Indriyaneeka

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Indriyaneeka
Section/Chapter Indriya Sthana Chapter 4
Preceding Chapter Parimarshaneeyamindriyam Adhyaya
Succeeding Chapter Purvarupeeya
Other Sections Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana

Indriya Sthana Chapter 4, Indriyaneeka (Chapter on the fatel Perceptory changes in the Five Sensory Organs)

Abstract

This chapter explicates about the alterations in the perception of the five sense organs which reveal impending death of an individual. The previous three chapters described arishta lakshanas as perceived by senses vision, sound, taste and touch. This chapter describes arishta lakshanas as perceived by all five Indriya or senses. Indriya and aneekam indicate the group of all five sense organs. There is a good synchrony between all sense organs for conversion of information into the knowledge.

Keywords: Perceptions, alterations, fatal signs of senses.

Introduction/ Vishayanupravesha

The perception by the sense organs has been described in Ayurveda to be a function of the conjunction of mana (mind) with the atman (soul), the sense organs (indriya) and its subject (indriyartha) (Figure 1.)
Organs as per Ayurveda.png
Fig. 1 – Showing the chart of perception by the sense organs as per Ayurveda

The correct perception has been described to be the function of mana and vata. Vata is the entity which joins the mana and the above stated three other components. The functions of mana and vata account for in the modern medical sciences to that of the nervous system and its components.

Perception by the sense organs occurs through conduction by the peripheral nerves to the brain. Some of the sensory arishta perceptions described in this chapter are now also described in the modern medical science. The conditions due to defect in the nervous system and peripheral nerves such as Dysosmia (Distorted identification of smell), Parosmia (Altered perception of smell in the presence of an odor, usually unpleasant), Phantosmia (detection of smells which are not present), Ageusia (Inability to taste), Dysgeusia (Distorted ability to taste), paraesthesias (altered tactile perception) etc.. Some of these are described in this chapter as an indicator of forthcoming death.

Sanskrit text, Transliteration and English Translation

इन्द्रियानीकेन्द्रियोपक्रमः अथात इन्द्रियानीकमिन्द्रियं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||

इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||

athāta indriyānīkamindriyaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||

iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

athAta indriyAnIkamindriyaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||

iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

Now we will explicate the chapter highlighting the features of imminent death by faulty perceptions of sense organs of a person. Thus said Lord Atreya. [1-2]

Importance of examination using senses and inference

इन्द्रियाणि यथा जन्तोः परीक्षेत विशेषवित्|

ज्ञातुमिच्छन् भिषङ्मानमायुषस्तन्निबोधत ||३||

अनुमानात् परीक्षेत दर्शनादीनि तत्त्वतः|

अद्धा हि विदितं ज्ञानमिन्द्रियाणामतीन्द्रियम्||४||

indriyāṇi yathā jantōḥ parīkṣēta viśēṣavit|

jñātumicchan bhiṣaṅmānamāyuṣastannibōdhata ||3||

anumānāt parīkṣēta darśanādīni tattvataḥ|

addhā hi viditaṁ jñānamindriyāṇāmatīndriyam||4||

indriyANi yathA jantoH parIkSheta visheShavit|

j~jAtumicchan bhiSha~gmAnamAyuShastannibodhata ||3||

anumAnAt parIkSheta darshanAdIni tattvataH|

addhA hi viditaM j~jAnamindriyANAmatIndriyam||4||

We will now explain how an expert physician who is desirous to know the life span of the person. He should go with keen observations of the sensory perceptions by a patient. Some of the observations may be based on the inference on questioning, where the physician cannot apply his senses such as taste and visual alterations. [3-4]

Various fatal signs of changes in sensorium

स्वस्थेभ्यो विकृतं यस्य ज्ञानमिन्द्रियसंश्रयम् | आलक्ष्येतानिमित्तेन लक्षणं मरणस्य तत्||५||

