|Section/Chapter||Sharira Sthana Chapter 2|
|Preceding Chapter||Katidhapurusha Sharira|
|Succeeding Chapter||Khuddika Garbhavakranti Sharira|
|Other Sections||Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana|
- 1 Sharira Sthana Chapter 2
- 1.1 Abstract
- 1.2 Introduction
- 1.3 Sanskrit text, Transliteration and English Translation
- 1.4 Tattva Vimarsha
- 1.5 Vidhi Vimarsha
- 1.5.1 Introduction to process of embryogenesis (Verse 2)
- 1.5.2 Pre-requisites for conception (Verse 3)
- 1.5.3 Description of shukra (Verse 4-6)
- 1.5.4 Factors affecting conception (Verse 7)
- 1.5.5 Factors affecting sex of the fetus (Verse 12)
- 1.5.6 Cause of multiple pregnancies (Verse 14)
- 1.5.7 Long intrauterine stay (Verse 15)
- 1.5.8 Dwireta (Hermaphroditism) (Verse 18)
- 1.5.9 Defects in conception due to non passage of shukra (Verse 19-20)
- 1.5.10 Signs and symptoms in pregnancy indicating the sex of the child (Verse 25)
- 1.5.11 Effects of shukra dosha (Verse 30)
- 1.5.12 Effect of past deeds (Verse 31-36)
- 1.5.13 Role of mind (Verse 38)
- 1.5.14 Use of intellect, senses and time (Verse 41)
- 1.5.15 Control over body and mind to overcome diseases (Verse 43)
- 1.5.16 Daiva (Verse 44)
- 1.6 References
- 1.7 Glossary
Sharira Sthana Chapter 2
Gotra, in literal Sanskrit, means cowshed. However, in common parlance, it denotes the progeny (or a clan) of a common male ancestor (usually, a rishi, or a sage). Atulya Gotra, or diversity in clans, is what the sages of antiquity professed, thus laying the foundation of genetics in Ayurveda. In this chapter, Lord Atreya answers thirty six specific questions of Agnivesha on a wide range of topics such as the causes of human embryo, labor, sex determination of the embryo, congenital anomalies, transmigration of the atma, and related phenomena. Apart from these, causes of disease, treatment, preventive measures and the role of past and present deeds of one-self in causation of disease etc. are discussed.
Keywords: Atulya-gotra,Shukra, Garbha, Ojoshana, Bīja, Dwireta, Klība, Prajnyaparadha, Pratikarma, Daiva , and Paurusha.
Vedic families – and societies – were largely divided into patrilineal clans (gotras), where each clan could trace their origins to a common male ancestor. The sages of antiquity knew of various disorders caused due to in-breeding within families, and thus forbade marriages within a gotra. To them, the study of human physiology required an analysis of the human embryo within the womb, and that managing disorders right at the stage of conception was important in ensuring good health within families and societies.
The preceding chapter dealt with overarching concepts of physical and spiritual importance, such as purusha, atma, manas, and buddhi. In continuation, this chapter begins with the “origin of a human being” as a result of sexual intercourse with a woman in her fertile period by a man from a different clan (atulya-gotra). It then talks of various factors influencing the embryogenesis, fetal growth and development, genetic abnormalities, features of sadya-grihita garbha (a female who has just conceived) etc. Consanguinity (tulya gotra) is being related to someone by blood, in contrast to atulya gotra.
Sanskrit text, Transliteration and English Translation
अथातोऽतुल्यगोत्रीयं शारीरं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||
athātō'tulyagōtrīyaṁ śārīraṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||
athAto~atulyagotrIyaM shArIraM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||
इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||
iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||
iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||
Now (I) shall expound the chapter that talks of atulya gotra (different clan). Thus, said Lord Atreya. [1-2]
अतुल्यगोत्रस्य रजःक्षयान्ते रहोविसृष्टं मिथुनीकृतस्य| किं स्याच्चतुष्पात्प्रभवं च षड्भ्यो  यत् स्त्रीषु गर्भत्वमुपैति पुंसः||३||
atulyagōtrasya rajaḥkṣayāntē rahōvisr̥ṣṭaṁ mithunīkr̥tasya| kiṁ syāccatuṣpātprabhavaṁ ca ṣaḍbhyō  yat strīṣu garbhatvamupaiti puṁsaḥ||3||
atulyagotrasya rajaHkShayAnte rahovisRuShTaM mithunIkRutasya| kiM syAccatuShpAtprabhavaM ca ShaDbhyo  yat strIShu garbhatvamupaiti puMsaH||3||
What is that of a man which has four constituents (mahabhutas) and six sources (rasa) and which comes out of him while he cohabits with a woman of a different clan in a lonely place after her menstrual cycle and is converted into embryo in the woman? 
