Phalamatra Siddhi

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Phalamatra Siddhi
Section/Chapter Siddhi Sthana Chapter 11
Preceding Chapter Basti Siddhi
Succeeding Chapter Uttar Basti Siddhi
Other Sections Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana

Contents

Siddhi Sthana Chapter 11, Phalamatra Siddhi (Chapter on Discussion on medicinal fruits in successful enema therapy)

Abstract

In this chapter, the therapeutic efficacy of the fruits of jimutaka (Luffa echinata,), dhamargava (Luffa cylindrica), kutaja (Holorrhena antidysenterica), kritavedhana (Luffa acutangula), and madana phala (Randia dumetorum) is discussed. These fruits are used in therapeutic enemas for specific diseases. Therapeutic enemas are also used for treatment of various diseases in some animals, however size of enema nozzle, ingredients of enema recipes and quantity of enemas are different from human beings. In the present chapter, these differences of enema to be administered in animals like elephants, camels, cattle, horses, sheep and goats are described that can be useful in veterinary medicine. Four types of persons always remain sick such as shrotiyas (priest), raja-sevakas (servant of king), veshyas (courtesans), and panya-jivinis (merchant) due to their improper lifestyle habits. These specific etiological factors and therapies useful for these sick persons are described in Phalamatra Siddhi.

Keywords: Basti, Phala matra, Panchakarma, Sadatura (always seeking), Jimutaka (Luffa echinata), Katu tumbi (Lagenaria siceraria), Dhamargava (Luffa cylindrica), Kutaja (Holorrhena antidysenterica), Kritavedhana (Luffa acutangula), and Madana phala (Randia dumetorum).

Introduction

Phalamatra Siddhi is the 11th chapter of Siddhi Sthana and is presented as a record of proceeding of a symposium and as a dialogue between the teacher and his disciples.

Various herbs are mentioned as ingredients of enema recipes in the previous chapters. The present chapter deals with therapeutic profile of some of these important and commonly used fruits. To discuss therapeutic efficiency of the fruits, an assemblage under the leadership of Punarvasu Atreya was organized in which scholars like Bhrigu, Kaushika, Kapya, Shaunaka, Pulastya and Asita Gautam participated. Therapeutic properties and efficacy of jimutaka (Luffa echinata), dhamargava (Luffa cylindrica), kutaja (Holorrhena antidysenterica), kritavedhana(Luffa acutangula), and madana phala ( Randia dumetorum) fruits were discussed. At the end of the assemblage, Punarvasu Atreya concluded that each one of the fruit/drug mentioned by the scholars is effective in treating only certain specific conditions and none of them could be considered as a master drug. There is no drug which is entirely free from shortcomings or entirely free from good effects. He asserted that madana-phala( Randia dumetorum) is the best drug which can be used for therapeutic enema with adequate margin of safety in all possible conditions .

Basti (therapeutic enema) is defined as the therapy which goes up to the nabhi (umbilical region), kati (lumbar region), parshva (sides of the chest) and kukshi (pelvic region), churns up the fecal matter including all the other morbid matter located there and appropriately eliminates them. Therapeutic enemas possess all attributes and actions for curing all type of diseases, due to its purifying action by causing downwards movement of vata, pitta, and kapha doshas as well as feces. Vitiation of vata dosha leads to many diseases in shakha (peripheral tissue elements), koshtha (visceras of thorax and abdomen), marma (vital spots including joints), urdhva (upper part of the body), sarvavayava (entire body) and anga (individual parts of the body). Due to vikshepa (sepration) and sanghata (combination) properties vata dosha is responsible for vikshepa (separation) and sanghata (combination) of feces, urine, pitta dosha including other excreta and tissue element and sustain body. When vata dosha get exceedingly aggravated there is no remedy other than basti for its alleviation. Therapeutic enema is also considered an important procedure in the treatment of diseases affecting elephants, camels, cattle, horses, sheep and goats. Basti is also an effective treatment for those with chronic sickness of the kinds mentioned above.

Sanskrit text, Transliteration and English Translation

अथातःफलमात्रासिद्धिंव्याख्यास्यामः||१||

इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||

athātaḥ phalamātrāsiddhiṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||

iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

athAtaH phalamAtrAsiddhiM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||

iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

Now we shall expound the chapter Phalamatra Siddhi dealing with determination of appropriateness of medicaments for medicated enemas to achieve success. Thus said Lord Atreya. [1-2]

Objective of the assemblage and list of participants

भगवन्तमुदारसत्त्वधीश्रुतिविज्ञानसमृद्धमत्रिजम्| फलबस्तिवरत्वनिश्चये सविवादा मुनयोऽभ्युपागमन्||३||

भृगुकौशिककाप्यशौनकाः सपुलस्त्यासितगौतमादयः| कतमत् प्रवरं फलादिषु स्मृतमास्थापनयोजनास्विति||४||

bhagavantamudārasattvadhīśrutivijñānasamr̥ddhamatrijam| phalabastivaratvaniścayē savivādā munayō'bhyupāgaman||3||

bhr̥gukauśikakāpyaśaunakāḥ sapulastyāsitagautamādayaḥ| katamat pravaraṁ phalādiṣu smr̥tamāsthāpanayōjanāsviti||4||

bhagavantamudArasattvadhIshrutivij~jAnasamRuddhamatrijam| phalabastivaratvanishcaye savivAdA munayo~abhyupAgaman||3||

bhRugukaushikakApyashaunakAH sapulastyAsitagautamAdayaH| katamat pravaraM phalAdiShu smRutamAsthApanayojanAsviti||4||

Lord Atreya is richly endowed with liberal intellect, perception, memory and everyday knowledge. To resolve the disputes regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the fruits for specific diseases and to determine their merit in the therapeutic enema, an assemblage was organised under the leadership of Lord Atreya in the presence of Bhrigu, Kaushika, Kapya, Shaunaka, Pulastya and Asita Gautam. [3-4]

Opinions of various participants on the most effective fruit to be used for enema

कफपित्तहरं वरं फलेष्वथ जीमूतकमाह शौनकः| मृदुवीर्यतयाऽभिनत्ति तच्छकृदित्याह नृपोऽथ वामकः||५||

कटुतुम्बममन्यतोत्तमं वमने दोषसमीरणं च तत्| तदवृष्यमशैत्यतीक्ष्णताकटुरौक्ष्यादिति गौतमोऽब्रवीत् ||६||