इत्युक्तं लक्षणं सम्यगिन्द्रियेष्वशुभोदयम्| तदेव तु पुनर्भूयो विस्तरेण निबोधत||६||

svasthēbhyō vikr̥taṁ yasya jñānamindriyasaṁśrayam | ālakṣyētānimittēna lakṣaṇaṁ maraṇasya tat||5||

ityuktaṁ lakṣaṇaṁ samyagindriyēṣvaśubhōdayam| tadēva tu punarbhūyō vistarēṇa nibōdhata||6||

svasthebhyo vikRutaM yasya j~jAnamindriyasaMshrayam [1] | AlakShyetAnimittena lakShaNaM maraNasya tat||5||

ityuktaM lakShaNaM samyagindriyeShvashubhodayam| tadeva tu punarbhUyo vistareNa nibodhata||6||

In case where patient’s sense organs are healthy and even they perceive the altered sense without any apparent cause, denote the cause of imminent death. Other general and specific altered sensory perceptions will be dealt in detail in subsequent paragraphs.[5-6]

घनीभूतमिवाकाशमाकाशमिव मेदिनीम्| विगीतमुभयं ह्येतत् पश्यन् मरणमृच्छति||७||

ghanībhūtamivākāśamākāśamiva mēdinīm| vigītamubhayaṁ hyētat paśyan maraṇamr̥cchati||7||

ghanIbhUtamivAkAshamAkAshamiva medinIm| vigItamubhayaM hyetat pashyan maraNamRucchati||7||

A person who views the sky as something solid (like the earth) and the earth like something void (like the sky), he is sure to die soon as both the above signs are inauspicious. [7]

यस्य दर्शनमायाति मारुतोऽम्बरगोचरः| अग्निर्नायाति चादीप्तस्तस्यायुःक्षयमादिशेत्||८||

yasya darśanamāyāti mārutō'mbaragōcaraḥ| agnirnāyāti cādīptastasyāyuḥkṣayamādiśēt||8||

yasya darshanamAyAti mAruto~ambaragocaraH| agnirnAyAti cAdIptastasyAyuHkShayamAdishet||8||

One who visualizes the wind in the sky in a physical form but does not see the flame of a kindled fire, should be considered as a moribund person. [8]

जले सुविमले जालमजालावतते नरः| स्थिते गच्छति वा दृष्ट्वा जीवितात् परिमुच्यते||९||

jalē suvimalē jālamajālāvatatē naraḥ| sthitē gacchati vā dr̥ṣṭvā jīvitāt parimucyatē||9||

jale suvimale jAlamajAlAvatate naraH| sthite gacchati vA dRuShTvA jIvitAt parimucyate||9|

A person if visualises net like appearance in clean water either stagnant or moving one, when actually there is no such net, then it constitutes the premonitory symptom of forthcoming death. [9]

जाग्रत् पश्यति यः प्रेतान् रक्षांसि विविधानि च| अन्यद्वाऽप्यद्भुतं किञ्चिन्न स जीवितुमर्हति||१०||

jāgrat paśyati yaḥ prētān rakṣāṁsi vividhāni ca| anyadvā'pyadbhutaṁ kiñcinna sa jīvitumarhati||10||

jAgrat pashyati yaH pretAn rakShAMsi vividhAni ca| anyadvA~apyadbhutaM ki~jcinna sa jIvitumarhati||10||

If a person when awake, perceives various kinds of pretas (ghosts) and rakshasas (demons) or any other supernatural creatures he will not survive for long. [10]

योऽग्निं प्रकृतिवर्णस्थं नीलं पश्यति निष्प्रभम्| कृष्णं वा यदि वा शुक्लं निशां व्रजति सप्तमीम्||११||

yō'gniṁ prakr̥tivarṇasthaṁ nīlaṁ paśyati niṣprabham| kr̥ṣṇaṁ vā yadi vā śuklaṁ niśāṁ vrajati saptamīm||11||

yo~agniM prakRutivarNasthaM nIlaM pashyati niShprabham| kRuShNaM vA yadi vA shuklaM nishAM vrajati saptamIm||11||

If a person perceives fire burning in its natural color but is lusterless, bluish, black or white, it is indicative of death of the patient after seven nights.[11]

