्पशरीराह्यपितेनिजागन्तुनिमित्तासुमहतीष्वपिपीडास्वव्यथा] दृश्यन्तेसत्त्वगुणवैशेष्यात्; मध्यसत्त्वास्त्वपरानात्मन्युपनिधाय] संस्तम्भयन्त्यात्मनाऽऽत्मानंपरैर्वाऽपिसंस्तभ्यन्ते; हीनसत्त्वास्तुनात्मनानापिपरैःसत्त्वबलंप्रतिशक्यन्तेउपस्तम्भयितुं, महाशरीराह्यपितेस्वल्पानामपिवेदनानामसहादृश्यन्ते, सन्निहितभयशोकलोभमोहमानारौद्रभैरवद्विष्टबीभत्सविकृतसङ्कथास्वपिचपशुपुरुषमांसशोणितानिचावेक्ष्यविषादवैवर्ण्यमूर्च्छोन्मादभ्रमप्रपतनानामन्यतममाप्नुवन्त्यथवामरणमिति||११९||

sattvataścēti sattvamucyatē manaḥ| taccharīrasya tantrakamātmasaṁyōgāt| tat trividhaṁ balabhēdēna- pravaraṁ, madhyam, avaraṁ cēti; ataśca pravaramadhyāvarasattvāḥ puruṣā bhavanti| tatra pravarasattvāḥ sattvasārāstē sārēṣūpadiṣṭāḥ, svalpaśarīrā hyapi tē nijāgantunimittāsu mahatīṣvapi pīḍāsvavyathā dr̥śyantē sattvaguṇavaiśēṣyāt; madhyasattvāstvaparānātmanyupanidhāya saṁstambhayantyātmanātmānaṁ parairvā'pi saṁstabhyantē; hīnasattvāstu nātmanā nāpi paraiḥ sattvabalaṁ prati śakyantē upastambhayituṁ, mahāśarīrā hyapi tē svalpānāmapi vēdanānāmasahā dr̥śyantē, sannihitabhayaśōkalōbhamōhamānā raudrabhairavadviṣṭabībhatsavikr̥tasaṅkathāsvapi ca paśupuruṣamāṁsaśōṇitāni cāvēkṣya viṣādavaivarṇyamūrcchōnmādabhramaprapatanānāmanyatamamāpnuvantyathavā maraṇamiti||119||

sattvatashceti sattvamucyate manaH| taccharIrasya tantrakamAtmasaMyogAt| tat trividhaM balabhedena- pravaraM, madhyam, avaraM ceti; atashca pravaramadhyAvarasattvAHpuruShA bhavanti| tatra pravarasattvAH sattvasArAste sAreShUpadiShTAH, svalpasharIrA hyapi te nijAgantunimittAsumahatIShvapi pIDAsvavyathA [1] dRushyante sattvaguNavaisheShyAt;madhyasattvAstvaparAnAtmanyupanidhAya [2] saMstambhayantyAtmanA~a~atmAnaM parairvA~apisaMstabhyante; hInasattvAstu nAtmanA nApi paraiH sattvabalaM prati shakyante upastambhayituM,mahAsharIrA hyapi te svalpAnAmapi vedanAnAmasahA dRushyante, sannihitabhayashokalobhamohamAnAraudrabhairavadviShTabIbhatsavikRutasa~gkathAsvapi ca pashupuruShamAMsashoNitAni cAvekShyaviShAdavaivarNyamUrcchonmAdabhramaprapatanAnAmanyatamamApnuvantyathavA maraNamiti||119||

One should also be examined in respect of psyche/mental strength(sattva). Sattva is known as mind, which controls the body functions by conjunction with the self. It is of three types according to strength- superior, medium and inferior. Accordingly, the persons are also (of three types) having superior, medium and inferior psyche.

Amongst them, those having superior mental strength are, in fact, sattva sara (with sattva as essence) and have been described in context of sara. They, though possessing small stature body are seen unmoved even in severe affections (innate or exogenous) due to predominance of sattva quality.

Those having medium quality of psyche sustain themselves at the instance of other or entirely by others.

But those having inferior mind can sustain neither by themselves nor by others, although having big stature, they are unable to endure even mild pain, they are associated with fear, grief, greed, confusion and conceit; and even during fierce, frightening, disliked, disgusting and ugly narratives or on seeing the animal or human flesh or blood get afflicted with anxiety, abnormal complexion, fainting, insanity, giddiness or falling on the ground or even succumb to death.[119]

Assessment of aharashakti (power of assimilation)

आहारशक्तितश्चेतिआहारशक्तिरभ्यवहरणशक्त्याजरणशक्तयाचपरीक्ष्या; बलायुषीह्याहारायत्ते||१२०||

āhāraśaktitaścēti āhāraśaktirabhyavaharaṇaśaktyā jaraṇaśaktayā ca parīkṣyā; balāyuṣī hyāhārāyattē||120||

AhArashaktitashceti AhArashaktirabhyavaharaNashaktyA jaraNashaktayA ca parIkShyA; balAyuShIhyAhArAyatte||120||

Examination regarding power for assimilation (aharashakti) is to be done in respect of power of ingestion as well as digestion. Strength and life depends on diet.[120]

Assessment of vyayamashakti (exercise capacity)

व्यायामशक्तितश्चेतिव्यायामशक्तिरपिकर्मशक्त्यापरीक्ष्या| कर्मशक्त्याह्यनुमीयतेबलत्रैविध्यम् ||१२१|| vyāyāmaśaktitaścēti vyāyāmaśaktirapi karmaśaktyā parīkṣyā| karmaśaktyā hyanumīyatē balatraividhyam ||121|| vyAyAmashaktitashceti vyAyAmashaktirapi karmashaktyA parIkShyA| karmashaktyA hyanumIyate balatraividhyam [1] ||121||

In respect of capacity of exercise (vyayamashakti) examination should be done by the capactiy for work. In accordance with capacity for work strength is inferred as of three types (poor, moderate and good). [121]

Assessment of vaya (age)

वयस्तश्चेतिकालप्रमाणविशेषापेक्षिणीहिशरीरावस्थावयोऽभिधीयते| तद्वयोयथास्थूलभेदेनत्रिविधं- बालं, मध्यं, जीर्णमिति| तत्रबालमपरिपक्वधातुमजातव्यञ्जनंसुकुमारमक्लेशसहमसम्पूर्णबलंश्लेष्मधातुप्रायमाषोडशवर्षं, विवर्धमानधातुगुणंपुनःप्रायेणानवस्थितसत्त्वमात्रिंशद्वर्षमुपदिष्टं; मध्यंपुनःसमत्वागतबलवीर्यपौरुषपराक्रमग्रहणधारणस्मरणवचनविज्ञानसर्वधातुगुणंबलस्थितमवस्थितसत्त्वमविशीर्यमाणधातुगुणंपित्तधातुप्रायमाषष्टिवर्षमुपदिष्टम्; अतःपरं हीयमानधात्विन्द्रियबलवीर्यपौरुषपराक्रमग्रहणधारणस्मरणवचनविज्ञानंभ्रश्यमानधातुगुणंवायुधातुप्रायंक्रमेणजीर्णमुच्यतेआवर्षशतम्| वर्षशतंखल्वायुषःप्रमाणमस्मिन्काले; सन्तिचपुनरधिकोनवर्षशतजीविनोऽपिमनुष्याः; तेषांविकृतिवर्ज्यैःप्रकृत्यादिबलविशेषैरायुषोलक्षणतश्चप्रमाणमुपलभ्यवयसस्त्रित्वंविभजेत्||१२२||

vayastaścēti kālapramāṇaviśēṣāpēkṣiṇī hi śarīrāvasthā vayō'bhidhīyatē| tadvayō yathāsthūlabhēdēna trividhaṁ- bālaṁ, madhyaṁ, jīrṇamiti| tatra bālamaparipakvadhātumajātavyañjanaṁ sukumāramaklēśasahamasampūrṇabalaṁ ślēṣmadhātuprāyamāṣōḍaśavarṣaṁ, vivardhamānadhātuguṇaṁ punaḥ prāyēṇānavasthitasattvamātriṁśadvarṣamupadiṣṭaṁ; madhyaṁ punaḥ samatvāgatabalavīryapauruṣaparākramagrahaṇadhāraṇasmaraṇavacanavijñānasarvadhātuguṇaṁ balasthitamavasthitasattvamaviśīryamāṇadhātuguṇaṁ pittadhātuprāyamāṣaṣṭivarṣamupadiṣṭam; ataḥ paraṁ hīyamānadhātvindriyabalavīryapauruṣaparākramagrahaṇadhāraṇasmaraṇavacanavijñānaṁ bhraśyamānadhātuguṇaṁ vāyudhātuprāyaṁ kramēṇa jīrṇamucyatē āvarṣaśatam| varṣaśataṁ khalvāyuṣaḥ pramāṇamasmin kālē; santi ca punaradhikōnavarṣaśatajīvinō'pi manuṣyāḥ; tēṣāṁ vikr̥tivarjyaiḥ prakr̥tyādibalaviśēṣairāyuṣō lakṣaṇataśca pramāṇamupalabhya vayasastritvaṁ vibhajēt||122||

vayastashceti kAlapramANavisheShApekShiNI hi sharIrAvasthA vayo~abhidhIyate| tadvayo yathAsthUlabhedena [1] trividhaM- bAlaM, madhyaM, jIrNamiti| tatra bAlamaparipakvadhAtumajAtavya~jjanaM sukumAramakleshasahamasampUrNabalaMshleShmadhAtuprAyamAShoDashavarShaM, vivardhamAnadhAtuguNaM punaHprAyeNAnavasthitasattvamAtriMshadvarShamupadiShTaM; madhyaM punaHsamatvAgatabalavIryapauruShaparAkramagrahaNadhAraNasmaraNavacanavij~jAnasarvadhAtuguNaMbalasthitamavasthitasattvamavishIryamANadhAtuguNaMpittadh
AtuprAyamAShaShTivarShamupadiShTam; ataH paraM hIyamAnadhAtvindriyabalavIryapauruShaparAkramagrahaNadhAraNasmaraNavacanavij~jAnaMbhrashyamAnadhAtuguNaM vAyudhAtuprAyaM krameNa jIrNamucyate AvarShashatam| varShashataM khalvAyuShaH pramANamasmin kAle; santi ca punaradhikonavarShashatajIvino~apimanuShyAH; teShAM vikRutivarjyaiH prakRutyAdibalavisheShairAyuSho lakShaNatashcapramANamupalabhya vayasastritvaM vibhajet||122||

Examination of a person with respect to age should be done as the state of body corresponds to the length of time. Age is broadly divided into three stages viz. childhood, middle age and old age.

Childhood is determined upto the age of sixteen years when dhatus are immature, sexual characters are not manifested the body is delicate, unenduring with incomplete strength and predominance of kapha dhatu.

This again is perceived in two subtypes viz. dhatus in developing stage up to sixteen years and fickle mind up to thirty years.

The middle age is characterized by strength, energy, virility, valor, acquisition, retention, recollection, speech, understanding and qualities of all dhatus having developed properly; with proper physical and mental strength, without degeneration in qualities of dhatus, with predominance of pitta dhatu and is up to sixty years.

Later is the old age up to one hundred years. During this period dhatus, sense organs, strength, energy, virility, prowess, acquisition, retention, recollection, speech and understanding generally or gradually degenerate, this phase is predominated by vayu. During this stage the measure of life span is one hundred years.

There are persons who lived longer or shorter than that, in such cases, one should determine the three divisions of age on the basis of strength of the factors like prakriti etc. except vikriti and also by the features of different periods of life span.[122]

एवंप्रकृत्यादीनांविकृतिवर्ज्यानांभावानांप्रवरमध्यावरविभागेनबलविशेषंविभजेत्| विकृतिबलत्रैविध्येनतुदोषबलंत्रिविधमनुमीयते| ततोभैषज्यस्यतीक्ष्णमृदुमध्यविभागेनत्रैविध्यंविभज्ययथादोषंभैषज्यमवचारयेदिति||१२३||

ēvaṁ prakr̥tyādīnāṁ vikr̥tivarjyānāṁ bhāvānāṁ pravaramadhyāvaravibhāgēna balaviśēṣaṁ vibhajēt| vikr̥tibalatraividhyēna tu dōṣabalaṁ trividhamanumīyatē| tatō bhaiṣajyasya tīkṣṇamr̥dumadhyavibhāgēna traividhyaṁ vibhajya yathādōṣaṁ bhaiṣajyamavacārayēditi||123||

evaM prakRutyAdInAM vikRutivarjyAnAM bhAvAnAM pravaramadhyAvaravibhAgena balavisheShaMvibhajet| vikRutibalatraividhyena tu doShabalaM trividhamanumIyate| tato bhaiShajyasya tIkShNamRudumadhyavibhAgena traividhyaM vibhajya yathAdoShaMbhaiShajyamavacArayediti||123||

Thus, the strength of the entities like prakriti, etc. barring vikriti should be determined in three divisions – superior, medium and inferior. According to severity of morbidity (vikriti) the three degrees of strength of dosha are inferred. In accordance with the medicaments should also be divided into three degrees i.e. strong, mild and moderate in regard to dosha.[123]

Knowledge of lifespan

आयुषःप्रमाणज्ञानहेतोःपुनरिन्द्रियेषु] जातिसूत्रीयेचलक्षणान्युपदेक्ष्यन्ते||१२४|| āyuṣaḥ pramāṇajñānahētōḥ punarindriyēṣu jātisūtrīyē ca lakṣaṇānyupadēkṣyantē||124|| AyuShaH pramANaj~jAnahetoH punarindriyeShu [1] jAtisUtrIye ca lakShaNAnyupadekShyante||124|| In regard to knowledge of measure of life span, there is description of symptoms in Indriya sthana and Jatisutriya adhyaya (eighth chapter of sharira sthana).[124]

Assessment of Kala (time or stage or season)