शुक्रं तदस्य प्रवदन्ति धीरा यद्धीयते गर्भसमुद्भवाय| वाय्वग्निभूम्यब्गुणपादवत्तत् षड्भ्यो रसेभ्यः प्रभवश्च तस्य||४||
śukraṁ tadasya pravadanti dhīrā yaddhīyatē garbhasamudbhavāya| vāyvagnibhūmyabguṇapādavattat ṣaḍbhyō rasēbhyaḥ prabhavaśca tasya||4||
śukraM tadasya pravadanti dhIrA yaddhIyate garbhasamudbhavAya| vAyvagnibhUmyabguNapAdavattat ShaDbhyo rasebhyaH prabhavashca tasya||4||
The wise call it shukra, that which is implanted for the conception of an embryo. It is made up of four elements-vayu, agni, prithvi and apa (four mahabhutas) which contribute one fourth of the attributes of each of the mahabhuta and is originated from six rasas.
सम्पूर्णदेहः समये सुखं च गर्भः कथं केन च जायते स्त्री| गर्भं चिराद्विन्दति सप्रजाऽपि भूत्वाऽथवा नश्यति केन गर्भः||५||
sampūrṇadēhaḥ samayē sukhaṁ ca garbhaḥ kathaṁ kēna ca jāyatē strī| garbhaṁ cirādvindati saprajā'pi bhūtvā'thavā naśyati kēna garbhaḥ||5||
sampUrNadehaH samaye sukhaM ca garbhaH kathaM kena ca jAyate strI| garbhaM cirAdvindati saprajA~api bhUtvA~athavA nashyati kena garbhaH||5||
How and with what factors does the fully developed fetus get delivered in time and with ease? How does even a fertile woman face delays in conception? Why sometimes does the embryo get destroyed? 
शुक्रासृगात्माशयकालसम्पद् यस्योपचारश्च हितैस्तथाऽन्नैः ||५||
गर्भश्च काले च सुखी सुखं च सञ्जायते सम्परिपूर्णदेहः||६||
śukrāsr̥gātmāśayakālasampad yasyōpacāraśca hitaistathā'nnaiḥ ||5||
garbhaśca kālē ca sukhī sukhaṁ ca sañjāyatē samparipūrṇadēhaḥ||6||
śukrasRugAtmAshayakAlasampad yasyopacArashca hitaistathA~annaiH |5||
garbhashca kAle ca sukhI sukhaM ca sa~jjAyate samparipUrNadehaH||6||
By (the excellence of) healthy sperm, ovum, atma, uterus, time and by management with wholesome diet, the normal fetus gets delivered in fully developed state in time and with ease.
योनिप्रदोषान्मनसोऽभितापाच्छुक्रासृगाहारविहारदोषात्| अकालयोगाद्बलसङ्क्षयाच्च गर्भं चिराद्विन्दति सप्रजाऽपि||७||
yōnipradōṣānmanasō'bhitāpācchukrāsr̥gāhāravihāradōṣāt| akālayōgādbalasaṅkṣayācca garbhaṁ cirādvindati saprajā'pi||7||
yonipradoShAnmanaso~abhitApAcchukrAsRugAhAravihAradoShAt| akAlayogAdbalasa~gkShayAcca garbhaM cirAdvindati saprajA~api||7||
Though fertile, a woman conceives after a long time due to defects in genitals, mental worry, derangement of sperm, ovum, diet and behavior, absence of proper timing and diminution of strength.
