Maharoga Adhyaya

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Maharoga Adhyaya
Section/Chapter Sutra Sthana Chapter 20
Tetrad/Sub-section Roga Chatushka
Preceding Chapter Ashtodariya Adhyaya
Succeeding Chapter Ashtauninditiya Adhyaya
Other Sections Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana

Sutra Sthana Chapter 20, Chapter on Primary/Single-Dosha (family of) Diseases

Abstract

This chapter focuses on diseases caused due to one vitiated dosha. Considering the fact that there are three distinct one-dosha families of diseases, and various exogenous (agantuja) diseases, there could be as many as eighty variants due to a vitiated vata, forty due to pitta, and twenty due to kapha. Any effective diagnosis or treatment of these diseases would need a detailed study of the doshas, their locations and characteristics, which is what has been provided in this chapter.

Keywords: dosha specific diseases, site of dosha, management principles of dosha.

Introduction

In this chapter, diseases are classified into four types - exogenous, vataja, pittaja and kaphaja. Because single-dosha endogenous disorders can be regarded as primary diseases, they have been treated as separate types here. Exogenous and endogenous diseases, and their places of origin within the body, have already been described earlier in the Sutra Sthana and have been reiterated again here. In the preceding chapters, it was mentioned that exogenous diseases follow endogenous ones, and vice-versa. Single-dosha endogenous diseases play a secondary role in the genesis of exogenous diseases.

As also mentioned earlier, there are innumerable diseases because of many etiopathological factors as well as variations in the involvement of doshas and dhatus. Since vitiated doshas are directly or indirectly responsible for all diseases, it is important to understand their normal, or expected, functions and then the pathological consequences of their vitiated forms. By factoring in these fundamental factors, this chapter deals with providing complete scenarios of afflictions, and their recommended line of treatment. Mind and body are the sites of manifestation of exogenous and endogenous diseases. Psychological disorders are considered to be exogenous in nature. An important point to note here (though this has been addressed in an earlier chapter) is that even if some of the vataja types of diseases are caused by other doshas besides vata, it is the vata which is actually responsible for the transmission of vitiated doshas to a specific organ of the body. Kapha, pitta and the dhatus, left to themselves, are immobile in nature. Wherever, they are carried by the vata, they cause diseases, just as the wind causes rain in a particular area. Phases in the natural history, clinical course of a disease, and successive stages of prevention are described under Kriyakala.

Sanskrit text, Transliteration and English Translation

अथातो महारोगाध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||

इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||

athātō mahārōgādhyāyaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||

iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

athAto mahArogAdhyAyaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||

iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

Now we shall expound this main chapter on the “Enumeration of major diseases”. Thus said Lord Atreya [1-2]

Classification of diseases

चत्वारो रोगा भवन्ति- आगन्तुवातपित्तश्लेष्मनिमित्ताः; तेषां चतुर्णामपि रोगाणां रोगत्वमेकविधं भवति, रुक्सामान्यात्;द्विविधा पुनः प्रकृतिरेषाम्, आगन्तुनिजविभागात्; द्विविधं चैषामधिष्ठानं, मनःशरीरविशेषात्; विकाराःपुनरपरिसङ्ख्येयाः, प्रकृत्यधिष्ठानलिङ्गायतनविकल्पविशेषापरिसङ्ख्येयत्वात् ||३||

catvārō rōgā bhavanti- āgantuvātapittaślēṣmanimittāḥ; tēṣāṁ caturṇāmapi rōgāṇāṁ rōgatvamēkavidhaṁbhavati, ruksāmānyāt; dvividhā punaḥ prakr̥tirēṣām, āgantunijavibhāgāt; dvividhaṁ caiṣāmadhiṣṭhānaṁ,manaḥśarīraviśēṣāt; vikārāḥ punaraparisaṅkhyēyāḥ,prakr̥tyadhiṣṭhānaliṅgāyatanavikalpaviśēṣāparisaṅkhyēyatvāt ||3||

catvAro rogA bhavanti- AgantuvAtapittashleShmanimittAH; teShAM caturNAmapi rogANAMrogatvamekavidhaM bhavati, ruksAmAnyAt; dvividhA punaH prakRutireShAm, AgantunijavibhAgAt;dvividhaM caiShAmadhiShThAnaM, manaHsharIravisheShAt; vikArAH punaraparisa~gkhyeyAH,prakRutyadhiShThAnali~ggAyatanavikalpavisheShAparisa~gkhyeyatvAt ||3||

There are four types of diseases viz. agantuja (exogenous), vataja, pittaja and shleshmaja/kapha. All varieties of diseases may be grouped under one classification because pain is common to all. They are again of two types depending on their nature- exogenous and endogenous. They are again of two types - somatic and psychic-depending on the sites of their manifestation i.e. body and mind. Diseases are in fact innumerable (dhatus affected, signs and symptoms), distant causes (like improper diet and regimen), and permutation and combination of various fractions of doshas are innumerable. [3]

Etiological factors of diseases

मुखानि तु खल्वागन्तोर्नखदशनपतनाभिचाराभिशापाभिषङ्गाभिघातव्यध-बन्धनवेष्टनपीडनरज्जुदहनशस्त्राशनिभूतोपसर्गादीनि, निजस्य तु मुखं वातपित्तश्लेष्मणां वैषम्यम्||४||

mukhāni tu khalvāgantōrnakhadaśanapatanābhicārābhiśāpābhiṣaṅgābhighātavyadha-bandhanavēṣṭanapīḍanarajjudahanaśastrāśanibhūtōpasargādīni, nijasya tu mukhaṁ vātapittaślēṣmaṇāṁvaiṣamyam||4||

mukhAni tu khalvAgantornakhadashanapatanAbhicArAbhishApAbhiSha~ggAbhighAtavyadha-bandhanaveShTanapIDanarajjudahanashastrAshanibhUtopasargAdIni, nijasya tu mukhaMvAtapittashleShmaNAM vaiShamyam||4||

While exogenous diseases are caused by nails, teeth bites (of wild animals), fall, malevolent spells, curse, psychic afflictions including assault, piercing, bondage, raping, application of pressure, binding by rope, fire, weapon, thunderbolt, demoniac seizure, and natural calamities. Endogenous diseases are caused by the disturbance in the equilibrium of vata, pitta and kapha dosha.[4]

Three major causes of diseases

द्वयोस्तु खल्वागन्तुनिजयोः प्रेरणमसात्म्येन्द्रियार्थसंयोगः, प्रज्ञापराधः, परिणामश्चेति||५||

dvayōstu khalvāgantunijayōḥ prēraṇamasātmyēndriyārthasaṁyōgaḥ, prajñāparādhaḥ, pariṇāmaścēti||5||

dvayostu khalvAgantunijayoH preraNamasAtmyendriyArthasaMyogaH, praj~jAparAdhaH,pariNAmashceti||5||

Unwholesome contact between sense organs and their objects, intellectual defects and effects of time constitute the common causative factors for both the exogenous and endogenous types of diseases.[5]

सर्वेऽपि तु खल्वेतेऽभिप्रवृद्धाश्चत्वारो रोगाः परस्परमनुबध्नन्ति, न चान्योन्येन सह सन्देहमापद्यन्ते ||६||

sarvē'pi tu khalvētē'bhipravr̥ddhāścatvārō rōgāḥ parasparamanubadhnanti, na cānyōnyēna sahasandēhamāpadyantē ||6||

sarve~api tu khalvete~abhipravRuddhAshcatvAro rogAH parasparamanubadhnanti, na cAnyonyena sahasandehamApadyante ||6||

All these four types of diseases when aggravated get transform into each other to share common symptoms. Even then, the distinctive features of each one of these diseases are too clearly manifested to allow any confusion. [6]

Difference between endogenous and exogenous diseases

आगन्तुर्हि व्यथापूर्वं समुत्पन्नो जघन्यं वातपित्तश्लेष्मणां वैषम्यमापादयति; निजे तु वातपित्तश्लेष्माणः पूर्वं वैषम्यमापद्यन्तेजघन्यं व्यथामभिनिर्वर्तयन्ति||७||

āganturhi vyathāpūrvaṁ samutpannō jaghanyaṁ vātapittaślēṣmaṇāṁ vaiṣamyamāpādayati; nijē tuvātapittaślēṣmāṇaḥ pūrvaṁ vaiṣamyamāpadyantē jaghanyaṁ vyathāmabhinirvartayanti||7||

Aganturhi vyathApUrvaM samutpanno jaghanyaM vAtapittashleShmaNAM vaiShamyamApAdayati; nije tuvAtapittashleShmANaH pUrvaM vaiShamyamApadyante jaghanyaM vyathAmabhinirvartayanti||7||

Exogenous diseases begin with pain and then bring about disturbances in the equilibrium of doshas. Endogenous diseases, on the other hand, begin with disturbances in the equilibrium of doshas and then cause pain. [7]

Sites of three doshas

तेषां त्रयाणामपि दोषाणां शरीरे स्थानविभाग उपदेक्ष्यते; तद्यथा- बस्तिः पुरीषाधानं कटिः सक्थिनी पादावस्थीनिपक्वाशयश्च वातस्थानानि, तत्रापि पक्वाशयो विशेषेण वातस्थानं; स्वेदो रसो लसीका रुधिरमामाशयश्च पित्तस्थानानि,तत्राप्यामाशयो विशेषेण पित्तस्थानम्; उरः शिरो ग्रीवा पर्वाण्यामाशयो मेदश्च श्लेष्मस्थानानि, तत्राप्युरो विशेषेणश्लेष्मस्थानम्||८||

tēṣāṁ trayāṇāmapi dōṣāṇāṁ śarīrē sthānavibhāga upadēkṣyatē; tadyathā- bastiḥ purīṣādhānaṁ kaṭiḥsakthinī pādāvasthīni pakvāśayaśca vātasthānāni, tatrāpi pakvāśayō viśēṣēṇa vātasthānaṁ; svēdō rasōlasīkā rudhiramāmāśayaśca pittasthānāni, tatrāpyāmāśayō viśēṣēṇa pittasthānam; uraḥ śirō grīvāparvāṇyāmāśayō mēdaśca ślēṣmasthānāni, tatrāpyurō viśēṣēṇa ślēṣmasthānam||8||

teShAM trayANAmapi doShANAM sharIre sthAnavibhAga upadekShyate; tadyathA- bastiHpurIShAdhAnaM kaTiH sakthinI pAdAvasthIni pakvAshayashca vAtasthAnAni, tatrApi pakvAshayovisheSheNa vAtasthAnaM; svedo raso lasIkA rudhiramAmAshayashca pittasthAnAni, tatrApyAmAshayovisheSheNa pittasthAnam; uraH shiro grIvA parvANyAmAshayo medashca shleShmasthAnAni, tatrApyurovisheSheNa shleShmasthAnam||8||

The important sites of origin of these three doshas are as follows:

Urinary bladder, rectum, waist, thighs, legs, bones and colon are the sites of vata, with colon the most important of them. Sweat, rasa, lasika, rakta and small intestine are the sites of pitta, with small intestine the most important of them. Chest, head, neck, joint stomach and fat are the sites of shleshma or kapha, with chest the most important of them. [8]