कालःपुनःसंवत्सरश्चातुरावस्थाच| तत्रसंवत्सरोद्विधात्रिधाषोढाद्वादशधाभूयश्चाप्यतःप्रविभज्यतेतत्तत्कार्यमभिसमीक्ष्य| अत्रखलुतावत्षोढाप्रविभज्यकार्यमुपदेक्ष्यते- हेमन्तोग्रीष्मोवर्षाश्चेतिशीतोष्णवर्षलक्षणास्त्रयऋतवोभवन्ति, तेषामन्तरेष्वितरेसाधारणलक्षणास्त्रयऋतवः- प्रावृट्शरद्वसन्ताइति| प्रावृडितिप्रथमःप्रवृष्टःकालः, तस्यानुबन्धोहिवर्षाः| एवमेतेसंशोधनमधिकृत्यषट्विभज्यन्तेऋतवः||१२५||

kālaḥ punaḥ saṁvatsaraścāturāvasthā ca| tatra saṁvatsarō dvidhā tridhā ṣōḍhā dvādaśadhā bhūyaścāpyataḥ pravibhajyatē tattatkāryamabhisamīkṣya| atra khalu tāvat ṣōḍhā pravibhajya kāryamupadēkṣyatē- hēmantō grīṣmō varṣāścēti śītōṣṇavarṣalakṣaṇāstraya r̥tavō bhavanti, tēṣāmantarēṣvitarē sādhāraṇalakṣaṇāstraya r̥tavaḥ- prāvr̥ṭśaradvasantā iti| prāvr̥ḍiti prathamaḥ pravr̥ṣṭaḥ kālaḥ, tasyānubandhō hi varṣāḥ| ēvamētē saṁśōdhanamadhikr̥tya ṣaṭ vibhajyantē r̥tavaḥ||125||

kAlaH punaH saMvatsarashcAturAvasthA ca| tatra saMvatsaro dvidhA tridhA ShoDhA dvAdashadhA bhUyashcApyataH pravibhajyatetattatkAryamabhisamIkShya| atra khalu tAvat ShoDhA pravibhajya kAryamupadekShyate- hemanto grIShmo varShAshcetishItoShNavarShalakShaNAstraya Rutavo bhavanti, teShAmantareShvitare sAdhAraNalakShaNAstrayaRutavaH- prAvRuTsharadvasantA iti| prAvRuDiti prathamaH pravRuShTaH [1] kAlaH, tasyAnubandho hi varShAH| evamete saMshodhanamadhikRutya ShaT vibhajyante RutavaH||125||

Kala (time) has been considered of two types viz. year aspect and status of the patient. The year has been divided into two, three, six, twelve or even more parts according to nature of action (to be taken). Now, dividing into six, the action will be said. Hemanta (early winter), grishma (summer) and varsha (rainy season) these are the three seasons characterised by cold, heat and rains. In between them, there are other three seasons having common characters as pravrit (early rain), sharada (autumn) and vasanta (spring). Pravrit denotes the early rain; varsha is the continuation of the same. Thus, these six divisions of the seasons have been made for the purpose of evacuative therapy.[125]

Appropriate season for purification therapies

तत्रसाधारणलक्षणेष्वृतुषुवमनादीनांप्रवृत्तिर्विधीयते, निवृत्तिरितरेषु| साधारणलक्षणाहिमन्दशीतोष्णवर्षत्वात्सुखतमाश्चभवन्त्यविकल्पकाश्चशरीरौषधानाम्, इतरेपुनरत्यर्थशीतोष्णवर्षत्वाद्दुःखतमाश्च भवन्तिविकल्पकाश्चशरीरौषधानाम्||१२६||

tatra sādhāraṇalakṣaṇēṣvr̥tuṣu vamanādīnāṁ pravr̥ttirvidhīyatē, nivr̥ttiritarēṣu| sādhāraṇalakṣaṇā hi mandaśītōṣṇavarṣatvāt sukhatamāśca bhavantyavikalpakāśca śarīrauṣadhānām, itarē punaratyarthaśītōṣṇavarṣatvādduḥkhatamāśca bhavanti vikalpakāśca śarīrauṣadhānām||126||

tatra sAdhAraNalakShaNeShvRutuShu vamanAdInAM pravRuttirvidhIyate, nivRuttiritareShu| sAdhAraNalakShaNA hi mandashItoShNavarShatvAt sukhatamAshca bhavantyavikalpakAshcasharIrauShadhAnAm, itare punaratyarthashItoShNavarShatvAdduHkhatamAshca bhavanti vikalpakAshcasharIrauShadhAnAm||126||

Purification therapies such as emesis etc. are applied in seasons having similar characters(as of physiological vitiation of dosha) and are stopped in other seasons. The seasons having similar characters are the most convenient ones and are not harmful to body and drugs because of moderate cold, heat and rains, while others, due to excessive cold, heat and rains are inconvenient ones and harmful to body and the drugs.[126]

तत्रहेमन्तेह्यतिमात्रशीतोपहतत्वाच्छरीरमसुखोपपन्नंभवत्यतिशीतवाताध्मातमतिदारुणीभूतमवबद्धदोषंच, भेषजंपुनःसंशोधनार्थमुष्णस्वभावमतिशीतोपहतत्वान्मन्दवीर्यत्वमापद्यते, तस्मात्तयोःसंयोगेसंशोधनमयोगायोपपद्यतेशरीरमपिचवातोपद्रवाय| ग्रीष्मेपुनर्भृशोष्णोपहतत्वाच्छरीरमसुखोपपन्नंभवत्युष्णवातातपाध्मातमतिशिथिलमत्यर्थप्रविलीनदोषं, भेषजंपुनःसंशोधनार्थमुष्णस्वभावमुष्णानुगमनात्तीक्ष्णतरत्वमापद्यते, तस्मात्तयोःसंयोगेसंशोधनमतियोगायोपपद्यतेशरीरमपिपिपासोपद्रवाय| वर्षासुतुमेघजलावततेगूढार्कचन्द्रतारेधाराकुलेवियतिभूमौपङ्कजलपटलसंवृतायामत्यर्थोपक्लिन्नशरीरेषुभूतेषुविहतस्वभावेषुचकेवलेष्वौषधग्रामेषुतोयतोयदानुगतमारुतसंसर्गाद्गुरुप्रवृत्तीनिवमनादीनिभवन्ति, गुरुसमुत्थानानिचशरीराणि| तस्माद्वमनादीनांनिवृत्तिर्विधीयतेवर्षान्तेष्वृतुषु , नचेदात्ययिकंकर्म| आत्ययिकेपुनःकर्मणिकाममृतुंविकल्प्यकृत्रिमगुणोपधानेनयथर्तुगुणविपरीतेनभेषजंसंयोगसंस्कारप्रमाणविकल्पेनोपपाद्यप्रमाणवीर्यसमंकृत्वाततःप्रयोजयेदुत्तमेनयत्नेनावहितः||१२७||

tatra hēmantē hyatimātraśītōpahatatvāccharīramasukhōpapannaṁ bhavatyatiśītavātādhmātamatidāruṇībhūtamavabaddhadōṣaṁ ca, bhēṣajaṁ punaḥ saṁśōdhanārthamuṣṇasvabhāvamatiśītōpahatatvānmandavīryatvamāpadyatē, tasmāttayōḥ saṁyōgē saṁśōdhanamayōgāyōpapadyatē śarīramapi ca vātōpadravāya| grīṣmē punarbhr̥śōṣṇōpahatatvāccharīramasukhōpapannaṁ bhavatyuṣṇavātātapādhmātamatiśithilamatyarthapravilīnadōṣaṁ, bhēṣajaṁ punaḥ saṁśōdhanārthamuṣṇasvabhāvamuṣṇānugamanāttīkṣṇataratvamāpadyatē, tasmāttayōḥ saṁyōgē saṁśōdhanamatiyōgāyōpapadyatē śarīramapi pipāsōpadravāya| varṣāsu tu mēghajalāvatatē gūḍhārkacandratārē dhārākulē viyati bhūmau paṅkajalapaṭalasaṁvr̥tāyāmatyarthōpaklinnaśarīrēṣu bhūtēṣu vihatasvabhāvēṣu ca kēvalēṣvauṣadhagrāmēṣu tōyatōyadānugatamārutasaṁsargād gurupravr̥ttīni vamanādīni bhavanti, gurusamutthānāni ca śarīrāṇi| tasmādvamanādīnāṁ nivr̥ttirvidhīyatē varṣāntēṣvr̥tuṣu , na cēdātyayikaṁ karma| ātyayikē punaḥ karmaṇi kāmamr̥tuṁ vikalpya kr̥trimaguṇōpadhānēna yathartuguṇaviparītēna bhēṣajaṁ saṁyōgasaṁskārapramāṇavikalpēnōpapādya pramāṇavīryasamaṁ kr̥tvā tataḥ prayōjayēduttamēna yatnēnāvahitaḥ||127||

tatra hemante hyatimAtrashItopahatatvAccharIramasukhopapannaMbhavatyatishItavAtAdhmAtamatidAruNIbhUtamavabaddhadoShaM ca, bheShajaM punaHsaMshodhanArthamuShNasvabhAvamatishItopahatatvAnmandavIryatvamApadyate, tasmAttayoHsaMyoge saMshodhanamayogAyopapadyate sharIramapi ca vAtopadravAya| grIShme punarbhRushoShNopahatatvAccharIramasukhopapannaMbhavatyuShNavAtAtapAdhmAtamatishithilamatyarthapravilInadoShaM, bheShajaM punaHsaMshodhanArthamuShNasvabhAvamuShNAnugamanAttIkShNataratvamApadyate, tasmAttayoH saMyogesaMshodhanamatiyogAyopapadyate sharIramapi pipAsopadravAya| varShAsu tu meghajalAvatate gUDhArkacandratAre dhArAkule viyati bhUmaupa~gkajalapaTalasaMvRutAyAmatyarthopaklinnasharIreShu bhUteShu vihatasvabhAveShu cakevaleShvauShadhagrAmeShu toyatoyadAnugatamArutasaMsargAd gurupravRuttIni vamanAdIni bhavanti,gurusamutthAnAni ca sharIrANi| tasmAdvamanAdInAM nivRuttirvidhIyate varShAnteShvRutuShu [1] , na cedAtyayikaM karma| Atyayike punaH karmaNi kAmamRutuM vikalpya kRutrimaguNopadhAnena yathartuguNaviparItenabheShajaM saMyogasaMskArapramANavikalpenopapAdya pramANavIryasamaM kRutvA tataHprayojayeduttamena yatnenAvahitaH||127||

During hemanta (early winter) the body is affected by excessive cold and as such is distressed, exposed to excessively cold wind, is too much roughed and dry, and with doshas adhered; on the other hand, the drugs administered for evacuation are hot by nature which become mild in potency due to exposure to excessively cold wind. Hence in conjunction of both these, the evacuative therapy becomes ineffective and the body is inflicted with the vatika complication.

During summer season the body afflicted by excessive heat becomes distressed exposed to excessively hot winds too much lax and with excessively lignified doshas; the drugs, on the other hand, administered for evacuation being hot in nature become more intense because of exposure to heat; hence in conjunction of both these, the evacuative therapy produces effects in excess and the body also gets complication like thirst etc.

During rainy season, when the sky is pervaded with cloud and water the sun, the moon and the stars are hidden and there are torrential rains. The earth is covered with mud and water; the body of living beings is moistened and the entire herbal wealth is damaged in nature, the evacuative measures become dull in action and the human bodies sluggish in recovery due to exposure to wind associated with moisture and clouds.

Therefore, the measures like emesis etc. are stopped in the seasons ending with the rains (early winter, summer and rainy seasons) except in case of emergency. In emergency too, one should administer the therapy with great care after modifying the seasonal effects sufficiently by artificial means producing qualities contrary to the seasons and by making the measure appropriate in standard potency with variation in combination, processing and quantity. [127]

Stage of disease

आतुरावस्थास्वपितुकार्याकार्यंप्रतिकालाकालसञ्ज्ञा; तद्यथा- अस्यामवस्थायामस्यभेषजस्याकालः, कालःपुनरन्यस्येति; एतदपिहिभवत्यवस्थाविशेषेण; तस्मादातुरावस्थास्वपिहिकालाकालसञ्ज्ञा| तस्यपरीक्षा- मुहुर्मुहुरातुरस्यसर्वावस्थाविशेषावेक्षणंयथावद्भेषजप्रयोगार्थम्| नह्यतिपतितकालमप्राप्तकालंवाभेषजमुपयुज्यमानंयौगिकंभवति; कालोहिभैषज्यप्रयोगपर्याप्तिमभिनिर्वर्तयति||१२८||

āturāvasthāsvapi tu kāryākāryaṁ prati kālākālasañjñā; tadyathā- asyāmavasthāyāmasya bhēṣajasyākālaḥ , kālaḥ punaranyasyēti; ētadapi hi bhavatyavasthāviśēṣēṇa; tasmādāturāvasthāsvapi hi kālākālasañjñā| tasya parīkṣā- muhurmuhurāturasya sarvāvasthāviśēṣāvēkṣaṇaṁ yathāvadbhēṣajaprayōgārtham| na hyatipatitakālamaprāptakālaṁ vā bhēṣajamupayujyamānaṁ yaugikaṁ bhavati; kālō hi bhaiṣajyaprayōgaparyāptimabhinirvartayati||128||

AturAvasthAsvapi tu kAryAkAryaM prati kAlAkAlasa~jj~jA; tadyathA- asyAmavasthAyAmasyabheShajasyAkAlaH [1] , kAlaH punaranyasyeti; etadapi hi bhavatyavasthAvisheSheNa;tasmAdAturAvasthAsvapi hi kAlAkAlasa~jj~jA| tasya parIkShA- muhurmuhurAturasya sarvAvasthAvisheShAvekShaNaM yathAvadbheShajaprayogArtham| na hyatipatitakAlamaprAptakAlaM vA bheShajamupayujyamAnaM yaugikaM bhavati; kAlo hibhaiShajyaprayogaparyAptimabhinirvartayati||128||

The status of the patient is also called as timely or untimely in relation the act being performed or not. Such as, in a certain condition one drug is untimely, and the other one is timely. This is also due to specific condition, hence the nomenclature of kala (timely) and akala (untimely) is given to the conditions of the patients. This is examined like this- the physician should observe all the conditions of the patient again and again in order to administer the correct therapy. The therapy administered after or before the (opportune) time is not effective because time determines the sufficiency to the administration of therapy.[128]

Pravritti (inclination or action)

प्रवृत्तिस्तुप्रतिकर्मसमारम्भः| तस्यलक्षणंभिषगौषधातुरपरिचारकाणांक्रियासमायोगः||१२९||

pravr̥ttistu pratikarmasamārambhaḥ| tasya lakṣaṇaṁ bhiṣagauṣadhāturaparicārakāṇāṁ kriyāsamāyōgaḥ||129||

pravRuttistu pratikarmasamArambhaH| tasya lakShaNaM bhiShagauShadhAturaparicArakANAM kriyAsamAyogaH||129||

Pravritti (inclination or action) is the initiation of the therapy which is characterized by the combination of physician, drug, patient and attendant in treatment. [129]

Upaya (management)

उपायःपुनर्भिषगादीनांसौष्ठवमभिविधानंचसम्यक्| तस्यलक्षणं- भिषगादीनांयथोक्तगुणसम्पत्देशकालप्रमाणसात्म्यक्रियादिभिश्चसिद्धिकारणैःसम्यगुपपादितस्यौषधस्यावचारणमिति||१३०||

upāyaḥ punarbhiṣagādīnāṁ sauṣṭhavamabhividhānaṁ ca samyak| tasya lakṣaṇaṁ- bhiṣagādīnāṁ yathōktaguṇasampat dēśakālapramāṇasātmyakriyādibhiśca siddhikāraṇaiḥ samyagupapāditasyauṣadhasyāvacāraṇamiti||130||

upAyaH punarbhiShagAdInAM sauShThavamabhividhAnaM [1] ca samyak| tasya lakShaNaM- bhiShagAdInAM yathoktaguNasampat deshakAlapramANasAtmyakriyAdibhishcasiddhikAraNaiH samyagupapAditasyauShadhasyAvacAraNamiti||130||