असृङ्गिरुद्धं  पवनेन नार्या गर्भं व्यवस्यन्त्यबुधाः कदाचित्| गर्भस्य रूपं हि करोति तस्यास्तदसृगस्रवि विवर्धमानम्||८||
asr̥ṅggniruddhaṁ  pavanēna nāryā garbhaṁ vyavasyantyabudhāḥ kadācit| garbhasya rūpaṁ hi karōti tasyāstadasr̥gasraavi vivardhamānam||8||
asRu~ggniruddhaM  pavanena nAryA garbhaM vyavasyantyabudhAH kadAcit| garbhasya rUpaM hi karoti tasyAstadasRugasraavi vivardhamAnam||8||
Menstrual blood obstructed by vayu in (the uterus of) a woman is mistaken as pregnancy sometimes by the ignorant. The blood that does not flow out but gradually accumulates within the uterus produces signs and symptoms similar to pregnancy.
प्रवृत्तम् दृष्ट्वाऽसृगेकं ||८||
न च गर्भसञ्ज्ञं केचिन्नरा भूतहृतं वदन्ति||९||
pravr̥ttam dr̥ṣṭvā'sr̥gēkaṁ ||8||
na ca garbhasañjñaṁ kēcinnarā bhūtahr̥taṁ vadanti||9||
pravRuttam dRuShTvA~asRugekaM ||8||
na ca garbhasa~jj~jaM kecinnarA bhUtahRutaM vadanti||9||
When that blood is discharged out due to exposure to fire, the sun, exertion, grief, various diseases and intake of hot food and drinks, it is mistaken as a fetus destroyed by evil spirits by some people. 
ओजोशनानां रजनीचराणामाहारहेतोर्न शरीरमिष्टम्| गर्भं हरेयुर्यदि ते न मातुर्लब्धावकाशा न हरेयुरोजः||१०||
ōjōśanānāṁ rajanīcarāṇāmāhārahētōrna śarīramiṣṭam| garbhaṁ harēyuryadi tē na māturlabdhāvakāśā na harēyurōjaḥ||10||
ojoshanAnAM rajanIcarANAmAhArahetorna sharIramiShTam| garbhaM hareyuryadi te na mAturlabdhAvakAshA na hareyurojaH||10||
Evil spirits who move at night and eat away the ojas do not desire the body (of the fetus) as food. If these evil spirits take away the life of the fetus they can easily enter in to the mother’s body and eat away the ojas, leading to her death also.
कन्यां सुतं वा सहितौ पृथग्वा सुतौ सुते वा तनयान् बहून् वा| कस्मात् प्रसूते सुचिरेण गर्भमेकोऽभिवृद्धिं च यमेऽभ्युपैति||११||
kanyāṁ sutaṁ vā sahitau pr̥thagvā sutau sutē vā tanayān bahūn vā| kasmāt prasūtē sucirēṇa garbhamēkō'bhivr̥ddhiṁ ca yamē'bhyupaiti||11||
kanyAM sutaM vA sahitau pRuthagvA sutau sute vA tanayAn bahUn vA| kasmAt prasUte sucireNa garbhameko~abhivRuddhiM ca yame~abhyupaiti||11||
Why does one get a female or a male child?. Why does one get twins, male or female, separate or conjoined, or multiple births? Why does one deliver a child with delay? Why does one twin, in many cases, develop more than the other? 
रक्तेन कन्यामधिकेन पुत्रं शुक्रेण तेन द्विविधीकृतेन| बीजेन कन्यां च सुतं च सूते यथास्वबीजान्यतराधिकेन||१२||
raktēna kanyāmadhikēna putraṁ śukrēṇa tēna dvividhīkr̥tēna| bījēna kanyāṁ ca sutaṁ ca sūtē yathāsvabījānyatarādhikēna||12||
raktena kanyAmadhikena putraM shukreNa tena dvividhIkRutena| bIjena kanyAM ca sutaM ca sUte yathAsvabIjAnyatarAdhikena||12||
One gets female or male child due to dominance of ovum or sperm respectively. When zygote is split into two, twins are formed and the gender of each of the twins is determined by the relative predominance of ovum or sperm.||12||
शुक्राधिकं द्वैधमुपैति बीजं यस्याः सुतौ सा सहितौ प्रसूते| रक्ताधिकं वा यदि भेदमेति द्विधा सुते सा सहिते प्रसूते||१३||
śukrādhikaṁ dvaidhamupaiti bījaṁ yasyāḥ sutau sā sahitau prasūtē| raktādhikaṁ vā yadi bhēdamēti dvidhā sutē sā sahitē prasūtē||13||
śukradhikaM dvaidhamupaiti bIjaM yasyAH sutau sA sahitau prasUte| raktAdhikaM vA yadi bhedameti dvidhA sute sA sahite prasUte||13||
When the zygote is bifurcated with dominance of sperm, the woman delivers male twins and when with dominance of ovum, female twins.