मरीचीनसतो मेघान्मेघान् वाऽप्यसतोऽम्बरे| विद्युतो वा विना मेघैः पश्यन् मरणमृच्छति||१२||

marīcīnasatō mēghānmēghān vā'pyasatō'mbarē| vidyutō vā vinā mēghaiḥ paśyan maraṇamr̥cchati||12||

marIcInasato meghAnmeghAn vA~apyasato~ambare| vidyuto vA vinA meghaiH pashyan maraNamRucchati||12||

If a person visualizes marῑchi (cloud light) or cloud or lightening when there is such no cloud or lightening present in the sky, it is indicative of imminent death of the person. [12]

मृन्मयीमिव यः पात्रीं कृष्णाम्बरसमावृताम्| आदित्यमीक्षते शुद्धं चन्द्रं वा न स जीवति||१३||

अपर्वणि यदा पश्येत् सूर्याचन्द्रमसोर्ग्रहम्| अव्याधितो व्याधितो वा तदन्तं तस्य जीवितम्||१४||

नक्तं सूर्यमहश्चन्द्रमनग्नौ धूममुत्थितम्| अग्निं वा निष्प्रभं रात्रौ दृष्ट्वा मरणमृच्छति||१५||

प्रभावतः प्रभाहीनान्निष्प्रभांश्च प्रभावतः| नरा विलिङ्गान् पश्यन्ति भावान् भावाञ्जिहासवः [३] ||१६||

व्याकृतीनि विवर्णानि विसङ्ख्योपगतानि च| विनिमित्तानि पश्यन्ति रूपाण्यायुःक्षये नराः||१७||

यश्च पश्यत्यदृश्यान् वै दृश्यान् यश्च न पश्यति| तावुभौ पश्यतः क्षिप्रं यमक्षयमसंशयम्||१८||

mr̥nmayīmiva yaḥ pātrīṁ kr̥ṣṇāmbarasamāvr̥tām| ādityamīkṣatē śuddhaṁ candraṁ vā na sa jīvati||13||

aparvaṇi yadā paśyēt sūryācandramasōrgraham| avyādhitō vyādhitō vā tadantaṁ tasya jīvitam||14||

naktaṁ sūryamahaścandramanagnau dhūmamutthitam| agniṁ vā niṣprabhaṁ rātrau dr̥ṣṭvā maraṇamr̥cchati||15||

prabhāvataḥ prabhāhīnānniṣprabhāṁśca prabhāvataḥ| narā viliṅgān paśyanti bhāvān bhāvāñjihāsavaḥ ||16||

vyākr̥tīni vivarṇāni visaṅkhyōpagatāni ca| vinimittāni paśyanti rūpāṇyāyuḥkṣayē narāḥ||17||

yaśca paśyatyadr̥śyān vai dr̥śyān yaśca na paśyati| tāvubhau paśyataḥ kṣipraṁ yamakṣayamasaṁśayam||18||

mRunmayImiva yaH pAtrIM kRuShNAmbarasamAvRutAm| AdityamIkShate shuddhaM candraM vA na sa jIvati||13||

aparvaNi yadA pashyet sUryAcandramasorgraham| avyAdhito vyAdhito vA tadantaM tasya jIvitam||14||

naktaM sUryamahashcandramanagnau dhUmamutthitam| agniMvA niShprabhaM rAtrau dRuShTvA maraNamRucchati|15||

prabhAvataH prabhAhInAnniShprabhAMshca prabhAvataH| narA vili~ggAn pashyanti bhAvAn bhAvA~jjihAsavaH ||16||

vyAkRutIni vivarNAni visa~gkhyopagatAni ca| vinimittAni pashyanti rUpANyAyuHkShaye narAH||17||

yashca pashyatyadRushyAn vai dRushyAn yashca na pashyati| tAvubhau pashyataH kShipraM yamakShayamasaMshayam||18||

Here in these verses are further described some symptoms which when present indicate imminent death of the person –