Regarding upaya it is excellence of physician etc. and their proper arrangement which is characterized by the physician etc. endowed with their respective qualities and proper application of therapy along with the consideration of place, time, quantitative measurement, suitability, processing etc. which are the factors which when considered and administered with specific medicine leads to success.[130]

एवमेतेदशपरीक्ष्यविशेषाःपृथक्पृथक्परीक्षितव्याभवन्ति||१३१||

ēvamētē daśa parīkṣyaviśēṣāḥ pr̥thak pr̥thak parīkṣitavyā bhavanti||131||

evamete dasha parIkShyavisheShAH pRuthak pRuthak parIkShitavyA bhavanti||131||

Thus these mentioned ten entities should be examined separately and sincerely.[131]

Objective of examination

परीक्षायास्तुखलुप्रयोजनंप्रतिपत्तिज्ञानम्प्रतिपत्तिर्नामयोविकारोयथाप्रतिपत्तव्यस्तस्यतथाऽनुष्ठानज्ञानम्||१३२||

parīkṣāyāstu khalu prayōjanaṁ pratipattijñānam| pratipattirnāma yō vikārō yathā pratipattavyastasya tathā'nuṣṭhānajñānam||132||

parIkShAyAstu khalu prayojanaM pratipattij~jAnam| pratipattirnAma yo vikAro yathA pratipattavyastasya tathA~anuShThAnaj~jAnam||132||

Pratipatti is the object of examination. In other words, it is the decision regarding course of action. More over pratipatti is the knowledge of treatment, with which the disorder is to be treated. [132]

यत्रतुखलुवमनादीनांप्रवृत्तिः, यत्रचनिवृत्तिः, तद्व्यासतःसिद्धिषूत्तरमुपदेक्ष्यामः||१३३||

yatra tu khalu vamanādīnāṁ pravr̥ttiḥ, yatra ca nivr̥ttiḥ, tadvyāsataḥ siddhiṣūttaramupadēkṣyāmaḥ||133||

yatra tu khalu vamanAdInAM pravRuttiH, yatra ca nivRuttiH, tadvyAsataHsiddhiShUttaramupadekShyAmaH||133||

The conditions where emesis etc. are indicated or contraindicated will be described in detail in Siddhi Sthana. [133]

प्रवृत्तिनिवृत्तिलक्षणसंयोगेतुगुरुलाघवंसम्प्रधार्यसम्यगध्यवस्येदन्यतरनिष्ठायाम्सन्तिहिव्याधयःशास्त्रेषूत्सर्गापवादैरुपक्रमंप्रतिनिर्दिष्टाः| तस्माद्गुरुलाघवंसम्प्रधार्यसम्यगध्यवस्येदित्युक्तम्||१३४||

pravr̥ttinivr̥ttilakṣaṇasaṁyōgē tu gurulāghavaṁ sampradhārya samyagadhyavasyēdanyataraniṣṭhāyām| santi hi vyādhayaḥ śāstrēṣūtsargāpavādairupakramaṁ prati nirdiṣṭāḥ| tasmādgurulāghavaṁ sampradhārya samyagadhyavasyēdityuktam||134||

pravRuttinivRuttilakShaNasaMyoge tu gurulAghavaM sampradhAryasamyagadhyavasyedanyataraniShThAyAm| santi hi vyAdhayaH shAstreShUtsargApavAdairupakramaM prati nirdiShTAH| tasmAdgurulAghavaM sampradhArya samyagadhyavasyedityuktam||134||

In situation where symptoms of both indication and contraindication conjoined, one should decide (the treatment protocol) after proper examination of dominant or recessive condition of dosha. The diseases mentioned in treatises are in respect of their treatment as general rule or exception. Hence it is said that one should take action after considering the dominant or recessive condition of dosha. [134]

List of medicines used in therapeutic emesis

यानितुखलुवमनादिषुभेषजद्रव्याण्युपयोगंगच्छन्तितान्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः| तद्यथा- फलजीमूतकेक्ष्वाकुधामार्गवकुटजकृतवेधनफलानि, फलजीमूतकेक्ष्वाकुधामार्गवपत्रपुष्पाणिआरग्वधवृक्षकमदनस्वादुकण्टकपाठापाटलाशार्ङ्गेष्टामूर्वासप्तपर्णनक्तमालपिचुमर्दपटोलसुषवीगुडूची- चित्रकसोमवल्कशतावरीद्वीपीशिग्रुमूलकषायैः, मधुकमधूककोविदारकर्वुदारनीपविदुलबिम्बीशणपुष्पीसदापुष्पाप्रत्यक्पुष्पाकषायैश्च, एलाहरेणुप्रियङ्गुपृथ्वीकाकुस्तुम्बुरुतगरनलदह्रीवेरतालीशोशीरकषायैश्च , इक्षुकाण्डेक्ष्विक्षुवालिकादर्भपोटगलकालङ्कृ(ङ्क)तकषायैश्च, सुमनासौमनस्यायनीहरिद्रादारुहरिद्रावृश्चीरपुनर्नवामहासहाक्षुद्रसहाकषायैश्च, शाल्मलिशाल्मलिकभद्रपर्ण्येलापर्ण्युपोदिकोद्दालकधन्वनराजादनोपचित्रागोपीशृङ्गाटिकाकषायैश्च, पिप्पलीपिप्पलीमूलचव्यचित्रकशृङ्गवेरसर्षपफाणितक्षीरक्षारलवणोदकैश्च, यथालाभंयथेष्टंवाऽप्युपसंस्कृत्यवर्तिक्रियाचूर्णावलेहस्नेहकषायमांसरसयवागूयूषकाम्बलिकक्षीरोपधेयान्मोदकानन्यांश्चभक्ष्यप्रकारान्विविधाननुविधाययथार्हंवमनार्हायदद्याद्विधिवद्वमनम्| इतिकल्पसङ्ग्रहोवमनद्रव्याणाम्| कल्पमेषांविस्तारेणोत्तरकालमुपदेक्ष्यामः||१३५||

yāni tu khalu vamanādiṣu bhēṣajadravyāṇyupayōgaṁ gacchanti tānyanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ| tadyathā- phalajīmūtakēkṣvākudhāmārgavakuṭajakr̥tavēdhanaphalāni, phalajīmūtakēkṣvākudhāmārgavapatrapuṣpāṇi āragvadhavr̥kṣakamadanasvādukaṇṭakapāṭhāpāṭalāśārṅgēṣṭāmūrvāsaptaparṇanaktamālapicumardapa
ṭōlasuṣavīguḍūcī- citrakasōmavalkaśatāvarīdvīpīśigrumūlakaṣāyaiḥ, madhukamadhūkakōvidārakarvudāranīpavidulabimbīśaṇapuṣpīsadāpuṣpāpratyakpuṣpākaṣāyaiśca, ēlāharēṇupriyaṅgupr̥thvīkākustumburutagaranaladahrīvēratālīśōśīrakaṣāyaiśca , ikṣukāṇḍēkṣvikṣuvālikādarbhapōṭagalakālaṅkr̥(ṅka)takaṣāyaiśca, sumanāsaumanasyāyanīharidrādāruharidrāvr̥ścīrapunarnavāmahāsahākṣudrasahākaṣāyaiśc, śālmaliśālmalikabhadraparṇyēlāparṇyupōdikōddālakadhanvan
arājādanōpacitrāgōpīśr̥ṅgāṭiākaṣāyaiśca, pippalīpippalīmūlacavyacitrakaśr̥ṅgavērasarṣapaphāṇitakṣīrakṣāralavaṇōdakaiśca, yathālābhaṁ yathēṣṭaṁ vā'pyupasaṁskr̥tya vartikriyācūrṇāvalēhasnēhakaṣāyamāṁsarasayavāgūyūṣakāmbalikakṣīrōpadhēyānmōdakānanyāṁśca bhakṣyaprakārān vividhānanuvidhāya yathārhaṁ vamanārhāya dadyādvidhivadvamanam| iti kalpasaṅgrahō vamanadravyāṇām| kalpamēṣāṁ vistārēṇōttarakālamupadēkṣyāmaḥ||135||

yAni tu khalu vamanAdiShu bheShajadravyANyupayogaM gacchanti tAnyanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH| tadyathA- phalajImUtakekShvAkudhAmArgavakuTajakRutavedhanaphalAni, phalajImUtakekShvAkudhAmArgavapatrapuShpANiAragvadhavRukShakamadanasvAdukaNTakapAThApATalAshAr~ggeShTAmUrvAsaptaparNanaktamAlapic
umardapaTolasuShavIguDUcI-citrakasomavalkashatAvarIdvIpIshigrumUlakaShAyaiH,madhukamadhUkakovidArakarvudAranIpavidulabimbIshaNapuShpIsadApuShpApratyakpuShpAkaShAyaishca,elAha
reNupriya~ggupRuthvIkAkustumburutagaranaladahrIveratAlIshoshIrakaShAyaishca [1] ,ikShukANDekShvikShuvAlikAdarbhapoTagalakAla~gkRu(~gka)takaShAyaishca, sumanAsaumanasyAyanIharidrAdAruharidrAvRushcIrapunarnavAmahAsahAkShudrasahAkaShAyaishca,shAlmalishAlmalikabhadraparNyelAparNyupodikoddAlakadhanva
narAjAdanopacitrAgopIshRu~ggATikAkaShAyaishca,pippalIpippalImUlacavyacitrakashRu~ggaverasarShapaphANitakShIrakShAralavaNodakaishca, yathAlAbhaM yatheShTaMvA~apyupasaMskRutya vartikriyAcUrNAvalehasnehakaShAyamAMsarasayavAgUyUShakAmbalikakShIropadheyAnmodakAnanyAMshcabhakShyaprakArAn vividhAnanuvidhAya yathArhaM vamanArhAya dadyAdvidhivadvamanam| iti kalpasa~ggraho vamanadravyANAm| kalpameShAM vistAreNottarakAlamupadekShyAmaH||135||

In this concern the drugs which are mentioned for therapeutic emesis etc. are being mentioned henceforth. They are as follows:

  • Fruits of madanaphala, jimutaka, ikshvaku, dhamargava, kutaja, kritavedhana ;
  • Leaves and flowers of madanaphala, jimutaka, ikshvaku, dhamargava;
  • Decoctions of the roots of aragvadha, vrikshaka (kutaja), madana, svadukanṭaka, paṭha, patala, sharangeshta, murva, saptaparna, naktamala, pichumarda (nimba), patola, sushavi, guduchi- chitraka, somavalka, shatavari, dvipi, shigrumula;
  • Decoction of madhuka, madhooka, kovidara, karvudara, nipa, vidula, bimbi, shaṇapushpi, sadapushpa (arka) and pratyakpushpa(apamarga);
  • Decoction of ela, harenu, priyangu, prithvika, kustumburu, tagara, nalada, hrivera, talis, ushira,
  • Decoction of ikshu, kandekshu, ikshuvalika, darbha, potagala, kalankri(nka)ta;
  • Decoction of sumana, saumanasyayani, haridra, daruharidra, vrishchirq, punarnava, mahasaha, kshudrasaha;
  • Decoction of sumana, saumanasyayani;
  • Decoction of shalmali, shalmalika, bhadraparni, elaparni, upodika, uddalaka, dhanvana, rajadana, upachitra, gopi (sariva), shringataka; pippali, pippalimula, chavya, chitraka, shringavera, sarshapa, phanita, kshira, kshara, salt with water and made into bolus and other eatables added with vartti kriya (suppository), powder, linctus, processed in lipids, extract, meat soup, gruel, (vegetable) soup, kambalika and milk should be administered to the patient requiring emesis according to prescribed procedure. These are, in brief, the pharmaceutical forms of emetic drugs, which are described in detail latter on in Kalpa Sthana.[135]

List of medicines used in therapeutic purgation

विरेचनद्रव्याणितुश्यामात्रिवृच्चतुरङ्गुलतिल्वकमहावृक्षसप्तलाशङ्खिनीदन्तीद्रवन्तीनांक्षीरमूलत्वक्पत्रपुष्पफलानियथायोगंतैस्तैःक्षीरमूलत्वक्पत्रपुष्पफलैर्विक्लिप्ताविक्लिप्तैः , अजगन्धाश्वगन्धाजशृङ्गीक्षीरिणीनीलिनीक्लीतककषायैश्च, प्रकीर्योदकीर्यामसूरविदलाकम्पिल्लकविडङ्गगवाक्षीकषायैश्च, पीलुप्रियालमृद्वीकाकाश्मर्यपरूषकबदरदाडिमामलकहरीतकीबिभीतकवृश्चीरपुनर्नवाविदारिगन्धादिकषायैश्च,सीधुसुरासौवीरकतुषोदकमैरेयमेदकमदिरामधुमधूलकधान्याम्लकुवलबदरखर्जूरकर्कन्धुभिश्च, दधिदधिमण्डोदश्विद्भिश्च, गोमहिष्यजावीनांचक्षीरमूत्रैर्यथालाभंयथेष्टंवाऽप्युपसंस्कृत्यवर्तिक्रियाचूर्णासवलेहस्नेहकषायमांसरसयूषकाम्बलिकयवागूक्षीरोपधेयान्मोदकानन्यांश्चभक्ष्यप्र(वि)कारान्विविधांश्चयोगाननुविधाययथार्हंविरेच
नार्हायदद्याद्विरेचनम्| इतिकल्पसङ्ग्रहोविरेचनद्रव्याणाम्| कल्पमेषांविस्तरेणयथावदुत्तरकालमुपदेक्ष्यामः||१३६||

virēcanadravyāṇi tu śyāmātrivr̥ccaturaṅgulatilvakamahāvr̥kṣasaptalāśaṅkhinīdantīdravantīnāṁ kṣīramūlatvakpatrapuṣpaphalāni yathāyōgaṁ taistaiḥ kṣīramūlatvakpatrapuṣpaphalairvikliptāvikliptaiḥ , ajagandhāśvagandhājaśr̥ṅgīkṣīriṇīnīlinīklītakakaṣāyaiśca, prakīryōdakīryāmasūravidalākampillakaviḍaṅgagavākṣīkaṣāyaiśca, pīlupriyālamr̥dvīkākāśmaryaparūṣakabadaradāḍimāmalakaharītakībibhītakavr̥ścīrapunarnavāvidārigandhādikaṣāyaiśca, sīdhusurāsauvīrakatuṣōdakamairēyamēdakamadirāmadhumadhūlakadhānyāmlakuvalabadarakharjūrakarkandhubhiśca, dadhidadhimaṇḍōdaśvidbhiśca, gōmahiṣyajāvīnāṁ ca kṣīramūtrairyathālābhaṁ yathēṣṭaṁ vā'pyupasaṁskr̥tya vartikriyācūrṇāsavalēhasnēhakaṣāyamāṁsarasayūṣakāmbalikayavāgūkṣīrōpadhēyān mōdakānanyāṁśca bhakṣyapra(vi)kārān vividhāṁśca yōgānanuvidhāya yathārhaṁ virēcanārhāya dadyādvirēcanam| iti kalpasaṅgrahō virēcanadravyāṇām| kalpamēṣāṁ vistarēṇa yathāvaduttarakālamupadēkṣyāmaḥ||136||

virecanadravyANi tu shyAmAtrivRuccatura~ggulatilvakamahAvRukShasaptalAsha~gkhinIdantIdravantInAMkShIramUlatvakpatrapuShpaphalAni yathAyogaM taistaiH kShIramUlatvakpatrapuShpaphalairvikliptAvikliptaiH ,ajagandhAshvagandhAjashRu~ggIkShIriNInIlinIklItakakaShAyaishca,prakIryodakIryAmasUravidalAkampillakaviDa~ggagavAkShIkaShAyaishca,pIlupriyAlamRudvIkAkAsh
maryaparUShakabadaradADimAmalakaharItakIbibhItakavRushcIrapunarnavAvidArigandhAdikaShAyaishca,sIdhusurAsauvIrakatuShodakamaireyamedakamadirAmadhum
adhUlakadhAnyAmlakuvalabadarakharjUrakarkandhubhishca,dadhidadhimaNDodashvidbhishca, gomahiShyajAvInAM ca kShIramUtrairyathAlAbhaM yatheShTaM vA~apyupasaMskRutyavartikriyAcUrNAsavalehasnehakaShAyamAMsarasayUShakAmbalikayavAgUkShIropadheyAn modakAnanyAMshcabhakShyapra(vi)kArAn vividhAMshca [1] yogAnanuvidhAya yathArhaM virecanArhAya dadyAdvirecanam| iti kalpasa~ggraho virecanadravyANAm| kalpameShAM vistareNa yathAvaduttarakAlamupadekShyAmaH||136||

