Pannarupiya

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Pannarupiya
Section/Chapter Indriya Sthana Chapter 7
Preceding Chapter Kathamanasharireeya
Succeeding Chapter Avakshiraseeya
Other Sections Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana

Indriya Sthana Chapter 7, Pannarupiya (Chapter on fatal signs of changes in Shadows, Complexion, and luster)

Abstract

The seventh chapter Pannarupiya deals with the loss of shadow image in eyes, changes in complexion and luster indicative of imminent death. Difference between shadow and luster is also explained in this chapter with characteristic features of shadows pertaining to each of pancha mahabhuta. The chapter focuses on fatal prognostic features related to complexion and luster.

Keywords: shadow image, complexion, luster, chhaya, varna, prabha.

Introduction

If there is any distortion in the image of the examiner reflected as a shadow in the pupil of the patient, should be considered as a sign of imminent death of the patient. Nimittanurupa vikriti (image pertaining to death) will serve as a yard stick to measure the span of life.

Sanskrit text, Transliteration and English Translation

अथातः पन्नरूपीयमिन्द्रियं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||

इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||

athātaḥ pannarūpīyamindriyaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||

iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

athAtaH pannarUpIyamindriyaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||

iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

Now we shall expound the chapter on the signs of imminent death as indicated by the distortion of the image reflected in the pupil.[1-2]

Loss of shadow image in eyes

दृष्ट्यां यस्य विजानीयात् पन्नरूपां कुमारिकाम्| प्रतिच्छायामयीमक्ष्णोर्नैनमिच्छेच्चिकित्सितुम्||३||

dr̥ṣṭyāṁ yasya vijānīyāt pannarūpāṁ kumārikām| praticchāyāmayīmakṣṇōrnainamicchēccikitsitum||3||

dRuShTyAM yasya vijAnIyAt pannarUpAM kumArikAm| praticchAyAmayImakShNornainamiccheccikitsitum||3||

The condition in which loss of shadow image is observed in the pupil (eyes) of the patient, should be discarded for treatment.[3]

Features of fatal prognosis as per shadows

ज्योत्स्नायामातपे दीपे सलिलादर्शयोरपि| अङ्गेषु विकृता यस्य च्छाया प्रेतस्तथैव सः||४||

jyōtsnāyāmātapē dīpē salilādarśayōrapi| aṅgēṣu vikr̥tā yasya cchāyā prētastathaiva saḥ||4||

jyotsnAyAmAtape dIpe salilAdarshayorapi| a~ggeShu vikRutA yasya cchAyA pretastathaiva saH||4||

If any sorts of deformity observed in body parts in the shadow of the person in moonlight, sunlight, light of a lamp, water or mirror. He should be considered as dead. [4]

छिन्ना भिन्नाऽऽकुला च्छाया हीना वाऽप्यधिकाऽपि वा| नष्टा तन्वी द्विधा च्छिन्ना विकृता विशिरा च या||५||

एताश्चान्याश्च याः काश्चित् प्रतिच्छाया विगर्हिताः| सर्वा मुमूर्षतां ज्ञेया न चेल्लक्ष्यनिमित्तजाः||६||

chinnā bhinnākulā cchāyā hīnā vā'pyadhikā'pi vā| naṣṭā tanvī dvidhā cchinnā vikr̥tā viśirā ca yā||5||

ētāścānyāśca yāḥ kāścit praticchāyā vigarhitāḥ| sarvā mumūrṣatāṁ jñēyā na cēllakṣyanimittajāḥ||6||

chinnA bhinnA~a~akulA cchAyA hInA vA~apyadhikA~api vA| naShTA tanvI dvidhA cchinnA vikRutA vishirA ca yA||5||

etAshcAnyAshca yAH kAshcit praticchAyA vigarhitAH| sarvA mumUrShatAM j~jeyA na cellakShyanimittajAH||6||

Observation of shadow of a patient as broken, torn, hazy, devoid of certain organs, seeing excess organs, not conspicuous, bifurcated, deformed and without head, such other similar abnormal shadows if develops without any apparent cause it is considered as severe morbidity.[5-6]

