Mahatigarbhavakranti Sharira

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Mahatigarbhavakranti Sharira
Section/Chapter Sharira Sthana Chapter 4
Preceding Chapter Khuddika Garbhavakranti Sharira
Succeeding Chapter Purusha Vichaya Sharira
Other Sections Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana

Sharira Sthana Chapter 4, Mahatigarbhavakranti Sharira (Chapter on details of embryogenesis)

Abstract

In Charaka Samhita, this chapter focuses on garbha (embryo and/or fetus) in regards to the origin, definition its composition, consecutive development in the womb, factors for growth, destruction and hindering of the birth. Six factors responsible for the formation of garbha and sources of respective organs have been described in detail. Sequential growth and development of fetus has been explained systematically in the womb from first month to tenth month of gestation. Detailed description of garbhopaghatkarbhava (factors inhibiting growth of fetus) and significance of dauhrida (connection of two hearts and its manifestations, mother and fetus) has been made clear. Causes of the birth of genetically disordered fetus like putipraja (premature), varta (Female hypogonadism, chromosomalaneuploidy) and trinaputrika (male hypogonadism, chromosomal aneuploidy) have been discussed. This chapter also includes the description of classification of sharira (body) and manasa (mind). Further types of mind based on predominance of sattva, rajas and tamas have been sub-classified into 16 types under three major categories viz. sattvika, rajasika and tamasika with their distinguishing features. At the end of chapter, it is mentioned that knowledge of auspicious and inauspicious eight factors for the fetus makes a capable physician.

Keywords: Garbha Poshana (Nourishment of fetus), Garbha Bhavas (Factors for fetal development), prakriti (basic body constitution), development of fetus, genetic and chromosomal deformities, manas prakriti (psychic traits).

Introduction

In the previous chapter (Khuddika Garbhavakranti Sharira), the six factors or bhavas which are responsible for formation of garbha are mentioned along with genetic inheritance in brief. The present chapter deals with complete concepts of Ayurvedic embryology, hence the name mahati; meaning big or detailed. In the beginning Lord Atreya briefs about the contents of the chapter regarding embryo in the form of its definition, its formation and various factors responsible for its sequential development in the womb, factors responsible for growth and development, factors causing morbidity in fetus, different causes for destruction and anomalies in fetus. Six factors responsible for the formation of embryo and sources of respective organs have been described in detail. The embryo is produced by five mahabhutas in association with consciousness (chetana). During the first month, the embryo is mucoid. Thereafter, in second month, it attains round shape. Subsequently, in third month, it develops all the sensory and motor organs, becomes stabilized and gains weight in fourth month, increases blood and muscle in fifth month, while increase in strength and complexion of fetus develops in sixth month. The fetus attains over-all maturity during the seventh month; and in eight month, due to instability of the ojas, delivery of the fetus is prone to danger.

If the fetus remains in the womb after the period of parturition, which has been defined as the period between 9 to 10 months, it is considered abnormal or vaikarika prasavakala. Normalcy of six factors is responsible for the growth and development of fetus; and growing fetus obtains nourishment through the upasneha (perfusion, osmosis, active and passive transport) and upasweda (warmth). Abnormality in these factors leads to destruction of fetus or still birth.

The diet consumed by the woman and her psychological state during pregnancy also affects the fetus. Wishes of the fetus are expressed through the mother and these should be fulfilled. Suppression of acute desires causes death of the fetus whereas mild ones cause abnormalities due to vitiation of vata. The factors responsible for genetic disorder of fetus due to abnormalities in male and female chromosomes and genes are described. By obtaining the knowledge of factors responsible for the proper growth or retardation of the fetus, one should avoid or modify those factors which come in the way of its proper development.

Sanskrit text, Transliteration and English Translation

अथातो महतीं गर्भावक्रान्तिं शारीरं व्याख्यास्यामः||१|| इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||

athātō mahatīṁ garbhāvakrāntiṁ śārīraṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1|| iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2|| athAto mahatIM garbhAvakrAntiM shArIraM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1|| iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

Now I shall describe the chapter about the major factors involved in embryology. [1-2]

Thus said Lord Atreya.[1-2]

Queries about embryology

यतश्च गर्भः सम्भवति, यस्मिंश्च गर्भसञ्ज्ञा, यद्विकारश्च गर्भः, यया चानुपूर्व्याऽभिनिर्वर्तते कुक्षौ, यश्चास्य वृद्धिहेतुः,यतश्चास्याजन्म भवति, यतश्च जायमानः कुक्षौ विनाशं प्राप्नोति, यतश्च कार्त्स्न्येनाविनश्यन् विकृतिमापद्यते,तदनुव्याख्यास्यामः||३||

yataśca garbhaḥ sambhavati, yasmiṁśca garbhasañjñā, yadvikāraśca garbhaḥ, yayācānupūrvyā'bhinirvartatē kukṣau, yaścāsya vr̥ddhihētuḥ, yataścāsyājanma bhavati, yataśca jāyamānaḥkukṣau vināśaṁ prāpnōti, yataśca kārtsnyēnāvinaśyan vikr̥timāpadyatē, tadanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ||3||

yatashca garbhaH sambhavati, yasmiMshca garbhasa~jj~jA, yadvikArashca garbhaH, yayAcAnupUrvyA~abhinirvartate kukShau, yashcAsya vRuddhihetuH, yatashcAsyAjanma bhavati, yatashcajAyamAnaH kukShau vinAshaM prApnoti, yatashca kArtsnyenAvinashyan vikRutimApadyate,tadanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH||3||

Now I shall describe about the factors responsible for the origin of the embryo, its definition, composition, consecutive development in the womb, causes of growth, causes of the delayed/late birth, causes of demolition of the embryo in the womb and the causes of the morbidity without absolute demolition. [3]

Factors responsible for origin of embryo

मातृतः पितृत आत्मतः सात्म्यतो रसतः सत्त्वत इत्येतेभ्यो भावेभ्यः समुदितेभ्यो गर्भः सम्भवति| तस्य ये येऽवयवा यतो यतः सम्भवतः सम्भवन्ति तान् विभज्य मातृजादीनवयवान् पृथक् पृथगुक्तमग्रे||४||

mātr̥taḥ pitr̥ta ātmataḥ sātmyatō rasataḥ sattvata ityētēbhyō bhāvēbhyaḥ samuditēbhyō garbhaḥsambhavati| tasya yē yē'vayavā yatō yataḥ sambhavataḥ sambhavanti tān vibhajya mātr̥jādīnavayavān pr̥thakpr̥thaguktamagrē||4||

mAtRutaH pitRuta AtmataH sAtmyato rasataH sattvata ityetebhyo bhAvebhyaH samuditebhyo garbhaHsambhavati| tasya ye ye~avayavA yato yataH sambhavataH sambhavanti tAn vibhajya mAtRujAdInavayavAn pRuthakpRuthaguktamagre||4||

The embryo is formed out of the aggregation of factors coming from mother, father, the soul, wholesome regimen, rasa (nutritive fluid) and the mind. The sources of the respective organs like maternal, paternal etc. have already been described in detail. [4]

Definition of garbha (embryo)

शुक्रशोणितजीवसंयोगे तु खलु कुक्षिगते गर्भसञ्ज्ञा भवति||५||

śukraśōṇitajīvasaṁyōgē tu khalu kukṣigatē garbhasañjñā bhavati||5||

shukrashoNitajIvasaMyoge tu khalu kukShigate garbhasa~jj~jA bhavati||5||

The unification of sperm, ovum and the soul in the womb is designated as garbha (embryo). [5]

Composition of embryo

गर्भस्तु खल्वन्तरिक्षवाय्वग्नितोयभूमिविकारश्चेतनाधिष्ठानभूतः| एवमनया युक्त्या पञ्चमहाभूतविकारसमुदायात्मको गर्भश्चेतनाधिष्ठानभूतः; स ह्यस्य षष्ठो धातुरुक्तः||६|

garbhastu khalvantarikṣavāyvagnitōyabhūmivikāraścētanādhiṣṭhānabhūtaḥ| ēvamanayā yuktyā pañcamahābhūtavikārasamudāyātmakō garbhaścētanādhiṣṭhānabhūtaḥ; sa hyasyaṣaṣṭhō dhāturuktaḥ||6||

garbhastu khalvantarikShavAyvagnitoyabhUmivikArashcetanAdhiShThAnabhUtaH| evamanayA yuktyA pa~jcamahAbhUtavikArasamudAyAtmako garbhashcetanAdhiShThAnabhUtaH; sa hyasyaShaShTho dhAturuktaH||6||

Garbha (embryo) is produced by the five mahabhutas, i.e. akasha,vayu, agni, jala and prithvi and associated with the consciousness (chetana). It represents the combination of five mahabhutas and is also a holder of consciousness. Thus, the chetana constitutes the sixth dhatu and is responsible also for the formation of garbha (embryo).[6]

Development of embryo in the womb

यया चानुपूर्व्याऽभिनिर्वर्तते कुक्षौ तां व्याख्यास्यामः- गते पुराणे रजसि नवे चावस्थिते शुद्धस्नातांस्त्रियमव्यापन्नयोनिशोणितगर्भाशयामृतुमतीमाचक्ष्महे| तया सह तथाभूतया यदा पुमानव्यापन्नबीजो मिश्रीभावं गच्छति, तदा तस्य हर्षोदीरितः परः शरीरधात्वात्माशुक्रभूतोऽङ्गादङ्गात् सम्भवति| स तथा हर्षभूतेनात्मनोदीरितश्चाधिष्ठितश्च बीजरूपो धातुः पुरुषशरीरादभिनिष्पत्त्योचितेन पथा गर्भाशयमनुप्रविश्यार्तवेनाभिसंसर्गमेति||७||

yayā cānupūrvyā'bhinirvartatē kukṣau tāṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ- gatē purāṇē rajasi navē cāvasthitēśuddhasnātāṁ striyamavyāpannayōniśōṇitagarbhāśayāmr̥tumatīmācakṣmahē| tayā saha tathābhūtayā yadā pumānavyāpannabījō miśrībhāvaṁ gacchati, tadā tasya harṣōdīritaḥ paraḥśarīradhātvātmā śukrabhūtō'ṅgādaṅgāt sambhavati| sa tathā harṣabhūtēnātmanōdīritaścādhiṣṭhitaśca [4] bījarūpō dhātuḥ puruṣaśarīrādabhiniṣpattyōcitēnapathā garbhāśayamanupraviśyārtavēnābhisaṁsargamēti||7||

yayA cAnupUrvyA~abhinirvartate kukShau tAM vyAkhyAsyAmaH- gate purANe rajasi nave cAvasthiteshuddhasnAtAM striyamavyApannayonishoNitagarbhAshayAmRutumatImAcakShmahe| tayA saha tathAbhUtayA yadA pumAnavyApannabIjo mishrIbhAvaM gacchati, tadA tasya harShodIritaHparaH sharIradhAtvAtmA shukrabhUto~a~ggAda~ggAt sambhavati| sa tathA harShabhUtenAtmanodIritashcAdhiShThitashca [4] bIjarUpo dhAtuHpuruShasharIrAdabhiniShpattyocitena pathA garbhAshayamanupravishyArtavenAbhisaMsargameti||7||

Now, the order in which the embryo develops in the womb is being explained. After the discharge of menstrual blood and the formation of fresh blood begins, a woman attains the ritumati (state of fertility) provided she has had bath and her genital tract, ovum and uterus are in normal condition. When a man with his unimpaired sperms cohabits with such a woman, his semen which constitutes the essence of the body tissues, comes out driven by orgasm. The semen consisting of sperms motivated by the orgasm is ejaculated from the body of the man and reaches the uterus through the genital tract. Finally, the sperm unites with the ovum. [7]