Specific diseases caused by dosha

सर्वशरीरचरास्तु वातपित्तश्लेष्माणः सर्वस्मिञ्छरीरे कुपिताकुपिताः शुभाशुभानि कुर्वन्ति- प्रकृतिभूताःशुभान्युपचयबलवर्णप्रसादादीनि, अशुभानि पुनर्विकृतिमापन्ना विकारसञ्ज्ञकानि||९||

तत्र विकाराः सामान्यजा, नानात्मजाश्च| तत्र सामान्यजाः पूर्वमष्टोदरीये व्याख्याताः, नानात्मजांस्त्विहाध्यायेऽनुव्याख्यास्यामः| तद्यथा- अशीतिर्वातविकाराः, चत्वारिंशत् पित्तविकाराः, विंशतिः श्लेष्मविकाराः||१०||

sarvaśarīracarāstu vātapittaślēṣmāṇaḥ sarvasmiñcharīrē kupitākupitāḥ śubhāśubhāni kurvanti-prakr̥tibhūtāḥ śubhānyupacayabalavarṇaprasādādīni, aśubhāni punarvikr̥timāpannā vikārasañjñakāni||9||

tatra vikārāḥ sāmānyajā, nānātmajāśca| tatra sāmānyajāḥ pūrvamaṣṭōdarīyē vyākhyātāḥ, nānātmajāṁstvihādhyāyē'nuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ| tadyathā- aśītirvātavikārāḥ, catvāriṁśat pittavikārāḥ, viṁśatiḥ ślēṣmavikārāḥ||10||

sarvasharIracarAstu vAtapittashleShmANaH sarvasmi~jcharIre kupitAkupitAH shubhAshubhAni kurvanti-prakRutibhUtAH shubhAnyupacayabalavarNaprasAdAdIni, ashubhAni punarvikRutimApannAvikArasa~jj~jakAni||9||

tatra vikArAH sAmAnyajA, nAnAtmajAshca| tatra sAmAnyajAH pUrvamaShTodarIye vyAkhyAtAH, nAnAtmajAMstvihAdhyAye~anuvyAkhyAsyAmaH| tadyathA- ashItirvAtavikArAH, catvAriMshat pittavikArAH, viMshatiH shleShmavikArAH||10||

The entire body is the abode of all the three doshas , the normal or abnormal states of which are responsible for good or bad outcomes respectively. Examples of good outcomes include growth, strength, complexion, happiness, etc, while the bad outcomes, manifested due to abnormal states of doshas, cause various types of diseases.

Endogenous diseases again are of two types - diseases caused due to vitiation of two or more doshas, and diseases that are caused by single-dosha. The previous chapter dealt with general diseases. This chapter focuses on the latter. There are 140 types of single-dosha diseases, including 80 types caused by vata, 40 by pitta, and 20 by kapha.[10]

Eighty disorders caused due to vata dosha

तत्रादौ वातविकाराननुव्याख्यास्यामः| तद्यथा- नखभेदश्च, विपादिका च, पादशूलं च, पादभ्रंशश्च, पादसुप्तता च, वातखुड्डता च, गुल्फग्रहश्च, पिण्डिकोद्वेष्टनं च,गृध्रसी च, जानुभेदश्च, जानुविश्लेषश्च, ऊरुस्तम्भश्च, ऊरुसादश्च, पाङ्गुल्यं च, गुदभ्रंशश्च, गुदार्तिश्च, वृषणाक्षेपश्च ,शेफस्तम्भश्च, वङ्क्षणानाहश्च, श्रोणिभेदश्च, विड्भेदश्च, उदावर्तश्च, खञ्जत्वं च, कुब्जत्वं च, वामनत्वं च, त्रिकग्रहश्च,पृष्ठग्रहश्च, पार्श्वावमर्दश्च, उदरावेष्टश्च, हृन्मोहश्च , हृद्द्रवश्च, वक्षौद्घर्षश्च , वक्षौपरोधश्च, वक्षस्तोदश्च, बाहुशोषश्च,ग्रीवास्तम्भश्च, मन्यास्तम्भश्च, कण्ठोद्ध्वंसश्च, हनुभेदश्च , ओष्ठभेदश्च, अक्षिभेदश्च , दन्तभेदश्च, दन्तशैथिल्यं च,मूकत्वं च , वाक्सङ्गश्च, कषायास्यता च, मुखशोषश्च, अरसज्ञता च, घ्राणनाशश्च, कर्णशूलं च, अशब्दश्रवणं च,उच्चैःश्रुतिश्च , बाधिर्यं च, वर्त्मस्तम्भश्च, वर्त्मसङ्कोचश्च, तिमिरं च, अक्षिशूलं च, अक्षिव्युदासश्च, भ्रूव्युदासश्च,शङ्खभेदश्च, ललाटभेदश्च, शिरोरुक् च, केशभूमिस्फुटनं च, अर्दितं च, एकाङ्गरोगश्च, सर्वाङ्गरोगश्च, पक्षवधश्च ,आक्षेपकश्च, दण्डकश्च, तमश्च , भ्रमश्च, वेपथुश्च, जृम्भा च, हिक्का च, विषादश्च, अतिप्रलापश्च, रौक्ष्यं च, पारुष्यं च,श्यावारुणावभासता च, अस्वप्नश्च, अनवस्थितचित्तत्वं च; इत्यशीतिर्वातविकारावातविकाराणामपरिसङ्ख्येयानामाविष्कृततमा व्याख्याताः||११||

tatrādau vātavikārānanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ| tadyathā- nakhabhēdaśca, vipādikā ca, pādaśūlaṁ ca, pādabhraṁśaśca, pādasuptatā ca, vātakhuḍḍatāca, gulphagrahaśca, piṇḍikōdvēṣṭanaṁ ca, gr̥dhrasī ca, jānubhēdaśca, jānuviślēṣaśca, ūrustambhaśca,ūrusādaśca, pāṅgulyaṁ ca, gudabhraṁśaśca, gudārtiśca, vr̥ṣaṇākṣēpaśca , śēphastambhaśca,vaṅkṣaṇānāhaśca, śrōṇibhēdaśca, viḍbhēdaśca, udāvartaśca, khañjatvaṁ ca, kubjatvaṁ ca,vāmanatvaṁ ca, trikagrahaśca, pr̥ṣṭhagrahaśca, pārśvāvamardaśca, udarāvēṣṭaśca, hr̥nmōhaśca ,hr̥ddravaśca, vakṣaudgharṣaśca , vakṣauparōdhaśca, vakṣastōdaśca, bāhuśōṣaśca, grīvāstambhaśca,manyāstambhaśca, kaṇṭhōddhvaṁsaśca, hanubhēdaśca , ōṣṭhabhēdaśca, akṣibhēdaśca ,dantabhēdaśca, dantaśaithilyaṁ ca, mūkatvaṁ ca , vāksaṅgaśca, kaṣāyāsyatā ca, mukhaśōṣaśca,arasajñatā ca, ghrāṇanāśaśca, karṇaśūlaṁ ca, aśabdaśravaṇaṁ ca, uccaiḥśrutiśca , bādhiryaṁ ca,vartmastambhaśca, vartmasaṅkōcaśca, timiraṁ ca, akṣiśūlaṁ ca, akṣivyudāsaśca, bhrūvyudāsaśca,śaṅkhabhēdaśca, lalāṭabhēdaśca, śirōruk ca, kēśabhūmisphuṭanaṁ ca, arditaṁ ca, ēkāṅgarōgaśca,sarvāṅgarōgaśca, pakṣavadhaśca, ākṣēpakaśca, daṇḍakaśca, tamaśca, bhramaśca, vēpathuśca,jr̥mbhā ca, hikkā ca, viṣādaśca, atipralāpaśca, raukṣyaṁ ca, pāruṣyaṁ ca, śyāvāruṇāvabhāsatā ca,asvapnaśca, anavasthitacittatvaṁ ca; ityaśītirvātavikārā vātavikārāṇāmaparisaṅkhyēyānāmāviṣkr̥tatamāvyākhyātāḥ||11||

tatrAdau vAtavikArAnanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH| tadyathA- nakhabhedashca, vipAdikA ca, pAdashUlaM ca, pAdabhraMshashca, pAdasuptatA ca,vAtakhuDDatA ca, gulphagrahashca, piNDikodveShTanaM ca, gRudhrasI ca, jAnubhedashca,jAnuvishleShashca, Urustambhashca, UrusAdashca, pA~ggulyaM ca, gudabhraMshashca, gudArtishca,vRuShaNAkShepashca, shephastambhashca, va~gkShaNAnAhashca, shroNibhedashca, viDbhedashca,udAvartashca, kha~jjatvaM ca, kubjatvaMca, vAmanatvaM ca, trikagrahashca, pRuShThagrahashca,pArshvAvamardashca, udarAveShTashca, hRunmohashca, hRuddravashca, vakShaudgharShashca ,vakShauparodhashca, vakShastodashca, bAhushoShashca, grIvAstambhashca, manyAstambhashca,kaNThoddhvaMsashca, hanubhedashca, oShThabhedashca, akShibhedashca , dantabhedashca,dantashaithilyaM ca, mUkatvaM ca, vAksa~ggashca, kaShAyAsyatA ca, mukhashoShashca, arasaj~jatAca, ghrANanAshashca, karNashUlaM ca, ashabdashravaNaM ca, uccaiHshrutishca, bAdhiryaM ca,vartmastambhashca, vartmasa~gkocashca, timiraM ca, akShishUlaM ca, akShivyudAsashca,bhrUvyudAsashca, sha~gkhabhedashca, lalATabhedashca, shiroruk ca, keshabhUmisphuTanaM ca,arditaM ca, ekA~ggarogashca, sarvA~ggarogashca, pakShavadhashca, AkShepakashca,daNDakashca, tamashca , bhramashca, vepathushca, jRumbhA ca, hikkA ca, viShAdashca,atipralApashca, raukShyaM ca, pAruShyaM ca, shyAvAruNAvabhAsatA ca, asvapnashca,anavasthitacittatvaM ca; ityashItirvAtavikArA vAtavikArANAmaparisa~gkhyeyAnAmAviShkRutatamAvyAkhyAtAH||11||

While there could be innumerabe types of vataja nanatmaja vikaras (also known as vataja nanatmaja vyadhis, the 80 known or prevalent types are as follows:

