Khuddika Garbhavakranti Sharira

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Khuddika Garbhavakranti Sharira
Section/Chapter Sharira Sthana Chapter 3
Preceding Chapter Atulyagotriya Sharira
Succeeding Chapter Mahatigarbhavakranti Sharira
Other Sections Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana

Sharira Sthana Chapter 3, Khuddika Garbhavakranti Sharira (Chapter on Factors responsible for Embryogenesis)

Abstract

The present chapter titled Khuddika Garbhavakranti Sharira deals with six important factors that are responsible for embryogenesis: mother, father, atma (soul), satmya (suitability), rasa (nutritive fluid), and sattva (mind). The chapter emphasizes upon the fact that none of these factors has the ability to produce an embryo independently, but a combination of all the six is essential for this process.

Keywords: Shadbhava, Garbha, Matrija, Pitrija, Sattvaja, Satmyaja, Rasaja, Atmaja, Embryogenesis, Influencing factors, Maternal inheritance

Introduction

The previous chapter was on the union of male and female gametes resulting in the formation of embryo. The present chapter is a “minor” chapter on the formation of embryo, serving as a prologue to the “major” chapter on embryogenesis that follows this one (Mahatigarbhavakranti Sharira). In this chapter on embryogenesis, in the context of sharira (human biology), the following topics have been dealt with:

  1. Factors responsible for the formation, growth and birth of the embryo;
  2. The views of Lord Atreya and the sage Bharadvaja on this topic.
  3. Refutation on the conclusions (by Bharadvaja); and
  4. A detailed exposition on the nature of the soul.

Sanskrit text, Transliteration and English Translation

अथातः खुड्डिकां गर्भावक्रान्तिं शारीरं व्याख्यास्यामः||१|| इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||

iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2|| athātaḥ khuḍḍikāṁ garbhāvakrāntiṁ śārīraṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||

iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2|| athAtaH khuDDikAM garbhAvakrAntiM shArIraM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||

We shall now expound the chapter on “factors responsible for embryogenesis” in the context of sharira (human biology).Thus said Lord Atreya. [1-2]

Debate on formation of Garbha (embryo)

पुरुषस्यानुपहतरेतसः स्त्रियाश्चाप्रदुष्टयोनिशोणितगर्भाशयाया यदा भवति संसर्गः ऋतुकाले, यदा चानयोस्तथायुक्ते संसर्गेशुक्रशोणितसंसर्गमन्तर्गर्भाशयगतं जीवोऽवक्रामति सत्त्वसम्प्रयोगात्तदा गर्भोऽभिनिर्वतेते, स सात्म्यरसोपयोगादरोगोऽभिवर्धते सम्यगुपचारैश्चोपचर्यमाणः, ततः प्राप्तकालः सर्वेन्द्रियोपपन्नः परिपूर्णशरीरो बलवर्णसत्त्वसंहननसम्पदुपेतः सुखेन जायतेसमुदयादेषां भावानां-मातृजश्चायं गर्भः पितृजश्चात्मजश्च सात्म्यजश्च रसजश्च, अस्ति च खलु सत्त्वमौपपादुकमिति होवाच भगवानात्रेयः||३||

puruṣasyānupahatarētasaḥ striyāścāpraduṣṭayōniśōṇitagarbhāśayāyā yadā bhavati saṁsargaḥ r̥tukālē, yadā cānayōstathāyuktē saṁsargē śukraśōṇitasaṁsargamantargarbhāśayagataṁ jīvō'vakrāmatisattvasamprayōgāttadā garbhō'bhinivartatē, sa sātmyarasōpayōgādarōgō'bhivardhatēsamyagupacāraiścōpacaryamāṇaḥ, tataḥ prāptakālaḥ sarvēndriyōpapannaḥ paripūrṇaśarīrōbalavarṇasattvasaṁhananasampadupētaḥ sukhēna jāyatē samudayādēṣāṁ bhāvānāṁ- mātr̥jaścāyaṁgarbhaḥ pitr̥jaścātmajaśca sātmyajaśca rasajaśca, asti ca khalu sattvamaupapādukamiti hōvācabhagavānātrēyaḥ||3||

puruShasyAnupahataretasaH striyAshcApraduShTayonishoNitagarbhAshayAyA yadA bhavati saMsargaH RutukAle,yadA cAnayostathAyukte saMsarge shukrashoNitasaMsargamantargarbhAshayagataM jIvo~avakrAmatisattvasamprayogAttadA garbho~abhinirvatete, sa sAtmyarasopayogAdarogo~abhivardhatesamyagupacAraishcopacaryamANaH, tataH prAptakAlaH sarvendriyopapannaH paripUrNasharIrobalavarNasattvasaMhananasampadupetaH sukhena jAyate samudayAdeShAM bhAvAnAM- mAtRujashcAyaM garbhaHpitRujashcAtmajashca sAtmyajashca rasajashca, asti ca khalu sattvamaupapAdukamiti hovAcabhagavAnAtreyaH||3||

When a man with retas(semen) not afflicted by any abnormality and a woman with disease-free yoni (genital tract), shonita (ovum), and garbhashaya (uterine bed) engage in the act of coitus during the fertile phase, the jeeva (soul), along with sattva (mind), descends into the union of sperm and ovum, i.e., zygote which is implanted in the uterus. This results in the formation of the garbha (embryo). The zygote receiving nourishment by the nutritious rasa (nutritive fluid) and, on being nursed with proper antenatal care, grows healthily. Later the fetus with all the indriyani (sensory and motor organs) is formed. The fetus thus formed is complete with all the body parts, and is equipped with optimum strength, complexion, mental faculties and compactness leading to comfortable and timely delivery. This occurs due to the combination of the factors derived from the mata (mother), pita (father), atma (soul), satmya (suitability), and, rasa (nutritive fluid). Another factor, sattva (mind), which is self-produced, also contributes to this process. So said Lord Atreya. [3]

नेति भरद्वाजः, किं कारणं- न हि माता न पिता नात्मा न सात्म्यं न पानाशनभक्ष्यलेह्योपयोगा गर्भं जनयन्ति, न चपरलोकादेत्य गर्भं सत्त्वमवक्रामति (१)|४| nēti bharadvājaḥ, kiṁ kāraṇaṁ- na hi mātā na pitā nātmā na sātmyaṁ na pānāśanabhakṣyalēhyōpayōgāgarbhaṁ janayanti, na ca paralōkādētya garbhaṁ sattvamavakrāmati (1)|4|

neti bharadvAjaH, kiM kAraNaM- na hi mAtA na pitA nAtmA na sAtmyaM na pAnAshanabhakShyalehyopayogA garbhaMjanayanti, na ca paralokAdetya garbhaM sattvamavakrAmati (1)|4|

Sage Bharadvaja said: “No. because neither mother, nor father, nor the soul, nor suitability (or articles that the person is accustomed to), nor the utilization of pana (drinks), ashana (foods), bhakshya (solid eatables) and lehya (semisolid eatables) can produce an embryo. Nor does the mind come from the world beyond to enter into the zygote”. [4.1]

यदि हि मातापितरौ गर्भं जनयेतां, भूयस्यः स्त्रियः पुमांसश्च भूयांसः पुत्रकामाः, ते सर्वे पुत्रजन्माभिसन्धायमैथुनधर्ममापद्यमानाः पुत्रानेव जनयेयुर्दुहितॄर्वा दुहितृकामाः, न तु काश्चित् स्त्रियः केचिद्वा पुरुषा निरपत्याः स्युरपत्यकामा वा परिदेवेरन् (२)|४|

yadi hi mātāpitarau garbhaṁ janayētāṁ, bhūyasyaḥ striyaḥ pumāṁsaśca bhūyāṁsaḥ putrakāmāḥ, tē sarvēputrajanmābhisandhāya maithunadharmamāpadyamānāḥ putrānēva janayēyurduhitr̥̄rvā duhitr̥kāmāḥ, na tukāścit striyaḥ kēcidvā puruṣā nirapatyāḥ syurapatyakāmā vā paridēvēran (2)|4|

yadi hi mAtApitarau garbhaM janayetAM, bhUyasyaH striyaH pumAMsashca bhUyAMsaH putrakAmAH, te sarveputrajanmAbhisandhAya maithunadharmamApadyamAnAH putrAneva janayeyurduhitRUrvA duhitRukAmAH, na tukAshcit striyaH kecidvA puruShA nirapatyAH syurapatyakAmA vA parideveran (2)|4|

If only parents could create a baby, then many couples who desire sons could beget them by simply resorting to coitus. Similarly, those who desire daughters could beget daughters. Childless couples would not have been craving for a child. [4.2]

न चात्माऽऽत्मानं जनयति| यदि ह्यात्माऽऽत्मानं जनयेज्जातो वा जनयेदात्मानमजातो वा, तच्चोभयथाऽप्ययुक्तम्| न हि जातो जनयति सत्त्वात्, न चाजातो जनयत्यसत्त्वात्, तस्मादुभयथाऽप्यनुपपत्तिः| तिष्ठतु तावदेतत्| यद्ययमात्माऽऽत्मानं शक्तो जनयितुं स्यात्, न त्वेनमिष्टास्वेव कथं योनिषु जनयेद्वशिनमप्रतिहतगतिं कामरूपिणंतेजोबलजववर्णसत्त्वसंहननसमुदितमजरमरुजममरम्; एवंविधं ह्यात्माऽऽत्मानमिच्छत्यतो वा भूयः (३)|४|

na cātmātmānaṁ janayati| yadi hyātmātmānaṁ janayējjātō vā janayēdātmānamajātō vā, taccōbhayathā'pyayuktam| na hi jātō janayati sattvāt, na cājātō janayatyasattvāt, tasmādubhayathā'pyanupapattiḥ| tiṣṭhatu tāvadētat| yadyayamātmātmānaṁ śaktō janayituṁ syāt, na tvēnamiṣṭāsvēva kathaṁ yōniṣujanayēdvaśinamapratihatagatiṁ kāmarūpiṇaṁtējōbalajavavarṇasattvasaṁhananasamuditamajaramarujamamaram; ēvaṁvidhaṁhyātmātmānamicchatyatō vā bhūyaḥ (3)|4|

na cAtmA~a~atmAnaM janayati| yadi hyAtmA~a~atmAnaM janayejjAto vA janayedAtmAnamajAto vA, taccobhayathA~apyayuktam| na hi jAto janayati sattvAt, na cAjAto janayatyasattvAt, tasmAdubhayathA~apyanupapattiH| tiShThatu tAvadetat| yadyayamAtmA~a~atmAnaM shakto janayituM syAt, na tvenamiShTAsveva kathaM yoniShujanayedvashinamapratihatagatiM kAmarUpiNaMtejobalajavavarNasattvasaMhananasamuditamajaramarujamamaram; evaMvidhaM hyAtmA~a~atmAnamicchatyatovA bhUyaH (3)|4|