कफपित्तनिबर्हणं परं स च धामार्गवमित्यमन्यत |

kaphapittaharaṁ varaṁ phalēṣvatha jīmūtakamāha śaunakaḥ| mr̥duvīryatayā'bhinatti tacchakr̥dityāha nr̥pō'tha vāmakaḥ||5||

kaṭutumbamamanyatōttamaṁ vamanē dōṣasamīraṇaṁ ca tat| tadavr̥ṣyamaśaityatīkṣṇatākaṭuraukṣyāditi gautamō'bravīt ||6||

kaphapittanibarhaṇaṁ paraṁ sa ca dhāmārgavamityamanyata | kaphapittaharaM varaM phaleShvatha jImUtakamAha shaunakaH| mRuduvIryatayA~abhinatti tacchakRudityAha nRupo~atha vAmakaH||5||

kaTutumbamamanyatottamaM vamane doShasamIraNaM ca tat| tadavRuShyamashaityatIkShNatAkaTuraukShyAditi gautamo~abravIt ||6||

kaphapittanibarhaNaM paraM sa ca dhAmArgavamityamanyata |

Views of Shaunaka regarding jimutaka fruit

According to Shaunaka, first speaker in the assemblage, among the fruits, jimutaka (Luffa echinata,) is best drug to be used in medicated enema because it eliminate kapha and pitta doshas .

Views of Vamaka regarding katu tumbi fruit

According to Vamaka, due to its low potency, jimutaka is less effective in disintegrating and voiding of stool, while best emetic drug katu tumbi (Lagenaria siceraria) is the best drug to be used in medicated enema because it eliminates the dosha through enema.

Views of Asita Gautam regarding dhamargava fruit

According to Asita Gautam, katu tumbi (Lagenaria siceraria) is not an aphrodisiac due to its hot , sharp and non- unctuous properties while dhamargava (Luffa cylindrica) is excellent for eliminating kapha dosha and pitta dosha. So it may be considered to be the best drug for the medicated enema. [5-6]

तदमन्यतवातलंपुनर्बडिशोग्लानिकरंबलापहम्||७||

कुटजं प्रशशंस चोत्तमं न बलघ्नं कफपित्तहारि च| tadamanyata vātalaṁ punarbaḍiśō glānikaraṁ balāpaham||7||

kuṭajaṁ praśaśaṁsa cōttamaṁ na balaghnaṁ kaphapittahāri ca| tadamanyata vAtalaM punarbaDisho glAnikaraM balApaham||7||

kuTajaM prashashaMsa cottamaM na balaghnaM kaphapittahAri ca|

Views of Badisha regarding kutaja (Holorrhena antidysenterica) fruit

According to Badisha, dhamargava (Luffa cylindrica) aggravates vata dosha, causes despair and reduces strength of the body, so it is not suitable for medicated enema. While kutaja (Holorrhena antidysenterica) does not reduce the strength and it alleviates kapha dosha as well as pitta dosha, and thus, should be considered excellent for medicated enema. [7]

अतिविज्जलमौर्ध्वभागिकं पवनक्षोभि च काप्य आह तत्||८||

कृतवेधनमाह वातलं कफपित्तं प्रबलं हरेदिति|

ativijjalamaurdhvabhāgikaṁ pavanakṣōbhi ca kāpya āha tat||8||

kr̥tavēdhanamāha vātalaṁ kaphapittaṁ prabalaṁ harēditi|

ativijjalamaurdhvabhAgikaM pavanakShobhi ca kApya Aha tat||8||

kRutavedhanamAha vAtalaM kaphapittaM prabalaM harediti|

Views of Kapya regarding kritavedhana (Luffa acutangula) fruit

According to Kapya, kutaja (Holorrhena antidysenterica) is very viscid, causing elimination of doshas through emesis and also causing aggravation of vata dosha. So it is not suitable for medicated enema, while kritavedhana (Luffa acutangula) is promoter of vata dosha and eliminate excessively aggravated kapha dosha and pitta dosha, so it is the best drug for medicated enema. [8]

Views of Bhadra Shaunaka regarding kritavedhana (Luffa acutangula)fruit

तदसाध्विति भद्रशौनकः कटुकं चातिबलघ्नमित्यपि||९||

tadasādhviti bhadraśaunakaḥ kaṭukaṁ cātibalaghnamityapi||9||

tadasAdhviti bhadrashaunakaH kaTukaM cAtibalaghnamityapi||9||

According to Bhadra Shaunaka, kritavedhana is pungent and it reduces strength in excess so it is not best for the medicated enemas. [9]

Punarvasu Atreya’s final judgment regarding the best among the fruits for medicated enemas

इति तद्वचनानि हेतुभिः सुविचित्राणि निशम्य बुद्धिमान् | प्रशशंस फलेषु निश्चयं परमं चात्रिसुतोऽब्रवीदिदम्||१०||

फलदोषगुणान् सरस्वती प्रति सर्वैरपि सम्यगीरिता| न तु किञ्चिददोषनिर्गुणं गुणभूयस्त्वमतो विचिन्त्यते ||११||

iti tadvacanāni hētubhiḥ suvicitrāṇi niśamya buddhimān | praśaśaṁsa phalēṣu niścayaṁ paramaṁ cātrisutō'bravīdidam||10||

phaladōṣaguṇān sarasvatī prati sarvairapi samyagīritā| na tu kiñcidadōṣanirguṇaṁ guṇabhūyastvamatō vicintyatē ||11||

iti tadvacanAni hetubhiH suvicitrANi nishamya buddhimAn | prashashaMsa phaleShu nishcayaM paramaM cAtrisuto~abravIdidam||10||

phaladoShaguNAn sarasvatI prati sarvairapi samyagIritA| na tu ki~jcidadoShanirguNaM guNabhUyastvamato vicintyate ||11||

After hearing interesting statements of the therapeutic properties of various drugs with reasoning, Punarvasu Atreya, the leader of the assemblage, acknowledged their views and delivered his final outcome regarding the best among the fruits of medicated enemas. According to Punarvasu Atreya, there is no drug which is entirely free from shortcomings or entirely free from good effects, so we should think about drug which possesses superior quality for medicated enemas. [10-11]

इह कुष्ठहिता गरागरी हितमिक्ष्वाकु तु मेहिने मतम्| कुटजस्य फलं हृदामये प्रवरं कोठफलं च पाण्डुषु||१२||

उदरे कृतवेधनं हितं, मदनं सर्वगदाविरोधि तु| मधुरं सकषायतिक्तकं तदरूक्षं सकटूष्णविज्जलम्||१३||