भिनत्ति यावद्बहुधा प्रपन्नः शुक्रार्तवं वायुरतिप्रवृद्धः| तावन्त्यपत्यानि यथाविभागं कर्मात्मकान्यस्ववशात् प्रसूते||१४||
bhinatti yāvadbahudhā prapannaḥ śukrārtavaṁ vāyuratipravr̥ddhaḥ| tāvantyapatyāni yathāvibhāgaṁ karmātmakānyasvavaśāt prasūtē||14||
bhinatti yAvadbahudhA prapannaH śukrārtavaM vAyuratipravRuddhaH| tAvantyapatyAni yathAvibhAgaM karmAtmakAnyasvavashAt prasUte||14||
A woman delivers multiples due to past deeds and God’s pleasure in which the excessively aggravated vayu afflicting the union of sperm and ovum splits the zygote in various ways.
आहारमाप्नोति यदा न गर्भः शोषं समाप्नोति परिस्रुतिं वा| तं स्त्री प्रसूते सुचिरेण गर्भं पुष्टो यदा वर्षगणैरपि स्यात्||१५||
āhāramāpnōti yadā na garbhaḥ śōṣaṁ samāpnōti parisrutiṁ vā| taṁ strī prasūtē sucirēṇa garbhaṁ puṣṭō yadā varṣagaṇairapi syāt||15||
AhAramApnoti yadA na garbhaH shoShaM samApnoti parisrutiM vA| taM strI prasUte sucireNa garbhaM puShTo yadA varShagaNairapi syAt||15||
If the fetus does not get adequate nourishment and consequently gets dried up or is discharged, the woman delivers the child after a long time which may even take years for delivery after proper nourishment.
कर्मात्मकत्वाद्विषमांशभेदाच्छुक्रासृजोर्वृद्धिमुपैति कुक्षौ| एकोऽधिको न्यूनतरो द्वितीय एवं  यमेऽप्यभ्यधिको विशेषः||१६||
karmātmakatvādviṣamāṁśabhēdācchukrāsr̥jōrvr̥ddhimupaiti kukṣau| ēkō'dhikō nyūnatarō dvitīya ēvaṁ  yamē'pyabhyadhikō viśēṣaḥ||16||
karmAtmakatvAdviShamAMshabhedAcchukrAsRujorvRuddhimupaiti kukShau| eko~adhiko nyUnataro dvitIya evaM  yame~apyabhyadhiko visheShaH||16||
Due to past deeds and uneven division of the union of sperm and ovum, one in the twin develops more in the womb while the other one is less. Thus, there is also difference in the twins. 
कस्माद्द्विरेताः पवनेन्द्रियो वा संस्कारवाही नरनारिषण्डौ| वक्री तथेर्ष्याभिरतिः कथं वा सञ्जायते वातिकषण्डको वा||१७||
kasmāddvirētāḥ pavanēndriyō vā saṁskāravāhī naranāriṣaṇḍau| vakrī tathērṣyābhiratiḥ kathaṁ vā sañjāyatē vātikaṣaṇḍakō vā||17||
kasmAddviretAH pavanendriyo vA saMskAravAhI naranAriShaNDau| vakrI tatherShyAbhiratiH kathaM vA sa~jjAyate vAtikaShaNDako vA||17||
Why does the progeny become dwireta (hermaphrodite), pavanendriya (devoid of semen), samskaravahi (one whose semen pathway is obstructed by vata), narashanda (male sterility), narīshanda (female sterility), vakrī (curved), irshyabhirati (one with mixoscopia) and vatikashandaka (one whose testicles are destroyed due to vayu and agni (pitta)) 
बीजात् समांशादुपतप्तबीजात् स्त्रीपुंसलिङ्गी भवति द्विरेताः| शुक्राशयं गर्भगतस्य हत्वा  करोति वायुः पवनेन्द्रियत्वम्||१८||
bījāt samāṁśādupataptabījāt strīpuṁsaliṅgī bhavati dvirētāḥ| śukrāśayaṁ garbhagatasya hatvā  karōti vāyuḥ pavanēndriyatvam||18||
bIjAt samAMshAdupataptabIjAt strIpuMsali~ggI bhavati dviretAH| śukrashayaM garbhagatasya hatvA  karoti vAyuH pavanendriyatvam||18||
In case the zygote is formed by sperm and ovum equally or is damaged, the progeny has characters of both female and male, resulting in dwireta (hermaphrodite). Vayu by afflicting the shukrashaya (site of semen) of the fetus causes pavanendriya (devoid of semen).