Soul is not born out of another soul. If one soul could beget another soul, it would lead to a question – which kind - born or unborn soul -would beget the other soul? Any argument supporting either of these would not be feasible. As the born soul already exists, it cannot beget itself. As the unborn soul does not exist, it cannot beget itself either. Therefore, the argument is unsustainable either ways. Let us view this from another perspective. If the soul could reproduce itself, then how come it does not choose a noble birth endowed with authority, unrestricted movement, capacity to take the forms as he wishes, luster, strength, agility, good complexion, healthy mind, structural integrity and free from aging, illness and death? The soul desiring to become so, should become so or even better. [4.3]

असात्म्यजश्चायं गर्भः| यदि हि सात्म्यजःस्यात्, तर्हि सात्म्यसेविनामेवैकान्तेन प्रजा स्यात्, असात्म्यसेविनश्च निखिलेनानपत्याः स्युः,तच्चोभयमुभयत्रैव दृश्यते (४)|४|

asātmyajaścāyaṁ garbhaḥ| yadi hi sātmyajaḥsyāt, tarhi sātmyasēvināmēvaikāntēna prajā syāt, asātmyasēvinaśca nikhilēnānapatyāḥsyuḥ, taccōbhayamubhayatraiva dr̥śyatē (4)|4|

asAtmyajashcAyaM garbhaH| yadi hi sAtmyajaHsyAt, tarhi sAtmyasevinAmevaikAntena prajA syAt, asAtmyasevinashca nikhilenAnapatyAH syuH,taccobhayamubhayatraiva dRushyate (4)|4|

Regiment (suitable to one’s nature or accustomed to) is not responsible for the embryogenesis. If it were so, then only those who practice such regimen should beget children and the others who do not should never beget a child. However, we see that there is clearly no correlation. [4.4]

अरसजश्चायं गर्भः| यदि हि रसजः स्यात्, न केचित् स्त्रीपुरुषेष्वनपत्याः स्युः, न हि कश्चिदस्त्येषां यो रसान्नोपयुङ्क्ते; श्रेष्ठरसोपयोगिनांचेद्गर्भा जायन्त इत्यभिप्रेतमिति, एवं सत्याजौरभ्रमार्गमायूरगोक्षीरदधिघृतमधुतैलसैन्धवेक्षुरसमुद्गशालिभृतानामेवैकान्तेनप्रजा स्यात्, श्यामाकवरकोद्दालककोरदूषककन्दमूलभक्षाश्च निखिलेनानपत्याः स्युः, तच्चोभयमुभयत्र दृश्यते (५)|४|

arasajaścāyaṁ garbhaḥ| yadi hi rasajaḥ syāt, na kēcit strīpuruṣēṣvanapatyāḥ syuḥ, na hi kaścidastyēṣāṁ yō rasānnōpayuṅktē;śrēṣṭharasōpayōgināṁ cēdgarbhā jāyanta ityabhiprētamiti, ēvaṁsatyājaurabhramārgamāyūragōkṣīradadhighr̥tamadhutailasaindhavēkṣurasamudgaśālibhr̥tānāmēvaikāntēnaprajā syāt, śyāmākavarakōddālakakōradūṣakakandamūlabhakṣāśca nikhilēnānapatyāḥ syuḥ,taccōbhayamubhayatra dr̥śyatē (5)|4|

arasajashcAyaM garbhaH| yadi hi rasajaH syAt, na kecit strIpuruSheShvanapatyAH syuH, na hi kashcidastyeShAM yo rasAnnopayu~gkte;shreShTharasopayoginAM cedgarbhA jAyanta ityabhipretamiti, evaMsatyAjaurabhramArgamAyUragokShIradadhighRutamadhutailasaindhavekShurasamudgashAlibhRutAnAmevaikAntenaprajA syAt, shyAmAkavarakoddAlakakoradUShakakandamUlabhakShAshca nikhilenAnapatyAH syuH,taccobhayamubhayatra dRushyate (5)|4|

The embryo is not formed of rasa. If it were so, then none of the couples would remain without a child, as none of them can live without rasa. If only the individuals having rasa of the best quality were supposed to have children, then only those who consumed meat soup of goat, sheep, deer, and peacock, milk, yoghurt and ghee of the cow, honey, oil, rock salt, sugarcane juice, green gram and shali rice for nourishment should have been begetting children and the others who consume syamaka, varaka, uddalaka, koradushaka, rhizomes and roots should have been childless. However, in both these scenarios, we can see that that’s not the case. [4.5]

न खल्वपि परलोकादेत्य सत्त्वं गर्भमवक्रामति; यदि ह्येनमवक्रामेत्, नास्य किञ्चित् पौर्वदेहिकं स्यादविदितमश्रुतमदृष्टं वा,स च तच्च न किञ्चिदपि स्मरति (६)||४||

तस्मादेतद्ब्रूमहे- अमातृजश्चायं गर्भोऽपितृजश्चानात्मजश्चासात्म्यजश्चारसजश्च, न चास्ति सत्त्वमौपपादुकमिति (होवाचभरद्वाजः)||४||

na khalvapi paralōkādētya sattvaṁ garbhamavakrāmati; yadi hyēnamavakrāmēt, nāsya kiñcitpaurvadēhikaṁ syādaviditamaśrutamadr̥ṣṭaṁ vā, sa ca tacca na kiñcidapi smarati (6)||4|| tasmādētadbrūmahē- amātr̥jaścāyaṁ garbhō'pitr̥jaścānātmajaścāsātmyajaścārasajaśca, na cāstisattvamaupapādukamiti (hōvāca bharadvājaḥ)||4||

na khalvapi paralokAdetya sattvaM garbhamavakrAmati; yadi hyenamavakrAmet, nAsya ki~jcit paurvadehikaMsyAdaviditamashrutamadRuShTaM vA, sa ca tacca na ki~jcidapi smarati (6)||4|| tasmAdetadbrUmahe- amAtRujashcAyaM garbho~apitRujashcAnAtmajashcAsAtmyajashcArasajashca, na cAstisattvamaupapAdukamiti (hovAca bharadvAjaH)||4||

To enter into the embryo, the sattva (mind) does not come from another world. If it were so, not even a little of its previous existence should remain unknown, unheard and unseen by it. However, it does not remember even a little bit of it. [4.6]

नेति भगवानात्रेयः, सर्वेभ्य एभ्यो भावेभ्यः समुदितेभ्यो गर्भोऽभिनिर्वर्तते||५||

nēti bhagavānātrēyaḥ, sarvēbhya ēbhyō bhāvēbhyaḥ samuditēbhyō garbhō'bhinirvartatē||5||

neti bhagavAnAtreyaH, sarvebhya ebhyo bhAvebhyaH samuditebhyo garbho~abhinirvartate||5||

Lord Atreya said “No. The embryogenesis requires the combination of aforementioned factors”. [5]

मातृजश्चायं गर्भः| न हि मातुर्विना गर्भोत्पत्तिः स्यात्, न च जन्म जरायुजानाम्| यानि खल्वस्य गर्भस्य मातृजानि, यानि चास्य मातृतः सम्भवतः सम्भवन्ति, तान्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः; तद्यथा- त्वक्चलोहितं च मांसं च मेदश्च नाभिश्च हृदयं च क्लोम च यकृच्च प्लीहा च वृक्कौ च बस्तिश्च पुरीषाधानं चामाशयश्चपक्वाशयश्चोत्तरगुदं चाधरगुदं च क्षुद्रान्त्रं च स्थूलान्त्रं च वपा च वपावहनं चेति (मातृजानि)||६||

mātr̥jaścāyaṁ garbhaḥ| na hi māturvinā garbhōtpattiḥ syāt, na ca janma jarāyujānām| yāni khalvasya garbhasya mātr̥jāni, yāni cāsya mātr̥taḥ sambhavataḥ sambhavanti, tānyanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ;tadyathā- tvakca lōhitaṁ ca māṁsaṁ ca mēdaśca nābhiśca hr̥dayaṁ ca klōma ca yakr̥cca plīhā ca vr̥kkau cabastiśca purīṣādhānaṁ cāmāśayaśca pakvāśayaścōttaragudaṁ cādharagudaṁ ca kṣudrāntraṁ casthūlāntraṁ ca vāpā ca vapāvahanaṁ cēti (mātr̥jāni)||6||

mAtRujashcAyaM garbhaH| na hi mAturvinA garbhotpattiH syAt, na ca janma jarAyujAnAm| yAni khalvasya garbhasya mAtRujAni, yAni cAsya mAtRutaH sambhavataH sambhavanti, tAnyanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH;tadyathA- tvakca lohitaM ca mAMsaM ca medashca nAbhishca hRudayaM ca kloma ca yakRucca plIhA ca vRukkau cabastishca purIShAdhAnaM cAmAshayashca pakvAshayashcottaragudaM cAdharagudaM ca kShudrAntraM casthUlAntraM ca vApA ca vapAvahanaM ceti (mAtRujAni)||6||