कफपित्तहृदाशुकारि चाप्यनपायं पवनानुलोमि च| फलनाम विशेषतस्त्वतो लभतेऽन्येषु फलेषु सत्स्वपि||१४||

iha kuṣṭhahitā garāgarī hitamikṣvāku tu mēhinē matam| kuṭajasya phalaṁ hr̥dāmayē pravaraṁ kōṭhaphalaṁ ca pāṇḍuṣu||12||

udarē kr̥tavēdhanaṁ hitaṁ, madanaṁ sarvagadāvirōdhi tu| madhuraṁ sakaṣāyatiktakaṁ tadarūkṣaṁ sakaṭūṣṇavijjalam||13||

kaphapittahr̥dāśukāri cāpyanapāyaṁ pavanānulōmi ca| phalanāma viśēṣatastvatō labhatē'nyēṣu phalēṣu satsvapi||14||

iha kuShThahitA garAgarI hitamikShvAku tu mehine matam| kuTajasya phalaM hRudAmaye pravaraM koThaphalaM ca pANDuShu||12||

udare kRutavedhanaM hitaM, madanaM sarvagadAvirodhi tu| madhuraM sakaShAyatiktakaM tadarUkShaM sakaTUShNavijjalam||13||

kaphapittahRudAshukAri cApyanapAyaM pavanAnulomi ca| phalanAma visheShatastvato labhate~anyeShu phaleShu satsvapi||14||

According to Punarvasu Atreya, jimutaka is useful for the treatment of kushtha (skin diseases), katu tumbi is useful for the treatment of meha (urinary disease including diabetes). Fruit of kutaja is useful for heart diseases, dhamargava is useful for panduroga (anemia), kritavedhana is useful for udara roga (abdominal diseases including acites) and madana –phala is useful for all disease, because it is sweet, slightly astringent as well as bitter in taste, ununctuous and slightly pungent, hot and viscid. It eliminates kapha dosha and pitta dosha, eliminates doshas (three entities regulating function of the body and mind), is harmless and cause downwards movement of vata dosha. The term phala specifically indicate madana-phala, even though there are several fruits which are used in the medicine.[12-14]

गुरुणेति वचस्युदाहृते मुनिसङ्घेन च पूजिते ततः | प्रणिपत्य मुदा समन्वितः सहितः शिष्यगणोऽनुपृष्टवान्||१५||

guruṇēti vacasyudāhr̥tē munisaṅghēna ca pūjitē tataḥ | praṇipatya mudā samanvitaḥ sahitaḥ śiṣyagaṇō'nupr̥ṣṭavān||15||

guruNeti vacasyudAhRute munisa~gghena ca pUjite tataH | praNipatya mudA samanvitaH sahitaH shiShyagaNo~anupRuShTavAn||15||

All disciples were satisfied with the clarification of their teacher Punarvasu Atreya regarding therapeutic properties of various fruits for various diseases so, they honered their teacher and bowed before him with happiness and made their more quaries.(15)

Query regarding efficacy of basti (therapeutic enema)

सर्वकर्मगुणकृद्गुरुणोक्तो बस्तिरूर्ध्वमथ नैति नाभितः| नाभ्यधो गुदमतः स शरीरात् सर्वतः कथमपोहति दोषान् ||१६||

sarvakarmaguṇakr̥dguruṇōktō bastirūrdhvamatha naiti nābhitaḥ| nābhyadhō gudamataḥ sa śarīrāt sarvataḥ kathamapōhati dōṣān ||16||

sarvakarmaguNakRudguruNokto bastirUrdhvamatha naiti nAbhitaH| nAbhyadho gudamataH sa sharIrAt sarvataH kathamapohati doShAn ||16||

Therapeutic enema has been described as it posesses, all attributes and action for curing all type of disease. But here question is raised by the learned scholar that the medicated enema does not reach above the level of umbilicus, then how it is possible for medicated enema to eliminate all type of morbid doshas (vata,pitta and kapha)from all over the body? [16]

Effect of basti (therapeutic enemas)

तद्गुरुरब्रवीदिदं शरीरं तन्त्रयतेऽनिलः सङ्गविघातात् [३] |

केवल एव दोषसहितो वा स्वाशयगः प्रकोपमुपयाति||१७||

तपवनंसपित्तकफविट्कंशुद्धिकरोऽनुलोमयतिबस्तिः| सर्वशरीरगश्च गदसङ्घस्तत्प्रशमात् प्रशान्तिमुपयाति||१८||

tadgururabravīdidaṁ śarīraṁ tantrayatē'nilaḥ saṅgavighātāt [3] |

kēvala ēva dōṣasahitō vā svāśayagaḥ prakōpamupayāti||17||

taṁ pavanaṁ sapittakaphaviṭkaṁ śuddhikarō'nulōmayati bastiḥ| sarvaśarīragaśca gadasaṅghastatpraśamāt praśāntimupayāti||18|| tadgururabravIdidaM sharIraM tantrayate~anilaH sa~ggavighAtAt [3] |

kevala eva doShasahito vA svAshayagaH prakopamupayAti||17||

taM pavanaM sapittakaphaviTkaM shuddhikaro~anulomayati bastiH| sarvasharIragashca gadasa~gghastatprashamAt prashAntimupayAti||18||

While answering above question, Punarvasu Atreya has mentioned that two properties of vata dosha, detachment (vighata) and adhesion (sanga) is responsible for sustaining our body. This means that vata dosha is responsible for the separation (vighata) and combination (sanga) of stool, urine, pitta, kapha including other excretory product and tissue elements. Vata dosha aggravate alone or with the other doshas in its own habitat (i.e., pakvashaya or colon), in this condition medicated enema due to its purification action causes alleviation of vata dosha along with pitta dosha, kapha dosha and feces, because of alleviation of vata dosha all disease of body are cured. [17-18]

Therapeutic enema in animals (veterinary medicine)

अथाधिगम्यार्थमखण्डितं धिया गजोष्ट्रगोश्वाव्यजकर्म रोगनुत्| अपृच्छदेनं स च बस्तिमब्रवीद्विधिं च तस्याह पुनः प्रचोदितः||१९||

athādhigamyārthamakhaṇḍitaṁ dhiyā gajōṣṭragōśvāvyajakarma rōganut| apr̥cchadēnaṁ sa ca bastimabravīdvidhiṁ ca tasyāha punaḥ pracōditaḥ||19||

athAdhigamyArthamakhaNDitaM dhiyA gajoShTragoshvAvyajakarma roganut| apRucchadenaM sa ca bastimabravIdvidhiM ca tasyAha punaH pracoditaH||19||

After understanding therapeutic properties of medicated enema scholar Agnivesha asked about importance of medicated enemas in the treatment of diseases affecting elephants, camels, cattle, horses, sheep and goats.[19]