Purgative drugs in parts of latex, root, bark, leaf, flower and fruit wholly or individually of shyama, trivrit, chaturangula (aragvadha), tilvaka, mahavriksha, saptala, shankhini, danti and dravanti are to be used according to requirement. They should be processed, according to need or availability with the following:

  • decoction of ajagandha, ashvagandha, ajashringi, kshirini, nilini and klitaka;
  • prakirya, udakirya, masuravidala, kampillaka, vidanga, and gavakshi;
  • pilu, priyala, mrudvika, kashmarya, parushaka, badara, dadima, amalaki, haritaki, bibhitaki, vrushchira, punarnava and the drugs of vidarigandhadi gana;
  • sidhu, sura, sauviraka, tushodaka, maireya, medaka, madira, madhu, madhulaka, dhanyamla, kuvala, badara, kharjura, karkandhu, dadhi, dadhimanda (curdwater), udashvid (buttermilk) and;
  • milk and urine of cow, buffalo, goat and sheep;
  • made into bolus and other eatables added with vartikriya (suppository), churna (powder), asava, leha (linctus), sneha (medicated fatty preparation), kashaya (decoction), mamsarasa (meat-soup), yusha (vegetable soup), kambalika (a kind of soup prepared from whey and green gram), yavagu (gruel), kshiropadheyan (milk administered), modaka (comparatively big tablet for high dose), and other forms of food preparation are to be used in patient requiring purgation. These are in brief the pharmaceutical preparation of purgative drugs, which will be further described in detail.[136]

List of medicines used in therapeutic non-unctuous enema

आस्थापनेषुतुभूयिष्ठकल्पानिद्रव्याणियानियोगमुपयान्तितेषुतेष्ववस्थान्तरेष्वातुराणां, तानिद्रव्याणिनामतोविस्तरेणोपदिश्यमानान्यपरिसङ्ख्येयानिस्युरतिबहुत्वात्; इष्टश्चानतिसङ्क्षेपविस्तरोपदेशस्तन्त्रे, इष्टंचकेवलंज्ञानं, तस्माद्रसतएवतान्यत्रव्याख्यास्यामः| ससंसर्गविकल्पविस्तरोह्येषामपरिसङ्ख्येयः, समवेतानांरसानामंशांशबलविकल्पातिबहुत्वात्| तस्माद्द्रव्याणांचैकदेशमुदाहरणार्थंरसेष्वनुविभज्यरसैकैकश्येनचनामलक्षणार्थंषडास्थापनस्कन्धारसतोऽनुविभज्यव्याख्यास्तन्ते||१३७||

āsthāpanēṣu tu bhūyiṣṭhakalpāni dravyāṇi yāni yōgamupayānti tēṣu tēṣvavasthāntarēṣvāturāṇāṁ, tāni dravyāṇi nāmatō vistarēṇōpadiśyamānānyaparisaṅkhyēyāni syuratibahutvāt; iṣṭaścānatisaṅkṣēpavistarōpadēśastantrē, iṣṭaṁ ca kēvalaṁ jñānaṁ, tasmādrasata ēva tānyatra vyākhyāsyāmaḥ| rasasaṁsargavikalpavistarō hyēṣāmaparisaṅkhyēyaḥ, samavētānāṁ rasānāmaṁśāṁśabalavikalpātibahutvāt| tasmāddravyāṇāṁ caikadēśamudāharaṇārthaṁ rasēṣvanuvibhajya rasaikaikaśyēna ca nāmalakṣaṇārthaṁ ṣaḍāsthāpanaskandhā rasatō'nuvibhajya vyākhyāstantē||137||

AsthApaneShu tu bhUyiShThakalpAni dravyANi yAni yogamupayAnti teShuteShvavasthAntareShvAturANAM, tAni dravyANi nAmato vistareNopadishyamAnAnyaparisa~gkhyeyAnisyuratibahutvAt; iShTashcAnatisa~gkShepavistaropadeshastantre, iShTaM ca kevalaM j~jAnaM,tasmAdrasata eva tAnyatra vyAkhyAsyAmaH| rasasaMsargavikalpavistaro [1] hyeShAmaparisa~gkhyeyaH, samavetAnAMrasAnAmaMshAMshabalavikalpAtibahutvAt| tasmAddravyANAM caikadeshamudAharaNArthaM raseShvanuvibhajya rasaikaikashyena canAmalakShaNArthaM ShaDAsthApanaskandhA rasato~anuvibhajya vyAkhyAstante||137||

The drugs which are mostly used in non-unctuous enema in different conditions of patients may become innumerable if they are described in detail by individual names, but as the dealing of the subject in the treatise is desired, they are mentioned here only according to rasas. In respect of these, the details of the variations in combination of rasas are immeasurable because of the excessive numerousness of the proportional variations in combined rasas. Hence for illustration, a part of drugs having been grouped in rasas, six groups of (drugs used in) non-unctuous enema are mentioned here according to rasas for characterization according to name on the basis of individual rasa. [137]

यत्तुषड्विधमास्थापनमेकरसमित्याचक्षतेभिषजः, तद्दुर्लभतमंसंसृष्टरसभूयिष्ठत्वाद्द्रव्याणाम्| तस्मान्मधुराणिमधुरप्रायाणिमधुरविपाकानिमधुरप्रभावाणिचमधुरस्कन्धेमधुराण्येवकृत्वोपदेक्ष्यन्ते, तथेतराणिद्रव्याण्यपि||१३८||

yattu ṣaḍvidhamāsthāpanamēkarasamityācakṣatē bhiṣajaḥ, taddurlabhatamaṁ saṁsr̥ṣṭarasabhūyiṣṭhatvāddravyāṇām| tasmānmadhurāṇi madhuraprāyāṇi madhuravipākāni madhuraprabhāvāṇi ca madhuraskandhē madhurāṇyēva kr̥tvōpadēkṣyantē, tathētarāṇi dravyāṇyapi||138||

yattu ShaDvidhamAsthApanamekarasamityAcakShate bhiShajaH, taddurlabhatamaMsaMsRuShTarasabhUyiShThatvAddravyANAm| tasmAnmadhurANi madhuraprAyANi madhuravipAkAni madhuraprabhAvANi ca madhuraskandhemadhurANyeva kRutvopadekShyante, tathetarANi dravyANyapi||138||

That non-unctuous enema is of six types having single rasa as said by physician. Drugs possess mostly the combined rasa therefore grouping them in single group is not possible, hence the drugs included in madhura group mean those which are sweet, predominantly sweet, and sweet in vipaka or having effects similar to sweet drugs. This is same for other drugs also.[138]

Madhura skandha (group of sweet drugs)

तद्यथा-

जीवकर्षभकौजीवन्तीवीरातामलकीकाकोलीक्षीरकाकोलीमुद्गपर्णीमाषपर्णीशालपर्णीपृश्निपर्ण्यसनपर्णीमधुपर्णीमेदामहामेदाकर्कटशृङ्गीशृङ्गाटिकाछिन्नरुहाच्छत्राऽतिच्छत्राश्रावणीमहाश्रावणीसहदेवाविश्वदे
वाशुक्लाक्षीरशुक्लाबलाऽतिबलाविदारीक्षीरविदारीक्षुद्रसहामहासहाऋष्यगन्धाऽश्वगन्धावृश्चीरःपुनर्नवाबृहतीकण्टकारिकोरुबूकोमोरटःश्वदंष्ट्रासंहर्षाशतावरीशतपुष्पामधूकपुष्पीयष्टीमधुमधूलिकामृद्वीकाखर्जू
रंपरूषकमात्मगुप्तापुष्करबीजंकशेरुकंराजकशेरुकंराजादनंकतकंकाश्मर्यंशीतपाक्योदनपाकीतालखर्जूरमस्तकमिक्षुरिक्षुवालिकादर्भःकुशःकाशःशालिर्गुन्द्रेत्कटकःशरमूलंराजक्षवकःऋष्यप्रोक्ताद्वारदाभारद्वाजी
वनत्रपुष्यभीरुपत्रीहंसपादीकाकनासिकाकुलिङ्गाक्षीक्षीरवल्लीकपोलवल्लीकपोतवल्लीसोमवल्लीगोपवल्लीमधुवल्लीचेति; एषामेवंविधानामन्येषांचमधुरवर्गपरिसङ्ख्यातानामौषधद्रव्याणांछेद्यानिखण्डशश्छेदयित्वाभेद्यानिचाणुशोभेदयित्वाप्रक्षाल्यपानीयेनसुप्रक्षालितायांस्थाल्यांसमावाप्यपयसाऽर्धोदकेनाभ्यासिच्यसाधयेद्दर्व्यासत
तमवघट्टयन्;तदुपयुक्तभूयिष्ठेऽम्भसिगतरसेष्वौषधेषुपयसिचानुपदग्धेस्थालीमुपहृत्यसुपरिपूतंपयःसुखोष्णंघृततैलवसामज्जलवणफाणितोपहितंबस्तिंवातविकारिणेविधिज्ञोविधिवद्दद्यात्; शीतंतुमधुसर्पिर्भ्यामुपसंसृज्यपित्तविकारिणेविधिवद्दद्यात्| इतिमधुरस्कन्धः||१३९||

tadyathā-

jīvakarṣabhakau jīvantī vīrā tāmalakī kākōlī kṣīrakākōlī mudgaparṇī māṣaparṇī śālaparṇī pr̥śniparṇyasanaparṇī madhuparṇī mēdā mahāmēdā karkaṭaśr̥ṅgī śr̥ṅgāṭikā chinnaruhā cchatrā'ticchatrā śrāvaṇī mahāśrāvaṇī sahadēvā viśvadēvā śuklā kṣīraśuklā balā'tibalā vidārī kṣīravidārī kṣudrasahā mahāsahā r̥ṣyagandhā'śvagandhā vr̥ścīraḥ punarnavā br̥hatī kaṇṭakārikōrubūkō mōraṭaḥ śvadaṁṣṭrā saṁharṣā śatāvarī śatapuṣpā madhūkapuṣpī yaṣṭīmadhu madhūlikā mr̥dvīkā kharjūraṁ parūṣakamātmaguptā puṣkarabījaṁ kaśērukaṁ rājakaśērukaṁ rājādanaṁ katakaṁ kāśmaryaṁ śītapākyōdanapākī tālakharjūramastakamikṣurikṣuvālikā darbhaḥ kuśaḥ kāśaḥ śālirgundrētkaṭakaḥ śaramūlaṁ rājakṣavakaḥ r̥ṣyaprōktā dvāradā bhāradvājī vanatrapuṣyabhīrupatrī haṁsapādī kākanāsikā kuliṅgākṣī kṣīravallī kapōlavallī kapōtavallī sōmavallī gōpavallī madhuvallī cēti; ēṣāmēvaṁvidhānāmanyēṣāṁ ca madhuravargaparisaṅkhyātānāmauṣadhadravyāṇāṁ chēdyāni khaṇḍaśaśchēdayitvā bhēdyāni cāṇuśō bhēdayitvā prakṣālya pānīyēna suprakṣālitāyāṁ sthālyāṁ samāvāpya payasā'rdhōdakēnābhyāsicya sādhayēddarvyā satatamavaghaṭṭayan; tadupayuktabhūyiṣṭhē'mbhasi gatarasēṣvauṣadhēṣu payasi cānupadagdhē sthālīmupahr̥tya suparipūtaṁ payaḥ sukhōṣṇaṁ ghr̥tatailavasāmajjalavaṇaphāṇitōpahitaṁ bastiṁ vātavikāriṇē vidhijñō vidhivaddadyāt; śītaṁ tu madhusarpirbhyāmupasaṁsr̥jya pittavikāriṇē vidhivaddadyāt| iti madhuraskandhaḥ||139||

tadyathA-

jIvakarShabhakau jIvantI vIrA tAmalakI kAkolI kShIrakAkolI mudgaparNI mAShaparNIshAlaparNI pRushniparNyasanaparNI [1] madhuparNI medA mahAmedA karkaTashRu~ggI shRu~ggATikAchinnaruhA cchatrA~aticchatrA shrAvaNI mahAshrAvaNI sahadevA vishvadevA shuklA kShIrashuklAbalA~atibalA vidArI kShIravidArI kShudrasahA mahAsahA RuShyagandhA~ashvagandhA vRushcIraHpunarnavA bRuhatI kaNTakArikorubUko moraTaH shvadaMShTrA saMharShA shatAvarI shatapuShpAmadhUkapuShpI yaShTImadhu madhUlikA mRudvIkA kharjUraM parUShakamAtmaguptA puShkarabIjaMkasherukaM rAjakasherukaM rAjAdanaM katakaM kAshmaryaM shItapAkyodanapAkItAlakharjUramastakamikShurikShuvAlikA darbhaH kushaH kAshaH shAlirgundretkaTakaH sharamUlaMrAjakShavakaH RuShyaproktA dvAradA bhAradvAjI vanatrapuShyabhIrupatrI haMsapAdI kAkanAsikAkuli~ggAkShI kShIravallI kapolavallI kapotavallI somavallI gopavallI madhuvallI ceti;eShAmevaMvidhAnAmanyeShAM ca madhuravargaparisa~gkhyAtAnAmauShadhadravyANAM chedyAnikhaNDashashchedayitvA bhedyAni cANusho bhedayitvA prakShAlya pAnIyena suprakShAlitAyAM sthAlyAMsamAvApya payasA~ardhodakenAbhyAsicya sAdhayeddarvyA satatamavaghaTTayan;tadupayuktabhUyiShThe~ambhasi gataraseShvauShadheShu payasi cAnupadagdhe sthAlImupahRutyasuparipUtaM [2] payaH sukhoShNaM ghRutatailavasAmajjalavaNaphANitopahitaM bastiM vAtavikAriNevidhij~jo vidhivaddadyAt; shItaM tu madhusarpirbhyAmupasaMsRujya pittavikAriNe vidhivaddadyAt| iti madhuraskandhaH||139||