  1. Nakhabheda (Cracking of nails)
  2. Vipadika (Cracking of soles)
  3. Padashula (Pain in foot)
  4. Pada bhramsha (Foot drop)
  5. Pada suptata (Numbness in feet)
  6. vata khuddata (Pain in ankle region)
  7. Gulphagraha (Stiffness in ankle region)
  8. Pindikodvestana (Cramps in calf muscles)
  9. Gridhrasi (Sciatica)
  10. Janubheda (Tearing pain in knee)
  11. Janu Vishlesha (Dislocation in knee joint)
  12. Urustambha (Stiffness in thigh)
  13. Urusada (Loss of movement in thigh)
  14. Pangulya (Paraplegia)
  15. Guda bhrama (Rectum prolapse)
  16. Gudarti (Pain in anus)
  17. Vrushana Kshepa (Pain in scroatum)
  18. Shephastambha (stiffness in penis)
  19. Vankshananaha (sprain in groin)
  20. Shronibheda (Pain in pelvis girdle)
  21. Vid bheda (Diarrhoea)
  22. Udavarta (reverse direction of vata)
  23. Khanjatva (Limping)
  24. Kubjatva (Kyphosis)
  25. Vamanatva (Dwarfism)
  26. Trikgraha (Stiffness in sacral region)
  27. Prusthagraha (Stiffness in back)
  28. Parshvavamarda (Compression in sides)
  29. Udaravesta (Twisting pain in abdomen)
  30. Hrinmoha (Cardiac dysfunction)
  31. Hriddrava (Tachycardia)
  32. Vaksa uddharsa (Rubbing pain in chest)
  33. Vaksha uparodha (Constriction in chest)
  34. Vakshastoda (Pain in chest)
  35. Bahu shosha (Wasting of arm)
  36. Grivastambha (Stiffness in neck)
  37. Manyastambha (Torticollis)
  38. Kantoddhvamsa (Hoarseness of voice)
  39. Hanubheda (Pain in jaw)
  40. Oshthabheda (Pain in lips)
  41. Aksibheda (Pain in eyes)
  42. Dantabheda (Pain in teeth)
  43. Danta Shaithilya (Loose teeth)
  44. Mookatva (Aphasia)
  45. Vaksanga (Stammering speech)
  46. Kasayasyata (Astringent taste in mouth)
  47. Mukhashosa (Dryness in mouth)
  48. Arasajnata (Loss of taste sensation)
  49. Gharanasha (Loss of smell sensation)
  50. Karnashoola (Ear ache)
  51. Ashabdashravana (Tinnitus)
  52. Ucchaishruti (Hard of hearing))
  53. Badhirya (Deafness)
  54. Vartmastambha (Stiffness in eyelids)
  55. Vartma sankoca (Entropion)
  56. Timira (Loss of vision)
  57. Akshishula (Pain in eyes)
  58. Akshivyudasa (Squint eye)
  59. Bhruvyudasa (Twisting in eye brows)
  60. Sankhabheda (Pain in temporal region)
  61. Lalata bheda (Pain in frontal region)
  62. Shiroruk (Headache)
  63. Keshabhoomisphutana (Cracking of scalp)
  64. Ardita (Facial paralysis)
  65. Ekanga roga (Monoplegia)
  66. Sarvanga roga (Quadriplegia)
  67. Pakshavadha (Hemiplegia)
  68. Akshepaka (Clonic convulsions)
  69. Dandaka (Tonic convulsions)
  70. Tama (Feeling of darkness in front of eye)
  71. Bhrama (Giddiness)
  72. Vepathu (Tremor)
  73. Jrumbha (Yawning)
  74. Hikka (Hiccup)
  75. Vishada (Asthenia)
  76. Atipralapa (Excessive delirium)
  77. Raukshya (Roughness)
  78. Parushya (Coarseness)
  79. Syavarunavabhasata (Black reddish appearance)
  80. Asvapna (Insomnia)
  81. Anavasthita cittatva (Unstable mind)

Causative properties of vata disorders

सर्वेष्वपि खल्वेतेषु वातविकारेषूक्तेष्वन्येषु चानुक्तेषु वायोरिदमात्मरूपमपरिणामि कर्मणश्च स्वलक्षणं, यदुपलभ्य तदवयवंवा विमुक्तसन्देहा वातविकारमेवाध्यवस्यन्ति कुशलाः; तद्यथा- रौक्ष्यं शैत्यं लाघवं वैशद्यं गतिरमूर्तत्वमनवस्थितत्वं चेतिवायोरात्मरूपाणि; एवंविधत्वाच्च वायोः कर्मणः स्वलक्षणमिदमस्य भवति तं तं शरीरावयवमाविशतः ; तद्यथा-स्रंसभ्रंसव्याससङ्गभेदसादहर्षतर्षकम्पवर्तचालतोदव्यथाचेष्टादीनि , तथाखरपरुषविशदसुषिरारुणवर्णकषायविरसमुखत्वशोषशूलसुप्तिसङ्कोचनस्तम्भनखञ्जतादीनि च वायोः कर्माणि; तैरन्वितंवातविकारमेवाध्यवस्येत्||१२||

sarvēṣvapi khalvētēṣu vātavikārēṣūktēṣvanyēṣu cānuktēṣu vāyōridamātmarūpamapariṇāmi karmaṇaścasvalakṣaṇaṁ, yadupalabhya tadavayavaṁ vā vimuktasandēhā vātavikāramēvādhyavasyanti kuśalāḥ;tadyathā- raukṣyaṁ śaityaṁ lāghavaṁ vaiśadyaṁ gatiramūrtatvamanavasthitatvaṁ cēti vāyōrātmarūpāṇi;ēvaṁvidhatvācca vāyōḥ karmaṇaḥ svalakṣaṇamidamasya bhavati taṁ taṁ śarīrāvayavamāviśataḥ ;tadyathā- sraṁsabhraṁsavyāsasaṅgabhēdasādaharṣatarṣakampavartacālatōdavyathācēṣṭādīni , tathākharaparuṣaviśadasuṣirāruṇavarṇakaṣāyavirasamukhatvaśōṣaśūlasuptisaṅkōcanastambhanakhañjatādīnica vāyōḥ karmāṇi; tairanvitaṁ vātavikāramēvādhyavasyēt||12||

sarveShvapi khalveteShu vAtavikAreShUkteShvanyeShu cAnukteShu vAyoridamAtmarUpamapariNAmi karmaNashcasvalakShaNaM, yadupalabhya tadavayavaM vA vimuktasandehA vAtavikAramevAdhyavasyanti kushalAH; tadyathA-raukShyaM shaityaM lAghavaM vaishadyaM gatiramUrtatvamanavasthitatvaM ceti vAyorAtmarUpANi; evaMvidhatvAcca vAyoH karmaNaH svalakShaNamidamasya bhavati taM taM sharIrAvayavamAvishataH  ; tadyathA-sraMsabhraMsavyAsasa~ggabhedasAdaharShatarShakampavartacAlatodavyathAceShTAdIni, tathAkharaparuShavishadasuShirAruNavarNakaShAyavirasamukhatvashoShashUlasuptisa~gkocanastambhanakha~jjatAdInica vAyoH karmANi; tairanvitaM vAtavikAramevAdhyavasyet||12||

In all the vataja variety of diseases enumerated, even when the inherent properties of vata are manifested partially, these are diagnosed and treated as the disorders of vata. For example, while roughness, coolness, lightness, non-sliminess, motion, shapelessness and instability are known to be the typical characteristics associated with vata, there are various other manifestations of the dosha depending upon the organ it afflicts:

  1. Stramsa – Looseness
  2. Bhramsha – Dislocation
  3. Vyasa – Expansion/division
  4. Sanga – Obstruction
  5. Bheda – Separation
  6. Sada – Depression/general malaise
  7. Harsha – Excitation
  8. Tarsha – Thirst
  9. Kampa – Tremors
  10. Varta – Circumvention
  11. Chala – Motion
  12. Toda – Piercing pain
  13. Vyatha – Aching pain
  14. Cheshta – Actions
  15. Khara – Coarseness
  16. Parusha – Roughness
  17. Vishada – Non-sliminess
  18. Sushira – Porousness
  19. Aruna Varna – Reddishness/red colour
  20. Kashaya – Astringent taste
  21. Virasa mukhatva – Tastelessness in mouth
  22. Shosha – Wasting
  23. Shoola – Colic type of pain
  24. Supti – Numbness
  25. Sankocha – Contraction
  26. Stambha – Stiffness

Khanja – Lameness etc. [11]

Management principles of vata disorders

तं मधुराम्ललवणस्निग्धोष्णैरुपक्रमैरुपक्रमेत,स्नेहस्वेदास्थापनानुवासननस्तःकर्मभोजनाभ्यङ्गोत्सादनपरिषेकादिभिर्वातहरैर्मात्रां कालं च प्रमाणीकृत्य;तत्रास्थापनानुवासनं तु खलु सर्वत्रोपक्रमेभ्यो वाते प्रधानतमं मन्यन्ते भिषजः, तद्ध्यादित एव पक्वाशयमनुप्रविश्य केवलंवैकारिकं वातमूलं छिनत्ति; तत्रावजितेऽपि वाते शरीरान्तर्गता वातविकाराः प्रशान्तिमापद्यन्ते, यथा वनस्पतेर्मूले छिन्नेस्कन्धशाखाप्ररोहकुसुमफलपलाशादीनां नियतो विनाशस्तद्वत्||१३||

taṁ madhurāmlalavaṇasnigdhōṣṇairupakramairupakramēta, snēhasvēdāsthāpanānuvāsananastaḥkarmabhōjanābhyaṅgōtsādanapariṣēkādibhirvātaharairmātrāṁkālaṁ ca pramāṇīkr̥tya; tatrāsthāpanānuvāsanaṁ tu khalu sarvatrōpakramēbhyō vātē pradhānatamaṁmanyantē bhiṣajaḥ, taddhyādita ēva pakvāśayamanupraviśya kēvalaṁ vaikārikaṁ vātamūlaṁ chinatti;tatrāvajitē'pi vātē śarīrāntargatā vātavikārāḥ praśāntimāpadyantē, yathā vanaspatērmūlē chinnēskandhaśākhāprarōhakusumaphalapalāśādīnāṁ niyatō vināśastadvat||13||

taM madhurAmlalavaNasnigdhoShNairupakramairupakrameta, snehasvedAsthApanAnuvAsananastaHkarmabhojanAbhya~ggotsAdanapariShekAdibhirvAtaharairmAtrAMkAlaM ca pramANIkRutya; tatrAsthApanAnuvAsanaM tu khalu sarvatropakramebhyo vAte pradhAnatamaMmanyante bhiShajaH, taddhyAdita eva pakvAshayamanupravishya kevalaM vaikArikaM vAtamUlaMchinatti; tatrAvajite~api vAte sharIrAntargatA vAtavikArAH prashAntimApadyante, yathA vanaspatermUlechinne skandhashAkhAprarohakusumaphalapalAshAdInAM niyato vinAshastadvat||13||

The vitiated vata should be managed by drugs with a sweet, sour or saline taste, and various unctuous and hot therapeutics procedures such as oleation, fomentation, inhalation, diet, massage, unction, effusion, non-unctuous and unctuous enema, etc. The administered drugs or procedures should have anti-vataja properties and must be administered in appropriate dose and time. Amongst all the above mentioned procedures non-unctuous and unctuous enema are regarded as the most effective forms of treatment for the management of vataja vyadhi because enema enters the colon quickly and strikes at the very root of the vitiated vata. Thus, when vata is overcome in the colon, the disorders of vata in other parts of the body are automatically alleviated like the tree when cut at the root results in the automatic destruction of the trunk, branches, sprouts, flowers, fruits, leaves etc.[13]