Enema receptacle used for administrating medicated enemas in different animals

आजोरणौ सौम्य ! गजोष्ट्रयोः कृते गवाश्वयोर्बस्तिमुशन्ति माहिषम्| अजाविकानां तु जरद्गवोद्भवं वदन्ति बस्तिं तदुपायचिन्तकाः||२०||

ājōraṇau saumya! gajōṣṭrayōḥ kr̥tē gavāśvayōrbastimuśanti māhiṣam| ajāvikānāṁ tu jaradgavōdbhavaṁ vadanti bastiṁ tadupāyacintakāḥ||20||

AjoraNau saumya ! gajoShTrayoH kRute gavAshvayorbastimushanti mAhiSham| ajAvikAnAM tu jaradgavodbhavaM vadanti bastiM tadupAyacintakAH||20||

Answering above question, Punarvasu Atreya has mentioned that urinary bladder of goats and sheep should be use as enema receptacle in case of elephants and camels , urinary bladder of buffalo should be use in case of cows and horses and urinary bladder of old ox (jarad gava) should be used in case of goats and sheep, as veterinary physicians who are proficient in the administration of medicated enema to animals advise.[20]

Length of enema nozzles for different animals

अरत्निमष्टादशषोडशाङ्गुलं तथैव नेत्रं हि दशाङ्गुलं क्रमात्| गजोष्ट्रगोश्वाव्यजबस्तिसन्धौ चतुर्थभागोपनयं हितं वदेत् ||२१||

aratnimaṣṭādaśaṣōḍaśāṅgulaṁ tathaiva nētraṁ hi daśāṅgulaṁ kramāt| gajōṣṭragōśvāvyajabastisandhau caturthabhāgōpanayaṁ hitaṁ vadēt ||21||

aratnimaShTAdashaShoDashA~ggulaM tathaiva netraM hi dashA~ggulaM kramAt| gajoShTragoshvAvyajabastisandhau caturthabhAgopanayaM hitaM vadet ||21||

Length of enema nozzles for elephants should be one aratni (length of the fore arm), for camels should be 18 angulas (one angula=3/4 of an inch), for cattle or horses should be 16 angulas, for sheep and goats ten angulas. Only 1/4 of this length of the nozzle should be inserted into the anus of the animals, while administering medicated enemas.[21]

Dosage of enema preparation for evacuation enema in different animals

प्रस्थस्त्वजाव्योर्हि निरूहमात्रा गवादिषु द्वित्रिगुणं यथाबलम्| निरूहमुष्ट्रस्य तथाऽऽढकद्वयं गजस्य वृद्धिस्त्वनुवासनेऽष्टमः||२२||

prasthastvajāvyōrhi nirūhamātrā gavādiṣu dvitriguṇaṁ yathābalam| nirūhamuṣṭrasya tathāḍhakadvayaṁ gajasya vr̥ddhistvanuvāsanē'ṣṭamaḥ||22||

prasthastvajAvyorhi nirUhamAtrA gavAdiShu dvitriguNaM yathAbalam| nirUhamuShTrasya tathA~a~aDhakadvayaM gajasya vRuddhistvanuvAsane~aShTamaH||22||

Answering question regarding quantity of the fluid to be used as evacuation enema Punarvasu Atreya has mentioned that quantity of the fluid for evacuation enema in goats and sheep should be one prastha (736 gm), for cattle should be 2-3 prastha (1472 gm to 2208 gm) depending upon their physique, for camels should be two Adhakas (5888 gm) and for elephants should be four adhaka( 11776 gm). For oily enema the quantity of the oil to be used for these animals should be one – eighth of quantity prescribed. [22]

Common recipes for all type veterinary enemas

कलिङ्गकुष्ठे मधुकं च पिप्पली वचा शताह्वा मदनं रसाञ्जनम्| हितानि सर्वेषु गुडः ससैन्धवो द्विपञ्चमूलं च विकल्पना त्वियम्||२३||

kaliṅgakuṣṭhē madhukaṁ ca pippalī vacā śatāhvā madanaṁ rasāñjanam| hitāni sarvēṣu guḍaḥ sasaindhavō dvipañcamūlaṁ ca vikalpanā tviyam||23||

kali~ggakuShThe madhukaM ca pippalI vacA shatAhvA madanaM rasA~jjanam| hitAni sarveShu guDaH sasaindhavo dvipa~jcamUlaM ca vikalpanA tviyam||23||

For all type of veterinary enemas the recipe containing ingredient like kaliga(Holarrhena antidysenterica), kustha(Saussurea lappa), madhuka(Madhuca indica ), pippali(Piper longum ), vacha(Acorus calamus), satahva(Anethum sowa), madana(Randia dumetorum), and rasanjana added with jaggery, rock salts and two variety of panchamula bilva(Aegle marmelos ), syonaka(Oroxylum indicum), gambhari(Gmelina arborea ), patala(Stereospermum suaveolens), gani-karika(Piper longum ), shala-parni (Desmodium gangeticum), prishna- parni(Uraria picta), brihati(Solanum indicum), kantakari(Solanum surattense), and goksura(Tribulis Terrestris.), should be used.[23]

Specific enema for curing disease of animals

गजेऽधिकाऽश्वत्थवटाश्वकर्णकाः सखादिरप्रग्रहशालतालजाः| तथा च पर्ण्यौ धवशिग्रुपाटली मधूकसाराः सनिकुम्भचित्रकाः||२४||

पलाशभूतीकसुराह्वरोहिणीकषाय उक्तस्त्वधिको गवां हितः| पलाशदन्तीसुरदारुकत्तृणद्रवन्त्य उक्तास्तुरगस्य चाधिकाः||२५||

खरोष्ट्रयोः पीलुकरीरखादिराः शम्याकबिल्वादिगणस्य च च्छदाः| अजाविकानां त्रिफलापरूषकं कपित्थकर्कन्धु सबिल्वकोलजम्||२६||

gajē'dhikā'śvatthavaṭāśvakarṇakāḥ sakhādirapragrahaśālatālajāḥ| tathā ca parṇyau dhavaśigrupāṭalī madhūkasārāḥ sanikumbhacitrakāḥ||24||

palāśabhūtīkasurāhvarōhiṇīkaṣāya uktastvadhikō gavāṁ hitaḥ| palāśadantīsuradārukattr̥ṇadravantya uktāsturagasya cādhikāḥ||25||

kharōṣṭrayōḥ pīlukarīrakhādirāḥ śamyākabilvādigaṇasya ca cchadāḥ| ajāvikānāṁ triphalāparūṣakaṁ kapitthakarkandhu sabilvakōlajam||26||

gaje~adhikA~ashvatthavaTAshvakarNakAH sakhAdirapragrahashAlatAlajAH| tathA ca parNyau dhavashigrupATalI madhUkasArAH sanikumbhacitrakAH||24||

palAshabhUtIkasurAhvarohiNIkaShAya uktastvadhiko gavAM hitaH| palAshadantIsuradArukattRuNadravantya uktAsturagasya cAdhikAH||25||

kharoShTrayoH pIlukarIrakhAdirAH shamyAkabilvAdigaNasya ca cchadAH| ajAvikAnAM triphalAparUShakaM kapitthakarkandhu sabilvakolajam||26||

Specific enema for curing disease of elephants

For curing disease of elephant recipe of verse no.23 should be added with decoction of ashvattha(Ficus religiosa), vata(Ficus benghalensis), khadira(Acacia catechu), pragraha(Oroxylum indicum), shala(Shorea robusta), and fruit of tala( Borassus flabellifer).