The drugs mentioned in sweet group (madhura skandha) are jivaka, rushabhaka, jivanti, vira, amalaki, kakoli, kshirakakoli, mudgaparni, mashaparṇi, shalaparni, prushniparni, mashaparni, shalaparni, meda, mahameda, karkatashringi, shringataka, chinnaruha, cchatra, aticchatra, shravani, mahashravavani, sahadeva, vishvadeva, shukla, kshirashukla, bala, atibala, vidari, kshiravidari, kshudrasaha, mahasaha, rishyagandha, ashvagandha, vrishchira, punarnava, brihati, kantakari, korubuka, moraṭa, shwadamshtra, samharsha, shatavari, shaatapushpa, madhukapushpi, yashtimadhu, madhulika, mrudvika, kharjura, parushaka, atmagupta, pushkarabija, kasheruka, rajakasheruka, rajadana, kataka, kashmarya, shita, pakya, danapaki tala, kharjura, mastakam, ikshu, ikshuvalika, darbha, kusha, kasha, shali, gundrrtkataka, shaaramula, rajakshavaka, rushyaprokta, dvarada, bharadvaj, vanatrapushya, bhirupatri hamsapadi, kakanasa, kulinga, kshiravalli, kapolavalli, kapotavalli, somavalli and gopavalli. These and such other drugs of sweet group should be taken. After cutting and breaking them into small pieces and washing with water properly, should be kept in a vessel. Adding to it milk diluted with half water should be cooked stirring till its major portion of water is absorbed, drugs are extracted and milk is not charred. The vessel should be brought down and the milk should be taken out of it and filtered well. This lukewarm milk added with ghee, oil, fat, marrow, salt and phanita should be used properly for enema by expert in vatika disorders. In paittika disorders, the same should be given cold and combined with honey and ghee. Thus, ends the sweet group of drugs. [139]

Amla skandha (group of sour drugs)

आम्राम्रातकलकुचकरमर्दवृक्षाम्लाम्लवेतसकुवलबदरदाडिममातुलुङ्गगण्डीरामलकनन्दीतकशीतक- तिन्तिण्डीकदन्तशठैरावतककोशाम्रधन्वनानांफलानि, पत्राणिचाम्रातकाश्मन्तकचाङ्गेरीणांचतुर्विधानांचाम्लिकानांद्वयोश्चकोलयोश्चामशुष्कयोर्द्वयोश्चैवशुष्काम्लिकयोर्ग्राम्यारण्ययोः, आसवद्रव्याणिचसुरासौवीरकतुषोदकमैरेयमेदकमदिरामधुशुक्तशीधुदधिदधिमण्डोदश्विद्धान्याम्लादीनिच, एषामेवंविधानामन्येषांचाम्लवर्गपरिसङ्ख्यातानामौषधद्रव्याणांछेद्यानिखण्डशश्छेदयित्वाभेद्यानिचाणुशोभेदयित्वाद्रवैःस्थाल्यामभ्यासिच्यसाधयित्वोपसंस्कृत्ययथावत्तैलवसामज्जलवणफाणितोपहितंसु
खोष्णंबस्तिंवातविकारिणेविधिज्ञोविधिवद्दद्यात्| इत्यम्लस्कन्धः||१४०||

Āmrāmrātakalakucakaramardavr̥kṣāmlāmlavētasakuvalabadaradāḍimamātuluṅgagaṇḍīrāmalakanandītakaśītaka- tintiṇḍīkadantaśaṭhairāvatakakōśāmradhanvanānāṁ phalāni, patrāṇi cāmrātakāśmantakacāṅgērīṇāṁ caturvidhānāṁ cāmlikānāṁ dvayōśca kōlayōścāmaśuṣkayōrdvayōścaiva śuṣkāmlikayōrgrāmyāraṇyayōḥ, āsavadravyāṇi ca surāsauvīrakatuṣōdakamairēyamēdakamadirāmadhuśuktaśīdhudadhidadhimaṇḍōdaśviddhānyāmlādīni ca, ēṣāmēvaṁvidhānāmanyēṣāṁ cāmlavargaparisaṅkhyātānāmauṣadhadravyāṇāṁ chēdyāni khaṇḍaśaśchēdayitvā bhēdyāni cāṇuśō bhēdayitvā dravaiḥ sthālyāmabhyāsicya sādhayitvōpasaṁskr̥tya yathāvattailavasāmajjalavaṇaphāṇitōpahitaṁ sukhōṣṇaṁ bastiṁ vātavikāriṇē vidhijñō vidhivaddadyāt| ityamlaskandhaḥ||140||

AmrAmrAtakalakucakaramardavRukShAmlAmlavetasakuvalabadaradADimamAtulu~ggagaNDIrAmalakanandItakashItaka-tintiNDIkadantashaThairAvatakakoshAmradhanvanAnAM phalAni, patrANi cAmrAtakAshmantakacA~ggerINAMcaturvidhAnAM cAmlikAnAM dvayoshca kolayoshcAmashuShkayordvayoshcaiva shuShkAmlikayorgrAmyAraNyayoH,AsavadravyANi casurAsauvIrakatuShodakamaireyamedakamadirAmadhushuktashIdhudadhidadhimaNDodashviddhAnyAmlAdIni ca,eShAmevaMvidhAnAmanyeShAM cAmlavargaparisa~gkhyAtAnAmauShadhadravyANAM chedyAnikhaNDashashchedayitvA bhedyAni cANusho bhedayitvA dravaiH sthAlyAmabhyAsicya sAdhayitvopasaMskRutyayathAvattailavasAmajjalavaNaphANitopahitaM sukhoShNaM bastiM vAtavikAriNe vidhij~jo vidhivaddadyAt| ityamlaskandhaH||140||

The sour group (drugs of amlaskandha) includes fruits of amra, amrataka, lakucha, karamarda, vrukshamla, amlavetasa, kuvala, badara, dadima, matulunga, gandira, amalaka, nanditaka, shitaka, tintindika, dantashath, airavataka, koshamra, dhanvan;

  • Leaves of amrataka, ashmantaka, changeri, four types of amlika, two types of kola- unripe and dried, two types of dried tamarind wild and cultivated, substances used in preparation of asava, sura, sauviraka, tushodaka, maireya, medaka, madira, madhu, shukta, sidhu, dadhimanda, buttermilk, dhanyamla etc.

These and such other drugs of the sour group should be taken and after cutting and breaking into small pieces should be placed in a vessel along with liquids and be cooked. The lukewarm product added properly with oil, fat, majja, salt and phanita should be used for enema in vatika disorders according to procedure by the expert physician. Thus, ends the sour group. [140]

Lavana skandha (group of salty drugs)

सैन्धवसौवर्चलकालविडपाक्यानूपकूप्यवालुकैलमौलकसामुद्ररोमकौद्भिदौषरपाटेयकपांशुजान्येवम्प्रकाराणिचान्यानिलवणवर्गपरिसङ्ख्यातानि, एतान्यम्लोपहितान्युष्णोदकोपहितानिवास्नेहवन्तिसुखोष्णंबस्तिंवातविकारिणेविधिज्ञोविधिवद्दद्यात्| इतिलवणस्कन्धः||१४१||

saindhavasauvarcalakālaviḍapākyānūpakūpyavālukailamaulakasāmudrarōmakaudbhidauṣarapāṭēyakapāṁśujānyēvamprakārāṇi cānyāni lavaṇavargaparisaṅkhyātāni, ētānyamlōpahitānyuṣṇōdakōpahitāni vā snēhavanti sukhōṣṇaṁ bastiṁ vātavikāriṇē vidhijñō vidhivaddadyāt| iti lavaṇaskandhaḥ||141||

saindhavasauvarcalakAlaviDapAkyAnUpakUpyavAlukailamaulakasAmudraromakaudbhidauSharapATeyakapAMshujAnyevamprakArANicAnyAni lavaNavargaparisa~gkhyAtAni, etAnyamlopahitAnyuShNodakopahitAni vA snehavanti sukhoShNaM bastiM vAtavikAriNevidhij~jo vidhivaddadyAt| iti lavaNaskandhaH||141||

In the salty group (lavana skandha), the drugs mentioned are – saindhava, sauvarchala, kala, vida, pakya, anupa, valukaila, maulaka, samudra, romaka, audbhida, aushara, pateyaka, pamshuja and others. These drugs added with sour or warm water along with fatty substance in lukewarm condition should be used for enema in vatika disorders according to procedure by the expert. This concludes the salty group of drugs. [141]

Katu skandha (group of pungent drugs)

पिप्पलीपिप्पलीमूलहस्तिपिप्पलीचव्यचित्रकशृङ्गवेरमरिचाजमोदार्द्रकविडङ्गकुस्तुम्बुरुपीलुतेजवत्येलाकुष्ठभल्लातकास्थिहिङ्गुनिर्यासकिलिममूलकसर्षपलशुनकरञ्जशिग्रुकमधुशिग्रुकखरपुष्प
भूस्तृणसुमखसुरसकुठेरकार्जक- गण्डीरकालमालकपर्णासक्षवकफणिज्झकक्षारमूत्रपित्तानीति; एषामेवंविधानांचान्येषांकटुकवर्गपरिसङ्ख्यातानामौषधद्रव्याणांछेद्यानिखण्डशश्छेदयित्वाभेद्यानिचाणुशोभेदयित्वागोमूत्रेणसहसाधयित्वोपसंस्कृत्ययथावन्मधुतैललवणोपहितंसुखोष्णंबस्तिंश्लेष्मविकारि
णेविधिज्ञोविधिवद्दद्यात्| इतिकटुकस्कन्धः||१४२||

pippalīpippalīmūlahastipippalīcavyacitrakaśr̥ṅgavēramaricājamōdārdrakaviḍaṅgakustumburupīlutējōvatyēlākuṣṭhabhallātakāsthihiṅguniryāsakilimamūlakasarṣapalaśunakar
añjaśigrukamadhuśigrukakharapupabhūstr̥ṇasumukhasurasakuṭhērakārjaka- gaṇḍīrakālamālakaparṇāsakṣavakaphaṇijjhakakṣāramūtrapittānīti; ēṣāmēvaṁvidhānāṁ cānyēṣāṁ kaṭukavargaparisaṅkhyātānāmauṣadhadravyāṇāṁ chēdyāni khaṇḍaśaśchēdayitvā bhēdyāni cāṇuśō bhēdayitvā gōmūtrēṇa saha sādhayitvōpasaṁskr̥tya yathāvanmadhutailalavaṇōpahitaṁ sukhōṣṇaṁ bastiṁ ślēṣmavikāriṇē vidhijñō vidhivaddadyāt| iti kaṭukaskandhaḥ||142||

pippalIpippalImUlahastipippalIcavyacitrakashRu~ggaveramaricAjamodArdrakaviDa~ggakustumburupIlutejovatyelAkuShTha-bhallAtakAsthihi~gguniryAsakilimamUlakasarShapalashunakara~jjashigrukamadhushigrukakharapuShpabhUstRuNasumukhasurasakuTherakArjaka-gaNDIrakAlamAlakaparNAsakShavakaphaNijjhakakShAramUtrapittAnIti; eShAmevaMvidhAnAM cAnyeShAMkaTukavargaparisa~gkhyAtAnAmauShadhadravyANAM chedyAni khaNDashashchedayitvA bhedyAni cANusho bhedayitvA gomUtreNa sahasAdhayitvopasaMskRutya yathAvanmadhutailalavaNopahitaM sukhoShNaM bastiM shleShmavikAriNe vidhij~jo vidhivaddadyAt| iti kaTukaskandhaH||142||

In pungent group (katuka skandha) the drugs included are – pippali, pippalimula, gajapippali, chavya, chitraka, shunţhi, maricha, ajamoda, ardraka, vidanga, dhanyaka, pilu, tejavati, ela, kushtha, bhallatakasthi, hinguniryasa, devadaru, mulaka, sarshapa, lashuna, karanja, shigru, madhu shigru, kharapushpa, bhustruna sumukha, surasa, kutheraka, arjaka, gandira, kalamalaka, parnasa, kshavaka, phanijjhaka, alkali, urines, and biles. These along with other similar drugs of group (pungent) should be taken and after cutting and breaking into pieces should be cooked with cow’s urine. This while lukewarm added with honey oil and salt should be used for enema in shlaishmika disorders according to procedure by experts. Thus ends the pungent group.[142]

Tikta skandha (group of bitter drugs)

चन्दननलदकृतमालनक्तमालनिम्बतुम्बुरुकुटजहरिद्रादारुहरिद्रामुस्तमूर्वाकिराततिक्तककटुकरोहिणीत्रायमाणाकारवेल्लिकाकरीरकरवीरकेबुककठिल्लकवृषमण्डूकपर्णीकर्कोटकवार्ताकुकर्कशकाकमाचीकाको
दुम्बरिकासुषव्यतिविषापटोलकुलकपाठागुडूचीवेत्राग्रवेतसविकङ्कतबकुलसोमवल्कसप्तपर्णसुमनार्कावल्गुजवचातगरागुरुवालकोशीराणीति , एषामेवंविधानांचान्येषांतिक्तवर्गपरिसङ्ख्यातानामौषधद्रव्याणांछेद्यानिखण्डशश्छेदयित्वाभेद्यानिचाणुशोभेदयित्वाप्रक्षाल्यपानीयेनाभ्यासिच्यसाधयित्वोपसंस्कृत्ययथावन्मधुतैललवणोपहितंसुखोष्णंबस्तिं
श्लेष्मविकारिणेविधिज्ञोविधिवद्दद्यात्, शीतंतुमधुसर्पिर्भ्यामपसंसृज्यपित्तविकारिणेविधिज्ञोविधिवद्दद्यात्| इतितिक्तस्कन्धः||१४३||

candananaladakr̥tamālanaktamālanimbatumburukuṭajaharidrādāruharidrāmustamūrvākirātatiktakakaṭukarōhiṇītrāyamāṇā- kāravēllikākarīrakaravīrakēbukakaṭhillakavr̥ṣamaṇḍūkaparṇīkarkōṭakavārtākukarkaśakākamācīkākōdumbarikāsuṣavyativiṣā- paṭōlakulakapāṭhāguḍūcīvētrāgravētasavikaṅkatabakulasōmavalkasaptaparṇasumanārkāvalgujavacātagarāguruvālakōśīrāṇīti , ēṣāmēvaṁvidhānāṁ cānyēṣāṁ tiktavargaparisaṅkhyātānāmauṣadhadravyāṇāṁ chēdyāni khaṇḍaśaśchēdayitvā bhēdyāni cāṇuśō bhēdayitvā prakṣālya pānīyēnābhyāsicya sādhayitvōpasaṁskr̥tya yathāvanmadhutailalavaṇōpahitaṁ sukhōṣṇaṁ bastiṁ ślēṣmavikāriṇē vidhijñō vidhivaddadyāt, śītaṁ tu madhusarpirbhyāmapasaṁsr̥jya pittavikāriṇē vidhijñō vidhivaddadyāt| iti tiktaskandhaḥ||143||

candananaladakRutamAlanaktamAlanimbatumburukuTajaharidrAdAruharidrAmustamUrvAkirAtatiktakakaTukarohiNItrAyamANA-kAravellikAkarIrakaravIrakebukakaThillakavRuShamaNDUkaparNIkarkoTakavArtAkukarkashakAkamAcIkAkodumbarikAsuShavyativiShA-paTolakulakapAThAguDUcIvetrAgravetasavika~gkatabakulasomavalkasaptaparNasumanArkAvalgujavacAtagarAguruvAlakoshIrANIti [1] ,eShAmevaMvidhAnAM cAnyeShAM tiktavargaparisa~gkhyAtAnAmauShadhadravyANAM chedyAni khaNDashashchedayitvA bhedyAnicANusho bhedayitvA prakShAlya pAnIyenAbhyAsicya sAdhayitvopasaMskRutya yathAvanmadhutailalavaNopahitaM sukhoShNaM bastiMshleShmavikAriNe vidhij~jo vidhivaddadyAt, shItaM tu madhusarpirbhyAmapasaMsRujya pittavikAriNe vidhij~jo vidhivaddadyAt| iti tiktaskandhaH||143||

