Indriyopakramaniya Adhyaya

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Indriyopakramaniya Adhyaya
Section/Chapter Sutra Sthana Chapter 8
Tetrad/Sub-section Swastha Chatushka
Preceding Chapter Naveganadharaniya Adhyaya
Succeeding Chapter Khuddakachatushpada Adhyaya
Other Sections Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana

Contents

Sutra Sthana Chapter 8, Chapter on the Disciplinary Protocol for Sense and Motor Organs

Abstract

This chapter describes how humans perceive the world surroundings by means of five senses (Hear, see, smell, taste, and touch), how a system of five senses called Indriya Pancha-Panchaka works and communicates with mind to perceive the surroundings and how a person can maintain health by using his/her senses properly (and therefore leading a tempered, ethical life) or suffer from disease by not using their senses properly. It also explains the role of mind, intellect and soul in the entire process of perception. This chapter describes the qualities of the mind based on the predominance of the three fundamental qualities, the triguna (sattva, rajas and tamas), including the illusions created by the mind that makes a common observer perceive through his/her senses, say, multiple minds instead of one. It further describes the spiritual elements (Adhyatma dravya guna sangraha) & their action. The principles of psycho-pathogenesis based on the excessive, deficient and perverted association of five senses with their objects along with the principles of preventing psychic disturbances and preserving the physical, mental and socio-spiritual health in the form of the principles of sadvritta has been elaborately described. This involves a broad range of ethical observances & moral practices for preventing psychosomatic disturbances. Broadly, the practices regarding code of general ethics, diet, natural urges, relationship with women, study, regarding self-control & related to worship have been elaborately described. General ethical practices related to individual, inter- personal & about maintenance of social relations have been included, which are extremely valuable for personal & social health.

Keywords: Pancha-panchaka, indriya, manas, sadvritta, mind, senses, soul, psychology, behaviour therapy, psycho pathology.

Introduction

In earlier chapters dealing with preventive & promotive aspects of health, the principles related to diet , regimens of daily and seasonal routine, have been described. The mind transcends all the sensory faculties that are merely responsible for receiving and transmitting information about their respective external objects. Without the mind, senses cannot perceive their respective objects. In the present chapter, through a study of the mind and the senses, ethical & moral principles of behaviour & conduct have been explained. The senses act as instruments for the mind to express itself as well as for the soul to acquire knowledge. Senses are controlled by the mind, which is further controlled by buddhi (intellect) and ultimately by atma (soul). Thus this chapter deals with indriya, sattva (mind) and atma (soul).

The fundamental system of pancha- panchaka in reference to the perception of sensory objects is also elucidated. This comprises of five sense faculties, five material constituents corresponding to the five sense faculties, five sense organs, five sense objects and five sense perceptions. All the five components of a particular indriya (sense organ) are inter-related. All the senses work under the coordination of mind. The mind possesses quality of being atindriya i.e. it transcends all the five sense faculties and at the same time and yet is different from those faculties.

The mind does not have constituent elements like senses. Further, the function of the indriyas (sense faculties) is limited only to its specific sense but the mind has generalised action to every sense. An object can only be perceived by the mind. The ethical and moral principles of life described under sadvritta are the essence of preventive and promotive aspects of health. They train and guide the senses and mind towards better and healthy living, thus promoting sensorial and mental health. They also promote peaceful, happy, prosperous and a more fulfilling life, thereby promoting spiritual health. Some of these principles and directions are intended to protect one’s astral body from getting affected by extra-sensorial evil elements or negative energies like pishacha (evil sprites), rakshasa (demons) etc. These principles may not seem applicable in today’s society due to the changes in contemporary thinking, civilization and social culture since the time of writing of this text, though researches can provide more evidences about their applications.

The sadvritta or ethical observances consist of self-control and proper activities. It includes self-reliance, auto suggestions and physical, mental, verbal and all sorts of activities in daily life along with an ability to discern and exercise control over suppressible and non- suppressible urges. So, the principles of good conducts (sadvritta) aim to preserve all dimensions of health. It also provides unique insights into the Ayurvedic way of managing life and health. It considers the man as a social organism. His relationship with society is very important from the standpoint of life and health. Therefore, practice of virtues and behaviour in accordance to prevalent social traditions is imperative for the prevention of diseases and promotion of good health. Charaka says that diseases have their origin in mind. All diseases are due to prajnaparadha (pragyaparadha, or Intellectual defect) as the direct cause, but it is also influenced by excessive, deficient and improper association of senses with their objects (asatmyendriyartha), which is described in this chapter. In a nutshell, this chapter describes unique ways and means of preventing diseases, preserving personal and social health, and leading a productive and useful social life.

Sanskrit text, Transliteration and English translation

अथात इन्द्रियोपक्रमणीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||

इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||2||

Ahāta indriyōpakramaṇīyamadhyāyaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||

iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

athAta indriyopakramaNIyamadhyAyaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||

iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

Hereafter, I will describe the Chapter on the disciplinary protocol for sense organs.

As propounded by Lord Atreya [1-2]

Indriya pancha-panchaka (Five pentads of sense organs)

इह खलु पञ्चेन्द्रियाणि, पञ्चेन्द्रियद्रव्याणि, पञ्चेन्द्रियाधिष्ठानानि, पञ्चेन्द्रियार्थाः, पञ्चेन्द्रियबुद्धयो भवन्ति,इत्युक्तमिन्द्रियाधिकारे||३||

Iha khalu pañcēndriyāṇi, pañcēndriyadravyāṇi, pañcēndriyādhiṣṭhānāni, pañcēndriyārthāḥ,pañcēndriyabuddhayō bhavanti, ityuktamindriyādhikārē||3||

iha khalu pa~jcendriyANi, pa~jcendriyadravyANi, pa~jcendriyAdhiShThAnAni, pa~jcendriyArthAH, pa~jcendriyabuddhayo bhavanti, ityuktamindriyAdhikAre||3||

There are five sense organs, five (types of) matters of sense organs, five (different) sites of sense organs, five sense objects and five (types of) sensory perceptions, thus said in the context of sense organs [3]

Super-sensuality of mind

अतीन्द्रियं पुनर्मनः सत्त्वसञ्ज्ञकं, ‘चेतः’ इत्याहुरेके, तदर्थात्मसम्पदायत्तचेष्टं चेष्टाप्रत्ययभूतमिन्द्रियाणाम्||४||

Atīndriyaṁ punarmanaḥ sattvasañjñakaṁ, ‘cētaḥ’ ityāhurēkē, tadarthātmasampadāyattacēṣṭaṁcēṣṭāpratyayabhūtamindriyāṇām||4|| atIndriyaM punarmanaH sattvasa~jj~jakaM, ‘cetaH’ ityAhureke, tadarthAtmasampadAyattaceShTaM ceShTApratyayabhUtamindriyANAm||4||

Mind transcends the sense organs. It is termed as sattva, while some others call it as chetas. Its action is dependent on its objects and accomplishments of the Self i.e. atman or atma. It is responsible for the actions of the sense organs. [4]

Cause of diverse manifestations of one and same mind

स्वार्थेन्द्रियार्थसङ्कल्पव्यभिचरणाच्चानेकमेकस्मिन् पुरुषे सत्त्वं, रजस्तमःसत्त्वगुणयोगाच्च; न चानेकत्वं, नह्येकं ह्येककालमनेकेषु प्रवर्तते ; तस्मान्नैककाला सर्वेन्द्रियप्रवृत्तिः||५||

Svārthēndriyārthasaṅkalpavyabhicaraṇāccānēkamēkasmin puruṣē sattvaṁ,rajastamaḥsattvaguṇayōgācca; na cānēkatvaṁ, nahyēkaṁ hyēkakālamanēkēṣu pravartatē ;tasmānnaikakālā sarvēndriyapravr̥ttiḥ||5||

svArthendriyArthasa~gkalpavyabhicaraNAccAnekamekasmin puruShe sattvaM, rajastamaHsattvaguNayogAcca; na cAnekatvaM, nahyekaM hyekakAlamanekeShupravartate ; tasmAnnaikakAlA sarvendriyapravRuttiH||5||

In a single person, mind seems to be numerous because of variations in its own objects, objects of sense organs, its analytical activity related to quickly moving and making its contact with different sensory organs and also due to its inherent connection with the qualities of rajas, tamas and sattva, but in reality it is one. Mind being one, there is no contact with more than one sense organ at a time and therefore there is no simultaneous activity of all the sense organs. [5]

Determination of Psychological Trait

यद्गुणं चाभीक्ष्णं पुरुषमनुवर्तते सत्त्वं तत्सत्त्वमेवोपदिशन्ति मुनयो बाहुल्यानुशयात्||६||

Yadguṇaṁ cābhīkṣṇaṁ puruṣamanuvartatē sattvaṁ tatsattvamēvōpadiśanti munayō bāhulyānuśayāt||6||

yadguNaM cAbhIkShNaM puruShamanuvartate sattvaM tatsattvamevopadishanti munayo bAhulyAnushayAt||6||

The sages describe the mind according to the predominance of the guna (quality or predisposition), which is predominantly and repeatedly represented in the mind of a person. [6]

Perception by Association of Mind and Sense Organs

मनःपुरःसराणीन्द्रियाण्यर्थग्रहणसमर्थानि भवन्ति||७||

Manaḥpuraḥsarāṇīndriyāṇyarthagrahaṇasamarthāni bhavanti||7||

manaHpuraHsarANIndriyANyarthagrahaNasamarthAni bhavanti||7||

The sense organs are capable of perceiving objects only when they are associated with the mind. [7]

Five Sense Organs

तत्र चक्षुः श्रोत्रं घ्राणं रसनं स्पर्शनमिति पञ्चेन्द्रियाणि||८||

Tatra cakṣuḥ śrōtraṁ ghrāṇaṁ rasanaṁ sparśanamiti pañcēndriyāṇi||8||

tatra cakShuH shrotraM ghrANaM rasanaM sparshanamiti pa~jcendriyANi||8||

The five sense organs are-visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory and the tactile.[8]