  • To see the sun or the moon painted or fixed on an earthen plate covered with a black cloth;
  • To see solar or lunar eclipse when there is no such occasion.
  • To see the sun at night, moon in the day, the smoke when there is no fire or to perceive fire without flame at night
  • Appearance of bright things without luster and the ones having no luster as bright i.e. unable to view real or actual characteristics.
  • To have visual perception of things in a distorted manner i.e. to visualize things as having multiple forms, devoid of complexion and in inaccurate numbers without any reason and
  • To visualize the invisible ones and not to visualize the visible ones.[13-18]

अशब्दस्य च यः श्रोता शब्दान् यश्च न बुध्यते| द्वावप्येतौ यथा प्रेतौ तथा ज्ञेयौ विजानता ||१९||

संवृत्याङ्गुलिभिः कर्णौ ज्वालाशब्दं य आतुरः| न शृणोति गतासुं तं बुद्धिमान् परिवर्जयेत्||२०||

aśabdasya ca yaḥ śrōtā śabdān yaśca na budhyatē| dvāvapyētau yathā prētau tathā jñēyau vijānatā ||19||

saṁvr̥tyāṅgulibhiḥ karṇau jvālāśabdaṁ ya āturaḥ| na śr̥ṇōti gatāsuṁ taṁ buddhimān parivarjayēt||20||

ashabdasya ca yaH shrotA shabdAn yashca na budhyate| dvAvapyetau yathA pretau tathA j~jeyau vijAnatA ||19||

saMvRutyA~ggulibhiH karNau jvAlAshabdaM ya AturaH| na shRuNoti gatAsuM taM buddhimAn parivarjayet||20||

A person who hears the inaudible sounds and doesn’t hear the audible ones; and the one who is unable to hear the internal (stellar) sound after closing the ear with fingers is sure to die hence a knowledgeable physician should not engage in treating him.[19-20]

विपर्ययेण यो विद्याद्गन्धानां साध्वसाधुताम्| न वा तान् सर्वशो विद्यात्तं विद्याद्विगतायुषम्||२१||

viparyayēṇa yō vidyādgandhānāṁ sādhvasādhutām| na vā tān sarvaśō vidyāttaṁ vidyādvigatāyuṣam||21||

viparyayeNa yo vidyAdgandhAnAM sAdhvasAdhutAm| na vA tAn sarvasho vidyAttaM vidyAdvigatAyuSham||21||

If a person fails to distinguish between good and bad smells or is not responsive to any smells at all, he is to be considered as a moribund person.[21]

यो रसान्न विजानाति न वा जानाति तत्त्वतः| मुखपाकादृते पक्वं तमाहुः कुशला नरम्||२२||

yō rasānna vijānāti na vā jānāti tattvataḥ| mukhapākādr̥tē pakvaṁ tamāhuḥ kuśalā naram||22||

yo rasAnna vijAnAti na vA jAnAti tattvataH| mukhapAkAdRute pakvaM tamAhuH kushalA naram||22||

A person who is not able to detect the various gustatory sensations at all or has altered gustatory perception despite having no mouth ulcers or inflammation in the mouth; should also be considered ripe for death. [22]

उष्णाञ्छीतान् खराञ्छ्लक्ष्णान्मृदूनपि च दारुणान्| स्पृश्यान् स्पृष्ट्वा ततोऽन्यत्वं मुमूर्षुस्तेषु मन्यते||२३||

uṣṇāñchītān kharāñchlakṣṇānmr̥dūnapi ca dāruṇān| spr̥śyān spr̥ṣṭvā tatō'nyatvaṁ mumūrṣustēṣu manyatē||23||

uShNA~jchItAn kharA~jchlakShNAnmRudUnapi ca dAruNAn| spRushyAn spRuShTvA tato~anyatvaM mumUrShusteShumanyate||23||

If a person perceives hot things as cold, coarseness as smoothness, softness as hardness and vice- versa by touch, he should also be considered as moribund person.[23]

अन्तरेण तपस्तीव्रं योगं वा विधिपूर्वकम्| इन्द्रियैरधिकं पश्यन् पञ्चत्वमधिगच्छति||२४||