The drugs mentioned in bitter group (tikta skandha) are – Chandana, nalada, aragvadha, naktamala, nimba, tumburu, kutaja, haridra, daruharidra, musta, murva, kiratatikta, katurohini, trayamana, karvellika, karira, karavira, kebuka, kathillaka, vrusha, mandukaparni, karkotaka, vartaku, karkasha, kakamachi, kakodumbarika, sushavi, ativisha, patola, kulaka, patha, guduchi, tip of vetra, vetasa, vikankata, bakula, somavalka, saptaparna, sumana, arka, avalguja, vacha, tagara, agaru, balaka and ushira, along with other similar drugs of the bitter group should be taken and after cutting and breaking them into pieces and washing properly be cooked with water. The product when lukewarm should be added with honey, oil and salt to be used in enema for kaphaja disorders according to procedure by the expert. In paittika disorders the same should be used while cold and added with honey and ghee. This ends the bitter group.[143]

Kashaya skandha (group of astringent drugs)

प्रियङ्ग्वनन्ताम्रास्थ्यम्बष्ठकीकट्वङ्गलोध्रमोचरससमङ्गाधातकीपुष्पपद्मापद्मकेशरजम्ब्वाम्रप्लक्षवटकपीतनोदुम्बराश्वत्थभल्लातकास्थ्यश्मन्तकशिरीषशिंशपासोमवल्कतिन्दुकप्रियालबदरखदिरसप्तप
र्णाश्वकर्णस्यन्दनार्जुनारिमेदैलवालुकपरिपेलवकदम्बशल्लकीजिङ्गिनीकाशकशेरुकराजकशेरुकट्फलवंशपद्मकाशोकशालधवसर्जभूर्जशणखरपुष्पापुरशमीमाचीकवरकतुङ्गाजकर्णस्फूर्जकबिभीतककम्भीपु
ष्करबीज- बिसमृणालतालखर्जूरतरुणानीति , एषामेवंविधानांचान्येषांकषायवर्गपरिसङ्ख्यातानामौषधद्रव्याणांछेद्यानिखण्डशश्छेदयित्वाभेद्यानिचाणुशोभेदयित्वाप्रक्षाल्यपानीयेनाभ्यासिच्यसाधयित्वोपसंस्कृत्ययथावन्मधुतैललवणोपहितंसुखोष्णंब
स्तिंश्लेष्मविकारिणेविधिज्ञोविधिवद्दद्यात्, शीतंतुमधुसर्पिर्भ्यामुपसंसृज्यपित्तविकारिणेदद्यात्| इतिकषायस्कन्धः||१४४||

priyaṅgvanantāmrāsthyambaṣṭhakīkaṭvaṅgalōdhramōcarasasamaṅgādhātakīpuṣpapadmāpadmakēśarajambvāmraplakṣavaṭa- kapītanōdumbarāśvatthabhallātakāsthyaśmantakaśirīṣaśiṁśapāsōmavalkatindukapriyālabadarakhadira- saptaparṇāśvakarṇasyandanārjunārimēdailavālukaparipēlavakadambaśallakījiṅginīkāśakaśērukarājakaśērukaṭphalavaṁśa- padmakāśōkaśāladhavasarjabhūrjaśaṇakharapuṣpāpuraśamīmācīkavarakatuṅgājakarṇasphūrjakabibhītakakumbhīpuṣkarabīja- bisamr̥ṇālatālakharjūrataruṇānīti , ēṣāmēvaṁvidhānāṁ cānyēṣāṁ kaṣāyavargaparisaṅkhyātānāmauṣadhadravyāṇāṁ chēdyāni khaṇḍaśaśchēdayitvā bhēdyāni cāṇuśō bhēdayitvā prakṣālya pānīyēnābhyāsicya sādhayitvōpasaṁskr̥tya yathāvanmadhutailalavaṇōpahitaṁ sukhōṣṇaṁ bastiṁ ślēṣmavikāriṇē vidhijñō vidhivaddadyāt, śītaṁ tu madhusarpirbhyāmupasaṁsr̥jya pittavikāriṇē dadyāt| iti kaṣāyaskandhaḥ||144||

priya~ggvanantAmrAsthyambaShThakIkaTva~ggalodhramocarasasama~ggAdhAtakIpuShpapadmApadmakesharajambvAmraplakShavaTa-kapItanodumbarAshvatthabhallAtakAsthyashmantakashirIShashiMshapAsomavalkatindukapriyAlabadarakhadira-saptaparNAshvakarNasyandanArjunArimedailavAlukaparipelavakadambashallakIji~gginIkAshakasherukarAjakasherukaTphalavaMsha-padmakAshokashAladhavasarjabhUrjashaNakharapuShpApurashamImAcIkavarakatu~ggAjakarNasphUrjakabibhItakakumbhIpuShkarabIja-bisamRuNAlatAlakharjUrataruNAnIti [1] , eShAmevaMvidhAnAM cAnyeShAM kaShAyavargaparisa~gkhyAtAnAmauShadhadravyANAMchedyAni khaNDashashchedayitvA bhedyAni cANusho bhedayitvA prakShAlya pAnIyenAbhyAsicya sAdhayitvopasaMskRutyayathAvanmadhutailalavaNopahitaM sukhoShNaM bastiM shleShmavikAriNe vidhij~jo vidhivaddadyAt, shItaM tumadhusarpirbhyAmupasaMsRujya pittavikAriNe dadyAt| iti kaShAyaskandhaH||144||

The drugs of Kashaya skandha (astringent group) are – priyangu, ananta, amrasthi, ambashthaki, katvanga, lodhra, mocharasa, samanga, dhataki flowers, padma, padmakeshara, jambu, amra, plaksha, vata, kapitana, udumbara, ashwattha, bhallatakasthi, ashmantaka, shirisha, shimshapa, somavalka, tinduka, priyala, badara, khadira, saptaparna, ashwakarna, syandana, arjuna, arimeda, elavaluka, paripelava, kadamba, shallaki, jingini, kasha, kasheruka, rajakasheruka, katphala, vamsha, padmaka, ashoka, shala, dhava, sarja, bhuja, sana, kharapushpa, guggulu, shami, machika, varaka, tunga, ajakarna, sphurjaka, bibhitaka, kumbhi, pushkarabija, lotus stem, lotus stalk, tender, parts of tala, and kharjura, along with other similar drugs of astringent group should be taken and after cutting and breaking them into small pieces and washing be cooked with water. The lukewarm product being added with honey, oil and salt be used for enema in disorders of kapha according to procedure by expert. In paittika disorders the same should be used while cold and added with honey and ghee. This is the astringent group. [144]

तत्रश्लोकाः-

षड्वर्गाःपरिसङ्ख्यातायएतेरसभेदतः| आस्थापनमभिप्रेत्यतान्विद्यात्सार्वयौगिकान्||१४५||

सर्वशोहिप्रणिहिताःसर्वरोगेषुजानता| सर्वान्रोगान्नियच्छन्तियेभ्यआस्थापनंहितम्||१४६||

tatra ślōkāḥ-

ṣaḍvargāḥ parisaṅkhyātā ya ētē rasabhēdataḥ| āsthāpanamabhiprētya tānvidyātsārvayaugikān||145||

sarvaśō hi praṇihitāḥ sarvarōgēṣu jānatā| sarvānrōgānniyacchanti yēbhya āsthāpanaṁ hitam||146||

tatra shlokAH-

ShaDvargAH parisa~gkhyAtA ya ete rasabhedataH| AsthApanamabhipretya tAnvidyAtsArvayaugikAn||145||

sarvasho hi praNihitAH sarvarogeShu jAnatA| sarvAnrogAnniyacchanti yebhya AsthApanaM hitam||146||

Amongst two verses the six groups enumerated are according to rasa and should be known as applicable in all disorders being used in form of non- unctuous enema, which being employed in diseases according to the respective procedures by the learned expert physician controls all the diseases. [145-146]

येषांयेषांप्रशान्त्यर्थंयेयेनपरिकीर्तिताः| द्रव्यवर्गाविकाराणांतेषांतेपरिकोपकाः||१४७||

इत्येतेषडास्थापनस्कन्धारसतोऽनुविभज्यव्याख्याताः||१४८||

yēṣāṁ yēṣāṁ praśāntyarthaṁ yē yē na parikīrtitāḥ| dravyavargā vikārāṇāṁ tēṣāṁ tē parikōpakāḥ||147||

ityētē ṣaḍāsthāpanaskandhā rasatō'nuvibhajya vyākhyātāḥ||148||

yeShAM yeShAM prashAntyarthaM ye ye na parikIrtitAH| dravyavargA vikArANAM teShAM te parikopakAH||147||

ityete ShaDAsthApanaskandhA rasato~anuvibhajya vyAkhyAtAH||148||

And the groups of drugs which are not advocated in certain disorders should be considered as those aggravating the same. Thus, these six groups of non-unctuous enema are described dividing them according to rasa. [147-148]

तेभ्योभिषग्बुद्धिमान्परिसङ्ख्यातमपियद्यद्द्रव्यमयौगिकंमन्येत, तत्तदपकर्षयेत्; यद्यच्चानुक्तमपियौगिकंमन्येत, तत्तद्विदध्यात्; वर्गमपिवर्गेणोपसंसृजेदेकमेकेनानेकेनवायुक्तिंप्रमाणीकृत्य| प्रचरणमिवभिक्षुकस्यबीजमिवकर्षकस्यसूत्रंबुद्धिमतामल्पमप्यनल्पज्ञानायभवति; तस्माद्बुद्धिमतामूहापोहवितर्काः, मन्दबुद्धेस्तुयथोक्तानुगमनमेवश्रेयः| यथोक्तंहिमार्गमनुगच्छन्भिषक्संसाधयतिकार्यमनतिमहत्त्वाद्वाविनिपातयत्यनतिह्रस्वत्वादुदाहरणस्येति||१४९||

tēbhyō bhiṣagbuddhimān parisaṅkhyātamapi yadyaddravyamayaugikaṁ manyēta, tattadapakarṣayēt; yadyaccānuktamapi yaugikaṁ manyēta, tattadvidadhyāt; vargamapi vargēṇōpasaṁsr̥jēdēkamēkēnānēkēna vā yuktiṁ pramāṇīkr̥tya| pracaraṇamiva bhikṣukasya bījamiva karṣakasya sūtraṁ buddhimatāmalpamapyanalpajñānāya bhavati; tasmādbuddhimatāmūhāpōhavitarkāḥ, mandabuddhēstu yathōktānugamanamēva śrēyaḥ| yathōktaṁ hi mārgamanugacchan bhiṣak saṁsādhayati kāryamanatimahattvādvā vinipātayatyanatihrasvatvādudāharaṇasyēti||149||

tebhyo bhiShagbuddhimAn parisa~gkhyAtamapi yadyaddravyamayaugikaM manyeta, tattadapakarShayet;yadyaccAnuktamapi yaugikaM manyeta, tattadvidadhyAt; vargamapivargeNopasaMsRujedekamekenAnekena vA yuktiM pramANIkRutya| pracaraNamiva bhikShukasya bIjamiva karShakasya sUtraM buddhimatAmalpamapyanalpaj~jAnAyabhavati; tasmAdbuddhimatAmUhApohavitarkAH, mandabuddhestu yathoktAnugamanameva shreyaH| yathoktaM hi mArgamanugacchan bhiShak saMsAdhayati kAryamanatimahattvAdvA [1]vinipAtayatyanatihrasvatvAdudAharaNasyeti||149||

The wise physician should eliminate or exclude the drugs if it is not appropriate even if enumerated under the group and should add the appropriate one even if un-enumerated. In situation needed a group of drugs may be combined with other or several other groups based on the reasoning. The aphorism, though small, is able to provide wide knowledge to the wise like alms of a mendicant or seed of a farmer. The aphorism for the wise, gives rise to critical analysis and reasoning while on the other hand for the dull, it is better to follow the saying exactly. The physician following the said course succeeds in his endeavor or causes little risk because of the illustration being not too brief.[149]

List of drugs for unctuous enema

अतःपरमनुवासनद्रव्याण्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः| अनुवासनंतुस्नेहएव| स्नेहस्तुद्विविधः- स्थावरात्मकः, जङ्गमात्मकश्च| तत्रस्थावरात्मकःस्नेहस्तैलमतैलंच| तद्द्वयंतैलमेवकृत्वोपदेक्ष्यामः, सर्वतस्तैलप्राधान्यात्| जङ्गमात्मकस्तुवसा, मज्जा, सर्पिरिति| तेषांतैलवसामज्जसर्पिषांयथापूर्वंश्रेष्ठंवातश्लेष्मविकारेष्वनुवासनीयेषु, यथोत्तरंतुपित्तविकारेषु, सर्वएववासर्वविकारेष्वपियोगमुपयान्तिसंस्कारविधिविशेषादिति||१५०||

ataḥ paramanuvāsanadravyāṇyanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ| anuvāsanaṁ tu snēha ēva| snēhastu dvividhaḥ- sthāvarātmakaḥ, jaṅgamātmakaśca| tatra sthāvarātmakaḥ snēhastailamatailaṁ ca| taddvayaṁ tailamēva kr̥tvōpadēkṣyāmaḥ, sarvatastailaprādhānyāt| jaṅgamātmakastu vasā, majjā, sarpiriti| tēṣāṁ tailavasāmajjasarpiṣāṁ yathāpūrvaṁ śrēṣṭhaṁ vātaślēṣmavikārēṣvanuvāsanīyēṣu, yathōttaraṁ tupittavikārēṣu, sarva ēva vā sarvavikārēṣvapi yōgamupayānti saṁskāravidhiviśēṣāditi||150||

ataH paramanuvAsanadravyANyanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH| anuvAsanaM tu sneha eva| snehastu dvividhaH- sthAvarAtmakaH, ja~ggamAtmakashca| tatra sthAvarAtmakaH snehastailamatailaM ca| taddvayaM tailameva kRutvopadekShyAmaH, sarvatastailaprAdhAnyAt| ja~ggamAtmakastu vasA, majjA, sarpiriti| teShAM tailavasAmajjasarpiShAM yathApUrvaM shreShThaM vAtashleShmavikAreShvanuvAsanIyeShu,yathottaraM tu pittavikAreShu, sarva eva vA sarvavikAreShvapi yogamupayAntisaMskAravidhivisheShAditi||150||

Now the drugs used for unctuous enema are mentioned. Anuvasana (unctuous enema) is, in fact composed of unctuous substances, which are of two types – Vegetable products and animal products. The vegetable products are either taila (oil derived from tila – sesamum seeds) or ataila (other than the above) but both of them are described here as taila because of overall predominance of tila oil.