शुक्राशयद्वारविघट्टनेन संस्कारवाहं  कुरुतेऽनिलश्च| मन्दाल्पबीजावबलावहर्षौ क्लीबौ च हेतुर्विकृतिद्वयस्य||१९||
śukrāśayadvāravighaṭṭanēna saṁskāravāhaṁ  kurutē'nilaśca| mandālpabījāvabalāvaharṣau klībau ca hēturvikr̥tidvayasya||19||
śukrashayadvAravighaTTanena saMskAravAhaM  kurute~anilashca| mandAlpabIjAvabalAvaharShau klIbau ca heturvikRutidvayasya||19||
When vayu obstructs the passage of the site of semen, it causes samskaravahī. When the parents have sluggish and diminished reproductive factors, are weak, or are not excited or happy during coitus, they cause the two disorders—narashanda and narīshanda (male and female sterility).
मातुर्व्यवायप्रतिघेन वक्री स्याद्बीजदौर्बल्यतया पितुश्च| ईर्ष्याभिभूतावपि मन्दहर्षावीर्ष्यारतेरेव  वदन्ति हेतुम्||२०||
māturvyavāyapratighēna vakrī syādbījadaurbalyatayā pituśca| īrṣyābhibhūtāvapi mandaharṣāvīrṣyāratērēva  vadanti hētum||20||
mAturvyavAyapratighena vakrI syAdbIjadaurbalyatayA pitushca| IrShyAbhibhUtAvapi mandaharShAvIrShyAratereva  vadanti hetum||20||
Due to the mother’s lack of desire (for coitus) or complicated posture (during coitus) and also due to shukra deficiency of the father, (the progeny) is born with vakrī (with curved organ). Irshyabhirati(one with mixoscopia) is caused if the parents are subdued by jealousy and have mild passion.
वाय्वग्निदोषाद्वृषणौ तु यस्य नाशं गतौ वातिकषण्डकः सः| इत्येवमष्टौ विकृतिप्रकाराः कर्मात्मकानामुपलक्षणीयाः||२१||
vāyvagnidōṣādvr̥ṣaṇau tu yasya nāśaṁ gatau vātikaṣaṇḍakaḥ saḥ| ityēvamaṣṭau vikr̥tiprakārāḥ karmātmakānāmupalakṣaṇīyāḥ||21||
vAyvagnidoShAdvRuShaNau tu yasya nAshaM gatau vAtikaShaNDakaH saH| ityevamaShTau vikRutiprakArAH karmAtmakAnAmupalakShaNIyAH||21||
When the testicles get destroyed by aggravation of vayu and agni, vatika shandaka is caused. These eight types of genetic sexual disorders described above (dwireta, pawanendriya, etc)could be the consequences of past deeds.
गर्भस्य सद्योऽनुगतस्य कुक्षौ स्त्रीपुन्नपुंसामुदरस्थितानाम्| किं लक्षणं? कारणमिष्यते किं सरूपतां येन च यात्यपत्यम्||२२||
garbhasya sadyō'nugatasya kukṣau strīpunnapuṁsāmudarasthitānām| kiṁ lakṣaṇaṁ? kāraṇamiṣyatē kiṁ sarūpatāṁ yēna ca yātyapatyam||22||
garbhasya sadyo~anugatasya kukShau strIpunnapuMsAmudarasthitAnAm| kiM lakShaNaM? kAraNamiShyate kiM sarUpatAM yena ca yAtyapatyam||22||
What are the earliest signs of conception? What signs and symptoms indicate a female, male or hermaphrodite foetus developing in the womb? What is the reason of resemblance of the child to a particular person? 