तत्र पूर्वं चेतनाधातुः सत्त्वकरणो गुणग्रहणाय प्रवर्तते; स हि हेतुः कारणं निमित्तमक्षरं कर्ता मन्ता वेदिता बोद्धा द्रष्टा धाताब्रह्मा विश्वकर्मा विश्वरूपः पुरुषः प्रभवोऽव्ययो नित्यो गुणी ग्रहणं प्रधानमव्यक्तं जीवो ज्ञः पुद्गलश्चेतनावान् विभुर्भूतात्माचेन्द्रियात्मा चान्तरात्मा चेति| स गुणोपादानकालेऽन्तरिक्षं पूर्वतरमन्येभ्यो गुणेभ्य उपादत्ते, यथा- प्रलयात्यये सिसृक्षुर्भूतान्यक्षरभूत आत्मा सत्त्वोपादानःपूर्वतरमाकाशं सृजति, ततः क्रमेण व्यक्ततरगुणान् धातून् वाय्वादिकांश्चतुरः; तथा देहग्रहणेऽपि प्रवर्तमानःपूर्वतरमाकाशमेवोपादत्ते, ततः क्रमेण व्यक्ततरगुणान् धातून् वाय्वादिकांश्चतुरः| सर्वमपि तु खल्वेतद्गुणोपादानमणुना कालेन भवति||८||

tatra pūrvaṁ cētanādhātuḥ sattvakaraṇō guṇagrahaṇāya pravartatē; sa hi hētuḥ kāraṇaṁnimittamakṣaraṁ kartā mantā vēditā bōddhā draṣṭā dhātā brahmā viśvakarmā viśvarūpaḥ puruṣaḥprabhavō'vyayō nityō guṇī grahaṇaṁ pradhānamavyaktaṁ jīvō jñaḥ pudgalaścētanāvān vibhurbhūtātmācēndriyātmā cāntarātmā cēti| sa guṇōpādānakālē'ntarikṣaṁ pūrvataramanyēbhyō guṇēbhya upādattē, yathā- pralayātyayēsisr̥kṣurbhūtānyakṣarabhūta ātmā sattvōpādānaḥ pūrvataramākāśaṁ sr̥jati, tataḥ kramēṇavyaktataraguṇān dhātūn vāyvādikāṁścaturaḥ; tathā dēhagrahaṇē'pi pravartamānaḥpūrvataramākāśamēvōpādattē, tataḥ kramēṇa vyaktataraguṇān dhātūn vāyvādikāṁścaturaḥ| sarvamapi tu khalvētadguṇōpādānamaṇunā kālēna bhavati||8||

tatra pUrvaM cetanAdhAtuH sattvakaraNo guNagrahaNAya pravartate; sa hi hetuH kAraNaMnimittamakSharaM kartA mantA veditA boddhA draShTA dhAtA brahmA vishvakarmA vishvarUpaHpuruShaH prabhavo~avyayo nityo guNI grahaNaM pradhAnamavyaktaM jIvo j~jaH pudgalashcetanAvAnvibhurbhUtAtmA cendriyAtmA cAntarAtmA ceti| sa guNopAdAnakAle~antarikShaM pUrvataramanyebhyo guNebhya upAdatte, yathA- pralayAtyayesisRukShurbhUtAnyakSharabhUta AtmA sattvopAdAnaH pUrvataramAkAshaM sRujati, tataH krameNavyaktataraguNAn dhAtUn vAyvAdikAMshcaturaH; tathA dehagrahaNe~api pravartamAnaHpUrvataramAkAshamevopAdatte, tataH krameNa vyaktataraguNAn dhAtUn vAyvAdikAMshcaturaH| sarvamapi tu khalvetadguNopAdAnamaNunA kAlena bhavati||8||

First of all the chetana dhatu (consciousness) i.e. the soul endowed with mind proceeds for taking hold of qualities. This chetana (consciousness) is known as hetu (associated cause), karana (non-constituent cause), nimitta (competent cause), akshara (the everlasting one), karta (the means), manta (the thinker), vedita (the knower), boddha (the intelligent one), drashta (the prophet), dhata (the supporter), brahma (the creator), vishwakarma (the builder of the universe/fetus), vishvarupa (taking universal form), purusha (lying in the body), prabhava (the source of origin), avyaya (the immutable) nitya (the eternal) guni (the receptacle of mahabhutas), grahana (receiver), pradhana (the foremost), avyakta (the unmanifested one), jeeva (the lively one), jna (the mindful one), pudgala (the ego), chetnavan (one having consciousness), vibhu (omnipresent), bhutatma (pragmatic soul), indriyatma (essence of sense organs) and antaratma (inner soul). Thus, the soul, at the time of beholding the qualities first of all, creates akasha in the same way as after complete obliteration of entire universe, the God of creation, Brahma created akasha with the support of mind followed by creation of other four elements vayu etc. which have higher degrees of materialistic qualities sequentially. In the same way, the soul, desirous of creating same events in the body, first of all, unites with the akasha and then with other four bhutas whose attributes are more and more manifested sequentially. All these actions take place in a very short time. (anu kala).[8]

Development in first month

स सर्वगुणवान् गर्भत्वमापन्नः प्रथमे मासि सम्मूर्च्छितः सर्वधातुकलुषीकृतः खेटभूतो भवत्यव्यक्तविग्रहःसदसद्भूताङ्गावयवः||९||

sa sarvaguṇavān garbhatvamāpannaḥ prathamē māsi sammūrcchitaḥ sarvadhātukaluṣīkr̥taḥ khēṭabhūtō bhavatyavyaktavigrahaḥ sadasadbhūtāṅgāvayavaḥ||9||

sa sarvaguNavAn garbhatvamApannaH prathame mAsi sammUrcchitaH sarvadhAtukaluShIkRutaH kheTabhUto bhavatyavyaktavigrahaH sadasadbhUtA~ggAvayavaH||9||

In the first month of gestation, the soul possessing all the qualities gets amalgamated with all the dhatus to form khetabhuta (semisolid, sticky substance) in which all the body parts are not manifested in spite of their presence in explicated or non-explicated form. [9]

Features in second month

द्वितीये मासि घनः सम्पद्यते पिण्डः पेश्यर्बुदं वा| तत्र घनः पुरुषः, पेशी स्त्री, अर्बुदं नपुंसकम्||१०|| dvitīyē māsi ghanaḥ sampadyatē piṇḍaḥ pēśyarbudaṁ vā| tatra ghanaḥ puruṣaḥ, pēśī strī, arbudaṁ napuṁsakam||10||

dvitIye mAsi ghanaH sampadyate piNDaH peshyarbudaM vA| tatra ghanaH puruShaH, peshI strI, arbudaM napuMsakam||10||

During the second month of gestation, the embryo takes the form of solid mass. If it takes oval shape, then the born child would be a male, if it takes elongated shape, the female child will be born, and in the case of tumor shaped (round and elevated) mass, the hermaphrodite. [10]

Features in third month

तृतीये मासि सर्वेन्द्रियाणि सर्वाङ्गावयवाश्च यौगपद्येनाभिनिर्वर्तन्ते||११||

tr̥tīyē māsi sarvēndriyāṇi sarvāṅgāvayavāśca yaugapadyēnābhinirvartantē||11||

tRutIye mAsi sarvendriyANi sarvA~ggAvayavAshca yaugapadyenAbhinirvartante||11||

In third month, all the sense organs along with all the body parts are manifested simultaneously. [11]

Mahabhuta-specific features

तत्रास्य केचिदङ्गावयवा मातृजादीनवयवान् विभज्य पूर्वमुक्ता यथावत्| महाभूतविकारप्रविभागेन त्विदानीमस्य तांश्चैवाङ्गावयवान् कांश्चित् पर्यायान्तरेणापरांश्चानुव्याख्यास्यामः| मातृजादयोऽप्यस्य महाभूतविकारा एव| तत्रास्याकाशात्मकं शब्दः श्रोत्रं लाघवं सौक्ष्म्यं विवेकश्च, वाय्वात्मकं स्पर्शः स्पर्शनं रौक्ष्यं प्रेरणं धातुव्यूहनं चेष्टाश्च शारीर्यः, अग्न्यात्मकं रूपं दर्शनं प्रकाशः पक्तिरौष्ण्यं च, अबात्मकं रसो रसनं शैत्यं मार्दवं स्नेहःक्लेदश्च, पृथिव्यात्मकं गन्धो घ्राणं गौरवं स्थैर्यं मूर्तिश्चेति||१२||

tatrāsya kēcidaṅgāvayavā mātr̥jādīnavayavān vibhajya pūrvamuktā yathāvat| mahābhūtavikārapravibhāgēna tvidānīmasya tāṁścaivāṅgāvayavān kāṁścit paryāyāntarēṇāparāṁścānuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ| mātr̥jādayō'pyasya mahābhūtavikārā ēva| tatrāsyākāśātmakaṁ śabdaḥ śrōtraṁ lāghavaṁ saukṣmyaṁ vivēkaśca, vāyvātmakaṁ sparśaḥ sparśanaṁ raukṣyaṁ prēraṇaṁ dhātuvyūhanaṁ cēṣṭāśca śārīryaḥ,agnyātmakaṁ rūpaṁ darśanaṁ prakāśaḥ paktirauṣṇyaṁ ca, abātmakaṁ rasō rasanaṁ śaityaṁ mārdavaṁ snēhaḥ klēdaśca, pr̥thivyātmakaṁ gandhō ghrāṇaṁgauravaṁ sthairyaṁ mūrtiścēti||12||

tatrAsya kecida~ggAvayavA mAtRujAdInavayavAn vibhajya pUrvamuktA yathAvat| mahAbhUtavikArapravibhAgena tvidAnImasya tAMshcaivA~ggAvayavAn kAMshcit paryAyAntareNAparAMshcAnuvyAkhyAsyAmaH| mAtRujAdayo~apyasya mahAbhUtavikArA eva| tatrAsyAkAshAtmakaM shabdaH shrotraM lAghavaM saukShmyaM vivekashca, vAyvAtmakaM sparshaH sparshanaM raukShyaM preraNaM dhAtuvyUhanaMceShTAshca shArIryaH, agnyAtmakaM rUpaM darshanaM prakAshaH paktirauShNyaM ca, abAtmakaM raso rasanaM shaityaM mArdavaM snehaH kledashca,pRuthivyAtmakaM gandho ghrANaM gauravaM sthairyaM mUrtishceti||12||

Some of the body parts of fetus like those having origin in mother etc. have already been enumerated earlier. Now we will enlist them according to the category based on modifications of the pancha mahabhuta (five elements) with some additional ones. Even those parts originated from mother etc. are also due to modifications on pancha mahabhuta.