The mother contributes in the process of embryogenesis. There can be no conception and birth of viviparous animals without the mother. We shall hereby describe those bodily components which are derived from the maternal factor. These are: tvak (skin), lohita (blood), mamsa (flesh), meda (fat), nabhi (umbilicus), hridaya (heart), kloma (right lung), yakrit (liver), pleeha (spleen), vrikkau (kidneys), basti (bladder), purishadhana (rectum), amashaya (stomach), pakvashaya (colon), uttaraguda (upper part of the anus), adharaguda (lower part of the anus), kshudrantra (small intestine), sthulantra (large intestine), vapa (mesentery) and vapavahana (omentum). [6]

पितृजश्चायं गर्भः| नहि पितुरृते गर्भोत्पत्तिः स्यात्, न च जन्म जरायुजानाम्| यानि खल्वस्य गर्भस्य पितृजानि, यानि चास्य पितृतः सम्भवतः सम्भवन्ति, तान्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः; तद्यथा-केशश्मश्रुनखलोमदन्तास्थिसिरास्नायुधमन्यः शुक्रं चेति (पितृजानि)||७||

pitr̥jaścāyaṁ garbhaḥ| nahi pituṟutē garbhōtpattiḥ syāt, na ca janma jarāyujānām| yāni khalvasya garbhasya pitr̥jāni, yāni cāsya pitr̥taḥ sambhavataḥ sambhavanti, tānyanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ;tadyathā-kēśaśmaśrunakhalōmadantāsthisirāsnāyudhamanyaḥ śukraṁ cēti (pitr̥jāni)||7||

pitRujashcAyaM garbhaH| nahi piturRute garbhotpattiH syAt, na ca janma jarAyujAnAm| yAni khalvasya garbhasya pitRujAni, yAni cAsya pitRutaH sambhavataH sambhavanti, tAnyanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH;tadyathA- keshashmashrunakhalomadantAsthisirAsnAyudhamanyaH shukraM ceti (pitRujAni)||7||

The father contributes in the process of embryogenesis. There can be no conception and birth of viviparous animals without the father. We shall hereby describe those bodily components derived from the father. They are: kesha (hair of the head), smashru (facial hair), nakha (nail), loma (small hair on the body), danta (teeth), asthi (bones), sira (veins), snayu (ligaments), dhamnyah (arteries) and shukra (semen). [7]

आत्मजश्चायं गर्भः| गर्भात्मा ह्यन्तरात्मा यः, तं ‘जीव’ इत्याचक्षते शाश्वतमरुजमजरममरमक्षयमभेद्यमच्छेद्यमलोड्यं विश्वरूपंविश्वकर्माणमव्यक्तमनादिमनिधनमक्षरमपि| स गर्भाशयमनुप्रविश्य शुक्रशोणिताभ्यां संयोगमेत्य गर्भत्वेन जनयत्यात्मनाऽऽत्मानम्, आत्मसञ्ज्ञा हि गर्भे| तस्य पुनरात्मनो जन्मानादित्वान्नोपपद्यते, तस्मान्न जात एवायमजातं गर्भं जनयति, अजातो ह्ययमजातं गर्भंजनयति; स चैव गर्भः कालान्तरेण बालयुवस्थविरभावान् प्राप्नोति, स यस्यां यस्यामवस्थायां वर्तते तस्यां तस्यां जातोभवति, या त्वस्य पुरस्कृतातस्यां जनिष्यमाणश्च, तस्मात् स एव जातश्चाजातश्च युगपद्भवति; यस्मिंश्चैतदुभयं सम्भवतिजातत्वं जनिष्यमाणत्वं च स जातो जन्यते, स चैवानागतेष्ववस्थान्तरेष्वजातो जन्ययत्यात्मनाऽऽत्मानम्| सतो ह्यवस्थान्तरगमनमात्रमेव हि जन्म चोच्यते तत्र तत्र वयसि तस्यां तस्यामवस्थायां; यथा- सतामेव शुक्रशोणितजीवानांप्राक् संयोगाद्गर्भत्वं न भवति, तच्च संयोगाद्भवति; यथा- सतस्तस्यैव पुरुषस्य प्रागपत्यात् पितृत्वं न भवति,तच्चापत्याद्भवति; तथा सतस्तस्यैव गर्भस्य तस्यां तस्यामवस्थायां जातत्वमजातत्वं चोच्यते||८||

ātmajaścāyaṁ garbhaḥ| garbhātmā hyantarātmā yaḥ, taṁ ‘jīva’ ityācakṣatēśāśvatamarujamajaramamaramakṣayamabhēdyamacchēdyamalōḍyaṁ viśvarūpaṁviśvakarmāṇamavyaktamanādimanidhanamakṣaramapi| sa garbhāśayamanupraviśya śukraśōṇitābhyāṁ saṁyōgamētya garbhatvēna janayatyātmanātmānam,ātmasañjñā hi garbhē| tasya punarātmanō janmānāditvānnōpapadyatē, tasmānna jāta ēvāyamajātaṁ garbhaṁ janayati, ajātōhyayamajātaṁ garbhaṁ janayati; sa caiva garbhaḥ kālāntarēṇa bālayuvasthavirabhāvān prāpnōti, sayasyāṁ yasyāmavasthāyāṁ vartatē tasyāṁ tasyāṁ jātō bhavati, yā tvasya puraskr̥tātasyāṁjaniṣyamāṇaśca, tasmāt sa ēva jātaścājātaśca yugapadbhavati; yasmiṁścaitadubhayaṁ sambhavatijātatvaṁ janiṣyamāṇatvaṁ ca sa jātō janyatē, sa caivānāgatēṣvavasthāntarēṣvajātōjanyayatyātmanātmānam| satō hyavasthāntaragamanamātramēva hi janma cōcyatē tatra tatra vayasi tasyāṁ tasyāmavasthāyāṁ;yathā- satāmēva śukraśōṇitajīvānāṁ prāk saṁyōgādgarbhatvaṁ na bhavati, tacca saṁyōgādbhavati; yathā-satastasyaiva puruṣasya prāgapatyāt pitr̥tvaṁ na bhavati, taccāpatyādbhavati; tathā satastasyaivagarbhasya tasyāṁ tasyāmavasthāyāṁ jātatvamajātatvaṁ cōcyatē||8||

AtmajashcAyaM garbhaH| garbhAtmA hyantarAtmA yaH, taM ‘jIva’ ityAcakShateshAshvatamarujamajaramamaramakShayamabhedyamacchedyamaloDyaM vishvarUpaMvishvakarmANamavyaktamanAdimanidhanamakSharamapi| sa garbhAshayamanupravishya shukrashoNitAbhyAM saMyogametya garbhatvena janayatyAtmanA~a~atmAnam,Atmasa~jj~jA hi garbhe| tasya punarAtmano janmAnAditvAnnopapadyate, tasmAnna jAta evAyamajAtaM garbhaM janayati, ajAtohyayamajAtaM garbhaM janayati; sa caiva garbhaH kAlAntareNa bAlayuvasthavirabhAvAn prApnoti, sa yasyAMyasyAmavasthAyAM vartate tasyAM tasyAM jAto bhavati, yA tvasya puraskRutAtasyAM janiShyamANashca, tasmAt saeva jAtashcAjAtashca yugapadbhavati; yasmiMshcaitadubhayaM sambhavati jAtatvaM janiShyamANatvaM ca sa jAtojanyate, sa caivAnAgateShvavasthAntareShvajAto janyayatyAtmanA~a~atmAnam| sato hyavasthAntaragamanamAtrameva hi janma cocyate tatra tatra vayasi tasyAM tasyAmavasthAyAM; yathA-satAmeva shukrashoNitajIvAnAM prAk saMyogAdgarbhatvaM na bhavati, tacca saMyogAdbhavati; yathA-satastasyaiva puruShasya prAgapatyAt pitRutvaM na bhavati, taccApatyAdbhavati; tathA satastasyaiva garbhasyatasyAM tasyAmavasthAyAM jAtatvamajAtatvaM cocyate||8||

The soul contributes in the process of embryogenesis. The antaratma (soul inside the body) is the same as garbhatma(soul in the fetus) and is known as jeeva (life-form). According to scriptures, this soul is sashvata (eternal). It is aruja (disease-free), does not age (ajara), is immortal (amara), does not undergo decay (akshaya), is impenetrable (abhedya), is unbreakable (achhedya), is unperturbable (alodya), is omnipresent (vishvarupa) and omnipotent (vishvakarma). It is invisible (avyakta), neither has a beginning nor an end (anadinidhana), and is imperishable (akshara). By entering into the uterus, it combines with the shukra (sperm) and the shonita (ovum) and takes birth in the form of a fetus. Thus, the fetus derives its identification from the soul. Because the soul is without a beginning, the birth of the soul is not possible. Neither does the soul, being itself unborn, give rise to an unborn embryo, nor does the soul, being itself unborn, give rise to a born embryo. With the passage of time, the same embryo goes through the stages of childhood, youth, adulthood, and old age. And at each of these states or stages of life, the soul is said to be “born” in that stage. But, with reference to the future stages, it is considered to be unborn or yet to be born. Therefore, the soul is concurrently both born and unborn. In such situations, the soul creates those stages of life after taking birth. In other situations, where the stage of life is yet to come, the soul without being born manifests itself. In those specific stages of life, the change of the state is considered to be the birth of the atman. For instance, mere existence of shukra- shonita (semen and ovum) before the union with the soul is not an embryo. Shukra-shonita are transformed into embryo only when the soul unites with them. A man cannot be called a father before the birth of his child. He is considered to be the father only after the birth of his child. Similarly, the embryo is said to be born or unborn depending upon the state attained or yet to be attained. [8]