Disorders of pitta dosha

पित्तविकारांश्चत्वारिंशतमत ऊर्ध्वमनुव्याख्यास्यामः- ओषश्च, प्लोषश्च, दाहश्च, दवथुश्च, धूमकश्च, अम्लकश्च, विदाहश्च,अन्तर्दाहश्च, अंसदाहश्च , ऊष्माधिक्यं च, अतिस्वेदश्च (अङ्गस्वेदश्च), अङ्गगन्धश्च, अङ्गावदरणं च,शोणितक्लेदश्च, मांसक्लेदश्च, त्वग्दाहश्च, (मांसदाहश्च ), त्वगवदरणं च, चर्मदलनं च, रक्तकोठश्च, रक्तविस्फोटश्च,रक्तपित्तं च, रक्तमण्डलानि च, हरितत्वं च, हारिद्रत्वं च, नीलिका च, कक्षा(क्ष्या)च, कामला च, तिक्तास्यता च,लोहितगन्धास्यता च, पूतिमुखता च, तृष्णाधिक्यं च, अतृप्तिश्च, आस्यविपाकश्च, गलपाकश्च, अक्षिपाकश्च, गुदपाकश्च,मेढ्रपाकश्च, जीवादानं च , तमःप्रवेशश्च, हरितहारिद्रनेत्रमूत्रवर्चस्त्वं च; इति चत्वारिंशत्पित्तविकाराःपित्तविकाराणामपरिसङ्ख्येयानामाविष्कृततमा व्याख्याताः||१४||

pittavikārāṁścatvāriṁśatamata ūrdhvamanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ- ōṣaśca, plōṣaśca, dāhaśca, davathuśca,dhūmakaśca, amlakaśca, vidāhaśca, antardāhaśca, aṁsadāhaśca , ūṣmādhikyaṁ ca, atisvēdaśca(aṅgasvēdaśca), aṅgagandhaśca, aṅgāvadaraṇaṁ ca, śōṇitaklēdaśca, māṁsaklēdaśca, tvagdāhaśca,(māṁsadāhaśca ), tvagavadaraṇaṁ ca, carmadalanaṁ ca, raktakōṭhaśca, raktavisphōṭaśca,raktapittaṁ ca, raktamaṇḍalāni ca, haritatvaṁ ca, hāridratvaṁ ca, nīlikā ca, kakṣā(kṣyā)ca, kāmalā ca,tiktāsyatā ca, lōhitagandhāsyatā ca, pūtimukhatā ca, tr̥ṣṇādhikyaṁ ca, atr̥ptiśca, āsyavipākaśca,galapākaśca, akṣipākaśca, gudapākaśca, mēḍhrapākaśca, jīvādānaṁ ca , tamaḥpravēśaśca,haritahāridranētramūtravarcastvaṁ ca; iti catvāriṁśatpittavikārāḥpittavikārāṇāmaparisaṅkhyēyānāmāviṣkr̥tatamā vyākhyātāḥ||14||

pittavikArAMshcatvAriMshatamata UrdhvamanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH- oShashca, ploShashca, dAhashca,davathushca, dhUmakashca, amlakashca, vidAhashca, antardAhashca, aMsadAhashca , UShmAdhikyaMca, atisvedashca (a~ggasvedashca), a~ggagandhashca, a~ggAvadaraNaM ca, shoNitakledashca,mAMsakledashca, tvagdAhashca, (mAMsadAhashca ), tvagavadaraNaM ca, carmadalanaM ca,raktakoThashca, raktavisphoTashca, raktapittaM ca, raktamaNDalAni ca, haritatvaM ca, hAridratvaM ca,nIlikA ca, kakShA(kShyA)ca, kAmalA ca, tiktAsyatA ca, lohitagandhAsyatA ca, pUtimukhatA ca,tRuShNAdhikyaM ca, atRuptishca, AsyavipAkashca, galapAkashca, akShipAkashca, gudapAkashca,meDhrapAkashca, jIvAdAnaM ca , tamaHpraveshashca, haritahAridranetramUtravarcastvaM ca; iticatvAriMshatpittavikArAH pittavikArANAmaparisa~gkhyeyAnAmAviShkRutatamA vyAkhyAtAH||14||

Quite like the vata family of diseases, there are innumerable pittaja nanatmaja vyadhis, but the 40 most prevalent ones are:

  1. Osha (Heating)
  2. Plosha (Scorching)
  3. Daha (Burning)
  4. Davathu (Intense heat)
  5. Dhoomaka (Fuming)
  6. Amlaka (Hyperacidity)
  7. Vidaha (Burning sensation in Mahasrotas)
  8. Antardaha (Internal burning)
  9. Amsadaha (Burning sensation in arm)
  10. Ushmadhikya (Hyperthermia)
  11. Atisveda (Excessive sweating)
  12. Angagandha (Foul smell from body)
  13. Angavadarana (Tearing of body parts)
  14. Shonita kleda (Retention of metabolites in blood)
  15. Mamsa kleda (Retention of metabolites in muscles)
  16. Tvagdaha (Burning sensation in skin)
  17. Tvagavadarana (Cracking of skin)
  18. Charmadalana (Thickness of skin)
  19. Rakta kotha (Urticarial patches)
  20. Rakta visphota (Pustules)
  21. Raktapitta (Bleeding disorders)
  22. Raktamandala (Haemorrhagic rounded patches/ echymosis)
  23. Haritatva (Greenishness)
  24. Haridratva (Yellowishness)
  25. Neelika (Blue moles)
  26. Kaksha (Furunculosis)
  27. Kamala (Jaundice)
  28. Tiktasyata (Bitter taste in mouth)
  29. Lohita gandhasyata (Blood-like smell (lohita) from the oral cavity)
  30. Pootimookhata (Foetid smell from oral cavity, or halitosis)
  31. Trishnadhikya (Polydypsia)
  32. Atripti (Loss of contentment)
  33. Asyavipaka (Stomatitis)
  34. Galapaka (Inflammation in throat)
  35. Akshipaka (Inflammation in eyes)
  36. Gudapaka (Inflammation in anus)
  37. Medhrapaka (Inflammation in penis)
  38. Jivadana (Discharge of pure blood)
  39. Tamapravesha (Darkness in front of the eye)
  40. Harita Haridra Netra Mootra Varcastva (Green-yellow discolouration of eyes, urine, stool)

Causative properties of pitta disorders

सर्वेष्वपि खल्वेतेषु पित्तविकारेषूक्तेष्वन्येषु चानुक्तेषु पित्तस्येदमात्मरूपमपरिणामि कर्मणश्च स्वलक्षणं, यदुपलभ्य तदवयवंवा विमुक्तसन्देहाः पित्तविकारमेवाध्यवस्यन्ति कुशलाः; तद्यथा- औष्ण्यं तैक्ष्ण्यं द्रवत्वमनतिस्नेहो वर्णश्च शुक्लारुणवर्जोगन्धश्च विस्रो रसौ च कटुकाम्लौ सरत्वं च पित्तस्यात्मरूपाणि; एवंविधत्वाच्च पित्तस्य कर्मणः स्वलक्षणमिदमस्य भवति तंतं शरीरावयवमाविशतः; तद्यथा- दाहौष्ण्यपाकस्वेदक्लेदकोथकण्डूस्रावरागा यथास्वं च गन्धवर्णरसाभिनिर्वर्तनं पित्तस्यकर्माणि; तैरन्वितं पित्तविकारमेवाध्यवस्येत्||१५||

sarvēṣvapi khalvētēṣu pittavikārēṣūktēṣvanyēṣu cānuktēṣu pittasyēdamātmarūpamapariṇāmi karmaṇaścasvalakṣaṇaṁ, yadupalabhya tadavayavaṁ vā vimuktasandēhāḥ pittavikāramēvādhyavasyanti kuśalāḥ;tadyathā- auṣṇyaṁ taikṣṇyaṁ dravatvamanatisnēhō varṇaśca śuklāruṇavarjō gandhaśca visrō rasau cakaṭukāmlau saratvaṁ ca pittasyātmarūpāṇi; ēvaṁvidhatvācca pittasya karmaṇaḥ svalakṣaṇamidamasyabhavati taṁ taṁ śarīrāvayavamāviśataḥ; tadyathā- dāhauṣṇyapākasvēdaklēdakōthakaṇḍūsrāvarāgāyathāsvaṁ ca gandhavarṇarasābhinirvartanaṁ pittasya karmāṇi; tairanvitaṁpittavikāramēvādhyavasyēt||15||

sarveShvapi khalveteShu pittavikAreShUkteShvanyeShu cAnukteShu pittasyedamAtmarUpamapariNAmikarmaNashca svalakShaNaM, yadupalabhya tadavayavaM vA vimuktasandehAHpittavikAramevAdhyavasyanti kushalAH; tadyathA- auShNyaM taikShNyaM dravatvamanatisnehovarNashca shuklAruNavarjo gandhashca visro rasau ca kaTukAmlau saratvaM ca pittasyAtmarUpANi;evaMvidhatvAcca pittasya karmaNaH svalakShaNamidamasya bhavati taM taMsharIrAvayavamAvishataH; tadyathA- dAhauShNyapAkasvedakledakothakaNDUsrAvarAgA yathAsvaM cagandhavarNarasAbhinirvartanaM pittasya karmANi; tairanvitaM pittavikAramevAdhyavasyet||15||

In all the pittaja variety of diseases enumerated, even a partial manifestation of the vitiated pitta would still warrant them to be diagnosed and treated as a disorder of the pitta. For example, heat, sharpness, liquidity, slight unctuousness, all colours except white and red, fishy smell, pungent and sour taste and fluidity are the specific characters of pitta, but the manifestations of pitta could be different depending upon the organs they afflict:

  1. Daha-Burning sensation
  2. Aushnya–Heat
  3. Paka–Suppuration/Inflammation
  4. Sweda–Perspiration
  5. Kleda–Moisture
  6. Kotha–Sloughing
  7. Kandu–Itching
  8. Srava–Discharge
  9. Raga–Redness
  10. Gandha (Visra ama gandha) - Foul smell
  11. Rasa (katu, amla and tikta rasa) – Taste namely pungent, sour and bitter.
  12. Varna (harita, haridra, peeta, neela, tamra) – Colours namely greenish, deep yellowish, yellowish, blue, coppery. [15]

Management principles of pitta disorders

तं मधुरतिक्तकषायशीतैरुपक्रमैरुपक्रमेत स्नेहविरेकप्रदेहपरिषेकाभ्यङ्गादिभिः पित्तहरैर्मात्रां कालं च प्रमाणीकृत्य; विरेचनं तुसर्वोपक्रमेभ्यः पित्ते प्रधानतमं मन्यन्ते भिषजः; तद्ध्यादित एवामाशयमनुप्रविश्य केवलं वैकारिकं पित्तमूलमपकर्षति,तत्रावजिते पित्तेऽपि शरीरान्तर्गताः पित्तविकाराः प्रशान्तिमापद्यन्ते, यथाऽग्नौ व्यपोढे केवलमग्निगृहं शीतीभवति तद्वत्||१६||

taṁ madhuratiktakaṣāyaśītairupakramairupakramēta snēhavirēkapradēhapariṣēkābhyaṅgādibhiḥpittaharairmātrāṁ kālaṁ ca pramāṇīkr̥tya; virēcanaṁ tu sarvōpakramēbhyaḥ pittē pradhānatamaṁmanyantē bhiṣajaḥ; taddhyādita ēvāmāśayamanupraviśya kēvalaṁ vaikārikaṁ pittamūlamapakarṣati,tatrāvajitē pittē'pi śarīrāntargatāḥ pittavikārāḥ praśāntimāpadyantē, yathā'gnau vyapōḍhēkēvalamagnigr̥haṁ śītībhavati tadvat||16||

taM madhuratiktakaShAyashItairupakramairupakrameta snehavirekapradehapariShekAbhya~ggAdibhiHpittaharairmAtrAM kAlaM ca pramANIkRutya; virecanaM tu sarvopakramebhyaH pitte pradhAnatamaMmanyante bhiShajaH; taddhyAdita evAmAshayamanupravishya kevalaM vaikArikaMpittamUlamapakarShati, tatrAvajite pitte~api sharIrAntargatAH pittavikArAH prashAntimApadyante,yathA~agnau vyapoDhe kevalamagnigRuhaM shItIbhavati tadvat||16||