In the fetus, the parts originated from akasha mahabhuta are- sound, auditory sensation, lightness, fineness and space; the parts from vayu mahabhuta are – tangibility, sense of touch, roughness, impulsion, structuring of body tissues and maintaining of movements of the body and dosha; the parts belonging to agni mahabhuta are visible form, vision, brightness, digestion and heat; those belonging to apa mahabhuta are taste, sense of taste, coldness, softness, unctuousness and moisture; those belonging to prithvi mahabhuta are odor, sensation of smell, heaviness, steadiness and material form. [12]

Loka purusha theory

एवमयं लोकसम्मितः पुरुषः| यावन्तो हि लोके मूर्तिमन्तो भावविशेषास्तावन्तः पुरुषे, यावन्तः पुरुषे तावन्तो लोके इति; बुधास्त्वेवं द्रष्टुमिच्छन्ति||१३||

ēvamayaṁ lōkasammitaḥ puruṣaḥ| yāvantō hi lōkē mūrtimantō bhāvaviśēṣāstāvantaḥ puruṣē, yāvantaḥ puruṣē tāvantō lōkē iti; budhāstvēvaṁdraṣṭumicchanti||13||

evamayaM lokasammitaH puruShaH| yAvanto hi loke mUrtimanto bhAvavisheShAstAvantaH puruShe, yAvantaH puruShe tAvanto loke iti;budhAstvevaM draShTumicchanti||13||

Therefore the individual is an embodiment of the universe. All the material and spiritual phenomena of the universe are present in the individual and vice versa. This is how the wise desires to perceive. [13]

Gender specific features in development of fetus

एवमस्येन्द्रियाण्यङ्गावयवाश्च यौगपद्येनाभिनिर्वर्तन्तेऽन्यत्र तेभ्यो भावेभ्यो येऽस्य जातस्योत्तरकालं जायन्ते; तद्यथा-दन्ता व्यञ्जनानि व्यक्तीभावस्तथायुक्तानि चापराणि| एषा प्रकृतिः, विकृतिः पुनरतोऽन्यथा| सन्ति खल्वस्मिन् गर्भे केचिन्नित्या भावाः, सन्ति चानित्याः केचित्| तस्य य एवाङ्गावयवाः सन्तिष्ठन्ते, त एव स्त्रीलिङ्गं पुरुषलिङ्गं नपुंसकलिङ्गं वा बिभ्रति| तत्र स्त्रीपुरुषयोर्ये वैशेषिका भावाः प्रधानसंश्रया गुणसंश्रयाश्च, तेषां यतो भूयस्त्वं ततोऽन्यतरभावः| तद्यथा- क्लैब्यं भीरुत्वमवैशारद्यं मोहोऽनवस्थानमधोगुरुत्वमसहनं शैथिल्यं मार्दवं गर्भाशयबीजभागस्तथायुक्तानिचापराणि स्त्रीकराणि, अतो विपरीतानि पुरुषकराणि, उभयभागावयवा नपुंसककराणि भवन्ति||१४||

ēvamasyēndriyāṇyaṅgāvayavāśca yaugapadyēnābhinirvartantē'nyatra tēbhyō bhāvēbhyō yē'syajātasyōttarakālaṁ jāyantē; tadyathā- dantā vyañjanāni vyaktībhāvastathāyuktāni [18] cāparāṇi| ēṣā prakr̥tiḥ, vikr̥tiḥ punaratō'nyathā| santi khalvasmin garbhē kēcinnityā bhāvāḥ, santi cānityāḥ kēcit| tasya ya ēvāṅgāvayavāḥ santiṣṭhantē, ta ēva strīliṅgaṁ puruṣaliṅgaṁ napuṁsakaliṅgaṁ vā bibhrati|

tatra strīpuruṣayōryē vaiśēṣikā bhāvāḥ pradhānasaṁśrayā guṇasaṁśrayāśca, tēṣāṁ yatō bhūyastvaṁtatō'nyatarabhāvaḥ|

tadyathā- klaibyaṁ bhīrutvamavaiśāradyaṁ mōhō'navasthānamadhōgurutvamasahanaṁ śaithilyaṁmārdavaṁ garbhāśayabījabhāgastathāyuktāni cāparāṇi strīkarāṇi, atō viparītāni puruṣakarāṇi,ubhayabhāgāvayavā [19] napuṁsakakarāṇi bhavanti||14||

evamasyendriyANya~ggAvayavAshca yaugapadyenAbhinirvartante~anyatra tebhyo bhAvebhyo ye~asyajAtasyottarakAlaM jAyante; tadyathA- dantA vya~jjanAni vyaktIbhAvastathAyuktAni [18] cAparANi| eShA prakRutiH, vikRutiH punarato~anyathA| santi khalvasmin garbhe kecinnityA bhAvAH, santi cAnityAH kecit| tasya ya evA~ggAvayavAH santiShThante, ta eva strIli~ggaM puruShali~ggaM napuMsakali~ggaM vAbibhrati| tatra strIpuruShayorye vaisheShikA bhAvAH pradhAnasaMshrayA guNasaMshrayAshca, teShAM yatobhUyastvaM tato~anyatarabhAvaH| tadyathA- klaibyaM bhIrutvamavaishAradyaM moho~anavasthAnamadhogurutvamasahanaM shaithilyaMmArdavaM garbhAshayabIjabhAgastathAyuktAni cAparANi strIkarANi, ato viparItAni puruShakarANi,ubhayabhAgAvayavA [19] napuMsakakarANi bhavanti||14||

Therefore, the senses and organs of the fetus are simultaneously manifested except the ones which are manifested only after birth such as teeth, secondary sexual characteristics like beard and breasts, signs of puberty like production of semen and ovum and alike traits are developed later. This is the normalcy and otherwise abnormal. In the fetus, there are certain characteristics, which are permanent whereas certain others are temporary. The permanent characteristics distinguish the male, female or hermaphrodite sex of the fetus. The characteristic features which determine its male or female sex depend on the self or the mahābhūtas and determined as per the dominance of one or the other of these factors such as cowardice, timidity, lack of skills, confusion, wavering nature, heaviness in lower body, intolerance, flabbiness, softness, presence of uterus and ovum and other such characters determine the female sex, opposite characters determine the male sex and mixture of both denote the hermaphrodite. [14]

तस्य यत्कालमेवेन्द्रियाणि सन्तिष्ठन्ते, तत्कालमेव चेतसि वेदना निर्बन्धं प्राप्नोति; तस्मात्तदा प्रभृति गर्भः स्पन्दते, प्रार्थयतेच जन्मान्तरानुभूतं यत् किञ्चित्, तद्द्वैहृदय्यमाचक्षते वृद्धाः| मातृजं चास्य हृदयं मातृहृदयेनाभिसम्बद्धं भवति रसवाहिनीभिः संवाहिनीभिः; तस्मात्तयोस्ताभिर्भक्तिः संस्पन्दते | तच्चैव कारणमवेक्षमाणा न द्वैहृदय्यस्य विमानितं गर्भमिच्छन्ति कर्तुम्| विमानने ह्यस्य दृश्यते विनाशो विकृतिर्वा| समानयोगक्षेमा हि तदा भवति गर्भेण केषुचिदर्थेषु माता| तस्मात् प्रियहिताभ्यां गर्भिणीं विशेषेणोपचरन्ति कुशलाः||१५||

tasya yatkālamēvēndriyāṇi santiṣṭhantē, tatkālamēva cētasi vēdanā nirbandhaṁ prāpnōti; tasmāttadāprabhr̥ti garbhaḥ spandatē, prārthayatē ca janmāntarānubhūtaṁ yat kiñcit, taddvaihr̥dayyamācakṣatēvr̥ddhāḥ| mātr̥jaṁ cāsya hr̥dayaṁ mātr̥hr̥dayēnābhisambaddhaṁ bhavati rasavāhinībhiḥ [26] saṁvāhinībhiḥ;tasmāttayōstābhirbhaktiḥ saṁspandatē [27] | taccaiva kāraṇamavēkṣamāṇā na [28] dvaihr̥dayyasya vimānitaṁ garbhamicchanti kartum| vimānanē hyasya dr̥śyatē vināśō vikr̥tirvā| samānayōgakṣēmā hi tadā bhavati garbhēṇa kēṣucidarthēṣu mātā| tasmāt priyahitābhyāṁ garbhiṇīṁ viśēṣēṇōpacaranti kuśalāḥ||15||

tasya yatkAlamevendriyANi santiShThante, tatkAlameva cetasi vedanA nirbandhaM prApnoti; tasmAttadAprabhRuti garbhaH spandate, prArthayate ca janmAntarAnubhUtaM yat ki~jcit, taddvaihRudayyamAcakShatevRuddhAH| mAtRujaM cAsya hRudayaM mAtRuhRudayenAbhisambaddhaM bhavati rasavAhinIbhiH [26] saMvAhinIbhiH;tasmAttayostAbhirbhaktiH saMspandate [27] | taccaiva kAraNamavekShamANA na [28] dvaihRudayyasya vimAnitaM garbhamicchanti kartum| vimAnane hyasya dRushyate vinAsho vikRutirvA| samAnayogakShemA hi tadA bhavati garbheNa keShucidartheShu mAtA| tasmAt priyahitAbhyAM garbhiNIM visheSheNopacaranti kushalAH||15||

When senses of the fetus get manifested, its mind gets associated with feelings and due to this the fetus starts shuddering and expresses the wishes based on the experiences of prior life of the individual. According to elder persons, this condition is known as dauhrida (bi-cardiac condition). The heart of the fetus formed from the maternal component is linked to the mother’s heart through the rasavahi (nutrient material carrying channels) and through these channels fetus expresses its wishes through the mother.

Due to this view people, do not want to overlook the wishes of the fetus as reflected through the desires of the pregnant mother. If these wishes are overlooked, the fetus may either be damaged or get distorted. The appropriate protection and defense of the pregnant mother is as good as the protection and defense of the fetus itself. So, the intelligent individuals concentrate upon a pregnant mother with particular care to accomplish her beloved and beneficial requirements. [15]

Signs of pregnancy

तस्या गर्भापत्तेर्द्वैहृदय्यस्य च विज्ञानार्थं लिङ्गानि समासेनोपदेक्ष्यामः| उपचारसाधनं ह्यस्य ज्ञाने, ज्ञानं च लिङ्गतः, तस्मादिष्टो लिङ्गोपदेशः| तद्यथा- आर्तवादर्शनमास्यसंस्रवणमनन्नाभिलाषश्छर्दिररोचकोऽम्लकामता च विशेषेण श्रद्धाप्रणयनमुच्चावचेषु भावेषुगुरुगात्रत्वं चक्षुषोर्ग्लानिः स्तनयोः स्तन्यमोष्ठयोः स्तनमण्डलयोश्च कार्ष्ण्यमत्यर्थं श्वयथुः पादयोरीषल्लोमराज्युद्गमोयोन्याश्चाटालत्वमिति गर्भे पर्यागते रूपाणि भवन्ति||१६||

tasyā garbhāpattērdvaihr̥dayyasya ca vijñānārthaṁ liṅgāni samāsēnōpadēkṣyāmaḥ| upacārasādhanaṁ [31] hyasya jñānē, jñānaṁ ca liṅgataḥ, tasmādiṣṭō liṅgōpadēśaḥ| tadyathā- ārtavādarśanamāsyasaṁsravaṇamanannābhilāṣaśchardirarōcakō'mlakāmatā ca viśēṣēṇaśraddhāpraṇayanamuccāvacēṣu bhāvēṣu gurugātratvaṁ cakṣuṣōrglāniḥ stanayōḥ stanyamōṣṭhayōḥstanamaṇḍalayōśca kārṣṇyamatyarthaṁ śvayathuḥ pādayōrīṣallōmarājyudgamō yōnyāścāṭālatvamitigarbhē paryāgatē rūpāṇi bhavanti||16||

tasyA garbhApatterdvaihRudayyasya ca vij~jAnArthaM li~ggAni samAsenopadekShyAmaH| upacArasAdhanaM [31] hyasya j~jAne, j~jAnaM ca li~ggataH, tasmAdiShTo li~ggopadeshaH| tadyathA- ArtavAdarshanamAsyasaMsravaNamanannAbhilAShashchardirarocako~amlakAmatA cavisheSheNa shraddhApraNayanamuccAvaceShu bhAveShu gurugAtratvaM cakShuShorglAniH stanayoHstanyamoShThayoH stanamaNDalayoshca kArShNyamatyarthaM shvayathuH pAdayorIShallomarAjyudgamoyonyAshcATAlatvamiti garbhe paryAgate rUpANi bhavanti||16||