Animal products are fat, marrow and ghee. Out of the oil, fat, marrow and ghee, excellence of applicability as unctuous enema in disorders of vata and kapha, is determined in regressive order and progressive order in paittika disorders, so all are applicable in all disorders according to particular procedure and processing. [150]

List of drugs for nasal errhines

शिरोविरेचनद्रव्याणिपुनरपामार्गपिप्पलीमरिचविडङ्गशिग्रुशिरीषतुम्बुरुपिल्वजाज्यमोदावार्ताकीपृथ्वीकैलाहरेणुकाफलानि च,सुमुखसुरसकुठेरकगण्डीरकालमालकपर्णासक्षवकफणिज्झकहरिद्राशृङ्गवेरमूलकलशुनतर्कारीसर्षपपत्राणिच,अर्कालर्ककुष्ठनागदन्तीवचापामार्गश्वेताज्योतिष्मतीगवाक्षीगण्डीरपुष्प्यवाक्पुष्पीवृश्चिकाली
वयस्थातिविषामूलानिच, हरिद्राशृङ्गवेरमूलकलशुनकन्दाश्च, लोध्रमदनसप्तपर्णनिम्बार्कपुष्पाणिच, देवदार्वगुरुसरलशल्लकीजिङ्गिन्यसनहिङ्गुनिर्यासाश्च, तेजोवतीवराङ्गेङ्गुदीशोभाञ्जनकबृहतीकण्टकारिकात्वचश्चेति| शिरोविरेचनंसप्तविधं, फल-पत्र-मूल-कन्द-पुष्प-निर्यास-त्वगाश्रयभेदात्| लवणकटुतिक्तकषायाणिचेन्द्रियोपशयानितथाऽपराण्यनुक्तान्यपिद्रव्याणियथायोगविहितानिशिरोविरेचनार्थमुपदिश्यन्तइति||१५१||

śirōvirēcanadravyāṇipunarapāmārgapippalīmaricaviḍaṅgaśigruśirīṣatumburupilvajājyamōdāvārtākīpr̥thvīkailāharēṇukāphalāni ca,sumukhasurasakuṭhērakagaṇḍīrakālamālakaparṇāsakṣavakaphaṇijjhakaharidrāśr̥ṅgavēramūlakalaśunatarkārīsarṣapapatrāṇica, arkālarkakuṣṭhanāgadantīvacāpāmārgaśvētājyōtiṣmatīgavākṣīgaṇḍīrapuṣpyavākpuṣpīvr̥ścikālīvayasthātiviṣāmūlāni ca,haridrāśr̥ṅgavēramūlakalaśunakandāśca, lōdhramadanasaptaparṇanimbārkapuṣpāṇi ca,dēvadārvagurusaralaśallakījiṅginyasanahiṅguniryāsāśca, tējōvatīvarāṅgēṅgudīśōbhāñjanakabr̥hatīkaṇṭakārikātvacaścēti| śirōvirēcanaṁ saptavidhaṁ, phala-patra-mūla-kanda-puṣpa-niryāsa-tvagāśrayabhēdāt| lavaṇakaṭutiktakaṣāyāṇi cēndriyōpaśayāni tathā'parāṇyanuktānyapi dravyāṇi yathāyōgavihitāniśirōvirēcanārthamupadiśyanta iti||151||

shirovirecanadravyANipunarapAmArgapippalImaricaviDa~ggashigrushirIShatumburupilvajAjyamodAvArtAkIpRuthvIkailAhareNukAphalAni ca,sumukhasurasakuTherakagaNDIrakAlamAlakaparNAsakShavakaphaNijjhakaharidrAshRu~ggaveramUlakalashunatarkArIsarShapapatrANica, arkAlarkakuShThanAgadantIvacApAmArgashvetAjyotiShmatIgavAkShIgaNDIrapuShpyavAkpuShpIvRushcikAlIvayasthAtiviShAmUlAnica, haridrAshRu~ggaveramUlakalashunakandAshca, lodhramadanasaptaparNanimbArkapuShpANi ca,devadArvagurusaralashallakIji~gginyasanahi~gguniryAsAshca,tejovatIvarA~gge~ggudIshobhA~jjanakabRuhatIkaNTakArikAtvacashceti| shirovirecanaM saptavidhaM, phala-patra-mUla-kanda-puShpa-niryAsa-tvagAshrayabhedAt| lavaNakaTutiktakaShAyANi cendriyopashayAni tathA~aparANyanuktAnyapi dravyANi yathAyogavihitAni shirovirecanArthamupadishyantaiti||151||

The drugs mentioned for use in head- evacuation are as follows:

  • Fruits of apamarga, pippali, maricha, vidanga, shigru, shirisha, tumburu, pilu, ajaji, ajamoda, vartaki, prithvika, ela, and harenuka;
  • Leaves of sumukha, surasa, kutheraka, gandira, kalmalaka, parnasa, kshavaka, phannijhaka, haridra, shunţhi, mulaka, lashuna, tarkari and sarshapa ;
  • Roots of arka, alarka, kushtha, naga-danti, vacha, apamarga, jyotishmati, gavakshi, gandirapushpi, avakpushpi, vrushchikali, vayastha and ativisha;
  • Tuberous rhizomes or roots of haridra, shunthi, mulaka and lashuna;
  • Flowers of lodhra, madana, saptaparna, nimba and arka;
  • Exudations of devadaru, aguru, sarala, shallaki, jingini, asana,and hingu;
  • Bark of tejovati, varanga, ingudi, shobhanjana, bruhati and kantakarika. In this way according to substrate (of action) the nasal errhines is of seven types such as fruit, leaf, root, tuber, flower, exudation and bark; other saline, pungent bitter and astringent drugs which are wholesome to the sense organs and other unmentioned drugs may be used, according to condition needed for nasal errhines.[151]

Summary of chapter

तत्रश्लोकाः

लक्षणाचार्यशिष्याणांपरीक्षाकारणंचयत्| अध्येयाध्यापनविधीसम्भाषाविधिरेवच||१५२||

षड्भिरूनानिपञ्चाशद्वादमार्गपदानिच| पदानिदशचान्यानिकारणादीनितत्त्वतः||१५३||

सम्प्रश्नश्चपरीक्षादेर्नवकोवमनादिषु| भिषग्जितीयेरोगाणांविमानेसम्प्रकाशितः||१५४||

tatra ślōkāḥ-

lakṣaṇācāryaśiṣyāṇāṁ parīkṣā kāraṇaṁ ca yat| adhyēyādhyāpanavidhī sambhāṣāvidhirēva ca||152||

ṣaḍbhirūnāni pañcāśadvādamārgapadāni ca| padāni daśa cānyāni kāraṇādīni tattvataḥ||153||

sampraśnaśca parīkṣādērnavakō vamanādiṣu| bhiṣagjitīyē rōgāṇāṁ vimānē samprakāśitaḥ||154||

tatra shlokAH-

lakShaNAcAryashiShyANAM parIkShA kAraNaM ca yat| adhyeyAdhyApanavidhI sambhAShAvidhireva ca||152||

ShaDbhirUnAni pa~jcAshadvAdamArgapadAni ca| padAni dasha cAnyAni kAraNAdIni tattvataH||153||

samprashnashca parIkShAdernavako vamanAdiShu| bhiShagjitIye rogANAM vimAne samprakAshitaH||154||

Summing the chapter regarding specific features of discussion of therapeutics of diseases, it has been mentioned that – examination of treatise, preceptor and disciple with reasons, method of study and teaching, method of discussion, forty four terms related to the course of discussion, ten other terms with application, nine questions related to examination etc. in emesis etc. has been described in the chapter. [152-154]

बहुविधमिदमुक्तमर्थजातंबहुविधवाक्यविचित्रमर्थकान्तम्| बहुविधशुभशब्दसन्धियुक्तंबहुविधवादनिसूदनंपरेषाम्||१५५||

इमांमतिंबहुविधहेतुसंश्रयांविजज्ञिवान्परमतवादसूदनीम्| नसज्जतेपरवचनावमर्दनैर्नशक्यतेपरवचनैश्चमर्दितुम्||१५६||

दोषादीनांतुभावानांसर्वेषामेवहेतुमत्| मानात्सम्यग्विमानानिनिरुक्तानिविभागशः||१५७||

bahuvidhamidamuktamarthajātaṁ bahuvidhavākyavicitramarthakāntam| bahuvidhaśubhaśabdasandhiyuktaṁ bahuvidhavādanisūdanaṁ parēṣām||155||

imāṁ matiṁ bahuvidhahētusaṁśrayāṁ vijajñivān paramatavādasūdanīm| na [1] sajjatē paravacanāvamardanairna śakyatē paravacanaiśca marditum||156||

dōṣādīnāṁ tu bhāvānāṁ sarvēṣāmēva hētumat| mānāt samyagvimānāni niruktāni vibhāgaśaḥ||157||

bahuvidhamidamuktamarthajAtaM bahuvidhavAkyavicitramarthakAntam| bahuvidhashubhashabdasandhiyuktaM bahuvidhavAdanisUdanaM pareShAm||155||

imAM matiM bahuvidhahetusaMshrayAM vijaj~jivAn paramatavAdasUdanIm| na [1] sajjate paravacanAvamardanairna shakyate paravacanaishca marditum||156||

doShAdInAM tu bhAvAnAM sarveShAmeva hetumat| mAnAt samyagvimAnAni niruktAni vibhAgashaH||157||

This chapter containing various ideas, variegated with various sentences, pleasing with meanings, possessed with various auspicious words and their unions and capable of defeating opponents in various debates, it has been said; one who has acquired this knowledge based on various reasons and refuting the opponent’s view in debates does not get fastened by the pressure of opponents arguments nor does he get subdued by their arguments.

Etymologically vimana is termed because of providing proper and correct knowledge of the specific features of entities like dosha etc. with reasoning and classification. [155-157]

इत्यग्निवेशकृतेतन्त्रेचरकप्रतिसंस्कृतेविमानस्थाने रोगभिषग्जितीयविमानंनामाष्टमोऽध्यायः||८||

(अग्निवेशकृतेतन्त्रेचरकप्रतिसंस्कृते| अनेनावधिनास्थानंविमानानांसमर्थितम्|)| ityagnivēśakr̥tē tantrē carakapratisaṁskr̥tē vimānasthānē rōgabhiṣagjitīyavimānaṁ nāmāṣṭamō'dhyāyaḥ||8||

(agnivēśakr̥tē tantrē carakapratisaṁskr̥tē| anēnāvadhinā sthānaṁ vimānānāṁ samarthitam|)| ityagniveshakRute tantre carakapratisaMskRute vimAnasthAne rogabhiShagjitIyavimAnaM nAmAShTamo~adhyAyaH||8||

(agniveshakRute tantre carakapratisaMskRute| anenAvadhinA sthAnaM vimAnAnAM samarthitam|)|

Thus, gets end of eighth chapter on specific features of therapeutics of diseases in Vimana Sthana in the treatise composed by Agnivesha and redacted by Charaka. With this, Vimana Sthana (section on specific features) also comes to an end.

Tattva Vimarsha

  • The ideal preceptor, ideal medical treatise and ideal student are considered as basic pillars for proper propagation of medical knowledge.
  • In a conference, the discussion to improve one’s capabilities should be properly initiated according to abilities of opponents and participants, topics for discussion, one’s own strength and weakness.
  • A good Ayurvedic physician needs to have four qualifications:
    • Knowledge of health science from appropriate Shastra,
    • Experience of practical knowledge and skill from excellent teachers,
    • Character, mental & physical capability, and strong desire to be one.
    • Participation in dialogue, discussion by participating in conferences,seminars and symposiums.

How to develop these qualities are described at length in this chapter.