Five Sense Matters

पञ्चेन्द्रियद्रव्याणि- खं वायुर्ज्योतिरापो भूरिति||९||

pañcēndriyadravyāṇi- khaṁ vāyurjyōtirāpō bhūriti||9||

pa~jcendriyadravyANi- khaM vAyurjyotirApo bhUriti||9||

The five (types of) matter of sense organs are- akasha, vayu, tejas, apa and prithvi . [9]

Five Sites of Sensations

पञ्चेन्द्रियाधिष्ठानानि- अक्षिणी कर्णौ नासिके जिह्वा त्वक् चेति||१०||

Pañcēndriyādhiṣṭhānāni- akṣiṇī karṇau nāsikē jihvā tvak cēti||10||

pa~jcendriyAdhiShThAnAni- akShiNI karNau nAsike jihvA tvak ceti||10||

The five (different) sites of sense organs are- eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin. [10]

Five Sense Objects

पञ्चेन्द्रियार्थाः- शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धाः||११||

Pañcēndriyārthāḥ- śabdasparśarūparasagandhāḥ||11||

pa~jcendriyArthAH- shabdasparsharUparasagandhAH||11||

The five sense objects are – shabda (sound), sparsha (touch), rupa (vision), rasa (taste) and gandha (smell). [11]

Five Sensory Perceptions

पञ्चेन्द्रियबुद्धयः- चक्षुर्बुद्ध्यादिकाः; ताः पुनरिन्द्रियेन्द्रियार्थसत्त्वात्मसन्निकर्षजाः, क्षणिका, निश्चयात्मिकाश्च, इत्येतत्पञ्चपञ्चकम्||१२||

Cakṣurbuddhyādikāḥ; tāḥ punarindriyēndriyārthasattvātmasannikarṣajāḥ,kṣaṇikā, niścayātmikāśca, ityētat pañcapañcakam||12|| pa~jcendriyabuddhayaH- cakShurbuddhyAdikAH; tAH punarindriyendriyArthasattvAtmasannikarShajAH, kShaNikA, nishcayAtmikAshca, ityetatpa~jcapa~jcakam||12||

The five (types of ) sensory perceptions are- visual perception etc. They are produced in conjunction with the senses, sense objects, mind and the self (atman). They are momentary but determinative. The five pentads are thus described. [12]

Adhyatma dravya guna (substances and qualities pertaining to soul)

मनो मनोर्थो बुद्धिरात्मा चेत्यध्यात्मद्रव्यगुणसङ्ग्रहः शुभाशुभप्रवृत्तिनिवृत्तिहेतुश्च, द्रव्याश्रितं चकर्म; यदुच्यते क्रियेति||१३||

Manō manōrthō buddhirātmā cētyadhyātmadravyaguṇasaṅgrahaḥ śubhāśubhapravr̥ttinivr̥ttihētuśca, dravyāśritaṁ ca karma; yaducyatē kriyēti||13||

mano manortho buddhirAtmA cetyadhyAtmadravyaguNasa~ggrahaH shubhAshubhapravRuttinivRuttihetushca, dravyAshritaM [6] ca karma; yaducyate kriyeti||13||

In brief, the substances and qualities pertaining to self (atman) comprise of – the mind, objects of the mind, intellect and the self. This entire set is responsible for an individual’s proclivity towards and abstinence from auspicious and inauspicious acts respectively. Actions also known as therapeutic measures are dependent on substance.[13]

Specific constituents and subjects of sense organs

तत्रानुमानगम्यानां पञ्चमहाभूतविकारसमुदायात्मकानामपि सतामिन्द्रियाणां तेजश्चक्षुषि, खं श्रोत्रे, घ्राणे क्षितिः, आपो रसने,स्पर्शनेऽनिलो विशेषेणोपपद्यते| तत्र यद्यदात्मकमिन्द्रियं विशेषात्तत्तदात्मकमेवार्थमनुगृह्णाति, तत्स्वभावाद्विभुत्वाच्च||१४||

Tatrānumānagamyānāṁ pañcamahābhūtavikārasamudāyātmakānāmapi satāmindriyāṇāṁ tējaścakṣuṣi,khaṁ śrōtrē, ghrāṇē kṣitiḥ, āpō rasanē, sparśanē'nilō viśēṣēṇōpapadyatē| tatra yadyadātmakamindriyaṁ viśēṣāttattadātmakamēvārthamanugr̥hṇāti, tatsvabhāvādvibhutvācca||14||

tatrAnumAnagamyAnAM pa~jcamahAbhUtavikArasamudAyAtmakAnAmapi satAmindriyANAM tejashcakShuShi, khaM shrotre, ghrANe kShitiH, Apo rasane,sparshane~anilo visheSheNopapadyate| tatra yadyadAtmakamindriyaM visheShAttattadAtmakamevArthamanugRuhNAti, tatsvabhAvAdvibhutvAcca||14||

The extant sense organs, which are comprehensible by inference, are composed of the (various) combinations of the five mahabhutas (or basic elements). There is a predominance of tejas in the eyes, akasha in ears, prithvi in nose, apa in tongue and vayu in skin sense organs. Thus, the sense organs perceive their objects according to the predominance of their constituent mahabhuta because of the similarity of their nature (svabhava) and specific capability of sense perception (vibhu) . [14]

Causes of abnormal and normal sensations

तदर्थातियोगायोगमिथ्यायोगात् समनस्कमिन्द्रियं विकृतिमापद्यमानं यथास्वं बुद्ध्युपघाताय सम्पद्यते, सामर्थ्ययोगात् पुनः प्रकृतिमापद्यमानं यथास्वं बुद्धिमाप्याययति||१५||

Tadarthātiyōgāyōgamithyāyōgāt samanaskamindriyaṁ vikr̥timāpadyamānaṁ yathāsvaṁbuddhyupaghātāya sampadyatē, sāmarthyayōgāt punaḥ prakr̥timāpadyamānaṁ yathāsvaṁbuddhimāpyāyayati||15||

tadarthAtiyogAyogamithyAyogAt samanaskamindriyaM vikRutimApadyamAnaM yathAsvaM buddhyupaghAtAya sampadyate, sAmarthyayogAt punaHprakRutimApadyamAnaM yathAsvaM buddhimApyAyayati||15||

Skewed (excessive, deficient and improper) association of senses with their objects of focus, together with the mind, leads to abnormal sensations and emotions, while proper association returns such sensations to normalcy. [15]

Object of mind

मनसस्तु चिन्त्यमर्थः| तत्र मनसो मनोबुद्धेश्च त एव समानातिहीनमिथ्यायोगाः प्रकृतिविकृतिहेतवो भवन्ति||१६||

Manasastu cintyamarthaḥ| tatra manasō manōbuddhēśca ta ēva samānātihīnamithyāyōgāḥ prakr̥tivikr̥tihētavō bhavanti||16||

manasastu cintyamarthaH| tatra manaso manobuddheshca ta eva samAnAtihInamithyAyogAH prakRutivikRutihetavo bhavanti||16||

The objective of the mind is to think. Proper and improper (excessive, deficient and deviant) association of mind and its ultimate perception (mano-buddhi) causes normal and abnormal perceptions respectively. [16]

Preservation of normal mind

तत्रेन्द्रियाणां समनस्कानामनुपतप्तानामनुपतापाय प्रकृतिभावे प्रयतितव्यमेभिर्हेतुभिः; तद्यथा सात्म्येन्द्रियार्थसंयोगेनबुद्ध्या सम्यगवेक्ष्यावेक्ष्य कर्मणां सम्यक् प्रतिपादनेन, देशकालात्मगुणविपरीतोपासनेन चेति| तस्मादात्महितं चिकीर्षता सर्वेण सर्वं सर्वदा स्मृतिमास्थाय सद्वृत्तमनुष्ठेयम्||१७||

Tatrēndriyāṇāṁ samanaskānāmanupataptānāmanupatāpāya prakr̥tibhāvē prayatitavyamēbhirhētubhiḥ;tadyathā- sātmyēndriyārthasaṁyōgēna buddhyā samyagavēkṣyāvēkṣya karmaṇāṁ samyakpratipādanēna, dēśakālātmaguṇaviparītōpāsanēna cēti| tasmādātmahitaṁ cikīrṣatā sarvēṇa sarvaṁ sarvadā smr̥timāsthāya sadvr̥ttamanuṣṭhēyam||17||

tatrendriyANAM samanaskAnAmanupataptAnAmanupatApAya prakRutibhAve prayatitavyamebhirhetubhiH; tadyathA- sAtmyendriyArthasaMyogena buddhyAsamyagavekShyAvekShya karmaNAM samyak pratipAdanena, deshakAlAtmaguNaviparItopAsanena [10] ceti| tasmAdAtmahitaM cikIrShatA sarveNa sarvaM sarvadA smRutimAsthAya sadvRuttamanuShTheyam||17||

One should always make efforts to maintain normalcy of sense organs with mind and protect them from any kind of trauma. This can be achieved by proper association of sense organs and their objects, performance of duties after duly considering their pros and cons with the help of the intellect together with the sense faculties and by following (preventive) measures opposite to the qualities of place, season and one’s own constitution. So all, who are desirous of their own well-being, should always remember and abide by all the codes of conduct (described in the following verse).[17]