न खलु गर्भस्य न च मातुर्न पितुर्न चात्मनः सर्वभावेषु यथेष्टकारित्वमस्ति; ते किञ्चित् स्ववशात् कुर्वन्ति, किञ्चित्कर्मवशात्, क्वचिच्चैषां करणशक्तिर्भवति, क्वचिन्न भवति| यत्र सत्त्वादिकरणसम्पत्तत्र यथाबलमेव यथेष्टकारित्वम्, अतोऽन्यथा विपर्ययः| न च करणदोषादकरणमात्मासम्भवति गर्भजनने, दृष्टं चेष्टा योनिरैश्वर्यं मोक्षश्चात्मविद्भिरात्मायत्तम्| नह्यन्यः सुखदुःखयोः कर्ता| न चान्यतो गर्भो जायते जायमानः, नाङ्कुरोत्पत्तिरबीजात्||९||

na khalu garbhasya na ca māturna piturna cātmanaḥ sarvabhāvēṣu yathēṣṭakāritvamasti; tē kiñcit svavaśātkurvanti, kiñcit karmavaśāt, kvaciccaiṣāṁ karaṇaśaktirbhavati, kvacinna bhavati| yatra sattvādikaraṇasampattatra yathābalamēva yathēṣṭakāritvam, atō'nyathā viparyayaḥ| na ca karaṇadōṣādakaraṇamātmāsambhavati garbhajananē, dr̥ṣṭaṁ cēṣṭā yōniraiśvaryaṁmōkṣaścātmavidbhirātmāyattam| nahyanyaḥ sukhaduḥkhayōḥ kartā| na cānyatō garbhō jāyatē jāyamānaḥ, nāṅkurōtpattirabījāt||9||

na khalu garbhasya na ca mAturna piturna cAtmanaH sarvabhAveShu yatheShTakAritvamasti; te ki~jcit svavashAtkurvanti, ki~jcit karmavashAt, kvaciccaiShAM karaNashaktirbhavati, kvacinna bhavati| yatra sattvAdikaraNasampattatra yathAbalameva yatheShTakAritvam, ato~anyathA viparyayaH| na ca karaNadoShAdakaraNamAtmAsambhavati garbhajanane, dRuShTaM ceShTA yoniraishvaryaMmokShashcAtmavidbhirAtmAyattam| nahyanyaH sukhaduHkhayoH kartA| na cAnyato garbho jAyate jAyamAnaH, nA~gkurotpattirabIjAt||9||

The mother, the father and the soul independently cannot produce an embryo. They contribute to some extent independently and to some extent, they work under the influence of karma (results of actions of the past life). They possess the capacity to do certain things on their own, but for other few things, they do not. When these factors combine with other factors, such as mind, sense organs, sperm, ovum etc. in their excellent conditions, depending upon their karma, they form the embryo by themselves. When there are deficiencies in these factors, the soul cannot form an embryo. It is well-known that self-realized souls can enter the wombs they desire and attain salvation. The soul itself is responsible for the pleasure and pain of the individual. The embryo is not formed by anything other than the soul. Nothing can be germinated without seeds. [9]

Origin of constituents of human being

यानि तु खल्वस्य गर्भस्यात्मजानि, यानि चास्यात्मतः सम्भवतः सम्भवन्ति, तान्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः तद्यथा- तासु तासुयोनिषूत्पत्तिरायुरात्मज्ञानं मन इन्द्रियाणि प्राणापानौ प्रेरणं धारणमाकृतिस्वरवर्णविशेषाः सुखदुःखे इच्छाद्वेषौ चेतनाधृतिर्बुद्धिः स्मृतिरहङ्कारः प्रयत्नश्चेति (आत्मजानि)||१०||

yāni tu khalvasya garbhasyātmajāni, yāni cāsyātmataḥ sambhavataḥ sambhavanti, tānyanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥtadyathā- tāsu tāsu yōniṣūtpattirāyurātmajñānaṁ mana indriyāṇi prāṇāpānau prēraṇaṁdhāraṇamākr̥tisvaravarṇaviśēṣāḥ sukhaduḥkhē icchādvēṣau cētanā dhr̥tirbuddhiḥ smr̥tirahaṅkāraḥprayatnaścēti (ātmajāni)||10||

yAni tu khalvasya garbhasyAtmajAni, yAni cAsyAtmataH sambhavataH sambhavanti, tAnyanuvyAkhyAsyAmaHtadyathA- tAsu tAsu yoniShUtpattirAyurAtmaj~jAnaM mana indriyANi prANApAnau preraNaMdhAraNamAkRutisvaravarNavisheShAH sukhaduHkhe icchAdveShau cetanA dhRutirbuddhiH smRutiraha~gkAraHprayatnashceti (AtmajAni)||10||

We shall now describe those aspects of the individual which are derived from and are formed because of the soul. These are: taking birth in a specific womb, ayu (life span), atma, jnana (self realization), manas (mind), indriyani (sensory faculty), pranapana (inspiration-expiration), prerana (motivation) and dharana (sustenance), characteristic physique, voice and complexion of the individual, happiness and sorrow, like and dislike, chetana (consciousness), dhriti (courage), buddhi (intellect), smriti (memory), ahankara (ego) and prayatna (efforts). All these aspects of the individual are derived from the soul. [10]

सात्म्यजश्चायं गर्भः| नह्यसात्म्यसेवित्वमन्तरेण स्त्रीपुरुषयोर्वन्ध्यत्वमस्ति, गर्भेषु वाऽप्यनिष्टो भावः| यावत् खल्वसात्म्यसेविनां स्त्रीपुरुषाणां त्रयो दोषाः प्रकुपिताः शरीरमुपसर्पन्तो न शुक्रशोणितगर्भाशयोपघातायोपपद्यन्ते,तावत् समर्था गर्भजननाय भवन्ति| सात्म्यसेविनां पुनः स्त्रीपुरुषाणामनुपहतशुक्रशोणितगर्भाशयानामृतकाले सन्निपतितानां जीवस्यानवक्रमणाद्गर्भा नप्रादुर्भवन्ति| नहि केवलं सात्म्यज एवायं गर्भः, समुदयोऽत्र कारणमुच्यते| यानि खल्वस्य गर्भस्य सात्म्यजानि, यानि चास्य सात्म्यतः सम्भवतः सम्भवन्ति, तान्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः; तद्यथा-आरोग्यमनालस्यमलोलुपत्वमिन्द्रियप्रसादः स्वरवर्णबीजसम्पत् प्रहर्षभूयस्त्वं चेति (सात्म्यजानि)||११||

sātmyajaścāyaṁ garbhaḥ| nahyasātmyasēvitvamantarēṇa strīpuruṣayōrvandhyatvamasti, garbhēṣu vā'pyaniṣṭō bhāvaḥ| yāvat khalvasātmyasēvināṁ strīpuruṣāṇāṁ trayō dōṣāḥ prakupitāḥ śarīramupasarpantō naśukraśōṇitagarbhāśayōpaghātāyōpapadyantē, tāvat samarthā garbhajananāya bhavanti| sātmyasēvināṁ punaḥ strīpuruṣāṇāmanupahataśukraśōṇitagarbhāśayānāmr̥takālē sannipatitānāṁjīvasyānavakramaṇādgarbhā na prādurbhavanti| nahi kēvalaṁ sātmyaja ēvāyaṁ garbhaḥ, samudayō'tra kāraṇamucyatē| yāni khalvasya garbhasya sātmyajāni, yāni cāsya sātmyataḥ sambhavataḥ sambhavanti,tānyanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ; tadyathā- ārōgyamanālasyamalōlupatvamindriyaprasādaḥ svaravarṇabījasampatpraharṣabhūyastvaṁ cēti (sātmyajāni)||11||

sAtmyajashcAyaM garbhaH| nahyasAtmyasevitvamantareNa strIpuruShayorvandhyatvamasti, garbheShu vA~apyaniShTo bhAvaH| yAvat khalvasAtmyasevinAM strIpuruShANAM trayo doShAH prakupitAH sharIramupasarpanto nashukrashoNitagarbhAshayopaghAtAyopapadyante, tAvat samarthA garbhajananAya bhavanti| sAtmyasevinAM punaH strIpuruShANAmanupahatashukrashoNitagarbhAshayAnAmRutakAle sannipatitAnAMjIvasyAnavakramaNAdgarbhA na prAdurbhavanti| nahi kevalaM sAtmyaja evAyaM garbhaH, samudayo~atra kAraNamucyate| yAni khalvasya garbhasya sAtmyajAni, yAni cAsya sAtmyataH sambhavataH sambhavanti, tAnyanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH;tadyathA- ArogyamanAlasyamalolupatvamindriyaprasAdaH svaravarNabIjasampat praharShabhUyastvaM ceti(sAtmyajAni)||11||

The embryo is created by the accustomed, wholesome regimen or satmya. There cannot be sterility of the man, woman or defects in the embryo without resorting to unwholesome practices. Humans are capable of reproduction as long as the shukra (semen), shonita (ovum), and garbhashaya (uterus) are not afflicted by the vitiated doshas in the body, due to indulgence in unwholesome practices. Those couples who follow wholesome regimen even during the period of sexual union, and whose semen, ovum and uterus are unafflicted, do not produce the offspring if the soul does not enter into it. Therefore, wholesome regimen is solely not responsible for embryogenesis. It is the blending of all the factors that is responsible for embryogenesis. We shall hereby describe the aspects of the individual derived from and due to wholesome regimen. These are: arogya (the state of freedom from diseases), analasya (freedom from laziness) and alolupatva (freedom from greed), clarity of senses, excellence of voice and fertility and optimum libido. [11]