Abnormal pitta disorders should be managed by drugs having sweet, bitter, astringent, and cooling qualities. Any therapeutic modalities administered, such as oleation, purgation, fasting, affusion, massage, etc. should have anti-pittaja properties and must be administered in appropriate dose and time. Of all the above mentioned procedures, purgation is regarded as the most effective mode of treatment for the management of pittaja vyadhi. When pitta is overcome in the amashaya through administration of purgative substances, the disorders of pitta in other parts of the body are automatically pacified just like a fire chamber cools down when the fire is doused. [16]

Disorders of kapha dosha

श्लेष्मविकारांश्च विंशतिमत ऊर्ध्वं व्याख्यास्यामः; तद्यथा- तृप्तिश्च, तन्द्रा च, निद्राधिक्यं च, स्तैमित्यं च, गुरुगात्रता च,आलस्यं च, मुखमाधुर्यं च, मुखस्रावश्च, श्लेष्मोद्गिरणं च, मलस्याधिक्यं च, बलासकश्च , अपक्तिश्च, हृदयोपलेपश्च,कण्ठोपलेपश्च, धमनीप्रति(वि)चयश्च, गलगण्डश्च, अतिस्थौल्यं च, शीताग्निता च, उदर्दश्च, श्वेतावभासता च,श्वेतमूत्रनेत्रवर्चस्त्वं च; इति विंशतिः श्लेष्मविकाराः श्लेष्मविकाराणामपरिसङ्ख्येयानामाविष्कृततमा व्याख्याता भवन्ति||१७||

ślēṣmavikārāṁśca viṁśatimata ūrdhvaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ; tadyathā- tr̥ptiśca, tandrā ca, nidrādhikyaṁ ca,staimityaṁ ca, gurugātratā ca, ālasyaṁ ca, mukhamādhuryaṁ ca, mukhasrāvaśca, ślēṣmōdgiraṇaṁ ca,malasyādhikyaṁ ca, balāsakaśca , apaktiśca, hr̥dayōpalēpaśca, kaṇṭhōpalēpaśca,dhamanīprati(vi)cayaśca, galagaṇḍaśca, atisthaulyaṁ ca, śītāgnitā ca, udardaśca, śvētāvabhāsatā ca,śvētamūtranētravarcastvaṁ ca; iti viṁśatiḥ ślēṣmavikārāḥślēṣmavikārāṇāmaparisaṅkhyēyānāmāviṣkr̥tatamā vyākhyātā bhavanti||17||

shleShmavikArAMshca viMshatimata UrdhvaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH; tadyathA- tRuptishca, tandrA ca,nidrAdhikyaM ca, staimityaM ca, gurugAtratA ca, AlasyaM ca, mukhamAdhuryaM ca, mukhasrAvashca,shleShmodgiraNaM ca, malasyAdhikyaM ca, balAsakashca, apaktishca, hRudayopalepashca,kaNThopalepashca, dhamanIprati(vi)cayashca, galagaNDashca, atisthaulyaM ca, shItAgnitA ca,udardashca, shvetAvabhAsatA ca, shvetamUtranetravarcastvaM ca; iti viMshatiH shleShmavikArAHshleShmavikArANAmaparisa~gkhyeyAnAmAviShkRutatamA vyAkhyAtA bhavanti||17||

The 20 prevalent kapha disorders or Shleshma nanatmaja vyadhi are:

  1. Trupti (Contentment)
  2. Tandra (Drowsiness)
  3. Nidradikya (Excess sleep)
  4. Staimitya (Excess cold sensation)
  5. Gurugatrata (Heaviness in body)
  6. Alasya (Lassitude)
  7. Mukha madhurya (Sweet taste in mouth)
  8. Mukha strava (Salivation)
  9. Shlesmodgirana (Expectoration of mucous)
  10. Maladhikya (Excess accumulation of waste products)
  11. Balasaka (Loss of strength)
  12. Apakti (Indigestion)
  13. Hridayopalepa (Adherence of waste surrounding heart)
  14. Kanthopalepa (Adherence of waste surrounding throat)
  15. Dhamanipratichaya (Adherence of waste in blood vessels/ atherosclerosis)
  16. Galaganda (Goiter)
  17. Atisthaulya (Morbid obesity)
  18. Shitagnita (decreased agni)
  19. Udarda (Urticarial rashes)
  20. Shvetavabhashata (Pale look)
  21. Shveta Mootranetravarcastva (White discolouration of urine, eyes, stool) [17]

Causative properties of kapha disorders

सर्वेष्वपि खल्वेतेषु श्लेष्मविकारेषूक्तेष्वन्येषु चानुक्तेषु श्लेष्मण इदमात्मरूपमपरिणामि कर्मणश्च स्वलक्षणं यदुपलभ्यतदवयवं वा विमुक्तसन्देहाः श्लेष्मविकारमेवाध्यवस्यन्ति कुशलाः; तद्यथा-स्नेहशैत्यशौक्ल्यगौरवमाधुर्यस्थैर्यपैच्छिल्यमार्त्स्न्यानि श्लेष्मण आत्मरूपाणि; एवंविधत्वाच्च श्लेष्मणः कर्मणःस्वलक्षणमिदमस्य भवति तं तं शरीरावयवमाविशतः; तद्यथा-श्वैत्यशैत्यकण्डूस्थैर्यगौरवस्नेहसुप्तिक्लेदोपदेहबन्धमाधुर्यचिरकारित्वानि श्लेष्मणः कर्माणि; तैरन्वितंश्लेष्मविकारमेवाध्यवस्येत्||१८||

sarvēṣvapi khalvētēṣu ślēṣmavikārēṣūktēṣvanyēṣu cānuktēṣu ślēṣmaṇa idamātmarūpamapariṇāmikarmaṇaśca svalakṣaṇaṁ yadupalabhya tadavayavaṁ vā vimuktasandēhāḥślēṣmavikāramēvādhyavasyanti kuśalāḥ; tadyathā-snēhaśaityaśauklyagauravamādhuryasthairyapaicchilyamārtsnyāni ślēṣmaṇa ātmarūpāṇi;ēvaṁvidhatvācca ślēṣmaṇaḥ karmaṇaḥ svalakṣaṇamidamasya bhavati taṁ taṁ śarīrāvayavamāviśataḥ;tadyathā- śvaityaśaityakaṇḍūsthairyagauravasnēhasuptiklēdōpadēhabandhamādhuryacirakāritvāniślēṣmaṇaḥ karmāṇi; tairanvitaṁ ślēṣmavikāramēvādhyavasyēt||18||

sarveShvapi khalveteShu shleShmavikAreShUkteShvanyeShu cAnukteShu shleShmaNaidamAtmarUpamapariNAmi karmaNashca svalakShaNaM yadupalabhya tadavayavaM vAvimuktasandehAH shleShmavikAramevAdhyavasyanti kushalAH; tadyathA-snehashaityashauklyagauravamAdhuryasthairyapaicchilyamArtsnyAni shleShmaNa AtmarUpANi;evaMvidhatvAcca shleShmaNaH karmaNaH svalakShaNamidamasya bhavati taM taMsharIrAvayavamAvishataH; tadyathA-shvaityashaityakaNDUsthairyagauravasnehasuptikledopadehabandhamAdhuryacirakAritvAnishleShmaNaH karmANi; tairanvitaM shleShmavikAramevAdhyavasyet||18||

In all, like in the case of vata and pitta disorders, all the kaphaja variety of diseases mentioned above would be diagnosed and treated as disorders of kapha even when exhibiting partial manifestations of the dosha. For example, unctuousness, coldness, whiteness, heaviness, sweetness, steadiness, sliminess and viscosity are the specific characters of kapha. Kapha, having such characteristic properties, produces the following actions in the organs it afflicts:

  1. Shvaitya – Whiteness
  2. Shaitya – Coldness
  3. Kandu – Itching
  4. Sthairya – Stability
  5. Gaurava – Heaviness
  6. Sneha – Unctuousness
  7. Supti – Numbness
  8. Kleda – Moistening/stickiness
  9. Upadeha – Coating over body parts
  10. Bandha – Binding
  11. Madhurya – Sweetness
  12. Chirakaritva – Chronic nature of disease

All the above are the actions of kapha dosha and the same may be diagnosed as kaphaja variety of diseases. [18]

Management of kapha disorders

तं कटुकतिक्तकषायतीक्ष्णोष्णरूक्षैरुपक्रमैरुपक्रमेत स्वेदवमनशिरोविरेचनव्यायामादिभिः श्लेष्महरैर्मात्रां कालं चप्रमाणीकृत्य; वमनं तु सर्वोपक्रमेभ्यः श्लेष्मणि प्रधानतमं मन्यन्ते भिषजः, तद्ध्यादित एवामाशयमनुप्रविश्योरोगतं केवलंवैकारिकं श्लेष्ममूलमूर्ध्वमुत्क्षिपति, तत्रावजिते श्लेष्मण्यपि शरीरान्तर्गताः श्लेष्मविकाराः प्रशान्तिमापद्यन्ते, यथा भिन्नेकेदारसेतौ शालियवषष्टिकादीन्यनभिष्यन्द्यमानान्यम्भसा प्रशोषमापद्यन्ते तद्वदिति|१९||

taṁ kaṭukatiktakaṣāyatīkṣṇōṣṇarūkṣairupakramairupakramēta svēdavamanaśirōvirēcanavyāyāmādibhiḥślēṣmaharairmātrāṁ kālaṁ ca pramāṇīkr̥tya; vamanaṁ tu sarvōpakramēbhyaḥ ślēṣmaṇi pradhānatamaṁmanyantē bhiṣajaḥ, taddhyādita ēvāmāśayamanupraviśyōrōgataṁ kēvalaṁ vaikārikaṁślēṣmamūlamūrdhvamutkṣipati, tatrāvajitē ślēṣmaṇyapi śarīrāntargatāḥ ślēṣmavikārāḥpraśāntimāpadyantē, yathā bhinnē kēdārasētau śāliyavaṣaṣṭikādīnyanabhiṣyandyamānānyambhasāpraśōṣamāpadyantē tadvaditi||19||

taM kaTukatiktakaShAyatIkShNoShNarUkShairupakramairupakrametasvedavamanashirovirecanavyAyAmAdibhiH shleShmaharairmAtrAM kAlaM ca pramANIkRutya; vamanaM tusarvopakramebhyaH shleShmaNi pradhAnatamaM manyante bhiShajaH, taddhyAditaevAmAshayamanupravishyorogataM kevalaM vaikArikaM shleShmamUlamUrdhvamutkShipati, tatrAvajiteshleShmaNyapi sharIrAntargatAH shleShmavikArAH prashAntimApadyante, yathA bhinne kedArasetaushAliyavaShaShTikAdInyanabhiShyandyamAnAnyambhasA prashoShamApadyante tadvaditi||19||