Sadvritta (Code of conduct) for positive health and control of senses

तद्ध्यनुतिष्ठन् युगपत् सम्पादयत्यर्थद्वयमारोग्यमिन्द्रियविजयं चेति; तत् सद्वृत्तमखिलेनोपदेक्ष्यामोऽग्निवेश  !तद्यथा- देवगोब्राह्मणगुरुवृद्धसिद्धाचार्यानर्चयेत्, अग्निमुपचरेत्, ओषधीः प्रशस्ता धारयेत्, द्वौ कालावुपस्पृशेत्,मलायनेष्वभीक्ष्णं पादयोश्च वैमल्यमादध्यात्, त्रिःपक्षस्य केशश्मश्रुलोमनखान् संहारयेत्, नित्यमनुपहतवासाः सुमनाः सुगन्धिः स्यात्, साधुवेशः, प्रसिद्धकेशः , मूर्धश्रोत्रघ्राणपादतैलनित्यः, धूमपः, पूर्वाभिभाषी, सुमुखः, दुर्गेष्वभ्युपपत्ता, होता,यष्टा, दाता, चतुष्पथानां नमस्कर्ता, बलीनामुपहर्ता, अतिथीनां पूजकः, पितृभ्यः पिण्डदः, काले हितमितमधुरार्थवादी,वश्यात्मा, धर्मात्मा, हेतावीर्ष्युः, फले नेर्ष्युः, निश्चिन्तः, निर्भीकः, ह्रीमान्, धीमान्, महोत्साहः, दक्षः, क्षमावान्, धार्मिकः,आस्तिकः, विनयबुद्धिविद्याभिजनवयोवृद्धसिद्धाचार्याणामुपासिता , छत्री दण्डी मौली सोपानत्को युगमात्रदृग्विचरेत् ,मङ्गलाचारशीलः, कुचेलास्थिकण्टकामेध्यकेशतुषोत्करभस्मकपालस्नानबलिभूमीनां परिहर्ता, प्राक् श्रमाद् व्यायामवर्जीस्यात्, सर्वप्राणिषु बन्धुभूतः स्यात्, क्रुद्धानामनुनेता, भीतानामाश्वासयिता, दीनानामभ्युपपत्ता, सत्यसन्धः, सामप्रधानः ,परपरुषवचनसहिष्णुः, अमर्षघ्नः, प्रशमगुणदर्शी, रागद्वेषहेतूनां हन्ता च||१८||

Taddhyanutiṣṭhan yugapat sampādayatyarthadvayamārōgyamindriyavijayaṁ cēti; tatsadvr̥ttamakhilēnōpadēkṣyāmō'gnivēśa  ! tadyathā-dēvagōbrāhmaṇaguruvr̥ddhasiddhācāryānarcayēt,agnimupacarēt, ōṣadhīḥ praśastā dhārayēt, dvau kālāvupaspr̥śēt, malāyanēṣvabhīkṣṇaṁ pādayōścavaimalyamādadhyāt, triḥpakṣasya kēśaśmaśrulōmanakhān saṁhārayēt, nityamanupahatavāsāḥ sumanāḥ sugandhiḥ syāt, sādhuvēśaḥ, prasiddhakēśaḥ , mūrdhaśrōtraghrāṇapādatailanityaḥ,dhūmapaḥ, pūrvābhibhāṣī, sumukhaḥ, durgēṣvabhyupapattā, hōtā, yaṣṭā, dātā, catuṣpathānāṁnamaskartā, balīnāmupahartā, atithīnāṁ pūjakaḥ, pitr̥bhyaḥ piṇḍadaḥ, kālē hitamitamadhurārthavādī,vaśyātmā, dharmātmā, hētāvīrṣyuḥ, phalē nērṣyuḥ, niścintaḥ, nirbhīkaḥ, hrīmān, dhīmān, mahōtsāhaḥ,dakṣaḥ, kṣamāvān, dhārmikaḥ, āstikaḥ, vinayabuddhividyābhijanavayōvr̥ddhasiddhācāryāṇāmupāsitā ,chatrī daṇḍī maulī sōpānatkō yugamātradr̥gvicarēt , maṅgalācāraśīlaḥ,kucēlāsthikaṇṭakāmēdhyakēśatuṣōtkarabhasmakapālasnānabalibhūmīnāṁ parihartā, prāk śramādvyāyāmavarjī syāt, sarvaprāṇiṣu bandhubhūtaḥ syāt, kruddhānāmanunētā, bhītānāmāśvāsayitā,dīnānāmabhyupapattā, satyasandhaḥ, sāmapradhānaḥ , paraparuṣavacanasahiṣṇuḥ, amarṣaghnaḥ,praśamaguṇadarśī, rāgadvēṣahētūnāṁ hantā ca||18||

taddhyanutiShThan yugapat sampAdayatyarthadvayamArogyamindriyavijayaM ceti; tat sadvRuttamakhilenopadekShyAmo~agnivesha ! tadyathA-devagobrAhmaNaguruvRuddhasiddhAcAryAnarcayet, agnimupacaret, oShadhIH prashastA dhArayet, dvau kAlAvupaspRushet, malAyaneShvabhIkShNaMpAdayoshca vaimalyamAdadhyAt, triHpakShasya keshashmashrulomanakhAn saMhArayet, nityamanupahatavAsAH sumanAH sugandhiH syAt, sAdhuveshaH,prasiddhakeshaH , mUrdhashrotraghrANapAdatailanityaH, dhUmapaH, pUrvAbhibhAShI, sumukhaH, durgeShvabhyupapattA, hotA, yaShTA, dAtA,catuShpathAnAM namaskartA, balInAmupahartA, atithInAM pUjakaH, pitRubhyaH piNDadaH, kAle hitamitamadhurArthavAdI, vashyAtmA, dharmAtmA,hetAvIrShyuH, phale nerShyuH, nishcintaH, nirbhIkaH, hrImAn, dhImAn, mahotsAhaH, dakShaH, kShamAvAn, dhArmikaH, AstikaH,vinayabuddhividyAbhijanavayovRuddhasiddhAcAryANAmupAsitA, chatrI daNDI maulI sopAnatko yugamAtradRugvicaret , ma~ggalAcArashIlaH,kucelAsthikaNTakAmedhyakeshatuShotkarabhasmakapAlasnAnabalibhUmInAM parihartA, prAk shramAd vyAyAmavarjI syAt, sarvaprANiShu bandhubhUtaH syAt,kruddhAnAmanunetA, bhItAnAmAshvAsayitA, dInAnAmabhyupapattA, satyasandhaH, sAmapradhAnaH , paraparuShavacanasahiShNuH, amarShaghnaH,prashamaguNadarshI, rAgadveShahetUnAM hantA ca||18||

That (sadvritta), if practiced simultaneously fulfills two objectives – maintenance of positive health and control over sense organs. Agnivesha! I shall entirely explain the codes of conduct , such as:

  • One should worship God, cows, Brahmins, preceptors, elderly persons, highly accomplished persons and teachers.
  • One should honor fire with oblation, should put on auspicious herbs
  • One should bathe twice a day, and one should clean his excretory passages and feet frequently
  • Cutting of hair, shaving & nail cutting should be done thrice a fortnight
  • One should always wear untorn clothes, should be cheerful, use flowers and fragrance. The attire should be gentle and style of hair should be as commonly in practice
  • One should apply oil to head, ear, nose, and feet daily and should resort to (healthy) smoking
  • One should take an initiative during discourses and remain pleasant faced.
  • One should save persons in dire situations or distress
  • Should offer oblation, perform religious sacrifices, donations, pay respect to road crossings, offer bali (religious offerings or ritualistic sacrifices)
  • Should offer hospitality to guests, offer pindas (rice balls) to forefathers
  • One should timely speak useful, measured, sweet & meaningful words
  • Should be self controlled & virtuous
  • One should be zealous to the cause but not be anxious about the result/outcome
  • One should be free from anxiety, fearless, shy (from committing bad deeds), wise, highly enthusiastic, skillful, fore bearing, religious, with positive attitude
  • One should be devoted to the teachers, accomplished persons and to those who are superior in modesty, intellect, learning, clan and age.
  • One should walk with an umbrella, stick, turban & foot wear, and look six feet ahead
  • One should adopt auspicious conduct, should avoid places with dirty clothes, bones, thorns, impure articles, hairs, chaff, garbage, ash, and skull and one should bathe & sacrifice
  • Should discontinue exercise before feeling of fatigue.
  • Should behave like brother to all living beings (i.e., should be compassionate), should pacify the angry and the discontent, and console the frightened
  • Should help the poor, be truthful & peaceful.
  • Should be tolerant of harsh words, and should curb the practice of intolerance
  • Should always concentrate on the qualities of peaceful life and should be the remover of the causes of attachment and aversion. [18]

The Forbidden Codes of Conduct

नानृतं ब्रूयात्, नान्यस्वमाददीत, नान्यस्त्रियमभिलषेन्नान्यश्रियं, न वैरं रोचयेत्, न कुर्यात् पापं, न पापेऽपि पापी स्यात्,नान्यदोषान् ब्रूयात्, नान्यरहस्यमागमयेन्, नाधार्मिकैर्न नरेन्द्रद्विष्टैः सहासीत नोन्मत्तैर्न पतितैर्न भ्रूणहन्तृभिर्न क्षुद्रैर्नदुष्टैः, न दुष्टयानान्यारोहेत, न जानुसमं कठिनमासनमध्यासीत, नानास्तीर्णमनुपहितमविशालमसमं वा शयनं प्रपद्येत,न गिरिविषममस्तकेष्वनुचरेत्, न द्रुममारोहेत्, न जलोग्रवेगमवगाहेत, न कुलच्छायामुपासीत , नाग्न्युत्पातमभितश्चरेत्,नोच्चैर्हसेत्, न शब्दवन्तं मारुतं मुञ्चेत्, नानावृतमुखो जृम्भां क्षवथुं हास्यं वा प्रवर्तयेत्, न नासिकां कुष्णीयात्, न दन्तान्विघट्टयेत्, न नखान् वादयेत्, नास्थीन्यभिहन्यात्, न भूमिं विलिखेत्, न छिन्द्यात्तृणं, न लोष्टं मृद्नीयात्, नविगुणमङ्गैश्चेष्टेत, ज्योतींष्यनिष्टममेध्यमशस्तं च नाभिवीक्षेत, न हुङ्कुर्याच्छवं , नचैत्यध्वजगुरुपूज्याशस्तच्छायामाक्रामेत्, न क्षपास्वमरसदनचैत्यचत्वरचतुष्पथोपवनश्मशानाघातनान्यासेवेत , नैकःशून्यगृहं न चाटवीमनुप्रविशेत्, न पापवृत्तान् स्त्रीमित्रभृत्यान् भजेत, नोत्तमैर्विरुध्येत, नावरानुपासीत, न जिह्मं रोचयेत्,नानार्यमाश्रयेत्, न भयमुत्पादयेत्, न साहसातिस्वप्नप्रजागरस्नानपानाशनान्यासेवेत, नोर्ध्वजानुश्चिरं तिष्ठेत्, नव्यालानुपसर्पेन्न दंष्ट्रिणो न विषाणिनः, पुरोवातातपावश्यायातिप्रवाताञ्जह्यात्, कलिं नारभेत, नासुनिभृतोऽग्निमुपासीत नोच्छिष्टः, नाधः कृत्वा प्रतापयेत्, नाविगतक्लमो नानाप्लुतवदनो न नग्न उपस्पृशेत्, न स्नानशाट्या स्पृशेदुत्तमाङ्गं, नकेशाग्राण्यभिहन्यात्, नोपस्पृश्य ते एव वाससी बिभृयात्, नास्पृष्ट्वा रत्नाज्यपूज्यमङ्गलसुमनसोऽभिनिष्क्रामेत्, नपूज्यमङ्गलान्यपसव्यं गच्छेन्नेतराण्यनुदक्षिणम्||१९||