संस्थानेन प्रमाणेन वर्णेन प्रभया तथा| छाया विवर्तते यस्य स्वस्थोऽपि प्रेत एव सः||७||

saṁsthānēna pramāṇēna varṇēna prabhayā tathā| chāyā vivartatē yasya svasthō'pi prēta ēva saḥ||7||

saMsthAnena pramANena varNena prabhayA tathA| chAyA vivartate yasya svastho~api preta eva saH||7||

Distortion of shadow in respect of changes in shape, measurement, colour and lustre should be considered as ominous sign even in healthy individual.[7]

संस्थानमाकृतिर्ज्ञेया सुषमा विषमा च सा| मध्यमल्पं महच्चोक्तं प्रमाणं त्रिविधं नृणाम्||८||

प्रतिप्रमाणसंस्थाना जलादर्शातपादिषु| छाया या सा प्रतिच्छाया च्छाया वर्णप्रभाश्रया||९||

saṁsthānamākr̥tirjñēyā suṣamā viṣamā ca sā| madhyamalpaṁ mahaccōktaṁ pramāṇaṁ trividhaṁ nr̥ṇām||8||

pratipramāṇasaṁsthānā jalādarśātapādiṣu| chāyā yā sā praticchāyā cchāyā varṇaprabhāśrayā||9||

saMsthAnamAkRutirj~jeyA suShamA viShamA ca sA| madhyamalpaM mahaccoktaMpramANaM trividhaM nRuNAm||8||

pratipramANasaMsthAnA jalAdarshAtapAdiShu| chAyA yA sA praticchAyA cchAyA varNaprabhAshrayA||9||

The term sansthana means shape which may be symmetrical or asymmetrical. Measurement is of three kinds namely short, medium, and large The image reflected in water, mirror, etc., corresponding to the measurement and shape of the body of the individual is known as praticchhaya which is nothing but reflected shadow based on the color and luster of the individual.[8-9]

Features of Shadow of Pancha-Mahabhuta

खादीनां पञ्च पञ्चानां छाया विविधलक्षणाः| नाभसी निर्मला नीला सस्नेहा सप्रभेव च||१०||

रूक्षा श्यावारुणा या तु वायवी सा हतप्रभा| विशुद्धरक्ता त्वाग्नेयी दीप्ताभा दर्शनप्रिया||११||

शुद्धवैदूर्यविमला सुस्निग्धा चाम्भसी मता| स्थिरा स्निग्धा घना श्लक्ष्णा श्यामा श्वेता च पार्थिवी||१२||

वायवी गर्हिता त्वासां चतस्रः स्युः सुखोदयाः | वायवी तु विनाशाय क्लेशाय महतेऽपि वा||१३||

khādīnāṁ pañca pañcānāṁ chāyā vividhalakṣaṇāḥ| nābhasī nirmalā nīlā sasnēhā saprabhēva ca||10||

rūkṣā śyāvāruṇā yā tu vāyavī sā hataprabhā| viśuddharaktā tvāgnēyī dīptābhā darśanapriyā||11||

śuddhavaidūryavimalā susnigdhā cāmbhasī matā| sthirā snigdhā ghanā ślakṣṇā śyāmā śvētā ca pārthivī||12||

vāyavī garhitā tvāsāṁ catasraḥ syuḥ sukhōdayāḥ | vāyavī tu vināśāya klēśāya mahatē'pi vā||13||

khAdInAM pa~jca pa~jcAnAM chAyA vividhalakShaNAH| nAbhasI nirmalA nIlA sasnehA saprabheva ca||10||

rUkShA shyAvAruNA yA tu vAyavI sA hataprabhA| vishuddharaktA tvAgneyI dIptAbhA darshanapriyA||11||

shuddhavaidUryavimalA susnigdhA cAmbhasI matA| sthirA snigdhAghanA shlakShNA shyAmA shvetA ca pArthivI||12||

vAyavI garhitA tvAsAM catasraH syuH sukhodayAH | vAyavI tu vinAshAya kleshAya mahate~api vA||13||

The following are the distinctive characteristic features of shadows pertaining to each of the five great elements.