निष्ठीविका गौरवमङ्गसादस्तन्द्राप्रहर्षौ हृदये व्यथा च| तृप्तिश्च बीजग्रहणं च योन्यां गर्भस्य सद्योऽनुगतस्य लिङ्गम्||२३||
niṣṭhīvikā gauravamaṅgasādastandrāpraharṣau hr̥dayē vyathā ca| tr̥ptiśca bījagrahaṇaṁ ca yōnyāṁ garbhasya sadyō'nugatasya liṅgam||23||
niShThIvikA gauravama~ggasAdastandrApraharShau hRudaye vyathA ca| tRuptishca bIjagrahaNaM ca yonyAM garbhasya sadyo~anugatasya li~ggam||23||
Salivation, heaviness, malaise, drowsiness, horripilation, distress in cardiac region, contentment, fertilization in the uterus —these are the earliest signs of conception.||23||
सव्याङ्गचेष्टा पुरुषार्थिनी  स्त्री स्त्रीस्वप्नपानाशनशीलचेष्टा| सव्यात्तगर्भा  न च वृत्तगर्भा सव्यप्रदुग्धा स्त्रियमेव सूते||२४||
savyāṅgacēṣṭā puruṣārthinī  strī strīsvapnapānāśanaśīlacēṣṭā| savyāttagarbhā  na ca vr̥ttagarbhā savyapradugdhā striyamēva sūtē||24||
savyA~ggaceShTA puruShArthinI  strI strIsvapnapAnAshanashIlaceShTA| savyAttagarbhA  na ca vRuttagarbhA savyapradugdhA striyameva sUte||24||
पुत्रं त्वतो लिङ्गविपर्ययेण व्यामिश्रलिङ्गा प्रकृतिं तृतीयाम्| गर्भोपपत्तौ तु मनः स्त्रिया यं जन्तुं व्रजेत्तत्सदृशं प्रसूते||२५||
putraṁ tvatō liṅgaviparyayēṇa vyāmiśraliṅgā prakr̥tiṁ tr̥tīyām| garbhōpapattau tu manaḥ striyā yaṁ jantuṁ vrajēttatsadr̥śaṁ prasūtē||25||
putraM tvato li~ggaviparyayeNa vyAmishrali~ggA prakRutiM tRutIyAm| garbhopapattau tu manaH striyA yaM jantuM vrajettatsadRushaM prasUte||25||
Activities mostly to the left side of the mother, desire for man, feminine dreams, as well as feminine drinks, foods, conducts and activities, foetus stationed in the left side of the womb, gravid uterus that is not round in shape, profuse lactation in the left breast—these indicate the female foetus. Signs- symptoms contrary to the above indicate the male foetus, while a mixture of the above indicate those of a hermaphrodite. A child resembles that person to whom the mother’s mind is attracted to during conception.||25-26||
गर्भस्य चत्वारि चतुर्विधानि भूतानि मातापितृसम्भवानि| आहारजान्यात्मकृतानि चैव सर्वस्य सर्वाणि भवन्ति देहे||२६||
garbhasya catvāri caturvidhāni bhūtāni mātāpitr̥sambhavāni| āhārajānyātmakr̥tāni caiva sarvasya sarvāṇi bhavanti dēhē||26||
garbhasya catvAri caturvidhAni bhUtAni mAtApitRusambhavAni| AhArajAnyAtmakRutAni caiva sarvasya sarvANi bhavanti dehe||26|| तेषां विशेषाद्बलवन्ति यानि भवन्ति मातापितृकर्मजानि| तानि व्यवस्येत् सदृशत्वहेतुं सत्त्वं यथानूकमपि व्यवस्येत्||२७||
tēṣāṁ viśēṣādbalavanti yāni bhavanti mātāpitr̥karmajāni| tāni vyavasyēt sadr̥śatvahētuṁ sattvaṁ yathānūkamapi vyavasyēt||27||
teShAM visheShAdbalavanti yAni bhavanti mAtApitRukarmajAni| tAni vyavasyet sadRushatvahetuM sattvaM yathAnUkamapi vyavasyet||27||
Foetus is made up of four set of four mahabhutas (i.e., of all except akasha), i.e., one set each from the mother, the father, nutrition from the mother, and the self. Out of these, factors the past deeds of the soul and the parents significantly influence the physical and psychological traits of the progeny. Like-wise, resemblance is also determined by the deeds of past life.||27||