Now I shall explain in brief the signs and symptoms that are indicative of pregnancy as well as the bi-cardiac condition. The knowledge of signs and symptoms facilitate the management of these conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to explain their signs and symptoms such as- amenorrhoea, excessive salivation, lack of desire to take food, vomiting, loss of appetite, liking for sour things, liking for all types of food- both wholesome and unwholesome, heaviness of the body, feeling of heaviness in the eyes, appearance of milk in breasts, appearance of excessive darkness in the lips and the areola of breasts, mild edema on feet, appearance of small hairs and dilatation of vagina. [16]

सा यद्यदिच्छेत्तत्तदस्यै दद्यादन्यत्र गर्भोपघातकरेभ्यो भावेभ्यः||१७|| sā yadyadicchēttattadasyai dadyādanyatra garbhōpaghātakarēbhyō bhāvēbhyaḥ||17||

sA yadyadicchettattadasyai dadyAdanyatra garbhopaghAtakarebhyo bhAvebhyaH||17||

As the wishes of the fetus are expressed through the mother, all wishes of mother should be fulfilled. What-so-ever she desires during this period should be provided except the substances likely to injure the fetus. [17]

Harmful factors in pregnancy

गर्भोपघातकरास्त्विमे भावा भवन्तिः; तद्यथासर्वमतिगुरूष्णतीक्ष्णं दारुणाश्च चेष्टाः; इमांश्चान्यानुपदिशन्ति वृद्धाः-देवतारक्षोऽनुचरपरिरक्षणार्थं न रक्तानि वासांसि बिभृयान्न मदकराणि मद्यान्यभ्यवहरेन्न यानमधिरोहेन्न मांसमश्नीयात्सर्वेन्द्रियप्रतिकूलांश्च भावान् दूरतः परिवर्जयेत्, यच्चान्यदपि किञ्चित् स्त्रियो विद्युः||१८||

garbhōpaghātakarāstvimē bhāvā bhavantiḥ; tadyathā- sarvamatigurūṣṇatīkṣṇaṁ dāruṇāśca cēṣṭāḥ;imāṁścānyānupadiśanti vr̥ddhāḥ- dēvatārakṣō'nucaraparirakṣaṇārthaṁ na raktāni vāsāṁsi bibhr̥yānnamadakarāṇi madyānyabhyavaharēnna yānamadhirōhēnna māṁsamaśnīyāt sarvēndriyapratikūlāṁścabhāvān dūrataḥ parivarjayēt, yaccānyadapi kiñcit striyō vidyuḥ||18||

garbhopaghAtakarAstvime bhAvA bhavantiH; tadyathA- sarvamatigurUShNatIkShNaM dAruNAshca ceShTAH;imAMshcAnyAnupadishanti vRuddhAH- devatArakSho~anucaraparirakShaNArthaM na raktAni vAsAMsibibhRuyAnna madakarANi madyAnyabhyavaharenna yAnamadhirohenna mAMsamashnIyAtsarvendriyapratikUlAMshca bhAvAn dUrataH parivarjayet, yaccAnyadapi ki~jcit striyo vidyuH||18||

The following factors are harmful for the fetus for example-excessive use of heavy, hot and pungent substances, exertion activities, and others as instructed by elder persons. For the protection from the effect of gods, devils and their followers like she should not wear red apparel, she should not take intoxicating substances and wine, ride over rough riding vehicle, take meat and she should be far away from substances which are unwholesome to the senses and all other unwholesome substances should be avoided as advised by experienced ladies.[18]

तीव्रायां तु खलु प्रार्थनायां काममहितमप्यस्यै हितेनोपहितं दद्यात् प्रार्थनाविनयनार्थम्| प्रार्थनासन्धारणाद्धि वायुः प्रकुपितोऽन्तःशरीरमनुचरन् गर्भस्यापद्यमानस्य विनाशं वैरूप्यं वा कुर्यात्||१९||

tīvrāyāṁ tu khalu prārthanāyāṁ kāmamahitamapyasyai hitēnōpahitaṁ dadyāt prārthanāvinayanārtham| prārthanāsandhāraṇāddhi vāyuḥ prakupitō'ntaḥśarīramanucaran garbhasyāpadyamānasya vināśaṁvairūpyaṁ vā kuryāt||19||

tIvrAyAM tu khalu prArthanAyAM kAmamahitamapyasyai hitenopahitaM dadyAt prArthanAvinayanArtham| prArthanAsandhAraNAddhi vAyuH prakupito~antaHsharIramanucaran garbhasyApadyamAnasya vinAshaMvairUpyaM vA kuryAt||19||

If the desire of the mother to use the substances likely to cause harm to the fetus is very acute, then even these substances can be given by addition of beneficial substances having capability to counteract the harmful effects. By the suppression of the desires, the vata gets vitiated, moves in the body of fetus produces different diseases, morphological abnormalities (dysmorphism) or even death. [19]

Features in fourth month

चतुर्थे मासि स्थिरत्वमापद्यते गर्भः, तस्मात्तदा गर्भिणी गुरुगात्रत्वमधिकमापद्यते विशेषेण||२०||

caturthē māsi sthiratvamāpadyatē garbhaḥ, tasmāttadā garbhiṇī gurugātratvamadhikamāpadyatēviśēṣēṇa||20||

caturthe mAsi sthiratvamApadyate garbhaH, tasmAttadA garbhiNI gurugAtratvamadhikamApadyatevisheSheNa||20||

During fourth month of gestation, the fetus attains stability due to which, the pregnant woman feels more heaviness in her body.[20]

Features in fifth month

पञ्चमे मासि गर्भस्य मांसशोणितोपचयो भवत्यधिकमन्येभ्यो मासेभ्यः, तस्मात्तदा गर्भिणी कार्श्यमापद्यते विशेषेण||२१||

pañcamē māsi garbhasya māṁsaśōṇitōpacayō bhavatyadhikamanyēbhyō māsēbhyaḥ tasmāttadā garbhiṇīkārśyamāpadyatē viśēṣēṇa||21||

pa~jcame mAsi garbhasya mAMsashoNitopacayo bhavatyadhikamanyebhyo mAsebhyaH, tasmAttadAgarbhiNI kArshyamApadyate visheSheNa||21||

Due to increased anabolism of muscle tissue and blood of the fetus during the fifth month of gestation, the pregnant woman becomes emaciated. [21]

Features in sixth month

षष्ठे मासि गर्भस्य बलवर्णोपचयो भवत्यधिकमन्येभ्यो मासेभ्यः, तस्मात्तदा गर्भिणी बलवर्णहानिमापद्यते विशेषेण||२२|| ṣaṣṭhē māsi garbhasya balavarṇōpacayō bhavatyadhikamanyēbhyō māsēbhyaḥ, tasmāttadā garbhiṇībalavarṇahānimāpadyatē viśēṣēṇa||22||

ShaShThe mAsi garbhasya balavarNopacayo bhavatyadhikamanyebhyo mAsebhyaH, tasmAttadA garbhiNIbalavarNahAnimApadyate visheSheNa||22||

During sixth month, fetus derives more strength and complexion, therefore the pregnant woman loses her strength and complexion significantly. [22]

Features in seventh month

सप्तमे मासि गर्भः सर्वैर्भावैराप्याय्यते, तस्मात्तदा गर्भिणी सर्वाकारैः क्लान्ततमा भवति||२३|| saptamē māsi garbhaḥ sarvairbhāvairāpyāyyatē, tasmāttadā garbhiṇī sarvākāraiḥ klāntatamābhavati||23||

saptame mAsi garbhaH sarvairbhAvairApyAyyate, tasmAttadA garbhiNI sarvAkAraiH klAntatamAbhavati||23||

As during the seventh month of gestation the fetus attains over-all fulfillment of all elements. Therefore, a pregnant woman becomes excessively exhausted. [23]

Features in eighth month

अष्टमे मासि गर्भश्च मातृतो गर्भतश्च माता रसहारिणीभिः संवाहिनीभिर्मुहुर्मुहुरोजः परस्परत आददातेगर्भस्यासम्पूर्णत्वात् [३५] |

तस्मात्तदा गर्भिणीमुहुर्महुर्मुदा युक्ता भवति मुहुर्मुहुश्च म्लाना, तथा गर्भः; तस्मात्तदा गर्भस्य जन्मव्यापत्तिमद्भवत्योजसोऽनवस्थितत्वात् | तं चैवार्थमभिसमीक्ष्याष्टमं मासमगण्यमित्याचक्षते कुशलाः||२४||

aṣṭamē māsi garbhaśca mātr̥tō garbhataśca mātā rasahāriṇībhiḥ saṁvāhinībhirmuhurmuhurōjaḥparasparata ādadātē garbhasyāsampūrṇatvāt | tasmāttadā garbhiṇīmuhurmahurmudā yuktā bhavati muhurmuhuśca mlānā, tathā garbhaḥ; tasmāttadāgarbhasya janma vyāpattimadbhavatyōjasō'navasthitatvāt | taṁ caivārthamabhisamīkṣyāṣṭamaṁ māsamagaṇyamityācakṣatē kuśalāḥ||24||

aShTame mAsi garbhashca mAtRuto garbhatashca mAtA rasahAriNIbhiH saMvAhinIbhirmuhurmuhurojaHparasparata AdadAte garbhasyAsampUrNatvAt | tasmAttadA garbhiNImuhurmahurmudA yuktA bhavati muhurmuhushca mlAnA, tathA garbhaH; tasmAttadAgarbhasya janma vyApattimadbhavatyojaso~anavasthitatvAt | taM caivArthamabhisamIkShyAShTamaM mAsamagaNyamityAcakShate kushalAH||24||

During the eighth month of gestation due to immaturity of the fetus, the ojas moves from the mother to fetus and from fetus to mother through the channels carrying rasa (nutritive fluid). As a result, at that time, the pregnant woman frequently becomes happy or dull (exhausted) parallel is the condition of the fetus. It is because of the instability of the ojas, the delivery of the fetus during this month is prone to danger. In view of this, experts do not consider this month fit for labor. [24]

Time of delivery

तस्मिन्नेकदिवसातिक्रान्तेऽपि नवमं मासमुपादाय प्रसवकालमित्याहुरादशमान्मासात्| एतावान् प्रसवकालः, वैकारिकमतः परं कुक्षाववस्थानं गर्भस्य||२५||

tasminnēkadivasātikrāntē'pi navamaṁ māsamupādāya prasavakālamityāhurādaśamānmāsāt| ētāvān prasavakālaḥ, vaikārikamataḥ [37] paraṁ kukṣāvavasthānaṁ garbhasya||25||

tasminnekadivasAtikrAnte~api navamaM mAsamupAdAya prasavakAlamityAhurAdashamAnmAsAt| etAvAn prasavakAlaH, vaikArikamataH [37] paraM kukShAvavasthAnaM garbhasya||25||

Even the first day after this eighth month i.e. from the first day of the ninth month till the tenth month is known as the period of parturition. Normally delivery takes place during this period. After this period, if there is retention of fetus in the uterus, it is considered abnormal. [25]

एवमनयाऽऽनुपूर्व्याऽभिनिर्वर्तते कुक्षौ||२६||

ēvamanayānupūrvyā'bhinirvartatē kukṣau||26||

evamanayA~a~anupUrvyA~abhinirvartate kukShau||26||

In this way the fetus grows and develops sequentially in the womb. [26]