रसजश्चायं गर्भः| न हि रसादृते मातुः प्राणयात्राऽपि स्यात्, किं पुनर्गर्भजन्म| न चैवासम्यगुपयुज्यमाना रसा गर्भमभिनिर्वर्तयन्ति, न च केवलं सम्यगुपयोगादेव रसानां गर्भाभिनिर्वृत्तिर्भवति,समुदायोऽप्यत्र कारणमुच्यते| यानि तु खल्वस्य गर्भस्य रसजानि, यानि चास्य रसतः सम्भवतः सम्भवन्ति, तान्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः; तद्यथा-शरीरस्याभिनिर्वृत्तिरभिवृद्धिः प्राणानुबन्धस्तृप्तिः पुष्टिरुत्साहश्चेति (रसजानि)||१२||

rasajaścāyaṁ garbhaḥ| na hi rasādr̥tē mātuḥ prāṇayātrā'pi syāt, kiṁ punargarbhajanma| na caivāsamyagupayujyamānā rasā garbhamabhinirvartayanti, na ca kēvalaṁ samyagupayōgādēvarasānāṁ garbhābhinirvr̥ttirbhavati, samudāyō'pyatra kāraṇamucyatē| yāni tu khalvasya garbhasya rasajāni, yāni cāsya rasataḥ sambhavataḥ sambhavanti,tānyanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ; tadyathā-śarīrasyābhinirvr̥ttirabhivr̥ddhiḥ prāṇānubandhastr̥ptiḥ puṣṭirutsāhaścēti(rasajāni)||12||

rasajashcAyaM garbhaH| na hi rasAdRute mAtuH prANayAtrA~api syAt, kiM punargarbhajanma| na caivAsamyagupayujyamAnA rasA garbhamabhinirvartayanti, na ca kevalaM samyagupayogAdeva rasAnAMgarbhAbhinirvRuttirbhavati, samudAyo~apyatra kAraNamucyate| yAni tu khalvasya garbhasya rasajAni, yAni cAsya rasataH sambhavataH sambhavanti, tAnyanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH;tadyathA- sharIrasyAbhinirvRuttirabhivRuddhiH prANAnubandhastRuptiH puShTirutsAhashceti (rasajAni)||12||

The embryo is produced from rasa. Without rasa (nutritive fluid), even the mother cannot survive, hence neither can the embryo. Improper nourishment does not contribute to the embryogenesis. On the contrary, neither is an embryo formed simply due to adequate nourishment. In this case too, the blending of all the factors is responsible for embryogenesis. We shall hereby describe the aspects of the individual derived from rasa. These are: formation and growth of the body, sustenance of life, satiety, nourishment and enthusiasm. [12]

अस्ति खलु सत्त्वमौपपादुकं; यज्जीवं स्पृक्शरीरेणाभिसम्बध्नाति, यस्मिन्नपगमनपुरस्कृते शीलमस्य व्यावर्तते,भक्तिर्विपर्यस्यते, सर्वेन्द्रियाण्युपतप्यन्ते, बलं हीयते, व्याधय आप्याय्यन्ते, यस्माद्धीनः प्राणाञ्जहाति,यदिन्द्रियाणामभिग्राहकं च ‘मन’ इत्यभिधीयते; तत्त्रिविधमाख्यायते- शुद्धं, राजसं, तामसमिति| येनास्य खलु मनो भूयिष्ठं, तेन द्वितीयायामाजातौ सम्प्रयोगो भवति; यदा तु तेनैव शुद्धेन संयुज्यते, तदाजातेरतिक्रान्ताया अपि स्मरति| स्मार्तं हि ज्ञानमात्मनस्तस्यैव मनसोऽनुबन्धादनुवर्तते, यस्यानुवृत्तिं पुरस्कृत्य पुरुषो ‘जातिस्मर’ इत्युच्यते| यानि खल्वस्य गर्भस्य सत्त्वजानि, यान्यस्य सत्त्वतः सम्भवतः सम्भवन्ति, तान्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः; तद्यथा- भक्तिः शीलंशौचं द्वेषः स्मृतिर्मोहस्त्यागो मात्सर्यं शौर्यं भयं क्रोधस्तन्द्रोत्साहस्तैक्ष्ण्यं मार्दवं गाम्भीर्यमनवस्थितत्वमित्येवमादयश्चान्ये,ते सत्त्वविकारा यानुत्तरकालं सत्त्वभेदमधिकृत्योपदेक्ष्यामः| नानाविधानि खलु सत्त्वानि, तानि सर्वाण्येकपुरुषे भवन्ति, न च भवन्त्येककालम्, एकं तु प्रायोवृत्त्याऽऽह ||१३||

asti khalu sattvamaupapādukaṁ; yajjīvaṁ spr̥kśarīrēṇābhisambadhnāti, yasminnapagamanapuraskr̥tēśīlamasya vyāvartatē, bhaktirviparyasyatē, sarvēndriyāṇyupatapyantē, balaṁ hīyatē, vyādhaya āpyāyyantē,yasmāddhīnaḥ prāṇāñjahāti, yadindriyāṇāmabhigrāhakaṁ ca ‘mana’ ityabhidhīyatē; tattrividhamākhyāyatē-śuddhaṁ, rājasaṁ, tāmasamiti| yēnāsya khalu manō bhūyiṣṭhaṁ, tēna dvitīyāyāmājātau samprayōgō bhavati; yadā tu tēnaiva śuddhēnasaṁyujyatē, tadā jātēratikrāntāyā api smarati| smārtaṁ hi jñānamātmanastasyaiva manasō'nubandhādanuvartatē, yasyānuvr̥ttiṁ puraskr̥tya puruṣō‘jātismara’ ityucyatē| yāni khalvasya garbhasya sattvajāni, yānyasya sattvataḥ sambhavataḥ sambhavanti,tānyanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ; tadyathā- bhaktiḥ śīlaṁ śaucaṁ dvēṣaḥ smr̥tirmōhastyāgō mātsaryaṁ śauryaṁbhayaṁ krōdhastandrōtsāhastaikṣṇyaṁ mārdavaṁ gāmbhīryamanavasthitatvamityēvamādayaścānyē, tēsattvavikārā yānuttarakālaṁ sattvabhēdamadhikr̥tyōpadēkṣyāmaḥ| nānāvidhāni khalu sattvāni, tāni sarvāṇyēkapuruṣē bhavanti, na ca bhavantyēkakālam, ēkaṁ tuprāyōvr̥ttyāha ||13||

asti khalu sattvamaupapAdukaM; yajjIvaM spRuksharIreNAbhisambadhnAti, yasminnapagamanapuraskRuteshIlamasya vyAvartate, bhaktirviparyasyate, sarvendriyANyupatapyante, balaM hIyate, vyAdhaya ApyAyyante,yasmAddhInaH prANA~jjahAti, yadindriyANAmabhigrAhakaM ca ‘mana’ ityabhidhIyate; tattrividhamAkhyAyate-shuddhaM, rAjasaM, tAmasamiti| yenAsya khalu mano bhUyiShThaM, tena dvitIyAyAmAjAtau samprayogo bhavati; yadA tu tenaiva shuddhenasaMyujyate, tadA jAteratikrAntAyA api smarati| smArtaM hi j~jAnamAtmanastasyaiva manaso~anubandhAdanuvartate, yasyAnuvRuttiM puraskRutya puruSho‘jAtismara’ ityucyate| yAni khalvasya garbhasya sattvajAni, yAnyasya sattvataH sambhavataH sambhavanti, tAnyanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH;tadyathA- bhaktiH shIlaM shaucaM dveShaH smRutirmohastyAgo mAtsaryaM shauryaM bhayaMkrodhastandrotsAhastaikShNyaM mArdavaM gAmbhIryamanavasthitatvamityevamAdayashcAnye, te sattvavikArAyAnuttarakAlaM sattvabhedamadhikRutyopadekShyAmaH| nAnAvidhAni khalu sattvAni, tAni sarvANyekapuruShe bhavanti, na ca bhavantyekakAlam, ekaM tuprAyovRuttyA~a~aha ||13||

Mind connects the soul and the body. So, on the threshold of death when the mind departs the body, normal behavior and tendencies change - the senses are disturbed, strength decreases and diseases progress. Individuals without mind die because mind controls the sense organs. The mind is of three types, viz. shuddha (sattvika), rajas and tamas. When any one attribute dominates the mind in one’s life, the same continues to dominate in the next life also. If the individual’s mind was characterized by shuddha attribute in the past life, then he can remember his past life. It is due to the continuity of the same mind that the person can remember things of his past life. Due to this power to recollect things of the past life, he is called jatismara.

We shall hereby describe the aspects of the individual, which are derived from the mind. They are: bhakti (devotion), sheela (character), shaucha (purity), dvesha (hatred), smriti (memory), moha (attachment), tyaga (sacrifice), matsarya (jealousy), shaurya (valor), bhaya (fear), krodha (anger), tandra (drowsiness), utsaha (enthusiasm), taikshnya (sharpness), mardava (softness), gambhirya (seriousness), anavasthitatva (unsteadiness) and such other manifestations of the mind which will be described later while discussing the various types of mind. All these are present in the same person, however, not all manifest simultaneously. An individual is said to be of a particular type, based on the predominant type of mind. [13]

एवमयं नानाविधानामेषां गर्भकराणां भावानां समुदायादभिनिर्वर्तते गर्भः; यथा- कूटागारं नानाद्रव्यसमुदायात्, यथा वा- रथोनानारथाङ्गसमुदायात्; तस्मादेतदवोचाम- मातृजश्चायं गर्भः, पितृजश्च, आत्मजश्च, सात्म्यजश्च, रसजश्च, अस्ति चसत्त्वमौपपादुकमिति (होवाच भगवानात्रेयः)||१४||

ēvamayaṁ nānāvidhānāmēṣāṁ garbhakarāṇāṁ bhāvānāṁ samudāyādabhinirvartatē garbhaḥ; yathā-kūṭāgāraṁ nānādravyasamudāyāt, yathā vā- rathō nānārathāṅgasamudāyāt; tasmādētadavōcāma-mātr̥jaścāyaṁ garbhaḥ, pitr̥jaśca, ātmajaśca, sātmyajaśca, rasajaśca, asti ca sattvamaupapādukamiti(hōvāca bhagavānātrēyaḥ)||14||

evamayaM nAnAvidhAnAmeShAM garbhakarANAM bhAvAnAM samudAyAdabhinirvartate garbhaH; yathA- kUTAgAraMnAnAdravyasamudAyAt, yathA vA- ratho nAnArathA~ggasamudAyAt; tasmAdetadavocAma- mAtRujashcAyaMgarbhaH, pitRujashca, Atmajashca, sAtmyajashca, rasajashca, asti ca sattvamaupapAdukamiti (hovAcabhagavAnAtreyaH)||14||