Nānr̥taṁ brūyāt, nānyasvamādadīta, nānyastriyamabhilaṣēnnānyaśriyaṁ, na vairaṁ rōcayēt, na kuryātpāpaṁ, na pāpē'pi pāpī syāt, nānyadōṣān brūyāt, nānyarahasyamāgamayēn, nādhārmikairnanarēndradviṣṭaiḥ sahāsīta nōnmattairna patitairna bhrūṇahantr̥bhirna kṣudrairna duṣṭaiḥ, naduṣṭayānānyārōhēta, na jānusamaṁ kaṭhinamāsanamadhyāsīta,nānāstīrṇamanupahitamaviśālamasamaṁ vā śayanaṁ prapadyēta, na giriviṣamamastakēṣvanucarēt, nadrumamārōhēt, na jalōgravēgamavagāhēta, na kulacchāyāmupāsīta , nāgnyutpātamabhitaścarēt,nōccairhasēt, na śabdavantaṁ mārutaṁ muñcēt, nānāvr̥tamukhō jr̥mbhāṁ kṣavathuṁ hāsyaṁ vāpravartayēt, na nāsikāṁ kuṣṇīyāt, na dantān vighaṭṭayēt, na nakhān vādayēt, nāsthīnyabhihanyāt, nabhūmiṁ vilikhēt, na chindyāttr̥ṇaṁ, na lōṣṭaṁ mr̥dnīyāt, na viguṇamaṅgaiścēṣṭēta,jyōtīṁṣyaniṣṭamamēdhyamaśastaṁ ca nābhivīkṣēta, na huṅkuryācchavaṁ , nacaityadhvajagurupūjyāśastacchāyāmākrāmēt, nakṣapāsvamarasadanacaityacatvaracatuṣpathōpavanaśmaśānāghātanānyāsēvēta , naikaḥ śūnyagr̥haṁna cāṭavīmanupraviśēt, na pāpavr̥ttān strīmitrabhr̥tyān bhajēta, nōttamairvirudhyēta, nāvarānupāsīta, najihmaṁ rōcayēt, nānāryamāśrayēt, na bhayamutpādayēt, nasāhasātisvapnaprajāgarasnānapānāśanānyāsēvēta, nōrdhvajānuściraṁ tiṣṭhēt, na vyālānupasarpēnnadaṁṣṭriṇō na viṣāṇinaḥ, purōvātātapāvaśyāyātipravātāñjahyāt, kaliṁ nārabhēta, nāsunibhr̥tō'gnimupāsīta nōcchiṣṭaḥ, nādhaḥ kr̥tvā pratāpayēt, nāvigataklamō nānāplutavadanō na nagna upaspr̥śēt, nasnānaśāṭyā spr̥śēduttamāṅgaṁ, na kēśāgrāṇyabhihanyāt, nōpaspr̥śya tē ēva vāsasī bibhr̥yāt, nāspr̥ṣṭvāratnājyapūjyamaṅgalasumanasō'bhiniṣkrāmēt, na pūjyamaṅgalānyapasavyaṁgacchēnnētarāṇyanudakṣiṇam||19||

nAnRutaM brUyAt, nAnyasvamAdadIta, nAnyastriyamabhilaShennAnyashriyaM, na vairaM rocayet, na kuryAt pApaM, na pApe~api pApI [22]

syAt, nAnyadoShAnbrUyAt, nAnyarahasyamAgamayen, nAdhArmikairna narendradviShTaiH sahAsIta nonmattairna patitairna bhrUNahantRubhirna kShudrairna duShTaiH, naduShTayAnAnyAroheta, na jAnusamaM [23]

kaThinamAsanamadhyAsIta, nAnAstIrNamanupahitamavishAlamasamaM vA shayanaM prapadyeta, nagiriviShamamastakeShvanucaret, na drumamArohet, na jalogravegamavagAheta, na kulacchAyAmupAsIta [24] ,

nAgnyutpAtamabhitashcaret, noccairhaset, nashabdavantaM mArutaM mu~jcet, nAnAvRutamukho [25]

jRumbhAM kShavathuM hAsyaM vA pravartayet, na nAsikAM kuShNIyAt, na dantAn vighaTTayet, na nakhAnvAdayet, nAsthInyabhihanyAt, na bhUmiM vilikhet, na chindyAttRuNaM, na loShTaM mRudnIyAt, na viguNama~ggaishceShTeta,jyotIMShyaniShTamamedhyamashastaM [26]

ca nAbhivIkSheta, na hu~gkuryAcchavaM [27] ,

na caityadhvajagurupUjyAshastacchAyAmAkrAmet, nakShapAsvamarasadanacaityacatvaracatuShpathopavanashmashAnAghAtanAnyAseveta [28] ,

naikaH shUnyagRuhaM na cATavImanupravishet, na pApavRuttAnstrImitrabhRutyAn bhajeta, nottamairvirudhyeta, nAvarAnupAsIta, na jihmaM rocayet, nAnAryamAshrayet, na bhayamutpAdayet, nasAhasAtisvapnaprajAgarasnAnapAnAshanAnyAseveta, nordhvajAnushciraM tiShThet, na vyAlAnupasarpenna daMShTriNo na viShANinaH,purovAtAtapAvashyAyAtipravAtA~jjahyAt, kaliM nArabheta, nAsunibhRuto~agnimupAsIta [29]

nocchiShTaH, nAdhaH kRutvA pratApayet, nAvigataklamonAnAplutavadano na nagna upaspRushet, na snAnashATyA spRusheduttamA~ggaM, na keshAgrANyabhihanyAt, nopaspRushya te eva vAsasI bibhRuyAt,nAspRuShTvA ratnAjyapUjyama~ggalasumanaso~abhiniShkrAmet, na pUjyama~ggalAnyapasavyaM gacchennetarANyanudakShiNam||19||

  • One should not tell lies and should not take other’s possessions
  • Should not covet other’s women or property
  • Should not indulge in enmity, sinful acts, or be vicious (even to a sinner).
  • Should not point out defects of others and should not try to know other’s secrets.
  • One should not keep company of the unvirtuous, those hated by the king, insane persons, those not following social ethics, foetus killers, wretched and wicked ones.
  • One should not ride on defective vehicles, sit on hard place of knee height, sleep on uncovered hard bed or having no pillow, not having sufficient dimensions or uneven.
  • One should not move on uneven tops of the mountains, climb trees, and take dip in water with strong currents.
  • One should not tread on the shade of a bank, or move around the place that are prone to fire hazards, should not laugh loudly, release flatus with sound, should not yawn, sneeze, or laugh with uncovered mouth, should not contort the nose, grind teeth, make scratching sounds using nails, strike the bones, scrape the earth, cut the grass, press the earthen lamp, perform any improper actions of body parts .
  • One should not see light, undesirable, impure and inauspicious objects, should not produce any abnormally loud sound at the sight of corpse and tread on the shadow of sacred persons, teachers, revered ones or any such persons.
  • One should not stay for long in the temples, sacred places, raised platforms, crossroads, gardens, cremation grounds & places of execution during nights, and should not enter a deserted house or forests alone.
  • One should not be attached to women, friends and servants with sinful conduct, should not oppose or antagonize superior persons and be attached to inferior persons.
  • One should not take interest in crooked things, take refuge of wicked persons and indulge in frightening/ terrorising acts.
  • One should not indulge in undue courage or excessive sleep, night awakening, bath, drinks and food. One should not stay for long with knees up and approach fierce animals and those having prominent teeth and horns.
  • One should not be exposed to easterly winds, the sun, dews and the strong currents of wind.
  • One should not initiate quarrels.
  • One should not do yajna (worship fire) in secluded place, should not keep feet close to fire, and should not wear spotted clothes. One should not take bath when tired and exhausted, and should rest and wash the face before taking bath. Should not touch the head with dirty clothes nor should strike at hair tips and should wear fresh clothes after bathing .
  • One should not leave without touching the gems, ghee, the respectable, the auspicious and flowers.
  • One should not pass the respectable and the auspicious on left and others on right side. [19]