मात्रादीनां खलु गर्भकराणां भावानां सम्पदस्तथा वृत्तsस्य सौष्ठवान्मातृतश्चैवोपस्नेहोपस्वेदाभ्यां कालपरिणामात्स्वभावसंसिद्धेश्च कुक्षौ वृद्धिं प्राप्नोति||२७||

mātrādīnāṁ khalu garbhakarāṇāṁ bhāvānāṁ sampadastathā vr̥ttasyasauṣṭhavānmātr̥taścaivōpasnēhōpasvēdābhyāṁ kālapariṇāmāt svabhāvasaṁsiddhēśca kukṣau vr̥ddhiṁprāpnōti||27||

mAtrAdInAM khalu garbhakarANAM bhAvAnAM sampadastathA vRuttasyasauShThavAnmAtRutashcaivopasnehopasvedAbhyAM kAlapariNAmAt svabhAvasaMsiddheshca kukShauvRuddhiM prApnoti||27||

With the normalcy of the matrijadi (maternal etc.) six factors responsible for the production of the fetus viz. mother (ovum) father (sperm), satmya (adaptability), rasa (nutritive fluid) and sattva (mind) along with compliance to the code and conduct of dos and don’ts in the pregnancy by the mother, the fetus obtains its nourishment through upasneha (perfusion, osmosis, active and passive transport) and upasveda (warmth) from the mother as a result of passage of time and own nature fetus obtains growth and development in uterus. [27]

मात्रादीनामेव तु खलु गर्भकराणां भावानां व्यापत्तिनिमित्तमस्याजन्म भवति||२८||

mātrādīnāmēva tu khalu garbhakarāṇāṁ bhāvānāṁ vyāpattinimittamasyājanma bhavati||28||

mAtrAdInAmeva tu khalu garbhakarANAM bhAvAnAM vyApattinimittamasyAjanma bhavati||28||

Due to the abnormality in the mother (ovum), father (sperm) etc. factors accountable for the creation of the fetus leads no birth of the child. [28]

Causes of premature delivery and ante-natal death

ये ह्यस्य कुक्षौ वृद्धिहेतुसमाख्याता भावास्तेषां विपर्ययादुदरे विनाशमापद्यते, अथवाऽप्यचिरजातः स्यात्||२९|| yē hyasya kukṣau vr̥ddhihētusamākhyātā bhāvāstēṣāṁ viparyayādudarē vināśamāpadyatē,athavā'pyacirajātaḥ syāt||29||

ye hyasya kukShau vRuddhihetusamAkhyAtA bhAvAsteShAM viparyayAdudare vinAshamApadyate,athavA~apyacirajAtaH syAt||29||

The fetus gets destroyed in the womb of the mother or there is premature delivery if factors opposing to those described for its growth, are present. [29]

Causes of congenital abnormalities

यतस्तु कार्त्स्न्येनाविनश्यन् विकृतिमापद्यते, तदनुव्याख्यास्यामः- यदा स्त्रिया दोषप्रकोपणोक्तान्यासेवमानाया दोषाःप्रकुपिताः शरीरमुपसर्पन्तः शोणितगर्भाशयावुपपद्यन्ते , न च कार्त्स्न्येन शोणितगर्भाशयौ दूषयन्ति, तदेयं गर्भं लभतेस्त्री; तदा तस्य गर्भस्य मातृजानामवयवानामन्यतमोऽवयवो विकृतिमापद्यत एकोऽथवाऽनेके, यस्य यस्य ह्यवयवस्य बीजेबीजभागे वा दोषाः प्रकोपमापद्यन्ते, तं तमवयवं विकृतिराविशति| यदा ह्यस्याः शोणिते गर्भाशयबीजभागः प्रदोषमापद्यते, तदा वन्ध्यां जनयति; यदा पुनरस्याः शोणितेगर्भाशयबीजभागावयवः प्रदोषमापद्यते, तदा पूतिप्रजां जनयति; यदा त्वस्याः शोणिते गर्भाशयबीजभागावयवः स्त्रीकराणां चशरीरबीजभागानामेकदेशः प्रदोषमापद्यते, तदा स्त्र्याकृतिभूयिष्ठामस्त्रियं वार्तां [४२] नाम जनयति, तां स्त्रीव्यापदमाचक्षते||३०||

yatastu kārtsnyēnāvinaśyan vikr̥timāpadyatē, tadanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ- yadā striyādōṣaprakōpaṇōktānyāsēvamānāyā dōṣāḥ prakupitāḥ śarīramupasarpantaḥśōṇitagarbhāśayāvupapadyantē [40] , na ca kārtsnyēna śōṇitagarbhāśayau dūṣayanti, tadēyaṁ [41] garbhaṁlabhatē strī; tadā tasya garbhasya mātr̥jānāmavayavānāmanyatamō'vayavō vikr̥timāpadyataēkō'thavā'nēkē, yasya yasya hyavayavasya bījē bījabhāgē vā dōṣāḥ prakōpamāpadyantē, taṁtamavayavaṁ vikr̥tirāviśati| yadā hyasyāḥ śōṇitē garbhāśayabījabhāgaḥ pradōṣamāpadyatē, tadā vandhyāṁ janayati; yadāpunarasyāḥ śōṇitē garbhāśayabījabhāgāvayavaḥ pradōṣamāpadyatē, tadā pūtiprajāṁ janayati; yadātvasyāḥ śōṇitē garbhāśayabījabhāgāvayavaḥ strīkarāṇāṁ ca śarīrabījabhāgānāmēkadēśaḥpradōṣamāpadyatē, tadā stryākr̥tibhūyiṣṭhāmastriyaṁ vārtāṁ [42] nāma janayati, tāṁstrīvyāpadamācakṣatē||30||

yatastu kArtsnyenAvinashyan vikRutimApadyate, tadanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH- yadA striyAdoShaprakopaNoktAnyAsevamAnAyA doShAH prakupitAH sharIramupasarpantaHshoNitagarbhAshayAvupapadyante [40] , na ca kArtsnyena shoNitagarbhAshayau dUShayanti, tadeyaM [41]garbhaM labhate strI; tadA tasya garbhasya mAtRujAnAmavayavAnAmanyatamo~avayavovikRutimApadyata eko~athavA~aneke, yasya yasya hyavayavasya bIje bIjabhAge vA doShAHprakopamApadyante, taM tamavayavaM vikRutirAvishati| yadA hyasyAH shoNite garbhAshayabIjabhAgaH pradoShamApadyate, tadA vandhyAM janayati; yadApunarasyAH shoNite garbhAshayabIjabhAgAvayavaH pradoShamApadyate, tadA pUtiprajAM janayati; yadAtvasyAH shoNite garbhAshayabIjabhAgAvayavaH strIkarANAM ca sharIrabIjabhAgAnAmekadeshaHpradoShamApadyate, tadA stryAkRutibhUyiShThAmastriyaM vArtAM [42] nAma janayati, tAMstrIvyApadamAcakShate||30||

In this verse, Lord Atreya said that I will explain, how the fetus does not get destroyed completely, but gets abnormalities/anomalies with the exposure of causative factors. When a woman gets indulged in dosha aggravating factors (diet/activities), it results in spread of these dosha in her body. When they reach shonita (ovum) and garbhashaya (uterus including fallopian tubes) and do not cause complete vitiation of shonita and garbhashaya, in this situation when the woman is conceived with partially vitiated shonita and garbhashaya, then abnormality of one or more organs occur due to vitiation of maternally derived organs of that garbha. Whatever the beeja forming organs or part of beeja gets vitiated, corresponding organ gets abnormality (vikriti).

When the garbhashayabijabhaga (gene related to uterus) in the ovum of the mother gets vitiated, then she produces an infertile or vandhya female child and when the garbhashayabijabhagavayava (chromosome) in the ovum of a woman gets vitiated, then she produces a putipraja ((whose child dies before delivery). When the garbhashayabijabhagavayava as well as a part of female body producing beejabhaga of ovum in a woman gets vitiated, birth of a child takes place called varta (birth with female appearance but actually is not a female).These deformities are caused by the vitiation of the ovum. These are the morbidities due to involvement of the female chromosomes. [30]

एवमेव पुरुषस्य यदा बीजे बीजभागः प्रदोषमापद्यते, तदा वन्ध्यं जनयति; यदा पुनरस्य बीजे बीजभागावयवःप्रदोषमापद्यते, तदा पूतिप्रजं जनयति; यदा त्वस्य बीजे बीजभागावयवः पुरुषकराणां च शरीरबीजभागानामेकदेशःप्रदोषमापद्यते, तदा पुरुषाकृतिभूयिष्ठमपुरुषं तृणपुत्रिकं नाम जनयति; तां पुरुषव्यापदमाचक्षते||३१||

ēvamēva puruṣasya yadā bījē bījabhāgaḥ pradōṣamāpadyatē, tadā vandhyaṁ janayati; yadāpunarasya bījē bījabhāgāvayavaḥ pradōṣamāpadyatē, tadā pūtiprajaṁ janayati; yadā tvasya bījēbījabhāgāvayavaḥ puruṣakarāṇāṁ ca śarīrabījabhāgānāmēkadēśaḥ pradōṣamāpadyatē, tadāpuruṣākr̥tibhūyiṣṭhamapuruṣaṁ tr̥ṇaputrikaṁ nāma janayati; tāṁ puruṣavyāpadamācakṣatē||31||

evameva puruShasya yadA bIje bIjabhAgaH pradoShamApadyate, tadA vandhyaM janayati; yadApunarasya bIje bIjabhAgAvayavaH pradoShamApadyate, tadA pUtiprajaM janayati; yadA tvasya bIjebIjabhAgAvayavaH puruShakarANAM ca sharIrabIjabhAgAnAmekadeshaH pradoShamApadyate, tadApuruShAkRutibhUyiShThamapuruShaM tRuNaputrikaM nAma janayati; tAMpuruShavyApadamAcakShate||31||

In the same way, when the part of the beeja (gene of a sperm) is markedly vitiated, then this gives birth to a vandhya (sterile) child. When the beejabhagavayava (chromosome) is extremely vitiated, then this gives birth to a putipraja (whose child dies before delivery). When the beejabhagavayava of sperm and also portions of the beejabhaga, which are responsible for the production of organs that differentiate a male, are greatly vitiated, then this gives birth to a child who is not a male but only having masculine distinctiveness in abundance. Such a type of child is known as trinaputrika. These deformities are caused by the vitiation of the sperm (male genes and chromosomes). [31]

एतेन मातृजानां पितृजानां चावयवानां विकृतिव्याख्यानेन सात्म्यजानां रसजानां सत्त्वजानां चावयवानां विकृतिर्व्याख्याताभवति||३२||

ētēna mātr̥jānāṁ pitr̥jānāṁ cāvayavānāṁ vikr̥tivyākhyānēna sātmyajānāṁ rasajānāṁ sattvajānāṁcāvayavānāṁ vikr̥tirvyākhyātā bhavati||32||

etena mAtRujAnAM pitRujAnAM cAvayavAnAM vikRutivyAkhyAnena sAtmyajAnAM rasajAnAM sattvajAnAMcAvayavAnAM vikRutirvyAkhyAtA bhavati||32||

Thus, the abnormalities of organs derived from the mother (ovum) and father (sperm) has been explained. On the same line, the abnormalities of the organs resulting from satmya (adaptability), rasa (digestive product of the mother’s food) and sattva (mind) should be considered. [32]