Specific enema for curing disease of cattle

For curing disease of cattle, the recipe of verse no.23 should be added with decoction of mudga-parni(Vigna trilobata), masa-parni(Teramnus labialis), dhava(Anogeissus latifolia), shigru (Moringa oleifera), patali(Baliospermum montanum), madhuka-sara(Madhuca Indica), nikumbha (Baliospermum montanum), chitraka(Plumbago zeylanica), palasha (Butea monosperma), bhutika (Cymbopogon citratus), deva-daru (Cedrus deodara) and katu-rohini (Picrorhiza kurroa).

Specific enema for curing disease of horses

For curing disease of horses recipe of verse no.23 should be added in addition with decoction of palasa(Butea monosperma), danti (Baliospermum montanum), sura-daru (Cedrus deodara), kattarina(Sterculia urens) and dravanti( Croton tiglium).

Specific enema for curing disease of donkeys and camels

To cure diseases afflicting donkeys and camels the decoction of verse no.23 should be added in addition with pilu (Salvadora persica), karta, khadira (Acacia catechu), samyaka and leaves of drugs belonging to bilvadi-group. To cure disease of goat and sheep decoction of verse no.23 should be added in addition with triphala (Terminalia chebul, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis ), parusaka (Grewia asiatica), kapitha (Limonia acidissima), karnakandu(Zizyphus jujube), bilva(Aegle marmelos ) and kola. [24-26]

Persons who are continuously ill because of their professions

अथाग्निवेशः सततातुरान् नरान् हितं च पप्रच्छ गुरुस्तदाह च| सदाऽऽतुराः श्रोत्रियराजसेवकास्तथैव वेश्या सह पण्यजीविभिः||२७||

athāgnivēśaḥ satatāturān narān hitaṁ ca papraccha gurustadāha ca| sadāturāḥ śrōtriyarājasēvakāstathaiva vēśyā saha paṇyajīvibhiḥ||27||

athAgniveshaH satatAturAn narAn hitaM ca papraccha gurustadAha ca| sadA~a~aturAH shrotriyarAjasevakAstathaiva veshyA saha paNyajIvibhiH||27||

Agnivesha asks about the persons who remains forever ill and also method of their treatment. Punarvasu Atreya replies that the persons who are eternally exposed to sickness are shrotiyas (people belonging to priest class), raja-sevakas (servant of king), veshyas (Courtesans) and panya-jivina (merchants).

Causes of continuous illness

द्विजो हि वेदाध्ययनव्रताह्निकक्रियादिभिर्देहहितं न चेष्टते | नृपोपसेवी नृपचित्तरक्षणात् परानुरोधाद्बहुचिन्तनाद्भयात् ||२८||

dvijō hi vēdādhyayanavratāhnikakriyādibhirdēhahitaṁ na cēṣṭatē | nr̥pōpasēvī nr̥pacittarakṣaṇāt parānurōdhādbahucintanādbhayāt ||28||

dvijo hi vedAdhyayanavratAhnikakriyAdibhirdehahitaM na ceShTate| nRupopasevInRupacittarakShaNAt parAnurodhAdbahucintanAdbhayAt ||28||

Since priest always remain busy in the study of vedas, observance of different kinds of sacred vows and performance of rituals so they became eternally sick. The king servants are always busy in such acts that would cause satisfaction to the mind of king, they also fulfill the requirement of the other subordinates of the king and due to extreme worry and fear they became eternally sick.[28]

नृचित्तवर्तिन्युपचारतत्परा मृजाभि(वि)भूषानिरता पणाङ्गना| सदासनादत्यनुबन्धविक्रयक्रयादिलोभादपि पण्यजीविनः||२९||

nr̥cittavartinyupacāratatparā mr̥jābhi(vi)bhūṣāniratā paṇāṅganā| sadāsanādatyanubandhavikrayakrayādilōbhādapi paṇyajīvinaḥ||29||

nRucittavartinyupacAratatparAmRujAbhi(vi)bhUShAniratA paNA~gganA| sadAsanAdatyanubandhavikrayakrayAdilobhAdapi paNyajIvinaH||29||

Depending upon the needs and mood of clients the courtesan dedicates herself to their leisure constantly by keeping her body clean and by using various cosmetics as well as ornaments. Thus, they fail to attend the regimens which are responsible for maintenance of health. Merchants constantly lead a sedentary life, being excessively attached to greediness involved in their profession, fail to attend the regimens which are responsible for maintenance of health. [29]

Common cause of eternally sickess of priests, king servents, courtesans and merchants

सदैव ते ह्यागतवेगनिग्रहं समाचरन्ते न च कालभोजनम्| अकालनिर्हारविहारसेविनो भवन्ति येऽन्येऽपि सदाऽऽतुराश्च ते||३०||

sadaiva tē hyāgatavēganigrahaṁ samācarantē na ca kālabhōjanam| akālanirhāravihārasēvinō bhavanti yē'nyē'pi sadāturāśca tē||30||

sadaiva te hyAgataveganigrahaM samAcarante na ca kAlabhojanam| akAlanirhAravihArasevino bhavanti ye~anye~api sadA~a~aturAshca te||30||

All the above mentioned four categories of persons become eternally sick because of the following common factors.