Codes/Etiquettes for Eating

नारत्नपाणिर्नास्नातो नोपहतवासा नाजपित्वा नाहुत्वा देवताभ्यो नानिरूप्य पितृभ्यो नादत्त्वा गुरुभ्यो नातिथिभ्योनोपाश्रितेभ्यो नापुण्यगन्धो नामाली नाप्रक्षालितपाणिपादवदनो नाशुद्धमुखो नोदङ्मुखो न विमनानाभक्ताशिष्टाशुचिक्षुधितपरिचरो न पात्रीष्वमेध्यासु नादेशे नाकाले नाकीर्णे नादत्त्वाऽग्रमग्नये नाप्रोक्षितं प्रोक्षणोदकैर्नमन्त्रैरनभिमन्त्रितं न कुत्सयन्न कुत्सितं न प्रतिकूलोपहितमन्नमाददीत, न पर्युषितमन्यत्रमांसहरितकशुष्कशाकफलभक्ष्येभ्यः, नाशेषभुक् स्यादन्यत्र दधिमधुलवणसक्तुसर्पिभ्यः, न नक्तं दधि भुञ्जीत, नसक्तूनेकानश्नीयान्न निशि न भुक्त्वा न बहून्न द्विर्नोदकान्तरितात्, न छित्त्वा द्विजैर्भक्षयेत्||२०||

Nāratnapāṇirnāsnātō nōpahatavāsā nājapitvā nāhutvā dēvatābhyō nānirūpya pitr̥bhyō nādattvā gurubhyōnātithibhyō nōpāśritēbhyō nāpuṇyagandhō nāmālī nāprakṣālitapāṇipādavadanō nāśuddhamukhōnōdaṅmukhō na vimanā nābhaktāśiṣṭāśucikṣudhitaparicarō na pātrīṣvamēdhyāsu nādēśē nākālē nākīrṇēnādattvā'gramagnayē nāprōkṣitaṁ prōkṣaṇōdakairna mantrairanabhimantritaṁ na kutsayanna kutsitaṁna pratikūlōpahitamannamādadīta, na paryuṣitamanyatra māṁsaharitakaśuṣkaśākaphalabhakṣyēbhyaḥ,nāśēṣabhuk syādanyatra dadhimadhulavaṇasaktusarpibhyaḥ, na naktaṁ dadhi bhuñjīta, nasaktūnēkānaśnīyānna niśi na bhuktvā na bahūnna dvirnōdakāntaritāt, na chittvā dvijairbhakṣayēt||20||

nAratnapANirnAsnAto nopahatavAsA nAjapitvA nAhutvA devatAbhyo nAnirUpya pitRubhyo nAdattvA gurubhyo nAtithibhyo nopAshritebhyo nApuNyagandho nAmAlInAprakShAlitapANipAdavadano nAshuddhamukho noda~gmukho na vimanA nAbhaktAshiShTAshucikShudhitaparicaro na pAtrIShvamedhyAsu nAdeshe nAkAlenAkIrNe nAdattvA~agramagnaye nAprokShitaM prokShaNodakairna mantrairanabhimantritaM na kutsayanna kutsitaM na pratikUlopahitamannamAdadIta, naparyuShitamanyatra mAMsaharitakashuShkashAkaphalabhakShyebhyaH, nAsheShabhuk syAdanyatra dadhimadhulavaNasaktusarpibhyaH, na naktaM dadhibhu~jjIta, na saktUnekAnashnIyAnna nishi na bhuktvA na bahUnna dvirnodakAntaritAt, na chittvA dvijairbhakShayet||20||

  • One should not eat without wearing precious stones in the hand or without taking bath or while wearing torn clothes, without reciting mantras, without offering oblations to God, without offerings to the departed forefathers, teachers, guests and dependants.
  • One should not eat without applying purifying fragrance and garland, without washing hands, feet and face, without cleaning the mouth, facing towards the north, with depressed /stressed mind, surrounded by the disloyal, undisciplined, unclean and hungry attendants, in unclean utensils or at improper place and time, in crowded surroundings, without first offering to the fire, without sprinkling with sacred water, without sanctifying it with mantras, with contemptuous disposition towards the food.
  • One should not take contaminated meal or food which has been served by enemies or opponents.
  • One should not take stale food (meat, salad, dry vegetables, fruit and hard eatables).
  • One should not finish the all food (served in the plate) articles except the curd, honey, salt, roasted grain flour and ghee (these should be finished).
  • One should not take curd at night. One should not consume roasted grain flour without mixing it with ghee and sugar, in the night, after meals, in large quantity, twice daily or interrupted with water intake or tearing with teeth. [20]

Codes for Passing Natural Urges

नानृजुः क्षुयान्नाद्यान्न शयीत, न वेगितोऽन्यकार्यः स्यात्, न वाय्वग्निसलिलसोमार्कद्विजगुरुप्रतिमुखंनिष्ठीविका(वात)वर्चोमूत्राण्युत्सृजेत्, न पन्थानमवमूत्रयेन्न जनवति नान्नकाले, न जपहोमाध्ययनबलिमङ्गलक्रियासुश्लेष्मसिङ्घाणकं मुञ्चेत्||२१||

Nānr̥juḥ kṣuyānnādyānna śayīta, na vēgitō'nyakāryaḥ syāt, navāyvagnisalilasōmārkadvijagurupratimukhaṁ niṣṭhīvikā(vāta)varcōmūtrāṇyutsr̥jēt, napanthānamavamūtrayēnna janavati nānnakālē, na japahōmādhyayanabalimaṅgalakriyāsuślēṣmasiṅghāṇakaṁ muñcēt||21||

nAnRujuH kShuyAnnAdyAnna shayIta, na vegito~anyakAryaH syAt, na vAyvagnisalilasomArkadvijagurupratimukhaM niShThIvikA(vAta)varcomUtrANyutsRujet, napanthAnamavamUtrayenna janavati nAnnakAle, na japahomAdhyayanabalima~ggalakriyAsu shleShmasi~gghANakaM mu~jcet||21||

  • One should not sneeze, eat and sleep in curved position.
  • One should not be engaged in other works while urge for the natural urges.(One should pass natural urge first and then do other works).
  • One should not spit out sputum, pass feces and urine in front of the winds, fire, water, the moon, the sun, Brahmins and the preceptors.
  • One should not urinate on the road, in crowded (public) places and while taking food.
  • One should not let out oral or nasal excreta at the time of recitation of mantras, oblation, studies, and sacrifice, religious and auspicious acts. [21]

Codes for Behaviour with Women

न स्त्रियमवजानीत, नातिविश्रम्भयेत्, न गुह्यमनुश्रावयेत्, नाधिकुर्यात्| न रजस्वलां नातुरां नामेध्यां नाशस्तां नानिष्टरूपाचारोपचारां नादक्षां नादक्षिणां नाकामां नान्यकामां नान्यस्त्रियं नान्ययोनिंनायोनौ न चैत्यचत्वरचतुष्पथोपवनश्मशानाघातनसलिलौषधिद्विजगुरुसुरालयेषु न सन्ध्ययोर्नातिथिषु नाशुचिर्नाजग्धभेषजो नाप्रणीतसङ्कल्पो नानुपस्थितप्रहर्षो नाभुक्तवान्नात्यशितो न विषमस्थो न मूत्रोच्चारपीडितो नश्रमव्यायामोपवासक्लमाभिहतो नारहसि व्यवायं गच्छेत्||२२||

Na striyamavajānīta, nātiviśrambhayēt, na guhyamanuśrāvayēt, nādhikuryāt| na rajasvalāṁ nāturāṁ nāmēdhyāṁ nāśastāṁ nāniṣṭarūpācārōpacārāṁ nādakṣāṁ nādakṣiṇāṁ nākāmāṁnānyakāmāṁ nānyastriyaṁ nānyayōniṁ nāyōnau nacaityacatvaracatuṣpathōpavanaśmaśānāghātanasalilauṣadhidvijagurusurālayēṣu na sandhyayōrnātithiṣu nāśucirnājagdhabhēṣajō nāpraṇītasaṅkalpō nānupasthitapraharṣō nābhuktavānnātyaśitō na viṣamasthōna mūtrōccārapīḍitō na śramavyāyāmōpavāsaklamābhihatō nārahasi vyavāyaṁ gacchēt||22||

na striyamavajAnIta, nAtivishrambhayet, na guhyamanushrAvayet, nAdhikuryAt| na rajasvalAM nAturAM nAmedhyAM nAshastAM nAniShTarUpAcAropacArAM nAdakShAM nAdakShiNAM nAkAmAM nAnyakAmAM nAnyastriyaM nAnyayoniM nAyonauna caityacatvaracatuShpathopavanashmashAnAghAtanasalilauShadhidvijagurusurAlayeShu na sandhyayornAtithiShu nAshucirnAjagdhabheShajonApraNItasa~gkalpo nAnupasthitapraharSho nAbhuktavAnnAtyashito na viShamastho na mUtroccArapIDito na shramavyAyAmopavAsaklamAbhihato nArahasivyavAyaM gacchet||22||

  • One should not insult women, and should not place too much of faith in them. One should not disclose secrets to them nor should give authority indiscriminately.
  • One should not perform sexual intercourse with a woman during her menstrual period, with a woman suffering from a disease, or one who is impure, inauspicious, with undesirable appearance, with bad behaviour/conducts and manners or with the one devoid of skills.
  • One should not perform sexual intercourse with women who are not friendly, or one who is not having passionate desire or has passionate desire for some other person or is married to some other person.
  • One should not perform sexual intercourse with other animal species except human being, and with other body parts except genitals.
  • One should not perform sexual intercourse under holy trees, at sacred places, public courtyard, on a crossroad, in a garden, at cremation ground, execution place/ slaughter house, near water reservoir, in the medicine stores. Sexual intercourse is also prohibited in the houses of brahmins, teachers and in temples.
  • One should not perform sexual intercourse during the dawn and dusk and on inauspicious days i.e. on full moon days and pratipadas, etc. One should not perform sexual intercourse if unclean, if not taken aphrodisiacs, without prior determination and desire, without having proper erection, without food or after excessive food intake, on uneven place, while under the urge of micturition or defecation, after exertion, physical exercise, during fasting, after exhaustion or in a place having no privacy .[22]