  • Vakyaprashamsa (syntactical excellence) is achieved by a statement free from deficiency (anyunama) and superfluity (anadhikama), meaningfulness (arthavata), devoid of deprivation of meaning (anaparthaka), incongruity (aviruddham) and comprehensible (adhigatapadartham).
  • For the physician to improve his medical knowledge karana, (reasoning/doer), karana (knowledge of means), karyayoni (objective), karya (action), karyaphala (attainment of objective and happiness), anubandha (after effect), desha (land/patient), kala (year and phase of disease), pravritti (initiation of therapy) and upaya (proper management) are necessary.
  • The signs of regaining health are equilibrium of dhatus and its feature is absence of disease.
  • Assessment of regaining health is based on following criteria: alleviation of the disorder, normalcy of voice and complexion, nourishment of body, increase in strength, desire for food, relish at meal time, proper and timely digestion of the food taken, timely sleep, non-appearance of abnormal dreams, easy awakening, easy elimination of urine, faeces and semen, overall normalcy of mind, intellect and sense organs and associated with no other unhealthy features.
  • The result of the act (karyaphala) is attainment of happiness. It is featured as satisfaction of mind, intellect, sense organs and the body pleasure.
  • The dose and potency of drugs shall be decided after due consideration of patient’s place of living, his strength, and morbidity. If it is not considered, then the medicine may harm the patient and adverse reaction of drugs may occur.
  • Complete knowledge of patient’s condition is required before starting the treatment, which is done by tenfold examination. These ten entities are:
  1. Desha (place) which is of two types – habitat and patient’s body;
  2. Examination of prakriti and vikriti according to dosha,
  3. Description of eight type of sara (essence of body tissues),
  4. Compactness, structure and body mass,
  5. Measurement of body parts,
  6. Specific suitability of a person,
  7. Sattva (mental strength),
  8. Power of digestion and assimilation,
  9. Exercise endurance and
  10. Age.
  • Knowledge of seven types of prakriti and their features are necessary to understand normal state of body.
  • The factors such as constitution of sperm and ovum, the time (of conception) and status of health of uterus, diet and lifestyle of mother (during pregnancy), and interaction of mahabhutas determine the basic constitution (prakriti) of fetus (garbha). The genetic map of an individual is determined by these factors.
  • Shleshma is naturally unctuous (snigdha), smooth (shlakshna), soft (mridu), sweet (madhura), essence (sara), dense (sandra), slow acting (manda), stable (stimita), heavy (guru), cold (sheeta), slimy (vijjala) and clear (acchah).
  • Pitta is naturally hot (ushna), sharply/acutely acting (tikshna), liquid (drava), of fleshy smell (visram), sour (amla) and pungent (katu).
  • Vata is naturally rough (ruksha), light (laghu), mobile (chala), abundant (bahu), swift (shighra), cold (sheeta), coarse (parusha) and non-slimy (vishada).
  • Pathological condition (vikriti) needs to be evaluated to be able to provide effective treatment. The disorder should be examined in terms of the strength of the cause (hetu), dosha (vitiating intermediary factors), dushya (vitiated factors), constitution (prakriti), place (desha), time (kala) and the symptoms. These factors determine the severity of disease.
  • Eight types of sara (best quality of body tissues) determine the strength of body tissues. Indeed, innate immunity of body tissues depends upon sara, and it can be examined by the given features.
  • Assessment of samhanana (compactness) is important to examine the differentiation and organization of muscle, fat, bones. These determine the strength of person.
  • Analyzing the compactness (samhanana), proportionate relation of different parts (pramana), suitability (satmya), mental state (sattva), intake and digestive capacity (ahara), exercise tolerance (vyayama) and age (vaya) helps the physician to classify the strength of the patient into three categories viz. superior (pravara), medium (madhya) and inferior (avara). It is on this basis that physician decides to give strong (tikshna), mild (mridu) and moderate (madhya) medicaments.
  • The basic unit to measure the body parts is height, breadth and circumference of one’s own finger (anguli). This is used in personified medicine to determine one’s own standard proportion of body parts. There cannot be a single standard for overall population.
  • Assessment of satmya (suitability) determines the overall diet and lifestyle of an individual and this affects lifespan of the person.
  • The mental strength is important to assess the behavioral response of patient to disease. It is essential to assess mental strength in every disease, because, a person having big stature may pretend a mild disease as like a critical condition and physician may be misled to incorrect diagnosis.
  • The physiological and psychological functions depend upon age of a person. Similarly, there is dominance of a specific dosha according to dosha. Kapha is dominant is childhood, pitta in adulthood and vata in old age. If there is pathological dominance of a particular dosha in a certain age, then there will be changes according to respective dosha. Thus, the lifespan will differ as per dosha dominance in respect to age.
  • The severity of morbidity depends upon degree of dosha aggravation. Medicaments shall be prescribed considering severity of morbidity and strength of patient.
  • Purificatory therapies need to be performed at appropriate time of the year (kala) which is divided into six ritus, namely hemant (early winter), grishma (summer) and varsha (rainy season) these are the three season characterized by cold, heat and rains. In between them there are other three seasons having common characters as pravrita (early rain), sharad (autumn) and vasanta (spring). Last three are termed as sadharan ritu during which purificatory (shodhana) treatment can be done.

Similarly, medicine should be given at appropriate time to the patient (kala) and when not to be given (akala).

  • Purification therapies shall be performed as per the seasonal vitiation of respective dosha. The medicines shall be administered considering stage of disease and appropriate time as per the morbidity.

Vidhi Vimarsha

The text of Charaka Samhita is several thousand years old. It provides holistic solutions for the people and society. World has changed since, with change in thinking, lifestyle and technological advancements but, many of the guiding principles are still applicable Following should be applicable now.

Selection of medical treatise

In the last century, there has been significant change in how medical education is imparted, specially Ayurvedic education. Since olden times, Ayurvedic teacher would select a student and provide both theoretical and practical training by a process called Guru/shishya (student/teacher) relationship. Student was also guided how to select the medical treatise, criteria for which is described in the text above. These days, books are recommended by the faculty of medical schools according to the syllabus. Guidelines given in the text are still useful in selecting any worth reading book on a particular subject.

Ideal presentation of text

Treatise should be such that is understood by all students with different levels of intelligence. Repetition of the same principles which only increases the exercise of studying should not be present. It should include a concise and accurate statement of fact or concept followed by explanation with supportive examples using common language words. The words used should not be difficult for hearing, spelling, remembering and use of infamous words should be avoided. The sentence used for explanation should give complete and correct meaning and sequencing should be in a way to achieve clear stepwise and comprehensive understanding of the topic. The chapter or subject should be well placed and related topic should follow in order. The content in the book should be very effective, attractive and giving complete knowledge without repetition. Various graphs, flow charts, diagrams pictures and color plates which generates interest within the readers should be included.

The conclusions of explanation should be perfect and unalterable. The principles mentioned in text should be the same from beginning to the end.

In present context, the guidelines for writing a research paper or an article or a monograph include all the points mentioned in the text. The principles to write considering reader’s psyche are important and shall be followed for making a good treatise. Charaka Samhita follows the same principles of presentation.

Qualities of a teacher

Teacher influences the life of a student. A teacher should have complete theoretical and practical knowledge of Ayurveda. The qualities of an ideal teacher are described in the text. Furthermore, keeping the competency of medical education in mind, the teacher should have knowledge of contemporary sciences and should behave with care and unbiased to the students. Teacher should not be egoistic and jealous. He should enjoy his teaching and not feel burden of teaching even if he needs to repeat. He should understand the lifestyle, psychiatric and body constitution of his patients and convey the same to his students. Significance of each symptom and sign seen in patient should be noted with help of sense organs and the same clinical methods should be explained to the students.

A good teacher plays significant role in making life of a student. Even today, in Ayurvedic practice, guru-shishya parampara (traditional learning through students staying with teachers) exists, that is the most effective method of learning practical applications of principles of Ayurveda.

Qualities of an ideal student

Today, with the increasing demand of education for all, the students are taught in the classrooms in a group. However, the best teacher develops a one-to-one interaction with each student to make him inform about the knowledge. The student must possess some qualities and develop learning skills to receive the information and follow instructions given by teacher. Student should be physically and mentally able to perform his duties as a future physician, surgeon, teacher, and/or researcher.

He should follow sadvritta and should be respectful to teacher so as to gain more and more knowledge in each aspect of life. He should engage in frequent academic dialogue with fellow students and teachers. His mind should be focused on his goal. He should have fixed aim of attaining the knowledge about the topic. Student should concentrate on acquiring good qualities and should participate in extra curricular activities like sports and debate etc. Retaining power of the student should be good.

Inference made after discussion and considering both the positive and negative points, student should have such qualities of understanding what and which are the positive and negative effects of each and every action he does. Secondly, he should have sharp memory, broad minded and he should be forgiving and should help others.

Medical ethics and social behaviors of a doctor

Manners and social behavior of doctor is very important. The doctor has prime importance in the society owing to his health-care responsibilities. Also, the medico-legal aspect while treating patient in emergency medical care, and treating patient of opposite gender must be kept in mind to avoid legal issues. The ethical code of conduct of the society or country where he/she lives shall be followed.

Conferences (acquiring cumulative wisdom)

In seminars and conferences, research papers and case reports are presented which help in acquiring knowledge to provide better care to the patients. Healthy discussion brings about growth in knowledge, increases enlightenment and is helpful in preparation for competition. Sharpness and clarity of knowledge is increased. Vocabulary is increased and also interpretation power is increased.

The guidelines to be followed while participating in a discussion to make it more beneficial are described in the text. The points that should be considered while preparing a paper for presentation are applicable for effective communication.

Examination of patient

It is important to assess physical and mental state of the patient and the nature of medicine for treatment.

Prakriti examination

The prakriti or basic constitution is very important to be investigated to know overall health status of a person. The place of birth, place of living, place of work is important for identifying the ethnic habits, suitability, and external causes of a disease. Accordingly, the do’s and don’ts in terms of diet and lifestyle are prescribed, that is the integral part of Ayurvedic prescription. Currently, concept of prakriti is being investigated further in personalized medicine to know the genotype and phenotype of an individual and predicting certain disorders in view of prevention.

Sara examination

To evaluate immunity or bodie’s resistance to disease, sara or ‘or the best qualities of tissues needs to be examined. The constitutional essence helps to understand the immunity of the person. More the sarata of dhatu, more is the immunological strength of the person. Analogue of ant helps to understand the significance of essence of dhatus. And although small and lean in size is able to lift more than its weight due to asthisarata present in it. In Vividhashitpitiya Adhyaya of Sutra Sthana (chapter 28), special importance is given to mamsa (muscle), shonita (blood) and asthi dhatu (bone) in Vyadhikshamatva (immunity) which needs to be researched more.

Satmya (suitability)

The effect of a drug depends upon its interaction with the body tissues. If it is not suitable to the body tissues, then adverse reaction may occur or drug may not be effective. Drug resistance also needs to be considered under the heading of satmya because it is observed that to a person who has developed resistance to certain antibiotics does not offer response to such medicament thus not attaining successful result in the person. Nowadays culture study is used to understand the usefulness of antibiotics in the patient. Therefore the suitability of the patient must be considered before prescribing a medicine.

The ideal time for purification procedures

If in emergency shodhana has to be done in unsuitable weather, then the surroundings of the patient should be made such that it resembles the sadharan kala, for example, if it is very cold then room should be adjusted with warmness and if it is very hot as in grishma, then the temperature in the room should be reduced. Also a physician must use yukti and accordingly use or make the necessary dravyas sheeta or ushna by appropriate samyoga (combination), samskara (processing) and pramana (dose).

Examination of stage of disease

Aturavastha or the phase of disease in patient also matters in treatment as seen in context of jwara wherein in kashaya (decoction) should not be administered for seven days or till amapachana does not take place. This interprets that the body of patient shall be able to metabolize the drugs. In case of jwara, the doshas are too vitiated with the poor status of agni, therefore the body is unable to metabolize even the drugs also. Therefore langhana (fasting) is the first treatment in jwara. In nutshell, the medicines shall be prescribed considering the phase of disease and status of the patient.

Nowadays, various software and decision support systems are available to help physicians regarding the diagnosis. Various subjective assessment scales to examine sara and questionnaires to assess prakriti are available to know the status of patient.

Examination of psyche of patient

Mana/satva (mind) is said to be tantraka (technical operator) as the one who is preraka (inspirer) or dharaka (owner). Mana is the initiator of all activity but it can carry out its action in conjunction with atma only. If mana is weak it is unable to tolerate the symptoms of disease and he/she exaggerates those. If the doctor makes the mistake of considering the inferior mental strength of patient with severe disease depending on presentation of symptoms and gives strong medicine then he may end up with complication.

Symptoms of severely diseased and mildly diseased are mentioned in seventh chapter of Vimana Sthana.

The mental status examination has a special importance in today’s medical practice. The physician has to modulate interaction with the patient, dose of medicine, potency of medicine considering the psychology of the patient. The physician who communicates better with the patient helps to heal disease naturally.

Assessment of ahara shakti (intake capacity)

Aharashakti is not only the quantity of food intake, but also its digestive capacity. Quantity of food taken and digestive capacity of the person is to be considered. The assessment of agni is based upon the food intake capacity of the person. The proporation of body tissue depends upon intake of food and its assimilation inside body. This directly affects the health status. Hence, ahara shakti is important to be assessed.

Further, if the patient is not responding to oral administration of drugs, then the parenteral or any other route of drug administration is to be chosen.

Assessment of vyayama shakti (exercise endurance capacity)

Vyayamashakti is described as bharvahanshakti i.e. capacity to work. People doing strenuous work or exercise have more forebearance and are strong. The capacity to exercise is directly related with the cardio-vascular, pulmonary, muscular and mental status of the patient, and hence it is linked with healthy lifespan. Nowadays, various stress tests are done for evaluation of these functions and are useful to determine the prognosis of disease to give guidance for necessary intervention.

Glossary

  1. Tadvidyasambhāsā –तद्विद्यसम्भाषा-is to discuss with such person who has studied the same science.
  2. Kalyaḥ- कल्यः- early morning
  3. Alubdham -aaअलुब्ध- one having no greed for food etc
  4. Udagayanē- उदगयने- Uttarayan 6 months starting from makarsankrati wherein days are bigger than night. Sun moves north of equator.
  5. Tiṣya nakṣatra- तिष्य नक्षत्रेण- Pusya nakṣatra - one among the auspicious nakṣatra.
  6. śaśini kalyāṇē - शशिनिकल्याणे - śaśinakṣatra is helpful (kalyankari) for students.
  7. maitrē muhūrta- मैत्रेमुहूर्तेiti anukula muhūrta favorable time span like shivabhujagadaya
  8. nirmatsarēṇa- निर्मत्सरेण- Matsara rahit – student should not have any hatred
  9. anutsēkēna- अनुत्सेकेन-anutsukhavanjena- student should not behave like anxious.
  10. Śunda -शौण्डेनाmeans liquor house/ bar
  11. śauṇḍa - शौण्डे- who visits the liquour house for drinks.
  12. rājadviṣṭānāṁ -राजद्विष्टानां- is the one who is hated by the king
  13. rājadvēṣiṇāṁ - राजद्वेषिणां -is the one who hates the king.
  14. kiṣkumātra- - कष्कुमात्रं means hasta pramana i.e. having length equal to distance between tip of middle finger to the elbow.
  15. saṁharṣakarī- संहर्षकरी - It either means competitive or happiness.
  16. vacanaśaktim- वचनशक्ति- Person having good vocabulary and also has various interpretation.
  17. bhūyō'dhyavasāya- भूयोऽध्यवसाय-dhruda nischaya- who has gain complete knowledge and confidence on the subject.
  18. Sanharsha- संहर्षात् -happiness of wining the competition
  19. jñāna-ज्ञान- Shastrārtha jñāna - meaning of the science
  20. vijñāna- विज्ञान-Tad artha nischaya- vishesha jñāna - specific knowledge about the science.
  21. dandaśūkā- दन्दशूकाः –repeated intake of food and drink.
  22. Prabhūtāśana- प्रभूताशनपानाः- excessive intake of food and drink
  23. Sanna- सन्न – hina - low
  24. Sakta – सक्त – badha – adhered
  25. Jarjara- जर्जर – bhagna patra eva- like a broken vessel/ hoarse voice
  26. Śrīmad- श्रीमद्भ्- shobhayukta- beautiful
  27. Pratikarma- प्रतिकर्म-Cikitsā – treatment
  28. Āviklipta-अaaaasविक्लिप्तैः- Single drug use

Reference books for further reading

1. Charak Samhita by Agnivesha Edited By Yadavji Trikamji Acharya-Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. 4th Edition.

2. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta Edited By Yadavji Trikamji Acharya- Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi- 6th Edition.

3. Astanga Hrudaya By Vagbhat-Chaukhamba Publication

4. Caraka Samhita (Text With English Translation & Critical Exposition Based On Cakrapani Datta Ayurved Dipika) By R K Sharma And Bhagwan Dash, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi.

5. Basic Principles Of Ayurveda, Padarth Vijnana By Prof. Yogesh Chandra Mishra- Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhawan, Varanasi.

6. Padarth Vigyan By Dr Krishnamurthy- Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhawan, Varanasi.

7. Tarka Sangraha- Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhawan, Varanasi.