कस्मात् प्रजां स्त्री विकृतां प्रसूते हीनाधिकाङ्गीं विकलेन्द्रियां वा| देहात् कथं देहमुपैति चान्यमात्मा सदा कैरनुबध्यते च||२८||
kasmāt prajāṁ strī vikr̥tāṁ prasūtē hīnādhikāṅgīṁ vikalēndriyāṁ vā| dēhāt kathaṁ dēhamupaiti cānyamātmā sadā kairanubadhyatē ca||28||
kasmAt prajAM strI vikRutAM prasUte hInAdhikA~ggIM vikalendriyAM vA| dehAt kathaM dehamupaiti cAnyamAtmA sadA kairanubadhyate ca||28||
Why does a woman deliver an abnormal child with deficiencies or excess of organs or deranged sense organs? How does the soul transmigrate from one body to another and what is always associated with it? ||28||
बीजात्मकर्माशयकालदोषैर्मातुस्तथाऽऽहारविहारदोषैः| कुर्वन्ति दोषा विविधानि दुष्टाः संस्थानवर्णेन्द्रियवैकृतानि||२९||
bījātmakarmāśayakāladōṣairmātustathāhāravihāradōṣaiḥ| kurvanti dōṣā vividhāni duṣṭāḥ saṁsthānavarṇēndriyavaikr̥tāni||29||
bIjAtmakarmAshayakAladoShairmAtustathA~a~ahAravihAradoShaiH| kurvanti doShA vividhAni duShTAH saMsthAnavarNendriyavaikRutAni||29||
वर्षासु काष्टाश्मघनाम्बुवेगास्तरोः सरित्स्रोतसि संस्थितस्य| यथैव कुर्युर्विकृतिं तथैव गर्भस्य कुक्षौ नियतस्य दोषाः||३०|| varṣāsu kāṣṭhāśmaghanāmbuvēgāstarōḥ saritsrōtasi saṁsthitasya| yathaiva kuryurvikr̥tiṁ tathaiva garbhasya kukṣau niyatasya dōṣāḥ||30||
varShAsu kAShThAshmaghanAmbuvegAstaroH saritsrotasi saMsthitasya| yathaiva kuryurvikRutiM tathaiva garbhasya kukShau niyatasya doShAH||30||
Due to defects in the sperm/ovum, past deeds of the soul, uterus, time and mother’s food and behavior, doshas get vitiated causing various abnormalities in shape, complexion and sense organs. Just as in the rainy season, wood, stone pieces and water current cause derangements in a tree situated in the river stream, doshas cause abnormalities in fetus situated in the womb.||29-30||
भूतैश्चतुर्भिः सहितः सुसूक्ष्मैर्मनोजवो देहमुपैति देहात्| कर्मात्मकत्वान्न तु तस्य दृश्यं दिव्यं विना दर्शनमस्ति रूपम्||३१||
bhūtaiścaturbhiḥ sahitaḥ susūkṣmairmanōjavō dēhamupaiti dēhāt| karmātmakatvānna tu tasya dr̥śyaṁ divyaṁ vinā darśanamasti rūpam||31||
bhUtaishcaturbhiH sahitaH susUkShmairmanojavo dehamupaiti dehAt| karmAtmakatvAnna tu tasya dRushyaM divyaM vinA darshanamasti rUpam||31||
The soul, along with four subtle bhutas, at a speed like that of the mind, transmigrates from one body to the other according to past deeds. It cannot be seen without divine visual sense. ||31||
स सर्वगः सर्वशरीरभृच्च स विश्वकर्मा स च विश्वरूपः| स चेतनाधातुरतीन्द्रियश्च स नित्ययुक् सानुशयः स एव  ||३२||
sa sarvagaḥ sarvaśarīrabhr̥cca sa viśvakarmā sa ca viśvarūpaḥ| sa cētanādhāturatīndriyaśca sa nityayuk sānuśayaḥ sa ēva  ||32||
sa sarvagaH sarvasharIrabhRucca sa vishvakarmA sa ca vishvarUpaH| sa cetanAdhAturatIndriyashca sa nityayuk sAnushayaH sa eva  ||32||
The soul is omnivagant/ omnipresent (can move anywhere and everywhere), sustains all bodies, performs all actions, and takes all forms. It is the source of consciousness, transcending all senses, as it is always associated (with intellect etc.), it gets involved in attachment etc.||32||