निर्विकारः परस्त्वात्मा सर्वभूतानां निर्विशेषः; सत्त्वशरीरयोस्तु विशेषाद्विशेषोपलब्धिः||३३||

nirvikāraḥ parastvātmā sarvabhūtānāṁ nirviśēṣaḥ; sattvaśarīrayōstu viśēṣādviśēṣōpalabdhiḥ||33||

nirvikAraH parastvAtmA sarvabhUtAnAM nirvisheShaH; sattvasharIrayostuvisheShAdvisheShopalabdhiH||33||

The soul is devoid of disorders and beholds supreme position. The soul in different living beings is not different (it is same or part of the same consciousness). The difference in its presence/existence is felt only due to diverse features of the body and mind of different living beings. [33]

Causes of psychic and somatic abnormalities

तत्र त्रयः शरीरदोषा वातपित्तश्लेष्माणः, ते शरीरं दूषयन्ति; द्वौ पुनः सत्त्वदोषौ रजस्तमश्च, तौ सत्त्वं दूषयतः| ताभ्यां च सत्त्वशरीराभ्यां दुष्टाभ्यां विकृतिरुपजायते, नोपजायते चाप्रदुष्टाभ्याम्||३४||

tatra trayaḥ śarīradōṣā vātapittaślēṣmāṇaḥ, tē śarīraṁ dūṣayanti; dvau punaḥ sattvadōṣau rajastamaśca,tau sattvaṁ dūṣayataḥ| tābhyāṁ ca sattvaśarīrābhyāṁ duṣṭābhyāṁ vikr̥tirupajāyatē, nōpajāyatē cāpraduṣṭābhyām||34||

tatra trayaH sharIradoShA vAtapittashleShmANaH, te sharIraM dUShayanti; dvau punaH sattvadoShaurajastamashca, tau sattvaM dUShayataH| tAbhyAM ca sattvasharIrAbhyAM duShTAbhyAM vikRutirupajAyate, nopajAyate cApraduShTAbhyAm||34||

There are three bodily doshas i.e. vata, pitta and kapha- they vitiate the body. Again, there are two doshas of mind i. e. rajas and tamas- they vitiate the mind. Vitiation of the body and the mind causes the expression of diseases and no disease is caused without vitiation of doshas.

Four types of body types

तत्र शरीरं योनिविशेषाच्चतुर्विधमुक्तमग्रे||३५|| tatra śarīraṁ yōniviśēṣāccaturvidhamuktamagrē||35||

tatra sharIraM yonivisheShAccaturvidhamuktamagre||35||

Based upon the yoni (origin), the body of living beings is of four types, which has been mentioned earlier. [35]

Three types of psyche

त्रिविधं खलु सत्त्वं- शुद्धं, राजसं, तामसमिति| तत्र शुद्धमदोषमाख्यातं कल्याणांशत्वात्, राजसं सदोषमाख्यातं रोषांशत्वात्, तामसमपि सदोषमाख्यातं मोहांशत्वात्| तेषां तु त्रयाणामपि सत्त्वानामेकैकस्य भेदाग्रमपरिसङ्ख्येयं तरतमयोगाच्छरीरयोनिविशेषेभ्यश्चान्योन्यानुविधानत्वाच्च| शरीरं ह्यपि सत्त्वमनुविधीयते, सत्त्वं च शरीरम्| तस्मात् कतिचित्सत्त्वभेदाननूकाभिनिर्देशेन निदर्शनार्थमनुव्याख्यास्यामः||३६||

trividhaṁ khalu sattvaṁ- śuddhaṁ, rājasaṁ, tāmasamiti| tatra śuddhamadōṣamākhyātaṁ kalyāṇāṁśatvāt, rājasaṁ sadōṣamākhyātaṁ rōṣāṁśatvāt, tāmasamapisadōṣamākhyātaṁ mōhāṁśatvāt| tēṣāṁ tu trayāṇāmapi sattvānāmēkaikasya bhēdāgramaparisaṅkhyēyaṁtaratamayōgāccharīrayōniviśēṣēbhyaścānyōnyānuvidhānatvācca| śarīraṁ hyapi sattvamanuvidhīyatē, sattvaṁ ca śarīram| tasmāt katicitsattvabhēdānanūkābhinirdēśēna nidarśanārthamanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ||36||

trividhaM khalu sattvaM- shuddhaM, rAjasaM, tAmasamiti| tatra shuddhamadoShamAkhyAtaM kalyANAMshatvAt, rAjasaM sadoShamAkhyAtaM roShAMshatvAt,tAmasamapi sadoShamAkhyAtaM mohAMshatvAt| teShAM tu trayANAmapi sattvAnAmekaikasya bhedAgramaparisa~gkhyeyaMtaratamayogAccharIrayonivisheShebhyashcAnyonyAnuvidhAnatvAcca| sharIraM hyapi sattvamanuvidhIyate, sattvaM ca sharIram| tasmAt katicitsattvabhedAnanUkAbhinirdeshena nidarshanArthamanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH||36||

The mind is of three types – pure sattvika, rajasika and tamasika. The pure sattvika one is free from causing abnormalities as it is gifted with auspiciousness; whereas the rajasika type is impure because it promotes furious temperament. In the same way, the tamasika one is similarly impure because of bewilderment. Each of these three types of mind can be sub-divided into innumerable forms owing to comparative proportions and type of body and origin of the body it resides into. The body influences the mind and vice versa. Therefore, some of the varieties of mind have been described briefly depicting their resemblance with recognized symbols. [36]

Seven types of sattva dominant psychic constitution

तद्यथाशुचिं सत्याभिसन्धं जितात्मानं संविभागिनं ज्ञानविज्ञानवचनप्रतिवचनसम्पन्नं स्मृतिमन्तंकामक्रोधलोभमानमोहेर्ष्याहर्षामर्षापेतं समं सर्वभूतेषु ब्राह्मं विद्यात् (१)| इज्याध्ययनव्रतहोमब्रह्मचर्यपरमतिथिव्रतमुपशान्तमदमानरागद्वेषमोहलोभरोषंप्रतिभावचनविज्ञानोपधारणशक्तिसम्पन्नमार्षं विद्यात् (२)| ऐश्वर्यवन्तमादेयवाक्यं यज्वानं शूरमोजस्विनं तेजसोपेतमक्लिष्टकर्माणं दीर्घदर्शिनं धर्मार्थकामाभिरतमैन्द्रं विद्यात् (३)| लेखास्थवृत्तं प्राप्तकारिणमसम्प्रहार्यमुत्थानवन्तं स्मृतिमन्तमैश्वर्यलम्भिनं [५३] व्यपगतरागेर्ष्याद्वेषमोहं याम्यं विद्यात् ())| शूरं धीरं शुचिमशुचिद्वेषिणं यज्वानमम्भोविहाररतिमक्लिष्टकर्माणं स्थानकोपप्रसादं वारुणं विद्यात् (५)| स्थानमानोपभोगपरिवारसम्पन्नं धर्मार्थकामनित्यं शुचिं सुखविहारं व्यक्तकोपप्रसादं कौबेरं विद्यात् (६)| प्रियनृत्यगीतवादित्रोल्लापकश्लोकाख्यायिकेतिहासपुराणेषु कुशलं गन्धमाल्यानुलेपनवसनस्त्रीविहारकामनित्यमनसूयकंगान्धर्वं विद्यात् (७)| इत्येवं शुद्धस्य सत्त्वस्य सप्तविधं भेदांशं विद्यात् कल्याणांशत्वात्; तत्संयोगात्तु ब्राह्ममत्यन्तशुद्धं व्यवस्येत्||३७||

tadyathā- śuciṁ satyābhisandhaṁ jitātmānaṁ saṁvibhāginaṁjñānavijñānavacanaprativacanasampannaṁ smr̥timantaṁkāmakrōdhalōbhamānamōhērṣyāharṣāmarṣāpētaṁ samaṁ sarvabhūtēṣu brāhmaṁ vidyāt (1)| ijyādhyayanavratahōmabrahmacaryaparamatithivratamupaśāntamadamānarāgadvēṣamōhalōbharōṣaṁpratibhāvacanavijñānōpadhāraṇaśaktisampannamārṣaṁ vidyāt (2)| aiśvaryavantamādēyavākyaṁ yajvānaṁ śūramōjasvinaṁ tējasōpētamakliṣṭakarmāṇaṁ dīrghadarśinaṁdharmārthakāmābhiratamaindraṁ vidyāt (3)| lēkhāsthavr̥ttaṁ prāptakāriṇamasamprahāryamutthānavantaṁ smr̥timantamaiśvaryalambhinaṁ [53]vyapagatarāgērṣyādvēṣamōhaṁ yāmyaṁ vidyāt (4)| śūraṁ dhīraṁ śucimaśucidvēṣiṇaṁ yajvānamambhōvihāraratimakliṣṭakarmāṇaṁ sthānakōpaprasādaṁvāruṇaṁ vidyāt (5)| sthānamānōpabhōgaparivārasampannaṁ dharmārthakāmanityaṁ śuciṁ sukhavihāraṁvyaktakōpaprasādaṁ kaubēraṁ vidyāt (6)| priyanr̥tyagītavāditrōllāpakaślōkākhyāyikētihāsapurāṇēṣu kuśalaṁgandhamālyānulēpanavasanastrīvihārakāmanityamanasūyakaṁ gāndharvaṁ vidyāt (7)| ityēvaṁ śuddhasya sattvasya saptavidhaṁ bhēdāṁśaṁ vidyāt kalyāṇāṁśatvāt; tatsaṁyōgāttubrāhmamatyantaśuddhaṁ vyavasyēt||37||

tadyathA- shuciM satyAbhisandhaM jitAtmAnaM saMvibhAginaMj~jAnavij~jAnavacanaprativacanasampannaM smRutimantaMkAmakrodhalobhamAnamoherShyAharShAmarShApetaM samaM sarvabhUteShu brAhmaM vidyAt (1)| ijyAdhyayanavratahomabrahmacaryaparamatithivratamupashAntamadamAnarAgadveShamohalobharoShaMpratibhAvacanavij~jAnopadhAraNashaktisampannamArShaM vidyAt (2)| aishvaryavantamAdeyavAkyaM yajvAnaM shUramojasvinaM tejasopetamakliShTakarmANaMdIrghadarshinaM dharmArthakAmAbhiratamaindraM vidyAt (3)| lekhAsthavRuttaM prAptakAriNamasamprahAryamutthAnavantaM smRutimantamaishvaryalambhinaM [53]vyapagatarAgerShyAdveShamohaM yAmyaM vidyAt (4)| shUraM dhIraM shucimashucidveShiNaM yajvAnamambhovihAraratimakliShTakarmANaMsthAnakopaprasAdaM vAruNaM vidyAt (5)| sthAnamAnopabhogaparivArasampannaM dharmArthakAmanityaM shuciM sukhavihAraMvyaktakopaprasAdaM kauberaM vidyAt (6)| priyanRutyagItavAditrollApakashlokAkhyAyiketihAsapurANeShu kushalaMgandhamAlyAnulepanavasanastrIvihArakAmanityamanasUyakaM gAndharvaM vidyAt (7)| ityevaM shuddhasya sattvasya saptavidhaM bhedAMshaM vidyAt kalyANAMshatvAt; tatsaMyogAttubrAhmamatyantashuddhaM vyavasyet||37||

The pure sattvika type of mind is positive and is of seven categories. Their distinguishing features are furnished in the statement given below:

  1. Brahma (giving out the qualities of Brahma): Clean, love for truth, having control over self, power of eliminating bias, capable of learning, perceptive, power of description, reply and memory. Freedom from overenthusiasm, anger, greediness, self-esteem, lack of knowledge, envy, misery and narrow-mindedness and favorable outlook equally for all the individuals. The individuals having such qualities should be known as Brahma in mind.
  2. Arsha (giving out the qualities of rishis): Dedication to holy rituals, study, sacred vows, oblations and celibacy, welcoming nature to the guest. Has freedom from self-importance, self-esteem, affection, detestation, lack of knowledge, greed and annoyance. The person is capable of intellectual excellence and eloquence, power of understanding and retention. The individuals having such qualities should be known as Arsha in mind.
  3. Aindra (giving out the qualities of Indra): Supremacy and trustworthy words, involved in holy rituals, endowed with bravery, strength and splendor, involved in good acts, far sightedness, always engaged in achievement of virtue, wealth, devotion to virtuous acts, earning of wealth and pleasure. The individuals having such qualities should be known as Indra in mind.
  4. Yamya (giving out the qualities of Yama): Observance of the humility of actions, timely instigation of dealings, non- aggressive, accomplished with promptness and memory, attaining supremacy, free from affection, jealousy, detestation and ignorance. The individuals having such qualities should be known as Yama in mind.
  5. Varuna (giving out the qualities of Varuna): Bravery, patience, clean and disliking for uncleanliness, engaged in holy rituals, affection for enjoyment in water, hatred for mean-actions, expression of anger and happiness in proper time and place. The individuals having such qualities should be known as Varuna in mind.
  6. Kaubera (giving out the qualities of Kubera): Capable of position, honor, luxuries and having family members (attendants), constantly involved in virtuous acts, wealth and satisfaction of desires, clean, comfortable movement, obvious annoyance and happiness. The individuals having such qualities should be known as Kaubera in mind.
  7. Gandharva (giving out the qualities of Gandharva): Fond of dancing, singing, music and praise, expert in poetry, stories, historical narrations and epics, constantly use scents, garlands, pastes, clothing, engaged with women and passion. The individuals having such qualities should be known as Gandharva in mind.