Behaviour Code with Preceptors

न सतो न गुरून् परिवदेत्, नाशुचिरभिचारकर्मचैत्यपूज्यपूजाध्ययनमभिनिर्वर्तयेत्||२३||

Na satō na gurūn parivadēt, nāśucirabhicārakarmacaityapūjyapūjādhyayanamabhinirvartayēt||23||

na sato na gurUn parivadet, nAshucirabhicArakarmacaityapUjyapUjAdhyayanamabhinirvartayet||23||

  • One should not speak ill of noble persons and preceptors.
  • One should not perform spells, worship of sacred trees and superiors, and studies while remaining impure. [23]

Code for Learning and Studying

न विद्युत्स्वनार्तवीषु नाभ्युदितासु दिक्षु नाग्निसम्प्लवे न भूमिकम्पे न महोत्सवे नोल्कापाते न महाग्रहोपगमने ननष्टचन्द्रायां तिथौ न सन्ध्ययोर्नामुखाद्गुरोर्नावपतितं नातिमात्रं न तान्तं न विस्वरं नानवस्थितपदं नातिद्रुतं न विलम्बितंनातिक्लीबं नात्युच्चैर्नातिनीचैः स्वरैरध्ययनमभ्यस्येत्||२४||

Na vidyutsvanārtavīṣu nābhyuditāsu dikṣu nāgnisamplavē na bhūmikampē na mahōtsavē nōlkāpātē namahāgrahōpagamanē na naṣṭacandrāyāṁ tithau na sandhyayōrnāmukhādgurōrnāvapatitaṁ nātimātraṁna tāntaṁ na visvaraṁ nānavasthitapadaṁ nātidrutaṁ na vilambitaṁ nātiklībaṁ nātyuccairnātinīcaiḥsvarairadhyayanamabhyasyēt||24||

na vidyutsvanArtavIShu nAbhyuditAsu dikShu nAgnisamplave na bhUmikampe na mahotsave nolkApAte na mahAgrahopagamane na naShTacandrAyAM tithau nasandhyayornAmukhAdgurornAvapatitaM nAtimAtraM na tAntaM na visvaraM nAnavasthitapadaM nAtidrutaM na vilambitaM nAtiklIbaM nAtyuccairnAtinIcaiHsvarairadhyayanamabhyasyet||24||

  • One should not study when there is unseasonal lightning, houses appear as if they are burnt, during outbreak of fire, earthquake, grand festivals, fall of meteors, eclipses (solar or lunar). One should not study on a new moon day, during dawn or dusk.
  • One should not study without being instructed by preceptor. One should not pronounce words in low, high, weak or deranged voice, without proper accents and morphological symmetry, neither too fast nor too slow, nor with excessive delay and nor with too high or too low pitch of sound. [24]

Codes for Social Behavior

नातिसमयं जह्यात्, न नियमं भिन्द्यात्, न नक्तं नादेशे चरेत्, न सन्ध्यास्वभ्यवहाराध्ययनस्त्रीस्वप्नसेवी स्यात्, नबालवृद्धलुब्धमूर्खक्लिष्टक्लीबैः सह सख्यं कुर्यात्, न मद्यद्यूतवेश्याप्रसङ्गरुचिः स्यात्, न गुह्यं विवृणुयात्, नकञ्चिदवजानीयात्, नाहम्मानी स्यान्नादक्षो नादक्षिणो नासूयकः, न ब्राह्मणान् परिवदेत्, न गवां दण्डमुद्यच्छेत्, नवृद्धान्न गुरून्न गणान्न नृपान् वाऽधिक्षिपेत्, न चातिब्रूयात्, न बान्धवानुरक्तकृच्छ्रद्वितीयगुह्यज्ञान् बहिष्कुर्यात्||२५||

Nātisamayaṁ jahyāt, na niyamaṁ bhindyāt, na naktaṁ nādēśē carēt, nasandhyāsvabhyavahārādhyayanastrīsvapnasēvī syāt, na bālavr̥ddhalubdhamūrkhakliṣṭaklībaiḥ sahasakhyaṁ kuryāt, na madyadyūtavēśyāprasaṅgaruciḥ syāt, na guhyaṁ vivr̥ṇuyāt, na kañcidavajānīyāt,nāhammānī syānnādakṣō nādakṣiṇō nāsūyakaḥ, na brāhmaṇān parivadēt, na gavāṁ daṇḍamudyacchēt,na vr̥ddhānna gurūnna gaṇānna nr̥pān vā'dhikṣipēt, na cātibrūyāt, nabāndhavānuraktakr̥cchradvitīyaguhyajñān bahiṣkuryāt||25||

nAtisamayaM jahyAt, na niyamaM bhindyAt, na naktaM nAdeshe caret, na sandhyAsvabhyavahArAdhyayanastrIsvapnasevI syAt, nabAlavRuddhalubdhamUrkhakliShTaklIbaiH saha sakhyaM kuryAt, na madyadyUtaveshyAprasa~ggaruciH syAt, na guhyaM vivRuNuyAt, na ka~jcidavajAnIyAt,nAhammAnI syAnnAdakSho nAdakShiNo nAsUyakaH, na brAhmaNAn [33] parivadet, na gavAM daNDamudyacchet, na vRuddhAnna gurUnna gaNAnna nRupAnvA~adhikShipet, na cAtibrUyAt, na bAndhavAnuraktakRucchradvitIyaguhyaj~jAn bahiShkuryAt||25||

  • One should not deviate from generally approved social practices and should not break any code of conduct.
  • One should not move in the night or in an inappropriate place. One should not indulge in taking food, studies, sexual relations or sleep during the dawn or dusk.
  • One should not make friendship with children, the old, the greedy, the fools, the persons under affliction and the eunuchs.
  • One should not have interest in taking wine, gambling and making physical relationship with prostitutes.
  • One should not disclose secrets and should not insult anybody. One should not be self conceited, unskilled, inexperienced and envious.
  • One should not insult the brahmins nor should beat the cow with sticks. One should not abuse the old, the preceptors, the administrative class and the king.
  • One should not speak too much nor treat kins, persons attached, that stood along in difficult times and the persons who know the secrets disparagingly. [25]

Codes for Maintaining Good Psyche in Society

नाधीरो नात्युच्छ्रितसत्त्वः स्यात्, नाभृतभृत्यः, नाविश्रब्धस्वजनः, नैकः सुखी, न दुःखशीलाचारोपचारः, न सर्वविश्रम्भी, नसर्वाभिशङ्की, न सर्वकालविचारी||२६||

Nādhīrō nātyucchritasattvaḥ syāt, nābhr̥tabhr̥tyaḥ, nāviśrabdhasvajanaḥ, naikaḥ sukhī, naduḥkhaśīlācārōpacāraḥ, na sarvaviśrambhī, na sarvābhiśaṅkī, na sarvakālavicārī||26||

nAdhIro nAtyucchritasattvaH syAt, nAbhRutabhRutyaH, nAvishrabdhasvajanaH, naikaH sukhI, na duHkhashIlAcAropacAraH, na sarvavishrambhI, nasarvAbhisha~gkI, na sarvakAlavicArI||26||

  • One should not be impatient, or overexcited/ over exhilarated.
  • One should not be the person who does not support his attendants, confide in his kins, be happy alone and has unpleasant conduct, behaviour and attendance.
  • One should not rely on everybody nor suspect all and should not be critical (too meticulous) at all times. [26]

न कार्यकालमतिपातयेत्, नापरीक्षितमभिनिविशेत्, नेन्द्रियवशगः स्यात्, न चञ्चलं मनोऽनुभ्रामयेत्, नबुद्धीन्द्रियाणामतिभारमादध्यात्, न चातिदीर्घसूत्री स्यात्, न क्रोधहर्षावनुविदध्यात्, न शोकमनुवसेत्, न सिद्धावुत्सेकं यच्छेन्नासिद्धौ दैन्यं, प्रकृतिमभीक्ष्णं स्मरेत्, हेतुप्रभावनिश्चितः स्याद्धेत्वारम्भनित्यश्च, न कृतमित्याश्वसेत्, न वीर्यंजह्यात्, नापवादमनुस्मरेत्||२७||

Na kāryakālamatipātayēt, nāparīkṣitamabhiniviśēt, nēndriyavaśagaḥ syāt, na cañcalaṁmanō'nubhrāmayēt, na buddhīndriyāṇāmatibhāramādadhyāt, na cātidīrghasūtrī syāt, nakrōdhaharṣāvanuvidadhyāt, na śōkamanuvasēt, na siddhāvutsēkaṁ yacchēnnāsiddhau dainyaṁ,prakr̥timabhīkṣṇaṁ smarēt, hētuprabhāvaniścitaḥ syāddhētvārambhanityaśca, na kr̥tamityāśvasēt, navīryaṁ jahyāt, nāpavādamanusmarēt||27||

na kAryakAlamatipAtayet, nAparIkShitamabhinivishet, nendriyavashagaH syAt, na ca~jcalaM mano~anubhrAmayet, na buddhIndriyANAmatibhAramAdadhyAt, nacAtidIrghasUtrI syAt, na krodhaharShAvanuvidadhyAt, na shokamanuvaset, na siddhAvutsekaM yacchennAsiddhau dainyaM, prakRutimabhIkShNaM smaret,hetuprabhAvanishcitaH syAddhetvArambhanityashca, na kRutamityAshvaset, na vIryaM jahyAt, nApavAdamanusmaret||27||

  • One should not be in a habit of postponing things at the time of action.
  • One should not indulge in any activity without properly examining it.
  • One should not be submissive to his senses nor should let his fickle mind move around.
  • One should overburden his/her intellect or senses.
  • One should avoid procrastinating.
  • One should not do things in a fit of anger or rejoicing.
  • One should not be under continuous grief.
  • One should not be conceited over achievements or desperate in loss.
  • One should always remember his own constitution of mind (nature).
  • One should have faith in the correlation of the cause and effect that is good and bad deeds and their corresponding results and should always act on it.
  • One should not be despondent and assume that now nothing can be done.
  • One should not lose spirit (give up courage) nor should remember his insults. [27]