  • They always suppress the manifested natural urges.
  • They never take food in time.
  • They always void stool, urine, etc., untimely
  • They resort to different regimens untimely

Other persons (apart from priests, king’s servants, courtesans and merchants) who resort to the above mentioned irregularities also become eternally ill. [30]

समीरणं वेगविधारणोद्धतं विबन्धसर्वाङ्गरुजाकरं भिषक्| समीक्ष्य तेषां फलवर्तिमादितः सुकल्पितां स्नेहवतीं प्रयोजयेत्||३१||

samīraṇaṁ vēgavidhāraṇōddhataṁ vibandhasarvāṅgarujākaraṁ bhiṣak| samīkṣya tēṣāṁ phalavartimāditaḥ sukalpitāṁ snēhavatīṁ prayōjayēt||31||

samIraNaMvegavidhAraNoddhataMvibandhasarvA~ggarujAkaraMbhiShak| samIkShya teShAM phalavartimAditaH sukalpitAM snehavatIM prayojayet||31||

Because of the suppression of natural urges, vata dosha gets aggravated and cause constipation and pain all over the body. The physician, having ascertained this, in the beginning should give phala-varti (medicated suppository) well prepared with unctuous material.[31]

Basti (enema) formulations for treatment

पुनर्नवैरण्डनिकुम्भचित्रकान् सदेवदारुत्रिवृतानिदिग्धिकान्| महान्ति मूलानि च पञ्च यानि विपाच्य मूत्रे दधिमस्तुसंयुते||३२||

सतैलसर्पिर्लवणैश्च पञ्चभिर्विमूर्च्छितं बस्तिमथ प्रयोजयेत्| निरूहितं धन्वरसेन भोजितं निकुम्भतैलेन ततोऽनुवासयेत्||३३||

बलां सरास्नां फलबिल्वचित्रकान् द्विपञ्चमूलं कृतमालकात् फलम्| यवान् कुलत्थांश्च पचेज्जलाढके रसः स पेष्यैस्तु कलिङ्गकादिभिः||३४||

सतैलसर्पिर्गुडसैन्धवो हितः सदातुराणां बलवर्णवर्धनः| तथाऽनुवास्ये मधुकेन साधितं फलेन बिल्वेन शताह्वयाऽपि वा||३५||

punarnavairaṇḍanikumbhacitrakānsadēvadārutrivr̥tānidigdhikān| mahānti mūlāni ca pañca yāni vipācya mūtrē dadhimastusaṁyutē||32||

satailasarpirlavaṇaiśca pañcabhirvimūrcchitaṁ bastimatha prayōjayēt| nirūhitaṁ dhanvarasēna bhōjitaṁ nikumbhatailēna tatō'nuvāsayēt||33||

balāṁ sarāsnāṁ phalabilvacitrakān dvipañcamūlaṁ kr̥tamālakāt phalam| yavān kulatthāṁśca pacējjalāḍhakē rasaḥ sa pēṣyaistu kaliṅgakādibhiḥ||34||

satailasarpirguḍasaindhavō hitaḥ sadāturāṇāṁbalavarṇavardhanaḥ| tathā'nuvāsyē madhukēna sādhitaṁ phalēna bilvēna śatāhvayā'pi vā||35||

punarnavairaNDanikumbhacitrakAn sadevadArutrivRutAnidigdhikAn| mahAnti mUlAni ca pa~jca yAni vipAcyamUtredadhimastusaMyute||32||

satailasarpirlavaNaishca pa~jcabhirvimUrcchitabastimathaprayojayet| nirUhitaM dhanvarasena bhojitaMnikumbhatailena tato~anuvAsayet||33||

balAM sarAsnAM phalabilvacitrakAn dvipa~jcamUlaM kRutamAlakAt phalam| yavAn kulatthAMshca pacejjalADhake rasaH sa peShyaistu kali~ggakAdibhiH||34||

satailasarpirguDasaindhavo hitaH sadAturANAMbalavarNavardhanaH| tathA~anuvAsye madhukena sAdhitaM phalena bilvena shatAhvayA~api vA||35||

Non unctuous enema with ingredients punarvava (Boerrhavia diffusa), eranda (Ricinus communis), nikumbha (Baliospermum montanum), chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica), dev-daru (Cedrus deodara), trivrita (Operculina turpethum), nidigdhika (Solanum surattense )and maha-panchamula should be cooked by adding cow’s urine, curd and whey. To this preparation oil, ghee and five types of salt (saindhava, samudra, vida, sauvarchala and audbhida salt) should be added. With this recipe, evacuated medicated enema should be given. After medicated enema, food prepared by cooking with the meat- soup of animals living in arid zone should be given to the patient. Thereafter, he should be given anuvasana or unctuous type of enema with nikumbha (Baliospermum montanum)-oil.

Bala (Sida cordifolia), rasna (Pluchea lanceolata), madana-phala (Randia Dumetorum), bilva(Aegle marmelos ), chitraka(Plumbago zeylanica), two variety of panchamula (Aegle marmelos, Oroxylum indicum, Gmelina arborea ,Stereospermum suaveolens, Desmodium gangeticum, Uraria picta, Solanum indicum,Solanum surattense and Tribulis terrestris.) , fruit of krita-mala (Cassia fistula), yava (Hordeum vulgare ) and kulattha (Dolichos biflorus) should be boiled by adding one adhaka (256 tolas) of water.To this decoction, the paste of kalinga, etc., (vide verse no.23) oil, ghee, jaggery and rock-salt should be added. Medicated enema with this recipe is useful for persons who are eternally sick.

This enema promotes their strength and complexion. Similarly, for these patients, oil cooked with either madhuka (Madhuka indica), phala (madana-phala), bilva (Aegle marmelos) or satahva may be used for non-oily type of medicated enema.[32-35]

सजीवनीयस्तु रसोऽनुवासने निरूहणे चालवणः शिशोर्हितः| न चान्यदाश्वङ्गबलाभिवर्धनं निरूहबस्तेः शिशुवृद्धयोः परम्||३६||

sajīvanīyastu rasō'nuvāsanē nirūhaṇē cālavaṇaḥ śiśōrhitaḥ| na cānyadāśvaṅgabalābhivardhanaṁ nirūhabastēḥ śiśuvr̥ddhayōḥ param||36||

sajIvanIyastu raso~anuvAsane nirUhaNe cAlavaNaH shishorhitaH| na cAnyadAshva~ggabalAbhivardhanaM nirUhabasteH shishuvRuddhayoH param||36||

Unctuous type of medicated enema prepared of the decoction of drugs belonging to jivaniya-group (jivaka, risabhaka, meda, maha-meda, kakoli, kshira-kakoli, mudga-parni masha-parni, jivanti and madhuka) and evacuative type of medicated enema prepared of these drugs without adding salt are useful for children. There is no therapy other than evacuative type of medicated enema which efficiently and quickly promotes the growth of limbs and physical strength of both infants and old persons.[36]