Table 1: Shadows of Pancha-Mahabhuta:

S.No Mahabhuta Distinctive characteristic features of shadows
1 Akash Bhoota Clear , blue, unctuous and lustrous shadow
2. Vayu Bhoota Dry, brown, and reddish
3. Agni Bhoota Bright red, brilliant and pleasing to the eyes
4. Jala Bhoota Clear like cat’s eye, and excessive unctuous
5. Prithvi Bhoota Stable, unctuous, compact, smooth, black and white

The shadow pertaining to vayu bhuta is of inferior in nature whereas the remaining four are indicative of pleasure and happiness. Vayu bhuta shadows indicative of great calamities and miseries.[10-13]

स्यात्तैजसी प्रभा सर्वा सा तु सप्तविधा स्मृता| रक्ता पीता सिता श्यावा हरिता पाण्डुराऽसिता||१४||

तासां याः स्युर्विकासिन्यः स्निग्धाश्च विपुलाश्च याः| ताः शुभा रूक्षमलिनाः सङ्क्षिप्ताश्चाशुभोदयाः ||१५||

syāttaijasī prabhā sarvā sā tu saptavidhā smr̥tā| raktā pītā sitā śyāvā haritā pāṇḍurā'sitā||14||

tāsāṁ yāḥ syurvikāsinyaḥ snigdhāśca vipulāśca yāḥ| tāḥ śubhā rūkṣamalināḥ saṅkṣiptāścāśubhōdayāḥ ||15||

syAttaijasI prabhA sarvA sA tu saptavidhA smRutA| raktA pItA sitA shyAvA haritA pANDurA~asitA||14||

tAsAM yAH syurvikAsinyaH snigdhAshca vipulAshca yAH| tAH shubhA rUkShamalinAH sa~gkShiptAshcAshubhodayAH||15||

All varieties of luster are constituted of tejas bhuta. They are classified as seven type’s namely red, yellow, white, brown, green, pale yellowish and black. Of them which are emanative, unctuous, and dense are auspicious and those others which are dry, dirty and thin are inauspicious.[14-15]

Difference between Chhaya (shadow) and Prabha(lustre)

वर्णमाक्रामति च्छाया भास्तु वर्णप्रकाशिनी| आसन्ना लक्ष्यते च्छाया भाः प्रकृष्टा प्रकाशते||१६||

नाच्छायो नाप्रभः कश्चिद्विशेषाश्चिह्नयन्ति तु| नृणां शुभाशुभोत्पत्तिं काले छायाप्रभाश्रयाः||१७||

varṇamākrāmati cchāyā bhāstu varṇaprakāśinī| āsannā lakṣyatē cchāyā bhāḥ prakr̥ṣṭā prakāśatē||16||

nācchāyō nāprabhaḥ kaścidviśēṣāścihnayanti tu| nr̥ṇāṁ śubhāśubhōtpattiṁ kālē chāyāprabhāśrayāḥ||17||

varNamAkrAmati cchAyA bhAstu varNaprakAshinI| AsannA lakShyate cchAyA bhAH prakRuShTA prakAshate||16||

nAcchAyo nAprabhaH kashcidvisheShAshcihnayanti tu| nRuNAM shubhAshubhotpattiM kAle chAyAprabhAshrayAH||17||

The shadow decreases the complexion of the body whereas the lustre illuminates. The shadow can be observed from nearby whereas lustre illuminates from a distance. There is nothing devoid of lustre or shadow. Certain distinctive features of the shadow and the lustre when mature indicates emergence of inauspicious or auspicious results in relation to human beings. [16-17]

Fatal signs

कामलाऽक्ष्णोर्मुखं पूर्णं शङ्खयोर्मुक्तमांसता| सन्त्रासश्चोष्णगात्रत्वं यस्य तं परिवर्जयेत्||१८||

उत्थाप्यमानः शयनात् प्रमोहं याति यो नरः| मुहुर्मुहुर्न सप्ताहं स जीवति विकत्थनः ||१९||