Abnormal kapha should be managed using drugs having pungent, bitter, astringent, sharp, hot and dry qualities, and by means of other therapeutic modalities such as fomentation, emesis, evacuation of doshas from head, exercise etc. that have anti-kaphaja properties and these must be administered in appropriate dose and time. Amongst all the above mentioned procedures emesis is regarded the most effective form of treatment for the management of kaphaja diseases because immediately after entering the stomach, it strikes at the very root cause of the vitiation of kapha. Thus, when kapha is overcome in the stomach, any kapha-related affliction in any other part of the body gets pacified automatically quite like the drying up of crops of rice in the absence of moisture when the obstructing ridge of the field is broken.[19]

Importance of diagnosis before planning treatment

भवन्ति चात्र- रोगमादौ परीक्षेत ततोऽनन्तरमौषधम्| ततः कर्म भिषक् पश्चाज्ज्ञानपूर्वं समाचरेत्||२०||

यस्तु रोगमविज्ञाय कर्माण्यारभते भिषक्| अप्यौषधविधानज्ञस्तस्य सिद्धिर्यदृच्छया||२१||

यस्तु रोगविशेषज्ञः सर्वभैषज्यकोविदः| देशकालप्रमाणज्ञस्तस्य सिद्धिरसंशयम्||२२||

bhavanti cātra- rōgamādau parīkṣēta tatō'nantaramauṣadham| tataḥ karma bhiṣak paścājjñānapūrvaṁ samācarēt||20||

yastu rōgamavijñāya karmāṇyārabhatē bhiṣak| apyauṣadhavidhānajñastasya siddhiryadr̥cchayā||21||

yastu rōgaviśēṣajñaḥ sarvabhaiṣajyakōvidaḥ| dēśakālapramāṇajñastasya siddhirasaṁśayam||22||

bhavanti cAtra- rogamAdau parIkSheta tato~anantaramauShadham| tataH karma bhiShak pashcAjj~jAnapUrvaM samAcaret||20||

yastu rogamavij~jAya karmANyArabhate bhiShak| apyauShadhavidhAnaj~jastasya siddhiryadRucchayA||21||

yastu rogavisheShaj~jaH sarvabhaiShajyakovidaH| deshakAlapramANaj~jastasya siddhirasaMshayam||22||

A physician should first diagnose the disease and then select the proper medicine. Thereafter, he should administer the therapy applying the knowledge of the science of medicine (he had already gained). A physician who initiates treatment without proper diagnosis of the disease can accomplish the desired object only by chance (that is to say he cannot be sure of his success). The fact that he is well-acquainted with the knowledge of application of medicine does not necessarily guarantee his success. On the other hand, the physician who is well-versed in diagnosing disease, who is proficient in the administration of medicines and who knows about modalities to be used in a therapy (that varies from place to place and season to season) is sure to accomplish the desired outcome without any doubt.[20-22]

Summary

तत्र श्लोकाः- सङ्ग्रहः प्रकृतिर्देशो विकारमुखमीरणम् | असन्देहोऽनुबन्धश्च रोगाणां सम्प्रकाशितः||२३||

दोषस्थानानि रोगाणां गणा नानात्मजाश्च ये| रूपं पृथक् च दोषाणां कर्म चापरिणामि यत्||२४||

पृथक्त्वेन च दोषाणां निर्दिष्टाः समुपक्रमाः| सम्यङ्महति रोगाणामध्याये तत्त्वदर्शिना||२५||

tatra ślōkāḥ- saṅgrahaḥ prakr̥tirdēśō vikāramukhamīraṇam | asandēhō'nubandhaśca rōgāṇāṁ samprakāśitaḥ||23||

dōṣasthānāni rōgāṇāṁ gaṇā nānātmajāśca yē| rūpaṁ pr̥thak ca dōṣāṇāṁ karma cāpariṇāmi yat||24||

pr̥thaktvēna ca dōṣāṇāṁ nirdiṣṭāḥ samupakramāḥ| samyaṅmahati rōgāṇāmadhyāyē tattvadarśinā||25||

tatra shlokAH- sa~ggrahaH prakRutirdesho vikAramukhamIraNam | asandeho~anubandhashca rogANAM samprakAshitaH||23||

DoshasthAnAni rogANAM gaNA nAnAtmajAshca ye| rUpaM pRuthak ca doShANAM karma cApariNAmi yat||24||

pRuthaktvena ca doShANAM nirdiShTAH samupakramAH| samya~gmahati rogANAmadhyAye tattvadarshinA||25||

In this chapter on major diseases, the enlightened sage has fully dealt with the following: classification of diseases, their nature, sites of manifestation, primary and secondary causative factors, interchangeability and specific identity of disease, sites of doshas, enumeration of specific diseases due to doshas, invariable signs and non changeable actions of dosha and specific treatment of each dosha. [23-25]

Tattva Vimarsha

  1. Mind and body are the sites of manifestation of diseases and get afflicted with exogenous and endogenous diseases.
  2. Mental diseases (as diseases related to passion, worries etc. psychological factors) are exogenous diseases.
  3. By permutation and combination, the three doshas and seven dhatus may form innumerable varieties of diseases, but only those diseases which most commonly manifest have been described in the texts.
  4. Endogenous diseases of the general type (samanyaja) are caused by the combination of two or more doshas.
  5. Endogenous diseases of the specific type (Nanatmaja=Na+Anatmaja=Atmaja) are on the other hand, caused by only one of the doshas
  6. Even if some of the vataja types of diseases are caused by other doshas besides vata, it is the vata which is actually responsible for the transmission of the vitiated doshas to a specific organ of the body as it has been said ‘kapha, pitta and dhatus, left to themselves are immobile in nature. Wherever, they are carried by the vata, they cause disease just as the wind causes rain in a particular area.
  7. Phases in the natural history and clinical course of a disease to successive stages of prevention are described under kriyakala.
  8. Each dosha has its specific site of action. Various disorders are caused due to involvement of one or more qualities of dosha.

Vidhi Vimarsha

Following table compares disorders enlisted in various texts.
S.N. Charak[1] Chakrapani[1] A.S [2] SH[3] SudantaSen[4] Vatavyadhi(Charak)[5] Vata vyadhi(BhavaPrakasha)[6]
Nakhabheda (Cracking of nails) - + - -
Vipadika (Cracking of soles) Panipada sphutnam (Cracking of palm and soles) + - -
Padashula (Pain in foot + - - Pada daha
Pada bhransa (Foot drop) Padasyaropavishayadesha anyatra patanam + - - Pada harsha
Pada suptata (Numbness in feet) Nishkriyatva and sparshagyatva + Prasupti Gatra suptata (S/S)
Vata khudhata (Pain in ankle region) Chaluka (Pain in joints of foot and lower limb) + -
Gulphagraha (Stiffness in ankle region) + -
Pindikodvesthana (cramps in calf muscle) + -
Gradhrasi (Sciatica) Gradhrasi shulam + - + (disease) +
Janubheda (Tearing pain in knee + -
Januvishlesha (Dislocation in knee joint) + -
Urustambha (Stiffness in thigh) Urustambhanmatra vatajanya + +
Urusada (Loss of movement in thigh) + -
Pangulya (Paraplegia) + + + (as S/S) +
Guda bhransha (Prolapsed of rectum) + - Bhransa
Guda arti (Pain in anus) + -
Vrashanakshepa (Pain in scrotum) + -
Sephastambha (Stiffness in penis) + -
Vankshananaha (Sprain in groin) + -
Shronibheda (Pain in pelvic region) + -
Vid bheda (Diarrhoea) + -
Udavarta (Misperistalsis) + Udgara
Khanjatva (Limping) + + + (as S/S) +
Vamantva (Dwarfism) + + +
Trikgraha (Stiffness in sacral region) + Kati graha Trik shula
Pristhagraha (Stiffness in back) + - + (S/S)
Parshvamarda (Compression in sides) + Parshva shulam Parshva shulam
Udaravestha (Twisting pain in abdomen) + -
Hrinmoha (Cardiac disfunction) + -
Hrid drava (Tachycardia) + -
Vaksha udharsha (Rubbing pain in chest) + -
Vaksha uprodha (Constriction in chest) + -
Vaksha toda (Pain in chest) + -
Bahusosha (Wasting of arm) + - +
Grivastambha (Stiffness in neck) + -
Manya stambha (Torticollis ) + + Stambha + +
Kanthoddhavansha (Hoarseness of voice) + - Kanthadvamsa
Hanubheda (Pain in jaw) Hanu stambha Hanu stambha Hanugraha
Osthabheda (Pain in lips) +
Akshibheda (Tearing pain in eyes) No -
Dantabheda (Pain in teeth) + -
Danta saithilya (Loose teeth) + -
Mukatva (Aphasia) + + +
Vaksanga (Stemmering speech) + Minminitvam /Gadagada Minminitvam and Gadagada
Kasayasyata (Astringent taste in mouth) + Kasaya vaktrata Rasa-Kasaya
Mukhasosha(Dryness in mouth) + -
Arasangyata (Loss of taste sensation) RasaAgyatva Rasagyata Rasagyana
Grahananasha (Loss of smell sensation) + Gandhagyatva
Karnashula(Earache ) Shulamatram + -
Asabdashravana (Tinnitus) Shabdabhave api shabda shravan + - Karnanada Karnanada
Ucchashruti (Hardness in hearing) Tarswera matra shravan, alpa shabdasya tu sarvda ashravanam + -
Badhriya (Deafness ) Shabdamatrayesva ashravanam + Shabdagyata +
Vartmastambha (Stiffness in eyelids) + -
Vartma sankocha (Entropion) + -
Timira (Loss of vision) Vatajamev, doshantrasambandha tatra anubandha + Dreka kshaya
Akshisula (Pain in eyes) Shulamatram + -
Akshivyudasha (Squint eye) + -
Bhruvyudasa (Twisting in eye brows) + -
Sankhabheda (Pain in temporal region) + -
Lalatabheda (Pain in temporal region) + -
Shiroruk (Pain in head) Jvaradishu ushnatvasheetatvadinam + - +
Sarvanga roga (Paraplegia) + - + (Disease) Sarvanga vata
Pakshavadha (Hemiplegia) + Pakshaghata + (Disease) Pakshaghata
Akeshepak (Clonic convulsion) + + Akshepa + (Disease)
Dandaka (Tonic convulsion) + Dandakaptanaka + (Disease) Dandakashepa
Tama (Feeling of darkness infront of eyes) - -
Bhrama (Giddiness) Vatika smartimoharupa + - + Paribhrama
Vepathu (Tremor) + Kampa Kampa Kampa
Jrambha (Yawing) + + + + +
Hikka (Hicough) - -
Vishada (Asthenia) + - + and Avsada
Atipralapa (Excessive delirium) + + + and Avsada
Atipralapa (Excessive delirium) + + +(as S/S) Pralapa
Rukshaya (Roughness) + + + +
Parushaya (Coarsness) + -
Shayavarunabhasata (Blackreddish appearance) +( talu bheda, shrama, glani) Shayavavta + Karshanaya
Asvapna (Insomia) + Nidranasha Mashayanam + (as S/S) Nidranasha
Anavasthita + + Chala
cittatva (Unstable mind) chittata