Summary

तत्र श्लोकः-

फलकर्म बस्तिवरता नेत्रं यद्बस्तयो गवादीनाम्| सततातुराश्च दिष्टाः फलमात्रायां हितं चैषाम्||३७||

tatra ślōkaḥ-

phalakarma bastivaratā nētraṁ yadbastayō gavādīnām| satatāturāśca diṣṭāḥ phalamātrāyāṁ hitaṁ caiṣām||37||

tatra shlokaH-

phalakarma bastivaratA netraM yadbastayo gavAdInAm| satatAturAshca diShTAH phalamAtrAyAM hitaM caiShAm||37||

Thus in this chapter entitled Phalamatra Siddhi therapeutic efficacy of the various fruits used in medicated enemas for specific diseases, importance of the medicated enemas therapies, enemas receptacle, length of enema nozzles for different animals, enema recipes for cattles, categories of persons who are eternally sick and their treatment are discussed .[37]

इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृतेऽप्राप्ते दृढबलसम्पूरिते सिद्धिस्थाने फलमात्रासिद्धिर्नामैकादशोऽध्यायः||११||

ityagnivēśakr̥tē tantrē carakapratisaṁskr̥tē'prāptē dr̥ḍhabalasampūritē siddhisthānē phalamātrāsiddhirnāmaikādaśō'dhyāyaḥ||11||

tyagniveshakRute tantre carakapratisaMskRute~aprApte dRuDhabalasampUrite siddhisthAne phalamAtrAsiddhirnAmaikAdasho~adhyAyaH||11||

Thus, ends the eleventh chapter of Siddhi Sthana entitled Phalamatra Siddhi, Agnivesha work as redacted by Charaka and because of its non-availability supplemented by Dridhabala.[11]

Tattva Vimarsha

  • Every drug has some good effects as well as some bad effects. There is no drug that is entirely free from shortcomings or entirely free from good effects. Therefore, in disease conditions, drug which posesses superior qualities shall be considered for medicated enemas.
  • Jimutaka (Luffa echinata) is useful for the treatment of kushtha (skin diseases), katu tumbi (Lagenaria siceraria) is useful for treatment of meha (urinary disease including diabetes), fruit of kutaja (Holorrhena antidysenterica) is useful for heart diseases, dhamargava (Luffa cylindrica) is useful for panduroga (anemia), kritavedhana (Luffa acutangula) is useful for udara roga (abdominal diseases including acidities).
  • Madanaphala (Randia dumetorum) is useful for all disease, because it is sweet, slightly astringent as well as bitter in taste, ununctuous and slightly pungent, hot and viscid. It eliminates kapha and pitta dosha, eliminates doshas (three entities regulating function of the body and mind), is harmless and cause downwards movement of vata dosha. It can be used in all types of purification enemas.
  • Vata dosha is responsible for vighata (detachment) and sanga (adhesion) of stool, urine, pitta, kapha including other excretory products and tissue elements. Therapeutic enema, due to its purification action causes alleviation of vata dosha along with pitta and kapha dosha and feces leading to disease pacification.
  • Therapeutic enema can be used in veterinary medicine for treating various diseases of animals.
  • The persons, who always suppress natural urges, never take food in time, always untimely void stool, urine, etc., and resort to untimely different regimens suffer from frequent and continuous illness. Certain persons like priests, king’s servants, courtesans and merchants are frequently sick because of excessive stress of the job and suppression of natural urges.
  • Basti ( therapeutic) is the best treatment for most diseases.

Vidhi Vimarsha

Various medicinal fruits, advantages and disadvantages

Jimutaka (Luffa echinata)

Advantages: Therapeutic properties of jimutaka (Luffa echinata) for emetic therapy with thirty nine recipes are described in second chapter of Kalpa Sthana. It is mentioned that jimutaka (Luffa echinata) taken with appropriate adjuvants cures all the three dosha. Jimutaka (Luffa echinata,) is used in medicated enema because it eliminate kapha and pitta dosha .It is useful for the treatment of kustha ( skin diseases).

Disadvantages: Due to the low potency jimutaka is less effective in disintegrating and voiding of stool.

Katutumbi (Lagenaria siceraria)

Advantages: Katutumbi (Lagenaria siceraria) is used in medicated enema because it eliminates the dosha through enema. Katutumbi is useful for treatment of meha (urinary disease including diabetes). Therapeutic properties of katutumbi (Lagenaria siceraria) are described in third chapter of Kalpa Sthana and forty five recipes are described for emetic therapy.

Disadvantages: Katutumbi (Lagenaria siceraria) is not aphrodisiac due to its hot, sharp and non- unctuous properties.

Dhamargava (Luffa cylindrica)

Advantages: It is excellent for eliminating kapha and pitta dosha. Dhamargava is useful for panduroga (anemia). Therapeutic properties of dhamargava (Luffa cylindrica) are described in fourth chapter of Kalpa Sthana and sixty recipes are described for emetic therapy.

Disadvantages: It aggravates vata dosha, causes despair and reduces strength of the body.

Kutaja (Holorrhena antidysenterica)

Advantages: It does not reduce the strength and it alleviates kapha as well as pitta dosha. Kutaja (Holorrhena antidysenterica) is very viscid, it causes elimination of doshas through emesis. Therapeutic properties of kutaja (Holorrhena antidysenterica) are described in fifth chapter of Kalpa Sthana and eighteen recipes are described for emetic therapy.

Disadvantages: It causes aggravation of vata dosha.

Kritavedhana (Luffa acutangula)

Advantages: It is promoter of vata dosha and eliminate excessively aggravated kapha and pitta dosha. Kritavedhana is useful for udara roga (abdominal diseases including ascitis). Therapeutic properties of kritavedhana (Luffa acutangula) are described in sixth chapter of Kalpa Sthana and sixty recipes are described for emetic therapy.

Disadvantages: is pungent and it reduces strength in excess.

Madanaphala (Randia dumetorum)

Advantages: It is useful for all disease, because it is sweet, slightly astringent as well as bitter in taste, ununctuous and slightly pungent, hot and viscid properties. It eliminates kapha and pitta dosha, is harmless and cause downwards movement of vata dosha.

Hence it is concluded that use of Madanaphala is suitable for therapeutic enema.

Actions of basti (enema)

Action of medicated enemas are not only elimination of vata dosha, but is also eliminates all type of morbid doshas from all over the body due to its purification action. Due to vighata (detachment) property, vata dosha is responsible for detachment of stool, urine, pitta including other excreta and tissue element. Due to sanga (adhesion) property, vata dosha is responsible for formation all tissue elements, brings about compactness in all the tissue elements of the body and brings together different part of the body. Vata dosha is the most important causative factor of diseases in shakha (peripheral tissue elements), koshtha (viscera of the thorax and abdomen), marma (vital points and organs including joints), urdhva (upper part of the body), sarvavayava (covering the entire body) and anga (individual part of the body). Vata dosha generally gets aggravated in its own habitat and can spread all over body through disease pathways. Since medicated enema causes alleviation of this vata dosha in its basic habitat, others connected to vata dosha elsewhere in the body gets automatically alleviated.