संसृष्टा व्याधयो यस्य प्रतिलोमानुलोमगाः| व्यापन्ना ग्रहणी प्रायः सोऽर्धमासं न जीवति||२०||

kāmalā'kṣṇōrmukhaṁ pūrṇaṁ śaṅkhayōrmuktamāṁsatā| santrāsaścōṣṇagātratvaṁ yasya taṁ parivarjayēt||18||

utthāpyamānaḥ śayanāt pramōhaṁ yāti yō naraḥ| muhurmuhurna saptāhaṁ sa jīvati vikatthanaḥ ||19||

saṁsr̥ṣṭā vyādhayō yasya pratilōmānulōmagāḥ| vyāpannā grahaṇī prāyaḥ sō'rdhamāsaṁ na jīvati||20||

kAmalA~akShNormukhaM pUrNaM sha~gkhayormuktamAMsatA| santrAsashcoShNagAtratvaM yasya taM parivarjayet||18||

utthApyamAnaH shayanAt pramohaM yAti yo naraH| muhurmuhurna saptAhaM sa jIvati vikatthanaH ||19||

saMsRuShTA vyAdhayo yasya pratilomAnulomagAH| vyApannA grahaNI prAyaH so~ardhamAsaM na jIvati||20||

Patient who is suffering from kamala, swelling of face, wasting in temples and terrifying appearance with high fever such patient should be discarded for management.

Patient who faints again and again while being lifted from bed cannot survive for a week. The patient afflicted with multiple doshas having movements in upward, downward both directions along with disordered grahani(Duodenum and Small intestine) cannot survive for longer than for a fortnight.[18-20]

उपरुद्धस्य रोगेण कर्शितस्याल्पमश्नतः| बहु मूत्रपुरीषं स्याद्यस्य तं परिवर्जयेत्||२१||

दुर्बलो बहु भुङ्क्ते यः प्राग्भुक्तादन्नमातुरः | अल्पमूत्रपुरीषश्च यथा प्रेतस्तथैव सः||२२||

इष्टं च गुणसम्पन्नमन्नमश्नाति यो नरः| शश्वच्च बलवर्णाभ्यां हीयते न स जीवति||२३||

प्रकूजति प्रश्वसिति शिथिलं चातिसार्यते| बलहीनः पिपासार्तः शुष्कास्यो न स जीवति||२४||

ह्रस्वं च यः प्रश्वसिति व्याविद्धं स्पन्दते च यः| मृतमेव तमात्रेयो व्याचचक्षे पुनर्वसुः||२५||

ऊर्ध्वं च यः प्रश्वसिति श्लेष्मणा चाभिभूयते| हीनवर्णबलाहारो यो नरो न स जीवति||२६||

uparuddhasya rōgēṇa karśitasyālpamaśnataḥ| bahu mūtrapurīṣaṁ syādyasya taṁ parivarjayēt||21||

durbalō bahu bhuṅktē yaḥ prāgbhuktādannamāturaḥ | alpamūtrapurīṣaśca yathā prētastathaiva saḥ||22||

iṣṭaṁ ca guṇasampannamannamaśnāti yō naraḥ| śaśvacca balavarṇābhyāṁ hīyatē na sa jīvati||23||

prakūjati praśvasiti śithilaṁ cātisāryatē| balahīnaḥ pipāsārtaḥ śuṣkāsyō na sa jīvati||24||

hrasvaṁ ca yaḥ praśvasiti vyāviddhaṁ spandatē ca yaḥ| mr̥tamēva tamātrēyō vyācacakṣē punarvasuḥ||25||

ūrdhvaṁ ca yaḥ praśvasiti ślēṣmaṇā cābhibhūyatē| hīnavarṇabalāhārō yō narō na sa jīvati||26||

uparuddhasya rogeNa karshitasyAlpamashnataH| bahu mUtrapurIShaM syAdyasya taM parivarjayet||21||

durbalo bahu bhu~gkte yaH prAgbhuktAdannamAturaH | alpamUtrapurIShashca yathA pretastathaiva saH||22||

iShTaM ca guNasampannamannamashnAti yo naraH| shashvacca balavarNAbhyAM hIyate na sa jIvati||23||

prakUjati prashvasiti shithilaM cAtisAryate| balahInaH pipAsArtaH shuShkAsyo na sa jIvati||24||

hrasvaM ca yaH prashvasiti vyAviddhaM spandate ca yaH| mRutameva tamAtreyo vyAcacakShe punarvasuH||25||

UrdhvaM ca yaH prashvasiti shleShmaNA cAbhibhUyate| hInavarNabalAhAro yo naro na sa jIvati||26||

Consumption of little quantity of food by emaciated person but excretes large amount of urine and stool should be discarded for management.