Thus, by the combination of various factors, the embryo is formed just like a kutagara (circular cottage used for administering svedana-hot fomentation therapy) is formed from various materials, or, like a chariot being constructed from various chariot parts. Therefore, we assert that the embryo is formed of various factors, viz. maternal factor, paternal factor, soul, wholesome regimen and rasa. The mind serves as the connecting link. (Thus) said Lord Atreya. [14]

भरद्वाज उवाच-यद्ययमेषां नानाविधानां गर्भकराणां भावानां समुदायादभिनिर्वर्तते गर्भः कथमयं सन्धीयते, यदि चापिसन्धीयते कस्मात् समुदायप्रभवः सन् गर्भो मनुष्यविग्रहेण जायते, मनुष्यश्च मनुष्यप्रभव उच्यते; तत्रचेदिष्टमेतद्यस्मान्मनुष्यो मनुष्यप्रभवस्तस्मादेव मनुष्यविग्रहेण जायते, यथा- गौर्गोप्रभवः, यथा- चाश्वोऽश्वप्रभव इति; एवंसति यदुक्तमग्रे समुदयात्मक इति तदयुक्तम्| यदि च मनुष्यो मनुष्यप्रभवः, कस्माज्जडान्धकुब्जमूकवामनमिम्मिनव्यङ्गोन्मत्तकुष्ठिकिलासिभ्यो जाताः पितृसदृशरूपा न भवन्ति| अथात्रापि बुद्धिरेवं स्यात्- स्वेनैवायमात्मा चक्षुषा रूपाणि वेत्ति, श्रोत्रेण शब्दान्, घ्राणेन गन्धान्, रसनेन रसान्, स्पर्शनेनस्पर्शान्, बुद्ध्या बोद्धव्यमित्यनेन हेतुना न जडादिभ्यो जाताः पितृसदृशा भवन्ति| अत्रापि प्रतिज्ञाहानिदोषः स्यात्, एवमुक्ते ह्यात्मा सत्स्विन्द्रियेषु ज्ञः स्यादसत्स्वज्ञः; यत्र चैतदुभयं सम्भवति ज्ञत्वमज्ञत्वं च,सविकारश्चात्मा | यदि च दर्शनादिभिरात्मा विषयान् वेत्ति, निरिन्द्रियो दर्शनादिविरहादज्ञः स्यात्, अज्ञत्वादकारणम्, अकारणत्वाच्च नात्मेतिवाग्वस्तुमात्रमेतद्वचनमनर्थं स्यादिति (होवाच भरद्वाजः)||१५||

bharadvāja uvāca- yadyayamēṣāṁ nānāvidhānāṁ garbhakarāṇāṁ bhāvānāṁ samudāyādabhinirvartatēgarbhaḥ kathamayaṁ sandhīyatē, yadi cāpi sandhīyatē kasmāt samudāyaprabhavaḥ san garbhōmanuṣyavigrahēṇa jāyatē, manuṣyaśca manuṣyaprabhava ucyatē; tatra cēdiṣṭamētadyasmānmanuṣyōmanuṣyaprabhavastasmādēva manuṣyavigrahēṇa jāyatē, yathā- gaurgōprabhavaḥ, yathā-cāśvō'śvaprabhava iti; ēvaṁ sati yaduktamagrē samudayātmaka iti tadayuktam| yadi ca manuṣyō manuṣyaprabhavaḥ,kasmājjaḍāndhakubjamūkavāmanamimminavyaṅgōnmattakuṣṭhikilāsibhyō jātāḥ pitr̥sadr̥śarūpā nabhavanti| athātrāpi buddhirēvaṁ syāt- svēnaivāyamātmā cakṣuṣā rūpāṇi vētti, śrōtrēṇa śabdān, ghrāṇēna gandhān,rasanēna rasān, sparśanēna sparśān, buddhyā bōddhavyamityanēna hētunā na jaḍādibhyō jātāḥ pitr̥sadr̥śā bhavanti| atrāpi pratijñāhānidōṣaḥ syāt, ēvamuktē hyātmā satsvindriyēṣu jñaḥ syādasatsvajñaḥ; yatra caitadubhayaṁsambhavati jñatvamajñatvaṁ ca, savikāraścātmā | yadi ca darśanādibhirātmā viṣayān vētti, nirindriyō darśanādivirahādajñaḥ syāt, ajñatvādakāraṇam,akāraṇatvācca nātmēti vāgvastumātramētadvacanamanarthaṁ syāditi (hōvāca bharadvājaḥ)||15||

bharadvAja uvAca- yadyayameShAM nAnAvidhAnAM garbhakarANAM bhAvAnAM samudAyAdabhinirvartate garbhaHkathamayaM sandhIyate, yadi cApi sandhIyate kasmAt samudAyaprabhavaH san garbho manuShyavigraheNa jAyate,manuShyashca manuShyaprabhava ucyate; tatra cediShTametadyasmAnmanuShyo manuShyaprabhavastasmAdevamanuShyavigraheNa jAyate, yathA- gaurgoprabhavaH, yathA- cAshvo~ashvaprabhava iti; evaM sati yaduktamagresamudayAtmaka iti tadayuktam| yadi ca manuShyo manuShyaprabhavaH,kasmAjjaDAndhakubjamUkavAmanamimminavya~ggonmattakuShThikilAsibhyo jAtAH pitRusadRusharUpA nabhavanti| athAtrApi buddhirevaM syAt- svenaivAyamAtmA cakShuShA rUpANi vetti, shrotreNa shabdAn, ghrANena gandhAn,rasanena rasAn, sparshanena sparshAn, buddhyA boddhavyamityanena hetunA na jaDAdibhyo jAtAH pitRusadRushA bhavanti| atrApi pratij~jAhAnidoShaH syAt, evamukte hyAtmA satsvindriyeShu j~jaH syAdasatsvaj~jaH; yatra caitadubhayaMsambhavati j~jatvamaj~jatvaM ca, savikArashcAtmA | yadi ca darshanAdibhirAtmA viShayAn vetti, nirindriyo darshanAdivirahAdaj~jaH syAt, aj~jatvAdakAraNam,akAraNatvAcca nAtmeti vAgvastumAtrametadvacanamanarthaM syAditi (hovAca bharadvAjaH)||15||

Bharadvāja said, -If the embryo is formed out of the combination of these various reproductive factors, then how do they get united? If we put aside their combination, then how come the union of these factors results in the formation of a human offspring? Man is known to be born from another man. If it is argued that the individual takes the form of a human being because he is born out of a man, just as a cow is born out of a cow and a horse from a horse, then, the statement that the embryo is formed out of the combination of all these factors becomes wrong. If the man is born from another man, then why is the child, born to parents who are dull, blind, hunch-backed, mute, dwarf, lisping, suffering from freckles, insane, afflicted with kushtha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy) and kilasa (leucoderma), is not afflicted with the same? To resolve this, if it is argued that the individuals born of the aforementioned afflictions do not suffer the defects of their parents because the soul perceives information through its own eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin, and intellect etc., this too becomes false, because the soul will be endowed with consciousness only in the presence of sense organs and not otherwise. Thus, the soul will be both conscious and ignorant. Hence this would imply that the soul undergoes changes. If the soul understands things by vision etc., in the absence of these sense organs he won’t be able to perceive, due to which it cannot serve as a causative factor. And if the soul is not a causative factor, then it cannot be called atman (soul). Thus, this proposition will be ridiculed as meaningless. [15]

आत्रेय उवाच- पुरस्तादेतत् प्रतिज्ञातं- सत्त्वं जीवं स्पृक्शरीरेणाभिसम्बध्नातीति| यस्मात्तु समुदायप्रभवः सन् स गर्भो मनुष्यविग्रहेण जायते, मनुष्यो मनुष्यप्रभव इत्युच्यते, तद्वक्ष्यामः- भूतानां चतुर्विधायोनिर्भवति- जराय्वण्डस्वेदोद्भिदः| तासां खलु चतसृणामपि योनीनामेकैका योनिरपरिसङ्ख्येयभेदा भवति, भूतानामाकृतिविशेषापरिसङ्ख्येयत्वात्| तत्र जरायुजानामण्डजानां च प्राणिनामेते गर्भकरा भावा यां यां योनिमापद्यन्ते, तस्यां तस्यां योनौ तथातथारूपा भवन्ति;यथा- कनकरजतताम्रत्रपुसीसकान्यासिच्यमानानि तेषु तेषु मधूच्छिष्टविग्रहेषु, तानि यदा मनुष्यबिम्बमापद्यन्ते तदामनुष्यविग्रहेण जायन्ते, तस्मात् समुदायप्रभावः सन् गर्भो मनुष्यविग्रहेण जायते; मनुष्यश्च मनुष्यप्रभव उच्यते,तद्योनित्वात्||१६||