Enema therapy in animals

Enema therapy advised in animals is a part of pashu-ayurevda (veterinary medical system). It is a part to be studied separately.

Reasons of frequent or permanent illnesses

Certain persons like priests, king servants, courtesans and merchants are frequently sick. This is because of inability to follow proper dietary regimen, improper lifestyle habits, excessive stress due to high responsibility in the job, greediness and suppression of natural urges. These patients are seen in today’s clinical practice. Therefore, their training about the rules given in swastha chatushka (chapters 5 to 8 of Sutra Sthana) with basti therapy is important to avoid frequent illnesses.

References

  1. Ibidem, Agnivesh ,Charaka,Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthan Sadavirecanasatasritiya, 4/9
  2. Agnivesh ,Charaka,Charaka Samhita Vimansthan,Rogabhisakajitiya , 8/6,edited by Yadavaji Trikmaji Acharya,1st edition,Chaukhambha Surbharti Prakashana Orientalia;2011.
  3. Ibidem,Agnivesh ,Charaka,Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthan ,Yajjapurushiya , 25/40
  4. Ibidem, Agnivesh ,Charaka,Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthan, Derghanjivitiya , 1/7-14
  5. Ibidem, Agnivesh ,Charaka,Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthan, Vatakalakaliya , 12/3-15
  6. Ibidem ,Agnivesh ,Charaka,Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthan, Yajjapurushiya , 25/3-29
  7. Ibidem ,Agnivesh ,Charaka,Charaka Samhita ,Sutrasthan, Atreyabhadrakapeya , 26/3-9
  8. Ibidem ,Agnivesh ,Charaka,Charaka Samhita, Sharirasthan ,Khudikagarbhavakranti Sharira , 3/3-5
  9. Ibidem ,Agnivesh ,Charaka,Charaka Samhita, Sharirasthan, Shariravichaya Sharira, 6/21
  10. Ibidem, Agnivesh ,Charaka,Dridhabala ,Charaka Samhita ,Siddhisthan ,Phalamatrasiddhi , 11/3-14
  11. Ibidem, Agnivesh ,Charaka,Dridhabala ,Charaka Samhita, Kalpasthan, Jimutaka kalpa ,2/1-15
  12. Ibidem, Agnivesh ,Charaka,Dridhabala ,Charaka Samhita, Kalpasthan, Iksvaku kalpa , 3/1-23
  13. Ibidem ,Agnivesh ,Charaka,Dridhabala ,Charaka Samhita Kalpasthan ,Damargava kalpa , 4/1-20
  14. Ibidem, Agnivesh ,Charaka,Dridhabala ,Charaka Samhita, Kalpasthan ,Vatasaka kalpa , 5/1-12
  15. Ibidem ,Agnivesh ,Charaka,Dridhabala ,Charaka Samhita, Kalpasthan Kritavedhana kalpa ,6/1-14
  16. Ibidem, Agnivesh ,Charaka,Dridhabala ,Charaka Samhita, Siddhisthan Kalpanasiddhi ,1/53
  17. Ibidem ,Agnivesh ,Charaka,Dridhabala ,Charaka Samhita ,Kalpasthan Madana-Phala kalpa , 1/16-27
  18. Ibidem ,Agnivesh ,Charaka,Dridhabala ,Charaka Samhita, Siddhisthan .Kalpanasiddhi ,1/38-40
  19. Ibidem, Agnivesh ,Charaka,Charaka Samhita ,Sutrasthan ,Vatakalakaliya , 12/9
  20. Ibidem Agnivesh ,Charaka,Dridhabala ,Charaka Siddhisthan, Bastisutriya siddhi ,3/10-11
  21. Ibidem ,Agnivesh ,Charaka,Dridhabala ,Charaka Siddhisthan, Bastisutriya siddhi , 3/8-9
  22. Ibidem ,Agnivesh ,Charaka,Dridhabala ,Charaka Siddhisthan, Bastisutriya siddhi , 3/31-32
  23. Ibidem ,Agnivesh ,Charaka,Dridhabala ,Charaka Siddhisthan, Bastisutriya siddhi, 3/6
  24. Ibidem ,Agnivesh ,Charaka,Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthan, Deerghanjevitiya, 1/123
  25. Ibidem, Agnivesh ,Charaka,Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthan ,Arthedashamahamuliya , 30/26
  26. Ibidem ,Agnivesh ,Charaka,Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthan, Navegandharaniya , 7/3-4
  27. Vagabhata, Astanga Hridaya Sutrsthan Roganupadaniya , 4/22 with Sarvangaga Sundara Commentary by AruÆadatta and Ayurveda Rasayana by Hemadri, Edited by Pt. Hari Sadasiva Sastri, Annotated By Anna Moreshware Kunte and Krishna Ramchandra Shastri Navare’s, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, Reprint - 2010.
  28. Agnivesh ,Charaka,Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthan Yajjapurushiya chapter 25/40 edited by Yadavaji Trikmaji Acharya,1st edition,Chaukhambha Surbharti Prakashana Orientalia;2011 ,
  29. Ibidem, Agnivesh ,Charaka,Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthan Navegandharaniya, 7/12-13
  30. Ibidem,Agnivesh ,Charaka,Dridhabala ,Charaka Siddhisthan, Bastisutriya siddhi , 3/35-68
  31. Ibidem ,Agnivesh ,Charaka,Dridhabala ,Charaka Samhita, Siddhisthan .Kalpanasiddhi ,1/27

Glossary

  1. Vijjala -Slimy, smeary, very vicid (m.w. p. 961)
  2. Teksna- Operating speedily, doing anything quickly (m.w. p. 157)
  3. Sanga-combination, adhesion.
  4. Vighat- Detachment , stroke, in pieces (m.w.p.957)
  5. Aratni -Length of fore arm, middle length from the elbow to the tip of the little finger.
  6. Angula - A fingers breadth, a measure equal to 8 barley corns.
  7. Drona- A measure of grains, 1 drona = 4 prastha, 16 kudavas, 64 palas, 256 karshas (m.w.p. 134)
  8. Srotiyas – to give into the possession of Brahman versed in the Vedas.
  9. Panyajivins- Living by trade, a tradesman.
  10. One prastha =64 tola, one prastha=746gm.;1 tola=11.50gm
  11. One Adhaka = 256 tolas, 1 tola=11 .50gm