Consumption of excess quantity of food by weak patient but passes scanty urine and stool should be considered as ghost or almost dead. In spite of taking suitable diet if person constantly loose strength and complexion indicates bad prognosis. If a person who is weak, thirsty and having dryness of mouth, if suffers from groaning, dyspnea and diarrhea, then it should not be treated because he will not survive.

If patient is suffering from shallow respiration with irregular twitching in the body is said to be severe fatal condition like almost dead. Person who is suffering from respiratory distress with abundance of kapha along with diminution of complexion, strength and less intake of food will not survive for longer.[21-26]

ऊर्ध्वाग्रे नयने यस्य मन्ये चारतकम्पने| बलहीनः पिपासार्तः शुष्कास्यो न स जीवति||२७||

यस्य गण्डावुपचितौ ज्वरकासौ च दारुणौ| शूली प्रद्वेष्टि चाप्यन्नं तस्मिन् कर्म न सिध्यति||२८||

व्यावृत्तमूर्धजिह्वास्यो भ्रुवौ यस्य च विच्युते| कण्टकैश्चाचिता जिह्वा यथा प्रेतस्तथैव सः||२९||

शेफश्चात्यर्थमुत्सिक्तं निःसृतौ वृषणौ भृशम्| अतश्चैव विपर्यासो विकृत्या प्रेतलक्षणम्||३०||

निचितं यस्य मांसं स्यात्त्वगस्थिष्वेव दृश्यते| क्षीणस्यानश्नतस्तस्य मासमायुः परं भवेत्||३१||

ūrdhvāgrē nayanē yasya manyē cāratakampanē| balahīnaḥ pipāsārtaḥ śuṣkāsyō na sa jīvati||27||

yasya gaṇḍāvupacitau jvarakāsau ca dāruṇau| śūlī pradvēṣṭi cāpyannaṁ tasmin karma na sidhyati||28||

vyāvr̥ttamūrdhajihvāsyō bhruvau yasya ca vicyutē| kaṇṭakaiścācitā jihvā yathā prētastathaiva saḥ||29||

śēphaścātyarthamutsiktaṁ niḥsr̥tau vr̥ṣaṇau bhr̥śam| ataścaiva viparyāsō vikr̥tyā prētalakṣaṇam||30||

nicitaṁ yasya māṁsaṁ syāttvagasthiṣvēva dr̥śyatē| kṣīṇasyānaśnatastasya māsamāyuḥ paraṁ bhavēt||31||

UrdhvAgre nayane yasya manye cAratakampane| balahInaH pipAsArtaH shuShkAsyo na sa jIvati||27||

yasya gaNDAvupacitau jvarakAsau ca dAruNau| shUlI pradveShTi cApyannaM tasmin karma na sidhyati||28||

vyAvRuttamUrdhajihvAsyo bhruvau yasya ca vicyute| kaNTakaishcAcitA jihvA yathA pretastathaiva saH||29||

shephashcAtyarthamutsiktaM niHsRutau vRuShaNau bhRusham| atashcaiva viparyAso vikRutyA pretalakShaNam||30||

nicitaM yasya mAMsaM syAttvagasthiShveva dRushyate| kShINasyAnashnatastasya mAsamAyuH paraM bhavet||31||

A weak, thirsty and dryness of mouth suffers from rigid and upward look of the eyes and persistent throbbing of the carotid region of the neck, will not survive for long.

If an emaciated person having prominent cheeks along with high fever, severe cough, colic and dislike for food will not cure from his ailments because no treatment suits him.

If there is a distortion of the head, tongue and face, drooping of eye brows and appearance of thorny coat over tongue, don’t treat such patients due to its ominous nature.