ātrēya uvāca- purastādētat pratijñātaṁ- sattvaṁ jīvaṁ spr̥kśarīrēṇābhisambadhnātīti| yasmāttu samudāyaprabhavaḥ san sa garbhō manuṣyavigrahēṇa jāyatē, manuṣyō manuṣyaprabhavaityucyatē, tadvakṣyāmaḥ- bhūtānāṁ caturvidhā yōnirbhavati- jarāyvaṇḍasvēdōdbhidaḥ| tāsāṁ khalu catasr̥ṇāmapi yōnīnāmēkaikā yōniraparisaṅkhyēyabhēdā bhavati,bhūtānāmākr̥tiviśēṣāparisaṅkhyēyatvāt| tatra jarāyujānāmaṇḍajānāṁ ca prāṇināmētē garbhakarā bhāvā yāṁ yāṁ yōnimāpadyantē, tasyāṁ tasyāṁyōnau tathātathārūpā bhavanti; yathā- kanakarajatatāmratrapusīsakānyāsicyamānāni tēṣu tēṣumadhūcchiṣṭavigrahēṣu, tāni yadā manuṣyabimbamāpadyantē tadā manuṣyavigrahēṇa jāyantē, tasmātsamudāyaprabhāvaḥ san garbhō manuṣyavigrahēṇa jāyatē; manuṣyaśca manuṣyaprabhava ucyatē,tadyōnitvāt||16||

Atreya uvAca- purastAdetat pratij~jAtaM- sattvaM jIvaM spRuksharIreNAbhisambadhnAtIti| yasmAttu samudAyaprabhavaH san sa garbho manuShyavigraheNa jAyate, manuShyo manuShyaprabhava ityucyate,tadvakShyAmaH- bhUtAnAM caturvidhA yonirbhavati- jarAyvaNDasvedodbhidaH| tAsAM khalu catasRuNAmapi yonInAmekaikA yoniraparisa~gkhyeyabhedA bhavati,bhUtAnAmAkRutivisheShAparisa~gkhyeyatvAt| tatra jarAyujAnAmaNDajAnAM ca prANinAmete garbhakarA bhAvA yAM yAM yonimApadyante, tasyAM tasyAM yonautathAtathArUpA bhavanti; yathA- kanakarajatatAmratrapusIsakAnyAsicyamAnAni teShu teShumadhUcchiShTavigraheShu, tAni yadA manuShyabimbamApadyante tadA manuShyavigraheNa jAyante, tasmAtsamudAyaprabhAvaH san garbho manuShyavigraheNa jAyate; manuShyashca manuShyaprabhava ucyate,tadyonitvAt||16||

Lord Ātreya said, “It has already been concluded that the mind connects the soul with the body. A human being is considered to be a cause for the creation of another human being simply because an embryo is a combination of various factors that produce a human form.Thus there are four classes of living beings, viz. jarayuja (viviparous), andaja (oviparous), svedaja (living-beings born of damp heat) and udbhida (living-beings born by sprouting from the earth). Each of these four classes is of innumerable types. This is due to the countless distinct characters they possess. Just as molten gold, silver, copper, tin and lead , poured into various molds of beeswax, take the form of the mold, viviparous and oviparous beings take their specific forms based on the womb the reproductive factors enter into. So when they come in contact with the human womb, they get into the human form.” [16]

यच्चोक्तं- यदि च मनुष्यो मनुष्यप्रभवः, कस्मान्न जडादिभ्यो जाताः पितृसदृशरूपा भवन्तीति; तत्रोच्यते-यस्य यस्यह्यङ्गावयवस्य बीजे बीज भाग उपतप्तो भवति, तस्य तस्याङ्गावयवस्य विकृतिरुपजायते, नोपजायते चानुपतापात्;तस्मादुभयोपपत्तिरप्यत्र| सर्वस्य चात्मजानीन्द्रियाणि, तेषां भावाभावहेतुर्दैवं; तस्मान्नैकान्ततो जडादिभ्यो जाताः पितृसदृशरूपा भवन्ति||१७||

yaccōktaṁ-yadi ca manuṣyō manuṣyaprabhavaḥ, kasmānna jaḍādibhyō jātāḥ pitr̥sadr̥śarūpā bhavantīti;tatrōcyatē-yasya yasya hyaṅgāvayavasya bījē bīja bhāga upataptō bhavati, tasya tasyāṅgāvayavasyavikr̥tirupajāyatē, nōpajāyatē cānupatāpāt; tasmādubhayōpapattirapyatra| sarvasya cātmajānīndriyāṇi, tēṣāṁ bhāvābhāvahēturdaivaṁ; tasmānnaikāntatō jaḍādibhyō jātāḥpitr̥sadr̥śarūpā bhavanti||17||

yaccoktaM-yadi ca manuShyo manuShyaprabhavaH, kasmAnna jaDAdibhyo jAtAH pitRusadRusharUpA bhavantIti;tatrocyate- yasya yasya hya~ggAvayavasya bIje bIja bhAga upatapto bhavati, tasya tasyA~ggAvayavasyavikRutirupajAyate, nopajAyate cAnupatApAt; tasmAdubhayopapattirapyatra| sarvasya cAtmajAnIndriyANi, teShAM bhAvAbhAvaheturdaivaM; tasmAnnaikAntato jaDAdibhyo jAtAHpitRusadRusharUpA bhavanti||17||

So, the answer to the previous question “if the human being is a product of another human being, why is a progeny of a dull human being not always dull?” is that, if the part of the beeja (seed - sperm or ovum) responsible for the development of a specific organ is afflicted, the respective organ will be afflicted too. However, if the beeja is not afflicted, there would be no affliction of the respective organ. So both the possibilities are there. In fact, the sense organs of all the living beings are derived from the soul and their presence or absence is determined by karma i.e. the result of the past action. So the offspring of dull parents do not necessarily resemble their parents in those qualities. [17]

न चात्मा सत्स्विन्द्रियेषु ज्ञः, असत्सु वा भवत्यज्ञः; न ह्यसत्त्वः कदाचिदात्मा, सत्त्वविशेषाच्चोपलभ्यते ज्ञानविशेष इति||१८||

na cātmā satsvindriyēṣu jñaḥ, asatsu vā bhavatyajñaḥ; na hyasattvaḥ kadācidātmā,sattvaviśēṣāccōpalabhyatē jñānaviśēṣa iti||18||

na cAtmA satsvindriyeShu j~jaH, asatsu vA bhavatyaj~jaH; na hyasattvaH kadAcidAtmA,sattvavisheShAccopalabhyate j~jAnavisheSha iti||18||

It is not that the soul is conscious only when it possesses sense organs and is devoid of consciousness otherwise. The soul and mind are inseparable, hence always conscious. [18]

भवन्ति चात्र- न कर्तुरिन्द्रियाभावात् कार्यज्ञानं प्रवर्तते| या क्रिया वर्तते भावैः सा विना तैर्न वर्तते||१९|| bhavanti cātra- na karturindriyābhāvāt kāryajñānaṁ pravartatē| yā kriyā vartatē bhāvaiḥ sā vinā tairna vartatē||19||

bhavanti cAtra- na karturindriyAbhAvAt kAryaj~jAnaM pravartate| yA kriyA vartate bhAvaiH sA vinA tairna vartate||19||

It(the soul) cannot perform various actions in the absence of the sense organs though awareness exists. So it is not possible to perform any action in the absence of sense organs. [19]

जानन्नपि मृदोऽभावात् कुम्भकृन्न प्रवर्तते| श्रूयतां चेदमध्यात्ममात्मज्ञानबलं महत्||२०|| jānannapi mr̥dō'bhāvāt kumbhakr̥nna pravartatē| śrūyatāṁ cēdamadhyātmamātmajñānabalaṁ mahat||20||

jAnannapi mRudo~abhAvAt kumbhakRunna pravartate| shrUyatAM cedamadhyAtmamAtmaj~jAnabalaM mahat||20||

A potter cannot function in the absence of clay even when he is knowledgeable and skilled. Listen to this spiritual wisdom- a greatly powerful knowledge of the soul. [20]

इन्द्रियाणि च सङ्क्षिप्य मनः सङ्क्षिप्य चञ्चलम्| प्रविश्याध्यात्ममात्मज्ञः स्वे ज्ञाने पर्यवस्थितः||२१||

indriyāṇi ca saṅkṣipya manaḥ saṅkṣipya cañcalam| praviśyādhyātmamātmajñaḥ svē jñānē paryavasthitaḥ||21||

indriyANi ca sa~gkShipya manaH sa~gkShipya ca~jcalam| pravishyAdhyAtmamAtmaj~jaH sve j~jAne paryavasthitaH||21||

The knower of one's self should control his sense organs, and the fickle, restless mind and then enter spirituality to establish himself in self-knowledge. [21]

सर्वत्रावहितज्ञानः सर्वभावान् परीक्षते| गृह्णीष्व चे(वे)दमपरं भरद्वाज विनिर्णयम्||२२||

sarvatrāvahitajñānaḥ sarvabhāvān parīkṣatē| gr̥hṇīṣva cē(vē)damaparaṁ bharadvāja vinirṇayam||22||

sarvatrAvahitaj~jAnaH sarvabhAvAn parIkShate| gRuhNIShva ce(ve)damaparaM bharadvAja vinirNayam||22||

Comprehend this another conclusion, Bharadvaja!- The awareness of harm, everywhere, should be examined from all the aspects. ||22||

निवृत्तेन्द्रियवाक्चेष्टः सुप्तः स्वप्नगतो यदा| विषयान् सुखदुःखे च वेत्ति नाज्ञोऽप्यतः स्मृतः||२३||

nivr̥ttēndriyavākcēṣṭaḥ suptaḥ svapnagatō yadā| viṣayān sukhaduḥkhē ca vētti nājñō'pyataḥ smr̥taḥ||23||

nivRuttendriyavAkceShTaH suptaH svapnagato yadA| viShayAn sukhaduHkhe ca vetti nAj~jo~apyataH smRutaH||23||

A person who is asleep and dreaming experiences happiness and sorrow even in the absence of functioning senses, speech and other activities. So he isn't without consciousness. ||23||

नात्मज्ञानादृते चैकं ज्ञानं किञ्चित् प्रवर्तते| न ह्येको वर्तते भावो वर्तते नाप्यहेतुकः||२४||

nātmajñānādr̥tē caikaṁ jñānaṁ kiñcit pravartatē| na hyēkō vartatē bhāvō vartatē nāpyahētukaḥ||24||

nAtmaj~jAnAdRute caikaM j~jAnaM ki~jcit pravartate| na hyeko vartate bhAvo vartate nApyahetukaH||24||