Sharangdhara – Bahirayama (vata vyadhi in Charaka) , Antrayama(vata vyadhi in Charaka), Jivhastambha, Krostukashirsha, Khalli, Kalayakhanja, Tuni, Pratituni, Padaharsha, Vishvachi, Apabahuka, Aptano, Vranayamo, Vatakantaka, Aptantraka, Angabheda, Angasosha, Pratiyasthila, Asthila, Angapida, Angavibhransho, Vidahraha, Baddhavitakta, Antrakujanam, Vatapravritti, Sphurana, Shiranam purnam, Karshya, Kshipramutrata, Swedanasho, Durbalatavam, Balakshaya, Atipravritti shukrasya, Karsya shukrasya, Nasho retasa, Kathinya, Virasasyata, Adhamanam, Pratyadhmanam, Sheetata, Romharsha, Bhirutvam, Toda, Kandu are different from Charaka. Sudanta Sen- Romaharsha, Sransha, Shramaka, Glapana, Tadanam, Pidanam, Nama, Unnama, Paripatana, Vikshopa, Sosha, Grahanam, Sushirata,Chedanam, Vesthanam, Adhamana, Vimathana, Kshoba, Pratoda, Vilapanam, Shula, Vishma parinati, Dristhi pramoha, Vispanda, Uddhathana (Opening up as a lid), Mahati svapa (excessive sleep), Vislesha, obstruction, and Trit. vata Vyadhi in Charaka- Antrayam, Bahirayama or Dhanustambha, Hanustambha, Khalli. vata Vyadhi (Bhava Prakasha)- Shirograha, Alpakrashata, Jivhastambha, Vachalta, Sparsha-agyatva, Apbahuka, Visvachi, Urdhavavata, Adhamana, Pratyadhmana, Tuni, Pratituni, Adhamana, Pratyadhmana, vata asthila, Pratya- asthila, Vahanivaishayama, Atopa, Muhumutratam, Mutranigraha, Malagarhata, Purishaprivritti, Kalaya khanja, Kroshtuka sirsha, Vatakantaka, Khalli, Vatapitta krita akshepa, Apatanaka, Dandapatanaka, Aptantraka, Abhighatakshepa, Dhanustambha, Antrayam, Bahirayama, Stambha, Vyatha, Toda, Bheda, Sphurana, Karshaya, Shaitaya, Lomaharsha, Angamarda, Angavibhransha, Shirasankocha, Angasosha, Bheerutva, Moha, Swedanasha, Bala hani, Shukraksheya, Rajonasha, and Garbhanasha are different from Charaka. Susruta (vata Vyadhi)[7]- Kroshtuka sirsha, Vatakantaka, Pada daha, Apbahuka, Adhamana, Kalaya khanja, Manyastambha, Akshepaka, Apatanaka, Dandapatanaka, Aptantraka, Visvachi, Pada harsha, Hanugraha, Dhanustambha, Antrayam, Bhirayama, Pakshaghata, Ardita, Gradhrasi, Khanja-pangu, Badhirya, Karnashula, Mukminmin, Gadgad (Symptoms of jihvagata vata), Tuni, Pratuni, Adhamana, Pratyadhmana, vata asthila, Vatarakta. A.H[8]. – Akshepaka, Apatanaka, Aptantraka, Visvachi , Antrayam, Bhirayama , Ardita, Siragraha, Pakshavadha, Sarvangaroga, Dandaka, Apbahuka, Jihvastambha, Khanja-Pangu, Vranayama, Hanusransha, Kalaya khanja, Urustambha, Kroshtuka sirsha, Vatakantaka, Gradhrasi, Khalli, Pada daha, Pada harsha.

pitta disorders:
S.N. Charak[1] Chakrapani[1] A.S[2] Sh[3] Pittaja Vyadhi (Bhava Prakash )[9] SudantaSen[4]
1 Osha (Heating) Parshve sthithaneva vahina pida (Pain like burn with fire in underarm) + - -
2 Plosha (Scorching) Kinchi dahanmiv (less feeling of burning) + - -
3 Daha (Burning) Sarvanga dahanmiv (feeling of burning in whole body) Davo - Daho Dahanam
4 Davathu (Intense heat) Davathu (Intense heat) + - -
5 Dhumaka (Fuming) Dhumod vamanamiva(vomiting of fumes) + Dhumodgara Dhumodgara +
6 Amlaka (Hyperacidity) + Amlavaktra Vadana amalta +
7 Vidaha (Burning in mahasrotasa) + + -
8 Vidaha (Burning in mahasrotasa) + - -
9 Anshadaha (buning sensation in arm) + - -
10 Ushmadhikiya (increase body temp.) + Ushna angatavam Ushma
11 Atisveda (Excessive sweating) + Swedasrava Sveda
12 Angagandha (Foul smell in body ) + Dourgandhaya Daurgandham
13 Anga avadarana (Tearing of body parts) Avayava sadan + Daranam
14 Sonata kleda (Increased moisture in blood) + - -
15 Mansa kleda(Increased moisture in muscles) + - -
16 Tvagadaha (Burning sensation in skin) + - -
17 Tvaga avdarana (Cracking of skin) Bahya tvega matra avdarana + - -
18 Charmadalana (Thickness in skin) Sahasanam api tvacha daranam + - -
19 Rakta kotha (Urticarial patches) + - -
20 Rakta visphota (Postules) + - Visphotaka
21 Rakta pitta (Bleeding disorders) Doshantra samprektam rakta pittampaittikam gayem. + Raktasrava -
22 Raktamandala (Haemorrhagic rounded patches) + Pita mandala -
23 Haritva (Greenishness) + Harita varna -
24 Haridratva (Yellowishness) + Pita gatrata -
25 Nilika (Blue moles) + - -
26 Kaksha (Herpes infections) Kaksha desha gata mansavdarana + - -
27 Kamala (Jaundice) + - -
28 Tiktasyata (Bitter taste in mouth) + + Mukhasya tiktata Rasa katu, amla,and tikta rasa
29 Lohita gandhasyata (blood smell from oral cavity) + + Mukha gandhe lohavat -
30 Putimukhata (Foetid smell from oral cavity) + - -
31 Trishnadhikya (Increased thirst) Trishna matram + Kanthsosha Sosha Trit
32 Atrapti (Loss of contentment) + + + +
33 Asyapaka (Stomatitis) + - -
34 Galapaka (Inflammation of throat) + - -
35 Gudapaka (Inflammation of anus) Puyapaka - -
36 Akshipaka (Inflammation of eyes) + - -
37 Medhrapaka (Inflammation of penis) + - -
38 Jivadanam (Discharge of pure blood + - -
39 Tamapravesha (Darkness infront eyes) + Tamso darshan Tamso darshanam, Pitadarshan +
40 Harita haridra netra mutra varcha (Green-yellow discolouration of eyes, urine and stool) + Pita netrata, pita vitakta,pita mutrata,pita nakha, pita danta Pita netrata, pita vitakta,pita mutrata,pita nakha, pita danta Varna –pandu vivarjita

Sharangdhara- Matibhrama, Kantihani, Mukhasosh, Alpashukrata, Angapaka, Klama, Arati, Pita avalokana, Sheetaksha, Tejodwesha, Alpa nidra, Kopa, Gatrasada, Bhinnavitak, Andhata, Ushneksha, Ucchvasa usnam, Ushna mutra, Ushna mala and Nishatavam are different from Charaka. Sudanta sen- Bhrama, Arati, Paka, Visaranama, Mado, Murchanam,Pralapan and Sruti. Bhava prakasha (Pittaja Vyadhi)- Akalapalitam, Netra raktata, Mutra raktata, Nidra alpatata, Ucchvasa ushnata, Bhrama, Klama, Krodho, Bheda, Tejodvesha, Sheetaksha and Arati are different from Charaka.

kapha disorders:
S.N. Charak[1] Chakrapani[1] A.S[2] Sharangdhara3[3] Bhava prakasha (Kaphaja Vyadhi)10[10] SudantaSen[4]
1 Trapti (Anorexia nervosa) Traptmivatmana sarvda manyete + + + +
2 Tandra (Drowsiness) + + Achetanam +
3 Nidradhikya (Excess sleep) + + + +
4 Staimitya (Excess cold sensation) + - + and Sheetayam +
5 Gurugatrata (Heaviness in body) + Gauravam Gauravam Guruta
6 Alasya (Lassitude) + + + +
7 Mukhamadhurya (Sweet taste in mouth) + + + Rasa- Lavana and svadu
8 Mukhasrava (Salivation) Praseka Prasekata Mukha praseka Praseka
9 Sleshma udgirana (Expectoration of mucous) + - -
10 Maladhikya (Excess waste product) + + Maladhikiyam, mutradhikiyam, shukradhikayam +
11 Balasaka (Loss of strength) Balakshaya, + -
12 Apakti (Indigestion) - - +
13 Hrdayopalepa (Adherence of waste product surrounding heart) + - -
14  ?Kanthopalepa (Adherence of waste product surrounding throat) + Mukhalepa Mukha liptata -
15 Dhamani pratichaya (Adherence of waste in dhamani) Dhamanya uplepa + - -
16 Galaganda (Goiter) + - -
17 Atisthaulya (Obesity) + - -
18 Sheetagni (Mildness in digestive power) Mandagnita + - Agnimandhyata -
19 Udarda (Urticarial rashes ) + - -
20 Shwetavabhbhasta (Pale look) + Shweta angavarnta Varna Sveta
21 Shweta mutra netra varcha ( white discolouration of eyes, urine ,stool) + Shweta vitakta, Shweta mutrata, Mala mutra shokalayam -

Sharangdhara- Mukhalepa, Shwetavalokana, Ushneksha,Tikta kamita, Shukrasya bahulayam, Bahumutrata, Mandabuddhi, Gharghar vakyata and Achetanya are different from Charaka. Sudanta Sen- Kathinta, Sneha, Uplepa, Shaityam, Kandu, Sotha, cirakaritvam Bhava prakasha (Kaphaja Vyadhi)- Kanthe ghurghurta, Katu ushana kamita, Buddhimandhyata are different from Charaka

S.N. Sharangdhara[3]
1 Rakta gaurava (Heavyness in body)
2 Rakta mandala ( Red rashes on the skin)
3 Rakta netra (Reddish eyes)
4 Rakta mutrata (Haematuria)
5 Rakta nisthivan (Haemoptysis)
6 Rakta pitikanam (Reddish eruptions)
7 Ushnam (Increased body temperature)
8 Putigandhitavam (Bad smell in body)
9 Pida (Pain in body)
10 Paka (Ulceration)

Further reading for information on diseases

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita with Ayurveda Dipika commentary, Sutra Sthana, Maharoga Adhyaya, 20/11,14,17, edited by Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya, Chaukhamba Prakashan,2007;113-115.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Vriddha Vagbhatta, Astangha Sangraha with commentary of Indu (Sashilekha), Sutra sthana, Doshabhediya Adhyaya, 20/15-17, edited by Dr.Shivprasad Sharma, 2nd edition, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series office, Varanasi, 2008;158-159.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Sharangdhar Samhita, Purva Khanda, Rogagannadhyaya, 7/105-126, edited by Dr. SMT. Shelja Srivastava, Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi,2007;100- 126 .
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Dr. P.S. Byadgi, Dr.Ajai Pandey. Text book of Kayachikitsa, Volume 1, 1st edition; Chaukambha Sankrit Sansthan, Varanasi, 2013; 149-155.
  5. Ibidem Charaka Samhita (1), Chikitsasthana, Vatavyadhichikitsam- 28, 2007; 616-627.
  6. Bhava Prakasha, Madhyama Khanda,Vatavyadhiadhikara chikitsaprakarana, 24/5-12, edited by pandit Brahma Shankra Mishra, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhawan, Varanasi, 2010;227.
  7. Vriddha Susruta, Nagarjuna, Candrata, Susruta samhita with the Nibandhasangraha commentary, Nidana sthana, Vatavyadhinidanam-1, edited by Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya, 9th edition, Chaukhamba Orientalia, 2007;255-276.
  8. Laghu Vagbhatta, Astangha Hridaya with Sarvanga Sundara and Ayurvedarasayana commentary, Nidana Sthana, Adhyaya, 15, edited by Bhisagacharya Harisastri Paradakara Vaidya, 9th edition, Chaukhamba Orientalia, 2005;530-535.
  9. Ibidem Bhava Prakasha (6), Pittavyadhiadhikara 27/2-9; 293.
  10. Ibidem Bhava Prakasha (6), Shlesmavyadhiadhikara 28/2-5; 294.