Whose penis is excessively long along with pendulous testicles or vice versa, such signs are indicative of death of a patient immediately. In emaciated individual whose muscles are excessively undergone wasting with remnants of skin and bone does not survive more than one month.[27-31]

Summary

तत्र श्लोकः- इदं लिङ्गमरिष्टाख्यमनेकमभिजज्ञिवान्| आयुर्वेदविदित्याख्यां लभते कुशलो जनः||३२||

tatra ślōkaḥ- idaṁ liṅgamariṣṭākhyamanēkamabhijajñivān| āyurvēdavidityākhyāṁ labhatē kuśalō janaḥ||32||

tatra shlokaH- idaM li~ggamariShTAkhyamanekamabhijaj~jivAn| AyurvedavidityAkhyAM labhate kushalo janaH||32||

To summarize:

Who is well versed with the observation of above signs and symptoms which indicates imminent death, is entitled to be known as intelligent physician. [32]

Tattva Vimarsha

  • Shadow image in pupils, changes in complexion and luster should be examined to assess prognosis.
  • Perception of distorted images of body parts or their absence are ominous signs.

Vidhi Vimarsha

Role of Pancha-mahabhuta in complexion and luster

Following cross references are important to be re-visited to assess the role of pancha-mahabhuta, especially tejas mahabhuta in complexion and luster.

  • Tejas mahabhuta promote luster complexion, strength, energy, power, digestive fire, and vitality. It also alleviates all vatika diseases and sustains youthful age. (Su.Chi.38/50)
  • The normal watery rasa converted to reddish color by pitta is rakta and its equilibrium brings health. (Su.Su.14/5)
  • Qualities of Pancha-mahabhuta are:
    • Qualities of Akasha are- sound, auditory organ, all orifices and distinctness.
    • Qualities of Vayu are – touch tactile organ, all activities, movements in all body parts and lightness.
    • Qualities of Tejas are – vision, visual organ, complexion, heat, splendor, digestion, intolerance, sharpness and valor.
    • Qualities of Apa are- taste, gustatory organ, all liquidity, heaviness, coldness, unctuousness and semen and
    • Qualities of Parthiva (i.e., those that have qualities of the prithvi element) are- smell, olfactory organ, hardness and heaviness.(Su.Sha.1/19)
  • Tejas element is the causative factor of complexion when at the time of conception, it is predominantly associated with apa element, it makes the fetus fair- complexioned, predominance in parthivi elements causes black one. That in parthivi and akasha elements gives to black- sky complexion while predominance in apa and akasha elements makes fair-sky complexion of fetus. If tejas does not reach the visual organ, it makes the fetus born blind, the same associated with blood makes red eyed, that associated with pitta and kapha makes yellow- eyed and white-eyed respectively, if associated with vata it causes deformity in eyes.
  • Jatharagni is the primary factor for sustenance of life, color, strength, health, enthusiasm, plumpness, complexion, ojas, tejas, agni and prana.
  • To seethings devoid of their real characteristics - e.g., bright things looking dull and lusterless - indicates impending death of the patient.
  • Pannarupi implies something whose form or aspect has disappeared. Pannarupam , the word, has been derived from apannarupam, implies ill-formed or confused in respect of shape.
  • Any alterations in chhaya (complexion) and prabha (luster) denotes the ominous sign for the patient.
  • The process of dying usually begins well before death actually occurs. Death is a personal journey that each individual approaches in their own unique way. Nothing is concrete, nothing is set in stone. There are many paths one can take on this journey but all lead to the same destination. As one comes close to death, a process begins; a journey from the known life of this world to the unknown of what lies ahead. As that process begins, a person starts on a mental path of discovery, comprehending that death will indeed occur and believing in their own mortality. The journey ultimately leads to the physical departure from the body.