Auspicious Codes of Conduct

नाशुचिरुत्तमाज्याक्षततिलकुशसर्षपैरग्निं जुहुयादात्मानमाशीर्भिराशासानः, अग्निर्मे नापगच्छेच्छरीराद्वायुर्मे प्राणानादधातु विष्णुर्मे बलमादधातु इन्द्रो मे वीर्यं शिवा मां प्रविशन्त्वाप आपोहिष्ठेत्यपः स्पृशेत्, द्विः परिमृज्योष्ठौ पादौचाभ्युक्ष्य मूर्धनि खानि चोपस्पृशेदद्भिरात्मानं हृदयं शिरश्च||२८||

Nnāśuciruttamājyākṣatatilakuśasarṣapairagniṁ juhuyādātmānamāśīrbhirāśāsānaḥ, agnirmēnāpagacchēccharīrādvāyurmē prāṇānādadhātu viṣṇurmē balamādadhātu indrō mē vīryaṁ śivā māṁpraviśantvāpa āpōhiṣṭhētyapaḥ spr̥śēt, dviḥ parimr̥jyōṣṭhau pādau cābhyukṣya mūrdhani khānicōpaspr̥śēdadbhirātmānaṁ hr̥dayaṁ śiraśca||28||

nAshuciruttamAjyAkShatatilakushasarShapairagniM juhuyAdAtmAnamAshIrbhirAshAsAnaH, agnirme nApagaccheccharIrAdvAyurme prANAnAdadhAtu viShNurmebalamAdadhAtu indro me vIryaM shivA mAM pravishantvApa ApohiShThetyapaH spRushet, dviH parimRujyoShThau pAdau cAbhyukShya mUrdhani khAnicopaspRushedadbhirAtmAnaM hRudayaM shirashca||28||

One who is desirous of one’s wellbeing should not offer oblation to the fire with cow ghee, whole rice grains, tila (Sesamum indicum Linn.), kusha grass (Desmostachya bipinnata Staff.) and mustard seeds while in impure condition. One should touch water, reciting- Agnirme na apa gachhet. After touching the lips and feet, one should daub water on all the orifices of the head (two nasal, one buccal, two auditory, and two ocular orifices), the seats of his soul (mentally), heart and head. [28]

ब्रह्मचर्यज्ञानदानमैत्रीकारुण्यहर्षोपेक्षाप्रशमपरश्च स्यादिति||२९||

Brahmacaryajñānadānamaitrīkāruṇyaharṣōpēkṣāpraśamaparaśca syāditi||29||

brahmacaryaj~jAnadAnamaitrIkAruNyaharShopekShAprashamaparashca syAditi||29||

One should follow the path of brahmacharya (celibacy), knowledge, charity, friendship, compassion, cheerfulness, detachment and peace. [29]

Summary

तत्र श्लोकाः- पञ्चपञ्चकमुद्दिष्टं मनो हेतुचतुष्टयम्| इन्द्रियोपक्रमेऽध्याये सद्वृत्तमखिलेन च||३०||

स्वस्थवृत्तं यथोद्दिष्टं यः सम्यगनुतिष्ठति| स समाः शतमव्याधिरायुषा न वियुज्यते||३१||

नृलोकमापूरयते यशसा साधुसम्मतः| धर्मार्थावेति भूतानां बन्धुतामुपगच्छति||३२||

परान् सुकृतिनो लोकान् पुण्यकर्मा प्रपद्यते| तस्माद्वृत्तमनुष्ठेयमिदं सर्वेण सर्वदा||३३||

यच्चान्यदपि किञ्चित् स्यादनुक्तमिह पूजितम्| वृत्तं तदपि चात्रेयः सदैवाभ्यनुमन्यते||३४||

Tatra ślōkāḥ- pañcapañcakamuddiṣṭaṁ manō hētucatuṣṭayam| indriyōpakramē'dhyāyē sadvr̥ttamakhilēna ca||30||

svasthavr̥ttaṁ yathōddiṣṭaṁ yaḥ samyaganutiṣṭhati| sa samāḥ śatamavyādhirāyuṣā na viyujyatē||31||

nr̥lōkamāpūrayatē yaśasā sādhusammataḥ| dharmārthāvēti bhūtānāṁ bandhutāmupagacchati||32||

parān sukr̥tinō lōkān puṇyakarmā prapadyatē| tasmādvr̥ttamanuṣṭhēyamidaṁ sarvēṇa sarvadā||33||

yaccānyadapi kiñcit syādanuktamiha pūjitam| vr̥ttaṁ tadapi cātrēyaḥ sadaivābhyanumanyatē||34||

tatra shlokAH- pa~jcapa~jcakamuddiShTaM mano hetucatuShTayam| indriyopakrame~adhyAye sadvRuttamakhilena ca||30||

svasthavRuttaM yathoddiShTaM yaH samyaganutiShThati| sa samAH shatamavyAdhirAyuShA na viyujyate||31||

nRulokamApUrayate yashasA sAdhusammataH| dharmArthAveti bhUtAnAM bandhutAmupagacchati||32||

parAn sukRutino lokAn puNyakarmA prapadyate| tasmAdvRuttamanuShTheyamidaM sarveNa sarvadA||33||

yaccAnyadapi ki~jcit syAdanuktamiha pUjitam| vRuttaM tadapi cAtreyaH sadaivAbhyanumanyate||34||

Now, summing up the contents of the chapter, In this chapter , “the description of the sense organs”, the five pentads and four etiological factors and the code of good conduct have been fully described. One who follows the code of good conduct for the maintenance of positive health lives for a hundred years without any abnormality. Such persons, praised by the noble ones, earn fame all over the world, attain virtue and wealth, friendship of all living beings and at the end, with holy acts, attain the excellent abode (virtuous world) of good souls after the death. Hence this code of conduct should be followed by everybody. Even if something has not been stated here, but prescribed elsewhere as a virtuous act, is also acceptable to Lord Atreya. [30-34]

इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृते श्लोकस्थाने इन्द्रियोपक्रमणीयो नामाष्टमोऽध्यायः||८||

Ityagnivēśakr̥tē tantrē carakapratisaṁskr̥tē ślōkasthānē indriyōpakramaṇīyō nāmāṣṭamō'dhyāyaḥ||8||

ityagniveshakRute tantre carakapratisaMskRute shlokasthAne indriyopakramaNIyo nAmAShTamo~adhyAyaH||8||

Thus ends the eighth chapter on “the description of the Sense organs” of the Sutra section of Agnivesha’s work as redacted by Charaka. ||8||

इति स्वस्थचतुष्को द्वितीयः||२||

Iti svasthacatuṣkō dvitīyaḥ||2||

iti svasthacatuShko dvitIyaH||2||

Here ends the second quadruplet on the maintenance of positive Health. ||2||

Tattva Vimarsha

  • The concept of pancha-panchaka depicts that each sense organ has its own predominant basic material constituent, site for perception, specific object, and specific perception. Thus behind every perceivable knowledge these five components are involved. [verse 3]
  • Mind is super-sensual having extra-ordinary capacity to transcend any sense organ. Mind is only one, though it can behave in different ways depending upon specific self constraint, object, and goal oriented activities. Only one object can be perceived at a time by association of mind. Mind has complete control over all senses. The sense organs cannot perceive knowledge without association of mind. The psychological trait is decided by predominance of sattva, rajas and tamas. [verse 4-6]
  • The momentary contact of sense organs with their objects in the system of pancha-panchaka leads to specific and definite perception and knowledge of that object. [verse 7-12]
  • The group of qualities pertaining to atman (self) including mind, its object [i.e. what it conceives], and intellect decide the good and bad, auspicious and inauspicious acts. Therefore activity or behaviour of a person is defined by this group. [verse 13]
  • The deficient, excess or improper indulgence of senses in their objects and their association with mind is hazardous for mental health and leads to various disorders.[verse 15]
  • The object of mind is to think and to conceive. The proper conception leads to proper activity and improper conception leads to diseases.[verse 16]
  • Mental health can be preserved and protected by proper association of sense organs and their objects, performance of duties after duly considering their pros and cons with the help of the intellect together with the sense faculties and by following (preventive) measures opposite to the qualities of place, season and one’s own constitution. So all, who are desirous of their own well being should always remember and follow all principles of code of conduct.[verse 17]
  • These do’s and don’ts for positive mental health include codes for eating behaviour, personal hygiene, sexual hygiene, behaviour with women and with preceptors. It also describes methods and time for learning and studying, codes for normal productive psyche, auspicious deeds, principles for time management in society. [verse 18-28]
  • Positive health can be achieved by following keys: Brahmacharya (celebacy), jnana (knowledge), dana (charity), maitri (friendship), karunya (compassion), harsha (happiness), upeksha (detachment) and prasama (peace). One who assiduously follows these prescriptions is devoid of all diseases, lives for a hundred years and does not suffer from untimely death. [verse 29-33]

Vidhi Vimarsha

Table 1: System of pancha-panchaka

Indriya (Sense Organ) Indriya Dravya Indriya Adhishthan (Site of Sensation) Indriya Artha (Sense Object) Indriya Buddhi (Sensory Perception)
Chakshu (Visual) Tejas - Jyoti Eyes Rupa (Vision) Visual Perception
Shrotra (Auditory) Kha - Akasha Ear Shabda (Sound) Auditory Perception
Ghrana (Olfactory) Bhu - Prithvi Nose Gandha (Smell) Olfactory Perception
Rasanam (Gustatory) Apa - Jala Tongue Rasa (Taste) Gustatory Perception
Sparshanam (Tactile) Vayu Skin Sparsha (Touch) Tactile Perception

This pancha-panchaka system [table 1] reveals that senses are the instruments for knowledge of material in external world. All things are constituted by pancha mahabhuta (five elements). Specific sense can perceive the object related to its own basic constituent due to tulyayonitva (origin -action similarity). E.g. The eyes can see external tejas mahabhuta and perceive the visual sensation only. The continuous interaction is carried out between external materialistic world and internal world (within body) comprising sense perceptions, mind, intellect and soul. The details about sense organs and their interaction with mind are described further in first chapter of Sharira Sthana (section of anatomy and physiology).