As a result, the pure mind has been divided in to seven types because of advantageous character. Brahma is considered as purest due to predominance of pure mind. [37]

Six types of rajas dominant psychic constitution

शूरं चण्डमसूयकमैश्वर्यवन्तमौपधिकं रौद्रमननुक्रोशमात्मपूजकमासुरं विद्यात् (१)| अमर्षिणमनुबन्धकोपं छिद्रप्रहारिणं क्रूरमाहारातिमात्ररुचिमामिषप्रियतमं स्वप्नायासबहुलमीर्ष्युं राक्षसं विद्यात् (२)| महाशनं [५७] स्त्रैणं स्त्रीरहस्काममशुचिं शुचिद्वेषिणं भीरुं भीषयितारं विकृतविहाराहारशीलं पैशाचं विद्यात् (३)| क्रुद्धशूरमक्रुद्धभीरुं तीक्ष्णमायासबहुलं सन्त्रस्तगोचरमाहारविहारपरं [५८] सार्पं विद्यात् (४)| आहारकाममतिदुःखशीलाचारोपचारमसूयकमसंविभागिनमतिलोलुपमकर्मशीलं प्रैतं विद्यात् (५)| अनुषक्तकाममजस्रमाहारविहारपरमनवस्थितममर्षणमसञ्चयं शाकुनं विद्यात् (६)| इत्येवं खलु राजसस्य सत्त्वस्य षङ्विधं भेदांशं विद्यात्, रोषांशत्वात्||३८||

śūraṁ caṇḍamasūyakamaiśvaryavantamaupadhikaṁ raudramananukrōśamātmapūjakamāsuraṁvidyāt (1)| amarṣiṇamanubandhakōpaṁ chidraprahāriṇaṁ krūramāhārātimātrarucimāmiṣapriyatamaṁsvapnāyāsabahulamīrṣyuṁ rākṣasaṁ vidyāt (2)| mahāśanaṁ [57] straiṇaṁ strīrahaskāmamaśuciṁ śucidvēṣiṇaṁ bhīruṁ bhīṣayitāraṁ vikr̥tavihārāhāraśīlaṁpaiśācaṁ vidyāt (3)| kruddhaśūramakruddhabhīruṁ tīkṣṇamāyāsabahulaṁ santrastagōcaramāhāravihāraparaṁ [58] sārpaṁvidyāt (4)| āhārakāmamatiduḥkhaśīlācārōpacāramasūyakamasaṁvibhāginamatilōlupamakarmaśīlaṁ praitaṁ vidyāt(5)| anuṣaktakāmamajasramāhāravihāraparamanavasthitamamarṣaṇamasañcayaṁ śākunaṁ vidyāt (6)| ityēvaṁ khalu rājasasya sattvasya ṣaṅvidhaṁ bhēdāṁśaṁ vidyāt, rōṣāṁśatvāt||38||

shUraM caNDamasUyakamaishvaryavantamaupadhikaM raudramananukroshamAtmapUjakamAsuraMvidyAt (1)| amarShiNamanubandhakopaM chidraprahAriNaM krUramAhArAtimAtrarucimAmiShapriyatamaMsvapnAyAsabahulamIrShyuM rAkShasaM vidyAt (2)| mahAshanaM [57] straiNaM strIrahaskAmamashuciM shucidveShiNaM bhIruM bhIShayitAraMvikRutavihArAhArashIlaM paishAcaM vidyAt (3)| kruddhashUramakruddhabhIruM tIkShNamAyAsabahulaM santrastagocaramAhAravihAraparaM [58] sArpaMvidyAt (4)| AhArakAmamatiduHkhashIlAcAropacAramasUyakamasaMvibhAginamatilolupamakarmashIlaM praitaMvidyAt (5)| anuShaktakAmamajasramAhAravihAraparamanavasthitamamarShaNamasa~jcayaM shAkunaM vidyAt (6)| ityevaM khalu rAjasasya sattvasya Sha~gvidhaM bhedAMshaM vidyAt, roShAMshatvAt||38||

The rajasika type of mind represents wrathful disposition and is of six types:

  1. Asura: Brave, cruel, jealousy, supremacy, fraudulent, violent, lack of kindness, self praising individuals should be designated as asura mind.
  2. Rakshasa: Intolerant with annoyance, attacking at weak points, cruel, fond of overeating, most desirous for meat, indulged more in sleep and hard work and jealous individuals should be designated as rakshasa mind.
  3. Paishacha (sharing the traits of pishacha): Voracious habit, fond of women, desire for staying with women in secluded place, unclean, have an aversion for cleanliness, fearfulness and terrifying disposition, and habitual user of abnormal diet and regimens individuals should be designated as paishacha mind.
  4. Sarpa (sharing the traits of sarpa or snake): Bravery when in furious disposition and cowardice when not in furious disposition, sharp reaction, excessive hard worker, terrorizing, indulged in food and regimens with a fearful temperament.
  5. Praita (sharing the traits of a praita): Extreme craving for food, extremely painful disposition in character, jealousness, actions with prejudice, extreme meanness and inactive individuals should be designated as praita mind.
  6. Shakuna (sharing the traits of a shakuni or bird): Passionate, excessively indulged in food and regimen, unstable, intolerant, and un-acquisitiveness. Such individuals should be designated as shakuna mind.

In this way, six types of rajas sattva are described, all of them having agitation quality in common. [38]

Three types of tamas dominant psychic constitution

निराकरिष्णुममेधसं जुगुप्सिताचाराहरं मैथुनपरं स्वप्नशीलं पाशवं विद्यात् (१)| भीरुमबुधमाहारलुब्धमनवस्थितमनुषक्तकामक्रोधं सरणशीलं तोयकामं मात्स्यं विद्यात् (२)| अलसं केवलमभिनिविष्टमाहारे सर्वबुद्ध्यङ्गहीनं वानस्पत्यं विद्यात् (३)| इत्येवं तामसस्य सत्त्वस्य त्रिविधं भेदांशं विद्यान्मोहांशत्वात्||३९||

nirākariṣṇumamēdhasaṁ jugupsitācārāharaṁ maithunaparaṁ svapnaśīlaṁ pāśavaṁ vidyāt (1)| bhīrumabudhamāhāralubdhamanavasthitamanuṣaktakāmakrōdhaṁ saraṇaśīlaṁ tōyakāmaṁ mātsyaṁvidyāt (2)| alasaṁ kēvalamabhiniviṣṭamāhārē sarvabuddhyaṅgahīnaṁ vānaspatyaṁ vidyāt (3)| ityēvaṁ tāmasasya sattvasya trividhaṁ bhēdāṁśaṁ vidyānmōhāṁśatvāt||39||

nirAkariShNumamedhasaM jugupsitAcArAharaM maithunaparaM svapnashIlaM pAshavaM vidyAt (1)| bhIrumabudhamAhAralubdhamanavasthitamanuShaktakAmakrodhaM saraNashIlaM toyakAmaM mAtsyaMvidyAt (2)| alasaM kevalamabhiniviShTamAhAre sarvabuddhya~ggahInaM vAnaspatyaM vidyAt (3)| ityevaM tAmasasya sattvasya trividhaM bhedAMshaM vidyAnmohAMshatvAt||39||

The tamasika type of mental faculty represents ignorant disposition and is of three types. Their characteristic features are:

  1. Pashava (sharing the traits of animal) Has forbidding disposition, lack of intelligence, terrible conduct and food habit, excessive sexual indulgence and sleep.
  2. Matsya (sharing the traits of fish) personality possess timid, lack of intelligence, greediness for food, unsteadiness, constantly passionate and wrathful disposition, fondness for constant movement and desire for water.
  3. Vanaspataya (sharing the traits of vegetable life) Sluggishness, indulgence in food, and deficiency of all the intellectual faculties. [39]

Innumerable types of mind based on combinations

इत्यपरिसङ्ख्येयभेदानां त्रयाणामपि सत्त्वानां भेदैकदेशो व्याख्यातः; शुद्धस्य सत्त्वस्य सप्तविधोब्रह्मर्षिशक्रयमवरुणकुबेरगन्धर्वसत्त्वानुकारेण, राजसस्य षड्विधो दैत्यपिशाचराक्षससर्पप्रेतशकुनिसत्त्वानुकारेण, तामसस्यत्रिविधः पशुमत्स्यवनस्पतिसत्त्वानुकारेण, कथं च यथासत्त्वमुपचारः स्यादिति||४०||

ityaparisaṅkhyēyabhēdānāṁ trayāṇāmapi sattvānāṁ bhēdaikadēśō vyākhyātaḥ; śuddhasya sattvasyasaptavidhō brahmarṣiśakrayamavaruṇakubēragandharvasattvānukārēṇa, rājasasya ṣaḍvidhōdaityapiśācarākṣasasarpaprētaśakunisattvānukārēṇa, tāmasasya trividhaḥpaśumatsyavanaspatisattvānukārēṇa, kathaṁ ca yathāsattvamupacāraḥ syāditi||40||

ityaparisa~gkhyeyabhedAnAM trayANAmapi sattvAnAM bhedaikadesho vyAkhyAtaH; shuddhasya sattvasyasaptavidho brahmarShishakrayamavaruNakuberagandharvasattvAnukAreNa, rAjasasya ShaDvidhodaityapishAcarAkShasasarpapretashakunisattvAnukAreNa, tAmasasya trividhaHpashumatsyavanaspatisattvAnukAreNa, kathaM ca yathAsattvamupacAraH syAditi||40||

In this way, three types of mind have innumerable varieties. The sattvika type of mental faculty is of seven types depending upon the disposition of Brahma, Rishi, Indra, Yama, Varuna, Kubera and Gandharva. The rajasa type of mind is of six types depending upon the dispositions of asura, rakshasa, paishacha, sarpa, preta and shakuni. The tamasa type of mind faculty is of three types depending upon the dispositions of pashu (animal), matsya (fish) and vanaspati (vegetable life). All these descriptions are made with a view to indicate the general mode of mind treatment that should be provided. [40]