Sign of Imminent Death

  1. Patient who is suffering from kamala, swelling in face, wasting in temples, and terrifying appearance with high fever has grave prognosis.
  2. Patient who faints again and again while being lifted from bed may not survive for a week. This is the time during the journey that one begins to sleep most of the time. Disorientation is common and altered senses of perception can be expected. One may experience delusions, such as fearing hidden enemies or feeling invincible. The dying person may also experience hallucinations, sometimes seeing or speaking to people that are not there or died in the past. Some may see this as the veil being lifted between this life and the next. The person may pick at their sheets and clothing in a state of agitation. Movements and actions may seem aimless and make no sense to others. They are moving further away from life to this earth.
  3. At the end of life, patients often lose interest in eating and drinking because the body is conserving its energy and no longer requires the same level of nourishment. It is important to let each individual decide how much, even if it is little or nothing, that he or she wishes to eat or drink. Family members should not force food or drink, as it will only make their loved one feel uncomfortable or upset. Near the end of life, patients no longer feel hunger pangs and forcing them to eat may actually cause nausea and abdominal pain. Eventually, the patient may become entirely unable to swallow food and fluids. Frequent mouth care will be given to help prevent dry mouth.
  4. When the body prepares to die, a decrease in urine production and loss of bladder and bowel control are noted. The urine may appear dark because the patient is not as hydrated and there is less circulation in the kidneys.
  5. Fluids may collect in a dying person’s throat and lungs. Because he or she is unable to swallow or cough up this fluid, he or she may make a gurgling noise. The noise may be worrisome to family members, but it is common and rarely uncomfortable for the patient. Elevating and repositioning the head may help to relieve some of the congestion.
  6. As cardiac output and intravascular volume decrease at the end of life, there will be evidence of diminished peripheral blood perfusion. Tachycardia, hypotension, peripheral cooling, peripheral and central cyanosis, and mottling of the skin (livedo reticularis) are expected. Venous blood may pool along dependent skin surfaces. Urine output falls as perfusion of the kidneys diminishes.

In parapsychology and many forms of spiritual practice, an aura is a field of subtle, luminous radiation surrounding a person or object (like the halo oraureola in religious art). [1], [2]

Glossary

पन्नरूपीय Destruction/loss of images
च्छाया Complexion
प्रतिच्छाया Shadow
प्रभाl ustre
कुमारिका Pupil
वर्णप्रकाशिनी illuminates complexion
सलिलादर्शयोरपि Moon light
छिन्ना भिन्ना Broken, Torn
विकृता विशिरा Bifurcated, deformed
कर्शित Emaciated
प्रेत Ghost
मुमूर्षतां Morbidity
प्रकूजति प्रश्वसिति Dyspnoea
प्राणवर्धनम् Vitality
सुषमा Symmetrical
विषमा Asymmetrical
मध्य Medium
मल्पं Short
महच्चोक्तं large
सप्रभेव lustrous shadow
दर्शनप्रिया Pleasing to the eyes
विनाशाय Great calamities
क्लेशाय Miseries
स्युर्विकासिन्यः Emanative
स्निग्धाश्च Unctuous
विपुलाश्च Auspicious
र्मुखं पूर्णं Swelling in face
शङ्खयोर्मुक्तमांसता Wasting in temples
सन्त्रास Terrifying in appearance
उत्थाप्यमानः Lifted from bed
ल्पमश्नतः Consumption of little quantity of food
बहु मूत्रपुरीषं Excretes large amount of stool and urine
प्रकूजति प्रश्वसिति Shallow respiration
व्याविद्धं स्पन्दते Irregular twitching
मन्ये चारतकम्पने Throbbing of the carotid region
निःसृतौ वृषणौ Pendulous testicles
मरिष्टा Imminent death
वर्ण Complexion
बलोत्साह Strength, energy
वयःस्थापनमुत्तमम् Sustains youthful age
शब्दः Sound
शब्देन्द्रियं Auditory organ
सर्वच्छिद्रसमूहो All orifices
विविक्तता Distinctness
स्पर्शः Touch
स्पर्शेन्द्रियं Tactile organ
सर्वचेष्टासमूहः All activities
सर्वशरीरस्पन्दनं Movement in all body parts
लघुता lightness
रूपं Vision
रूपेन्द्रियं Visual organ
भ्राजिष्णुता Splendour
मर्ष Intolerance
शौर्यं Valour
रसनेन्द्रियं Gustatory organ
सर्वद्रवसमूहो All liquidity
गुरुता Heaviness
स्नेहो Unctuousnes
रेतश्च Semen
गन्धेन्द्रियं Olfactory organ
सर्वमूर्तसमूहो Hardness

References

  1. Aura (paranormal); From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia; available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aura_(paranormal)
  2. How to see and READ the AURA: Part 1; available at http://www.thiaoouba.com/seeau.htm