There can be no knowledge without the knowledge of the soul. Nothing functions solely without a causative agent. [24]

तस्माज्ज्ञः प्रकृतिश्चात्मा द्रष्टा कारणमेव च| सर्वमेतद्भरद्वाज निर्णीतं जहि संशयम्||२५||

tasmājjñaḥ prakr̥tiścātmā draṣṭā kāraṇamēva ca| sarvamētadbharadvāja nirṇītaṁ jahi saṁśayam||25||

tasmAjj~jaH prakRutishcAtmA draShTA kAraNameva ca| sarvametadbharadvAja nirNItaM jahi saMshayam||25||

The soul is the knower, the nature, the viewer and the cause. This is the conclusion of everything, Bharadvāja. Hence, be doubt-free. [25]

Summary

तत्र श्लोकौ- हेतुर्गर्भस्य निर्वृत्तौ वृद्धौ जन्मनि चैव यः| पुनर्वसुमतिर्या च भरद्वाजमतिश्च या||२६||

प्रतिज्ञाप्रतिषेधश्च विशदश्चात्मनिर्णयः| गर्भावक्रान्तिमुद्दिश्य खुड्डीकां तत्प्रकाशितम्||२७||

tatra ślōkau- hēturgarbhasya nirvr̥ttau vr̥ddhau janmani caiva yaḥ| punarvasumatiryā ca bharadvājamatiśca yā||26||

pratijñāpratiṣēdhaśca viśadaścātmanirṇayaḥ| garbhāvakrāntimuddiśya khuḍḍīkāṁ tatprakāśitam||27||

tatra shlokau- heturgarbhasya nirvRuttau vRuddhau janmani caiva yaH| punarvasumatiryA ca bharadvAjamatishca yA||26||

pratij~jApratiShedhashca vishadashcAtmanirNayaH| garbhAvakrAntimuddishya khuDDIkAM tatprakAshitam||27||

In summary, in this minor chapter on the embryogenesis in the context of sharira (human biology), the following topics were discussed- factors responsible for the formation, growth and birth of the embryo, the dialogue between Punarvasu (Lord Atreya) and Bharadvāja on this topic, the refutation on the conclusions (by Bharadvāja), and a detailed exposition on the nature of the soul. [26-27]

इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृते शारीरस्थाने खुड्डीकागर्भावक्रान्तिशारीरं नाम तृतीयोऽध्यायः||३||

ityagnivēśakr̥tē tantrē carakapratisaṁskr̥tē śārīrasthānē

khuḍḍīkāgarbhāvakrāntiśārīraṁ nāma tr̥tīyō'dhyāyaḥ||3||

ityagniveshakRute tantre carakapratisaMskRute shArIrasthAne khuDDIkAgarbhAvakrAntishArIraM nAma tRutIyo~adhyAyaH||3||

Thus ends the third chapter on “the formation of embryo” in the context of Sharira of the Sharira Sthana of Agnivesha’s work redacted by Charaka.

Tattva Vimarsha

  • Six components interplay in the genesis, growth and development of garbha (fetus). These are - matrija (maternal), pitraja (paternal), atmaja (soul), satmyaja (suitable environment), rasaja (nourishment), and sattvaja or mana (psyche).
    • There is equilibrium of interplay (satmyaja) between all the components.
    • From the mother (X chromosome), skin, blood, muscles, fat, umbilicus, heart, kloma (interstitial space), liver, spleen, kidney, bladder, purishadhana (sigmoid colon), stomach, pakvashaya (intestines), rectum, anus, vapa (adipose tissue), and omentum contribute to the formation of the fetus. Examples of diseases from X chromosome are hemophilia, muscular dystrophy etc.
    • From father (Y chromosome), scalp hair, beard, nail, teeth, bones, veins, ligaments, arteries and sperm are the contributing factors. Example of diseases from Y chromosome: hypertrichosis, azoospermia, retinitis, pigmentosa.
    • From atma: growth and development and all events in life.
    • From satmyaja: (suitable environment): creation of complete health.
    • From rasaja: (nourishment).
    • From sattvaja: manifestations of mind.
  • Blind parent’s offspring will not be blind if there is no gene defect.

Vidhi Vimarsha

The following factors can be considered, keeping in mind the statement “a man with retas (semen), not afflicted by any abnormality, and a woman with disease-free yoni(genital tract), shonita (ovum), and garbhashaya (uterine bed), when sexually unite during the fertile phase” is being put into context.

Male Factors

  1. Endocrine disorders: Hypothalamic dysfunction (Kallmann's syndrome), Pituitary failure (tumor, radiation, surgery, hyperprolactinemia (drug, tumor), exogenous androgens, thyroid disorders, adrenal hyperplasia
  2. Anatomic disorders: congenital absence of vas deferens, obstruction of vas deferens, congenital abnormalities of ejaculatory system
  3. Abnormal spermatogenesis: chromosomal abnormalities, mumps, orchitis, cryptorchidism, chemical or radiation exposure.
  4. Abnormal motility: absent cilia (kartagener's syndrome), varicocele, antibody formation
  5. Sexual dysfunction: retrograde ejaculation, impotence, decreased libido.

Female Factors

Ovulatory factors
  1. Central defects: chronic hyperandrogenemic anovulation, hyperprolactinemia (drug, tumor), hypothalamic insufficiency, pituitary insufficiency (trauma, tumor, congenital)
  2. Peripheral defects: gonadal dysgenesis, premature ovarian failure, ovarian tumor, ovarian resistance
  3. Metabolic disease: thyroid disease, liver disease, renal disease, obesity, androgen excess: adrenal or neoplastic
Pelvic factors
  1. Infection appendicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, uterine adhesions (asherman's syndrome),
  2. Endometriosis
  3. Structural abnormalities diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure, failure of normal fusion of the reproductive tract, myoma
Cervical factors
  1. Congenital: diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure, müllerian duct abnormality
  2. Acquired: sequel of surgical treatment, Infection

The first class of foods (meat soups and others) is said to be of high nutritive value conducive for the formation of healthy rasa. The second class of foods (syamaka and others) is said to be otherwise.

It is known that folic acid supplementation starting before pregnancy can reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. Even deficient maternal vitamin B (12) status has been reported to be associated with a significantly increased risk of neural tube defects. [1] [2]These studies are suggestive of the fact that maternal nutrition plays an important role in embryogenesis. The factor rasa in this context, in fact is indicative of maternal nutrition.

It may be noted that the nuclear genome is characterized by homologous pairs of chromosomes of biparental origin. However, the mitochondrial DNA is transferred exclusively from the mother to the offspring without undergoing any recombination as the paternal mitochondrial DNA undergoes degradation during fertilization. It is interesting to note that the organs afflicted by the diseases transmitted through mitochondrial inheritance are skeletal muscles, brain, heart, eye, colon, pancreas, inner ear, liver, kidney and blood.[3]

The term shukra has been described to be of two forms in Ayurveda textbooks:

  1. The one that is ejaculated during the process of mating, which is responsible for fertilization of ovum and thus embryogenesis, and
  2. The one that is formed from majja (marrow, or the tissue that fills up bone cavities) which in turn circulates all over the body both in males and females. Reproduction is the function of this second form of shukra also. Therefore, on careful examination, it seems that the first form of shukra stands for semen in general and for sperms in particular and, the second form of shukra stands for hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis of hormones that circulates all over the body. For instance, the GnRH of the hypothalamus stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete LH which in turn stimulates testes and ovaries to form hormones such as testosterone, estrogen and progesterone. As per Ayurveda classics, the brain, and thus, the hypothalamus, is obviously a part of majja which is enclosed in mastaka. [4]

The term rasa has been translated by various authors as chyme, chyle, lymph, plasma etc. However, it is difficult to restrict the meaning of this term to any of such specific fluids. As rasa has been described to be a colorless fluid that gets propelled out of the heart by vyana vayu into the vascular tree, it is more logical to translate it as plasma. However, the fluids in the interstitial spaces and the fluid in the lymphatic vessels also are to be included under rasa because we find no other apt term that describes these fluids. Moreover, the word rasa includes all those bodily fluids that flow. As the major function of rasa is to nourish the other tissues, we have translated it as nutritive fluid in this context. [5]

References

  1. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group. Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet.1991;338 (8760):131– 137
  2. Molloy AM, Kirke PN, Troendle JF, Burke H, Sutton M, Brody LC, Scott JM, Mills JL. Maternal vitamin B12 status and risk of neural tube defects in a population with high neural tube defect prevalence and no folic acid fortification. Pediatrics 2009;123:917–23.
  3. Mitochondrial DNA and Heritable Traits and Diseases. Anthony S. Fauci, Dennis L. Kasper, Dan L. Longo et al. (Editors) in: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. Seventeenth Edition. 2008. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. USA. ISBN 978-0-07-146633-2
  4. Patwardhan K. Human Physiology in Ayurveda. Varanasi, India: Chaukhambha Orientalia, 2008, Jiakrishnadas series no. 134.
  5. Patwardhan K. The history of the discovery of blood circulation: unrecognized contributions of Ayurveda masters. Adv Physiol Educ. 2012;36:77–82.

Further reading

  1. Dhiman K, Kumar A, Dhiman K S. Shad Garbhakara Bhavas vis-a-vis congenital and genetic disorders. AYU 2010;31:175-84. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3215361/. (Date last accessed: 14th March 2014)
  2. D. G. Thatte and Bhuvesh Gupta. Embryology in Ayurveda (Textual Concepts with Recent Advances). Chowkhambha Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi. 2011.
  3. Abhimanyu Kumar. Ayurvedic Concepts of Human Embryology. Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan, 2000.
  4. Hong Yi, Lu Xue, Ming-Xiong Guo et al. Gene expression atlas for human embryogenesis. FASEB J. Sep 2010; 24(9): 3341–3350
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