केवलश्चायमुद्देशो यथोद्देशमभिनिर्दिष्टो भवति गर्भावक्रान्तिसम्प्रयुक्तः  ; तस्य चार्थस्य विज्ञाने सामर्थ्यं गर्भकराणां चभावानामनुसमाधिः, विधातश्च विघातकराणां भावानामिति||४१|| kēvalaścāyamuddēśō yathōddēśamabhinirdiṣṭō bhavati garbhāvakrāntisamprayuktaḥ  ; tasya cārthasyavijñānē sāmarthyaṁ garbhakarāṇāṁ ca bhāvānāmanusamādhiḥ, vidhātaśca vighātakarāṇāṁbhāvānāmiti||41||

kevalashcAyamuddesho yathoddeshamabhinirdiShTo bhavati garbhAvakrAntisamprayuktaH  ; tasyacArthasya vij~jAne sAmarthyaM garbhakarANAM ca bhAvAnAmanusamAdhiH, vidhAtashca vighAtakarANAMbhAvAnAmiti||41||

In this way, the entire description of descent into embryo is explained in keeping with the purpose with which the chapter was initiated i.e. to provide knowledge regarding the formation of embryo. By obtaining this knowledge one can help to way out to the factors which are responsible for the proper growth of the fetus and avoiding the factors which come in the way of its proper development. [41]

Summary

तत्र श्लोकाः- निमित्तमात्मा प्रकृतिर्वृद्धिः कुक्षौ क्रमेण च| वृद्धिहेतुश्च गर्भस्य पञ्चार्थाः शुभसञ्ज्ञिताः||४२||

tatra ślōkāḥ- nimittamātmā prakr̥tirvr̥ddhiḥ kukṣau kramēṇa ca| vr̥ddhihētuśca garbhasya pañcārthāḥ śubhasañjñitāḥ||42||

tatra shlokAH- nimittamAtmA prakRutirvRuddhiH kukShau krameNa ca| vRuddhihetushca garbhasya pa~jcArthAH shubhasa~jj~jitAH||42||

Competent cause (nimitta), soul, prakriti, gradual development of the fetus in uterus and the factors responsible for the growth are the five auspicious things for the conception. [42]

अजन्मनि च यो हेतुर्विनाशे विकृतावपि| इमांस्त्रीनशुभान् भावानाहुर्गर्भविघातकान्||४३||

ajanmani ca yō hēturvināśē vikr̥tāvapi| imāṁstrīnaśubhān bhāvānāhurgarbhavighātakān||43||

ajanmani ca yo heturvinAshe vikRutAvapi| imAMstrInashubhAn bhAvAnAhurgarbhavighAtakAn||43||

The factors which are responsible for the prevention of conception, damaging the fetus and teratological abnormalities are three inauspicious factors responsible for garbhavighataka or destructors of fetus. [43]

शुभाशुभसमाख्यातानष्टौ भावानिमान् भिषक्| सर्वथा वेद यः सर्वान् स राज्ञः कर्तुमर्हति||४४||

śubhāśubhasamākhyātānaṣṭau bhāvānimān bhiṣak| sarvathā vēda yaḥ sarvān sa rājñaḥ kartumarhati||44||

shubhAshubhasamAkhyAtAnaShTau bhAvAnimAn bhiShak| sarvathA veda yaH sarvAn sa rAj~jaH kartumarhati||44||

The individual who knows all these eight factors which are auspicious and inauspicious for the fetus is capable to be a physician of king. [44]

अवाप्त्युपायान् गर्भस्य स एवं ज्ञातुमर्हति| ये च गर्भविघातोक्ता भावास्तांश्चाप्युदारधीः||४५||

avāptyupāyān garbhasya sa ēvaṁ jñātumarhati| yē ca garbhavighātōktā bhāvāstāṁścāpyudāradhīḥ||45||

avAptyupAyAn garbhasya sa evaM j~jAtumarhati| ye ca garbhavighAtoktA bhAvAstAMshcApyudAradhIH||45||

The physician having intelligence, kindness should know those factors which help in the formation and growth of the fetus and also those which are responsible for the destruction of the fetus. [45]

इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृते शारीरस्थाने महतीगर्भावक्रान्तिशारीरं नाम चतुर्थोऽध्यायः||४||

ityagnivēśakr̥tē tantrē carakapratisaṁskr̥tē śārīrasthānē mahatīgarbhāvakrāntiśārīraṁ nāma caturthō'dhyāyaḥ||4||

ityagniveshakRute tantre carakapratisaMskRute shArIrasthAne mahatIgarbhAvakrAntishArIraM nAma caturtho~adhyAyaH||4||

Thus, ends the fourth chapter on “The chapter on the major information of the embryo as conducive to the understanding of the body.” of Sharira Sthana in the treatise by Agnivesha and redacted by Charaka. [4]

Tattva Vimarsha

  • The aggregation of factors coming from mother, father, the soul, wholesome regimen, rasa (nutritive fluid) and the mind is important for conception and development of embryo. Any irregularity or deformity in any of these factors will adversely affect the same.
  • The unification of sperm and ovum with the soul in the womb will lead to formation of garbha (embryo). Soul is essential component to make the union of sperm and ovum alive.
  • The mahabhutas are basic constituents of embryo. Chronological development of mahabhutas is owing to a sequence according to their production or creation in nature.
  • In the fetus, the parts originated from akasha mahabhuta are- sound, auditory sensation, lightness, fineness and space; the parts from vayu mahabhuta are – tangibility, sense of touch, roughness, impulsion, structuring of body tissues and maintaining of movements of the body and dosha; the parts belonging to agni mahabhuta are visible form, vision, brightness, digestion and heat; those belonging to apa mahabhuta are taste, sense of taste, coldness, softness, unctuousness and moisture; those belonging to prithvi mahabhuta are odor, sensation of smell, heaviness, steadiness and material form.
  • The individual is an embodiment of the universe. All the material and spiritual phenomena of the universe are present in the individual and vice versa.
  • The development of embryo takes place gradually in nine months and may be extended to ten months. Anything before this period or after this period will lead to complications during the birth.
  • The common factors that are harmful for the fetus include excessive use of heavy to digest, hot and pungent substances, exertion activities.
  • The health status of fetus profoundly depends upon the beeja (sperm and ovum), their beejabhaga (genes) and beejabhagavaya (chromosomes). If anyone of these are abnormal, then it leads to congenital disorders.
  • The soul is devoid of disorders and beholds supreme position. The soul in different living beings is not different (it is same or part of the same consciousness). The difference in its presence/existence is felt only due to diverse features of the body and mind of different living beings.
  • Doshas are definite reasons behind production of disease in body and mind.
  • The mind is of three types – pure sattvika, rajasika and tamasika.
  • The pure sattvika one is free from causing abnormalities as it is gifted with auspiciousness; whereas the rajasika type is impure because it promotes furious temperament. In the same way, the tamasika one is similarly impure because of bewilderment.
  • Each of these three types of mind can be sub-divided into innumerable forms owing to comparative proportions and type of body and origin of the body it resides into.
  • The behavior trait of a person depends upon the dominance of sattva, rajas or tamas in psychic constitution.
  • The body influences the mind and vice versa. Thus each somatic disorder affects psyche and each psychiatric disorder affects soma.
  • Competent cause (nimitta), soul, prakriti, gradual development of the fetus in uterus and the factors responsible for the growth are the five auspicious things for the conception.
  • The factors which are responsible for the prevention of conception, damaging the fetus and teratological abnormalities are three inauspicious factors responsible for garbhavighataka or destructors of fetus.

Vidhi Vimarsha

Following points are important in present context:

  1. The importance of soul in the process of conception in view of in vitro fertilization, test tube baby
  1. Development of embryo in nine months
  1. Beneficial and harmful factors for embryonic development
  1. Genetic and chromosomal relevance of statements on bijabhaga, bijabhagavaya etc.

Glossary

  1. Ritukala – Fertile period after menstruation. The best period in menstrual cycle in which chances of fertilization is maximum.
  2. Garbhakarabhavas – Procreative factors for fetus. Factors responsible for formation and development of the fetus.
  3. Mahati – Big, In detail
  4. Garbhavakranti - Embryogeneis and development of fetus. The physiological process of union of sperm and ovum followed by growth and development of fetus throughout nine months.
  5. Garbhini¬- Pregnant female. After conception the female is termed as Garbhini.
  6. Garbhopghatkarbhava – Factors likely to harm the fetus.
  7. Dauhridam – Desires of pregnant woman. A stage in pregnancy in which desires of baby are expressed through maternal cravings.
  8. Dauhradini / Dauhrida - The term literally means lady with dual hearts one of herself and other of the baby.
  9. Labdhagarbha – A lady who has achieved conception.
  10. Vandhya – Female sterility. Absolute inability to conceive along with presence or absence of secondary sexual characteristics. An congenital condition according to Charaka
  11. Varta - Congenital anomalies of female in which she lacks feminine characteristics.
  12. Upasneha – Attracting moisture. Hygroscopic. A pathway for fetal nourishment.
  13. Upasweda – Body heat. Required for cell multiplication and survival.
  14. Garbhavriddhi – Fetal growth and development
  15. Beeja - Ovum or sperm, Male or female gamete
  16. Beejabhaga – Chromosomes present in gametes
  17. Beejabhagavayava - Genes
  18. Beejadosha - Defective ovum leading to various congenital anomalies in fetus.
  19. Putipraja - Putrified fetus. Can be termed as Intrauterine fetal death
  20. Satvika - One of the three psychological traits.
  21. Rajasika- One of the three psychological traits.
  22. Tamasika - One of the three psychological traits.
  23. Kukshi¬ - Abdomen. Here with reference to the context, kukshi refers to uterus.
  24. Ritumati– The female in the best suitable period of conception i.e. after completion of menstruation till further 12 nights.
  25. Raja – Menstruation, Menstrual blood
  26. Samudaya - Collection, aggregation
  27. Khetbhuta – Which looks like mucus
  28. Klaibya – cowardice
  29. Bhirtuva – timidy, fearfulness
  30. Avaisharadhyam – Lack of confidence, lack of skill
  31. Moha – ignorance, delusion, foolishness
  32. Anavasthana – unstable, fickle minded
  33. Adhogurutvam – heaviness in the lower part of the body
  34. Asahanam – not tolerating
  35. Mardavam – softness
  36. Shaithilyam – Laxity
  37. Dauhrida Vimanana – Refusal of desires, Denial of desires
  38. Stana - Breast
  39. Stanamandala – Areola
  40. Stanaostha / Stanachuchuk – Nipples
  41. OjaOja is a Sanskrit word which literally means "vigor". According to the principles of Ayurveda, it is the essential energy of the body which can be equated with the "fluid of life," but its existence has not been proven in any way.
  42. Prasavakala - Time of labor, Date of Delivery
  43. Bhava Sampad - Excellence of factors
  44. Vritta - Lifestyle
  45. Trinaputrika – Congenital anomalies of male which lacks masculine characteristics.
  46. Prakriti – Nature, constitution
  47. Pathya – Digestible, wholesome, suitable
  48. Apathya – Unsuitable, unwholesome
  49. Asatmya – unwholesome
  50. Bala – Strength, stamina
  51. Avastha – State, condition
  52. Kala – Season, era, time
  53. Muhurmuhu – Again and again, repeatedly
  54. Satmya – Constitution, habituation , wholesomeness
  55. Sattva – Mental attitude
  56. Sahaja – Congenital factor for disease
  57. Vyayama – Exercise
  58. Vyavaya – Sexual intercourse