इन्द्रियाणामृते दृष्टेरिन्द्रियार्थानदोषजान्| नरः पश्यति यः कश्चिदिन्द्रियैर्न स जीवति||२५||

antarēṇa tapastīvraṁ yōgaṁ vā vidhipūrvakam| indriyairadhikaṁ paśyan पञ्चत्वमpañcatvamadhigacchati||24||

indriyāṇāmr̥tē dr̥ṣṭērindriyārthānadōṣajān| naraḥ paśyati yaḥ kaścidindriyairna sa jīvati||25||

antareNa tapastIvraM yogaM vA vidhipUrvakam| indriyairadhikaM pashyan pa~jcatvamadhigacchati||24||

indriyANAmRute dRuShTerindriyArthAnadoShajAn| naraH pashyati yaH kashcidindriyairna sa jIvati||25||

If a person starts having the perception of supernatural things without being preceded by severe ascetic practices or penance or by means of yogic practices, it is indicative of imminent death. [25]

अस्वस्थाः प्रज्ञाविपर्यासैरिन्द्रियार्थेषु वैकृतम्| पश्यन्ति येऽसद्बहुशस्तेषां [१] मरणमादिशेत्||२६||

asvasthāḥ prajñāviparyāsairindriyārthēṣu vaikr̥tam| paśyanti yē'sadbahuśastēṣāṁ [1] maraṇamādiśēt||26||

svasthAH praj~jAviparyAsairindriyArtheShu vaikRutam| pashyanti ye~asadbahushasteShAM [1] maraNamAdishet||26||

If an otherwise healthy person starts perceiving things wrongly in contradiction to the normal relationship between the sense organs and their subjects as a result of mental perversion is sure to die soon. [26]

Summary

तत्र श्लोकः- एतदिन्द्रियविज्ञानं यः पश्यति यथातथम्| मरणं जीवितं चैव स भिषक् ज्ञातुमर्हति||२७||

tatra ślōkaḥ- ētadindriyavijñānaṁ yaḥ paśyati yathātatham| maraṇaṁ jīvitaṁ caiva sa bhiṣak jñātumarhati||27||

tatra shlokaH- etadindriyavij~jAnaM yaH pashyati yathAtatham| maraNaM jIvitaM caiva sa bhiShak j~jAtumarhati||27||

To conclude, it can be said that a physician who knows the science of premonition of death as indicated by the characteristic features of the sense organs can very easily distinguish between life and death.[27]

Tattva Vimarsha

Indriya (sense organs) and their connection with mind to perceive the right object is important for health. If this is severely altered, then arishta (near death signs) are observed as wrong perceptions.

Vidhi Vimarsha

Normally all senses are specific for a special purpose. One cannot be a replaced by another. Usually there is a good synchrony seen during functioning of sensory organs.

Achara rasayana (Code and conduct of society): A child and his indriya start getting trained according to codes and conducts of the society soon after birth and grow in that society normally and there is continued training throughout life. Pragyaparadha (intellectual errors) leads to altered behavior by false and uncontrolled perception by indriya or senses, this can also occur because of alcohol, substance abuse or mental illness etc. If there is no known cause for the altered behavior then it can be called arishta and has been considered as a sign of fatality.

This chapter deals about the various perversions of the perception of the sensory organs. All these symptoms resemble the manifestations also seen in psychiatric conditions. It is important to keep in mind that arishta lakshana should be considered after excluding known conditions causing such symptoms, then only they should be valued as a tool to gauge span of life.

Glossary

  1. Ateendriya (atIndriya; अतीन्द्रिय): beyond the boundary of perception by sense organs
  2. Ghanibhuta (ghanIbhUta; घनीभूत): solid in nature
  3. Panchatvam (pañcatvama; पञ्चत्वम): to dissociate into the five mahabhutas as happens after death, the body decomposes/ to die
  4. Medinim (mēdinīm; मेदिनीम्): the earth
  5. Marichi (marIcI; मरीची): cloud light
  6. Mrin mayeem (mRunmayIm; मृन्मयीम); earthern pot