Glossary

  • Agantuja- Exogenous
  • Nija- Endogenous
  • Ruka- Pain
  • Samanaya- Common
  • Adhisthan- Sites of disease manifestation
  • Prakriti- Nature
  • Linga- Symptoms
  • Ayatana- Causes
  • Aprisankhiya – Innumerable
  • Nakha- Nails
  • Dashan- Teeth
  • Patan- Falling down
  • Abhighata- trauma
  • Abhishapa- curse
  • Vyadha- piercing
  • Bandhana- bandage
  • Vesthana- rapping,
  • Pidana- application of pressure
  • Rajju- Binding with rope
  • Dahan- fire
  • Shastra- weapon,
  • Ashni- thunderbolt
  • Asatyama- Unwholesome
  • Indriya- sense organs
  • Pragyapradha- intellectual blasphemy
  • Parinama- Effects of time constitute
  • Parasparamanubadhnanti- Symptoms of each other.
  • Vyatha- Pain
  • Samutpanna- Begins
  • Vaishyama- Disturbance in equilibrium
  • Sandeha- Doubt
  • Basti- Urinary bladder,
  • Purishadhanam -Rectum,
  • Kati -Waist,
  • Sakthini- Thighs,
  • Pada- Legs,
  • Asthini- Bones
  • Pakvashayashca- Colon
  • Svedo- Sweat,
  • Rudhira/ Rakta – Blood
  • Amashaya- Stomach
  • Vishanana- Specific
  • Urah- Chest,
  • Shiro- Head,
  • Griva- Neck,
  • Parva- Joint
  • Meda – Fat
  • Sarvasharira - Entire body
  • Kupita- Vitiated
  • Akupita- Non-vitiated
  • Shubha - Good
  • Ashubhani –Bad/ Abnormal state
  • Upachaya- growth
  • Bala- Strength
  • Varna- Complexion
  • Prasada- Happiness,
  • Vikara- Disease
  • Purva- Previous
  • Vyakhaya- Description
  • Aashati- Eighty
  • Anukteshu- Unsaid
  • Madhura- Sweet
  • Amla- Sour
  • Lavana- Salty
  • Snigdha- Unctous
  • Ushna- Warm
  • Upakrama- Method/Procedures
  • Sneha- Oleation
  • Sveda- Fomentation
  • Asthapana- Non-unctuous enema
  • Anuvasana- Unctuous enema
  • Madhura- Sweet,
  • Tikta- Bitter,
  • Kashaya-Astringent,
  • Shita- Cool
  • Vireka- Purgation,
  • Predeha- Pasting,
  • Parisheka- Affusion,
  • Abhyanga- Massage
  • Tikshna- Sharp,
  • Vamana-Emesis,
  • Shirovirechana- Evacuation of Doshas from head
  • Rogam- Disease
  • Aado- First of all
  • Parikshet- Diagnosed
  • Tatoanantram- After that
  • Yadrikcchaya- Only by chance
  • Asanshayam- Without any doubt
  • Pada daha- Burning sensation in foot
  • Pada harsha- Tingling sensation in legs
  • Nishkriyatva and sparshagyatva- Inactive and loss of sensation
  • Prasupti- Numbness
  • Gatra suptata- Numbness in body
  • Bhransa- Dislocation
  • Udgara- Eructation
  • Katigraha- Stiffness in lower back
  • Trik shula- Pain in lower back
  • Parshva shulam- Pain in sides
  • Stambha-Stiffness in body
  • Hanustambha- Stiffness in jaw
  • Hanugraha- Stiffness in jaw
  • Minminitvam /Gadagada- Indistinct speech through the nose
  • Kasaya vaktrata- Astringent taste in mouth cavity
  • Rasagyata- Loss of taste
  • Gandhagyatva- Loss of smell
  • Shabdabhave api shabda shravan-In absence of sound, sound sensation may be heard
  • Karnanada-Tinnitus
  • Tarswera matra shravan, alpa shabdasya tu sarvda ashravanam- Able to hear loud sounds and unable to hear low pitched sound
  • Shabdagyata- Loss of hearing
  • Shabdamatrayesva ashravanam- In presence of sound, sound sensation may not be heard
  • Dreka kshaya- Loss of vision
  • Shirograha- Stiffness of head
  • Sphutanam- Cracking
  • Jvaradishu ushnatvasheetatvadinam- alternative desire for cold and hot things in patients of fever.
  • Sarvanga vata- Loss of movement in whole body
  • Pakshaghata- Loss of movement in half of body
  • Vatika smartimoharupa- Confusion/altered sensorium
  • Kampa- Tremor
  • Paribhrama-Ramble
  • Avasada- Depression
  • Karshnya- Blackish discoloration
  • Talu bheda- Tearing pain in hard palate
  • Nidranasha- Loss of sleep
  • Chala chittata- Unstable mind
  • Bahirayama- Type of vatavyadhi in which body bends like a bow
  • Antarayama-Type of vatavyadhi causing spasticity in neck region. Neck bends inwards and carotid region becomes exceedingly stiff associated with clenching of teeth.
  • Jihvastambha- Stiffness of tongue
  • Krostukashirsha- Knee joint effusion
  • Khalli- Shooting pain in extremities
  • Kalayakhanja- Shaking of leg at the commencement of walking and limping during walking
  • Tuni- Disease of anus and bladder
  • Pratituni- Modification of nervous disease tuni
  • Vishvachi- Paralysis of arm and back
  • Apabahuka- Stiffness in arm
  • Vranayamo- Doshas presented in wound situated over vital organs cause aggravation of vata and later occupies whole body.
  • Vatakantaka- Pain in ankle joint of feet
  • Apatantraka- Hysteria
  • Angabheda- Tearing pain in body
  • Angasosha- Wasting of body parts
  • Asthila-One of the variety of mutraghata and it is also known as vatasthila. Excess of vata enlarges the prostate gland.
  • Angapida- Pain in body parts
  • Angavibhransho- Dislocation of body parts
  • Baddhavitkata- Hard stool
  • Antrakujanam- Gurgling sound in abdomen
  • Vatapravritti- Excessive flatulence
  • Sphurana-Quivering
  • Shiranam purnam- Fullness of veins
  • Karshya- Emaciation
  • Kshipramutrata- Passing of urine quickly
  • Swedanasho-Loss of sweating
  • Durbalatavam- Weakness
  • Balakshaya- Weakness
  • Atipravritti shukrasya- Excess passing of semen
  • Nasho retasa- Destruction of semen
  • Kathinya- Hardness/ toughness
  • Virasasyata- Distaste of mouth cavity
  • Pratyadhmanam- Distension of abdomen commences from amashaya sparing the flanks and region of heart is known as pratyadhmanam.
  • Romaharsha- Horripilation
  • Bhirutvam- Fearful
  • Toda- Pricking sensation
  • Kandu- Itching
  • Shramaka- Tired
  • Glapana- Languor
  • Tadanam-Beating
  • Pidanam- Pressing type pain
  • Vikshepa- Violent movement of limbs
  • Sosha- Wasting of body
  • Sushirata- Porosity
  • Chedanam- Cutting type pain
  • Vesthanam- Twisting type pain
  • Kshoba-Irritation
  • Pratoda- Pricking pain
  • Dristhi pramoha- Hallucination of vision
  • Vispanda- Twitching sensation
  • Uddhathana- Opening up as a lid
  • Mahati svapa- Excessive sleep
  • Vislesha- Dislocation
  • Trit- Thirst
  • Vyatha- Suffering from pain
  • Muhumutratam- Increase frequency of urine
  • Rajonasha- Destruction of Menstruation blood
  • Garbhanasha- Destruction of fetus
  • Manyastambha- Stiffness in neck (torticollis)
  • Akshepaka- Clonic Convulsions
  • Apatanaka- Falling of person in between bouts of convulsions
  • Dandapatanaka- Condition in which patient become stiff like a stick
  • Dhumodgara- Eructation of fumes
  • Amlavaktra- Sour taste of mouth cavity
  • Vadana amlata- oral cavity surrounded by sour taste
  • Avayava sadan- Debility
  • Swedasrava- Perspiration
  • Sahasanam api tvacha daranam-Regular cracking of skin
  • Visphotaka- Pustules
  • Raktasrava- Bleeding
  • Kaksha desha gata mansavadarana- Sloughening of muscle tissue in the axilla
  • Kanthsosha- Dryness of throat
  • Puyapaka- Suppuration
  • Matibhrama-Loss of understanding in respect to knowledge
  • Kantihani- Loss of luster
  • Mukhasosha- Dryness of mouth cavity
  • Alpashukrata- Less semen
  • Angapaka- Inflammation of body parts
  • Klama- Exhaust
  • Arati- Restlessness
  • Pita avalokana- To see everything yellowish
  • Sheetaksha- Desire of cold things
  • Tejodwesha- Aversion to hot things
  • Alpa nidra- Decreased sleep
  • Kopa-Anger
  • Gatrasada- Debility/general malaise
  • Bhinnavitak- Loose unformed stool
  • Andhata- Blindness
  • Ushneksha- Desire of warm things
  • Ucchvasa usnam – Hot expiration
  • Ushna mutra- Feeling hot while passing urine
  • Ushna mala – Feeling hot while passing stool
  • Mado- Intoxication, acute confusional state
  • Murchanam- Syncope
  • Pralapan -Delirium
  • Akalapalitam- Premature graying of hair
  • Netra raktata- Reddish eyes
  • Mutra raktata- Reddish urine
  • Bheda-Tearing pain
  • Achetanam- Unconsciousness
  • Praseka- Excessive salivation
  • Mukha liptata- Adherence of waste product surrounding throat
  • Dhamanya upalepa- Adherence of waste product in arteries, Atherosclerosis.
  • Mukhalepa- Adherence of waste product in mouth cavity
  • Shwetavalokana- To see everything whitish
  • Tikta kamita- Desire for bitter things
  • Mandabuddhi- slow on the uptake of knowledge
  • Gharghar vakyata – Hoarseness of voice
  • Sotha- Inflammation
  • Cirakaritvam- Chronic state of disease
  • Buddhimandhyata- Dull mind