Direct Relationship between thought/behaviour/ conduct with that of immunity /heath

The behavioural and ethical components of life have direct impact on the health of an individual. It is now known that our thoughts cannot only create or change our mood, but they can actually change our bio- chemistry. We also know that they affect how we see ourselves and the world around us. We also know that our thoughts can affect our physiology.

The development of neuro-psycho-immunobiology has already contributed important understandings to this fundamental idea of Ayurveda. It is also known that when we have positive thoughts we create positive neurochemical messages that are released not only into local brain tissues but to the entire body. Therefore the code of conduct has a direct effect on our psyche and in turn can affect mental health.

Guidelines for sattvavajaya chikitsa and avoidance of pragyaparadha

Mind is the link between atman (soul), indriya and sharira (senses and body). It is responsible for the pravritti (indulgence) and nivrtti (non -indulgence) in health promoting and health-degrading activities (shubha or ashubha karmas) because thinking is the object of manas. Samayoga (proper association) of these leads to fruitful results and atiyoga (excessive correlation), hinayoga (deficient/no correlation) and mithyayoga (perverted correlation) leads to dreadful consequences. The sattvajaya treatments (restraining senses from harmful objects by controlling mind) form important component for psychiatric and psycho-somatic disorders.

Sadvritta (conduct, behavior and moral principles): Key to positive health

Sadvritta trains the mind towards peaceful, prosperous and healthy living. The code of conduct can be broadly divided into two categories by objectives viz.,

  1. Personal hygiene with personality development
  2. Social hygiene with healthy social interactions and public victory

Thus the entire chapter focuses on and represents one of the fundamental principles of Ayurvedic science that qualitative and quantitative aspects of the thoughts, attitudes, conduct, behaviour and morality in life are directly related to preventive amd promotive aspects of health also with cure of diseases.

Development of modern science in view of psychosomatic aspect of health

It took approximately four centuries for the modern science to understand the real science behind the psychosomatic interaction and to incorporate the principles of psychosomatic approach in understanding of life, health and disease, which is the most fundamental consideration in Ayurvedic system of medicine. Perhaps, a basic mistake occurred during the early phases of development of modern science because of overemphasis on analytical method of reasoning as the scientific process by renowned French philosopher and brilliant mathematician, Rene Descartes (1614 AD). His metaphysical journey resulted into his most famous assertion that the body and mind are separated into two entirely different branches of worldly existence. This Cartesian division between body and mind exerted a profound effect on western thought and it was this approach which has been held-up by protagonists of conventional science till recently in an assiduous manner. In contrast, Ayurveda has strongly proclaimed that the body and mind intimately exist, interact, mutually - influence at each and every level of their worldly existence. In fact, it went on propounding that there is no physical reality in a living being which can be thought of as being devoid of this reciprocal influence. The recent advancements in modern science in 20th century esp. in the areas of Neurosciences, molecular biology, biochemistry, bio-technology, immunology have proved beyond doubt that thoughts, emotions, feelings and perception exert direct influence on the bodily functions and the immune response. The vast volume of data from research findings are so convincing that it has led to a new branch of modern Science- ‘Psychoneuroimmunology ’ . It has led to substantiation of age old Ayurvedic principles and proved beyond doubt that fundamentals of Ayurveda are eternal and are based on strong scientific footings.

Psychoneuroimmunology – Evidence based support to Ayurvedic fundamentals and psychosomatic interaction

Psychoneuroimmunology, often referred to as PNI, is the study of interactions between ones perception of the world around him, his behaviour, the way his brain and immune system functions. The field of PNI studies the measurable interaction between psychological and physiological processes. The psychological portion is the psycho aspect, the central nervous system aspect is the neuro aspect, there is an endocrine system aspect, and the body's defense against external infection and aberrant cell division is the immunology aspect.

A group of scientists from many disciplines working on psycho-neuroimmuno-biology, have transcended the past linear approach of Western medicine, but not with the intention of destroying it. They are adding a new and much needed dimensions to the practice of medicine, they are integrating mind and body and in many cases mind, body and spirit. Fridjof Capra, in his books the Tao of Physics and the Turning Point, refers to this movement as a "new paradigm." He suggests that it is acting on all of Western society. Capra includes not only physics and medicine, but also psychology, economics, politics, and even reality itself.

Changing paradigms of disease & health

This new study of the body, mind and spirit connection is demonstrating that there are some dramatic new ways of looking at wellness and illness. One of the areas which is becoming very meaningful is the role of thought and stress on the immune system and the physiology of the body. The role of specific events on blood pressure and other body physiology can be better understood now. The effect of prayer and visual imagery on the course of an illness has been studied well. Through this it can be said that multiple internal factors are involved in the creation of illness, healing and maintenance of wellness. Illness is no longer simply an extension of the germ theory--our present concept of infection being the end result of exposure to a germ, but is expanded to include the ability of the body and its immune system to resist and destroy invading organisms, the stress mechanism, the environment, nutrition and all those factors that are involved with defending and protecting our self from illness.

It is rapidly becoming clearer that most illnesses have a mental or thought component aspect to them. A conflict exists which is not only associated with the illness itself, but frequently is part of the cause of the illness. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) appears to go beyond the present narrow biological perspectives of illness to consider behavioural components as an integral part of health and disease. The conceptualization of the role of human behaviour and how it interacts with the central nervous system and the immune system are central issues. Psychoneuroimmunology is thus an arena in which questions about the mind, body and person in context of each other come into the consideration. Thus the principles narrated in the chapter can have a great impact on health and course, severity of illness. This can be researched on the axis of PNI.

Mind-Body-Immune system interaction

Today the immune system is no longer regarded as autonomous and separate from the mind and external events. With the emergence of Psychoneuroimmunology ( PNI), the rise of a new paradigm relating to the practice of medicine can be seen. This new paradigm for the first time integrates the previously dualistic concepts of mind and body. It introduces a new concept where mind and body interact as one, each affecting the other. To date, evidence regarding this mind-body-immune system interaction has been collected with regard to the role of nerve fibers in lymphatic tissues, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, the effects of brain lesions on the immune system, the interplay of neurotransmitters, hormones and immune-transmitters. It is being used in research and treatment of AIDS, cancer and bacterial and viral infectious processes. Other researchers are looking at its effects in classic learning and conditioning, the development of the immune system, the impact of experimental and naturally occurring stressors on the immune system, the immune modulating effects of personality characteristics, life style and psychodynamic processes. In the future, research will likely be extended into many new areas including psychotherapy, illness prevention and healing etc. The mind body interaction through the means of indriyas has been emphasized in the present chapter.

Tridosha concept and mind– The findings that the messenger chemicals producing desired changes in the biological system can be seen clearly in the tridosha (humoral) concept. Man was seen as responding to interaction of various humors. They accounted for changes in emotion, anger, rage, love, caring, melancholia, depression, humour and for illness. Almost anything could happen when the humors were out of balance. While these humors did not entirely answer what we needed to know, they were an attempt to understand how and why we acted the way we did. The research findings especially in the area of PNI have proved that blending of the interaction of many chemical, electric and other processes that ultimately make the sum total of who and what we are is done. We have come a long way since belief in the humoral concepts of healing, yet as things often have a tendency to make complete circles, we are now once again recognizing that we are not linear but rather a more integrated or holistic. The psycho-neuro-endocrine axis can be focused to study the link between thoughts, behaviours, attitudes, emotions on three dosha.

Future researches

  1. There is much scope to study the effect of sadvritta in improving health of a diseased person in terms of reduction in severity, duration of treatment, and dose of medicines as well as prevention of various diseases.

Further reading

  1. Sharira Sthana chapter 1
  2. Mind and psychology
  3. Physiology of sense perception
  4. Psycho-Neuro-Immunology

References

  1. Chopra D., Quantum Healing: Exploring the frontiers of Mind Body Medicine, Bantum Books,New York,1990 .
  2. Kutty Madhavan K.,HolisticMedicine , Centre for Medical Education & Administration ,Calicut, 1st ed.1995 .
  3. Singh R.H., The Holistic Principles of Ayurvedic medicine, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Pratishthan, New Delhi.1997.198-199.
  4. Singh R.H.: Ayurvediya Manas Vijnana, Ist ed. Chaukhamba Amarbharati Prakashan, Varanasi. 1986.121-123.
  5. Tripathi J.S.: Unified Dimensions of Ayurvedic Medicine. 1st ed. 2009, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratisthan, New Delhi. 2009..
  6. Mallika KJ & Dwivedi RB – charak-swastha chatuska-biochemical changes – ritu sandhi-bp-2002 IPGT & RA, Jamnagar, Gujarat

Glossary

  1. Indriya  : An organ of sense
  2. Upakraman  : Protocol, , treatment, approach
  3. Ateendriya : Beyond the cognizance of the senses , the mind
  4. Panchendriya : Five sensory organs
  5. Panchendriyadhishtanani : Five sites of sensory organs
  6. Panchendriya dravyani : Five matters of five sense organs
  7. Panchendriyarthani : Five sense objects
  8. Panchendreya budhhi : Five sensory perceptions
  9. Sadvritta  : Code of good conducts
  10. Brahmacharya  : Celibacy, chastity, not marrying or having sex
  11. Jnana  : knowledge, information or awareness gained through experience or education
  12. Dana  : charity, the giving of money or help to people in need
  13. Maitri  : friendship, kind and pleasant to others
  14. Karuny  : compassion, pity and concern
  15. Harsha  : happiness, feeling pleasure
  16. Upeksha  : Detachment, the state of being uninvolved
  17. Prasama  : Peace, Freedom from anxiety