रसात्ममातापितृसम्भवानि भूतानि विद्याद्दश षट् च देहे| चत्वारि तत्रात्मनि संश्रितानि स्थितस्तथाऽऽत्मा च चतुर्षु तेषु||३३||
rasātmamātāpitr̥sambhavāni bhūtāni vidyāddaśa ṣaṭ ca dēhē| catvāri tatrātmani saṁśritāni sthitastathātmā ca caturṣu tēṣu||33||
rasAtmamAtApitRusambhavAni bhUtAni vidyAddasha ShaT ca dehe| catvAri tatrAtmani saMshritAni sthitastathA~a~atmA ca caturShu teShu||33||
In the body, the bhutas are sixteen (each set of four bhutas is of four types), originating from maternal nutrition, the self, mother (ovum) and father (sperm). Out of these, four are associated with the self and the self, in turn, depends on these four.||33||
भूतानि मातापितृसम्भवानि रजश्च शुक्रं च वदन्ति गर्भे| आप्याय्यते शुक्रमसृक् च भूतैर्यैस्तानि भूतानि  रसोद्भवानि||३४||
bhūtāni mātāpitr̥sambhavāni rajaśca śukraṁ ca vadanti garbhē| āpyāyyatē śukramasr̥k ca bhūtairyaistāni bhūtāni  rasōdbhavāni||34||
bhUtAni mAtApitRusambhavAni rajashca śukraM ca vadanti garbhe| ApyAyyate śukramasRuk ca bhUtairyaistAni bhUtAni  rasodbhavAni||34||
The bhutas from the mother and the father are known as ovum and sperm in the fetus respectively. The bhutas which nourish these sperm and ovum are nourished from the mother’s nutrition. ||34||
भूतानि चत्वारि तु कर्मजानि यान्यात्मलीनानि विशन्ति गर्भम्| स बीजधर्मा ह्यपरापराणि देहान्तराण्यात्मनि याति याति||३५||
bhūtāni catvāri tu karmajāni yānyātmalīnāni viśanti garbham| sa bījadharmā hyaparāparāṇi dēhāntarāṇyātmani yāti yāti||35||
bhUtAni catvAri tu karmajAni yAnyAtmalInAni vishanti garbham| sa bIjadharmA hyaparAparANi dehAntarANyAtmani yAti yAti||35||
Four karmajabhutas (derived from the past deeds) which are atmaleena (associated with the soul) which enter into the fetus are known as beejadharma. These (four bhutas) along with the soul transmigrates from one body to the other (in a cyclic of birth and death). ||35||
रूपाद्धि रूपप्रभवः प्रसिद्धः कर्मात्मकानां मनसो मनस्तः| भवन्ति ये त्वाकृतिबुद्धिभेदारजस्तमस्तत्र च कर्म हेतुः||३६||
rūpādhi rūpaprabhavaḥ prasiddhaḥ karmātmakānāṁ manasō manastaḥ| bhavanti yē tvākr̥tibuddhibhēdārajastamastatra ca karma hētuḥ||36||
rUpAddhi rUpaprabhavaH prasiddhaH karmAtmakAnAM manaso manastaH| bhavanti ye tvAkRutibuddhibhedArajastamastatra ca karma hetuH||36||
Based on one’s past deeds, one’s physical form is influenced by the physical form of a past life, and one’s mind from that of a past life. Whatever difference is observed in the physique and psyche of one’s life from those of the other is caused by rajas, tamas and the past deeds.
अतीन्द्रियैस्तैरतिसूक्ष्मरूपैरात्मा कदाचिन्न वियुक्तरूपः| न कर्मणा नैव मनोमतिभ्यां न चाप्यहङ्कारविकारदोषैः||३७||
atīndriyaistairatisūkṣmarūpairātmā kadācinna viyuktarūpaḥ| na karmaṇā naiva manōmatibhyāṁ na cāpyahaṅkāravikāradōṣaiḥ||37||
atIndriyaistairatisUkShmarUpairAtmA kadAcinna viyuktarUpaH| na karmaNA naiva manomatibhyAM na cApyaha~gkAravikAradoShaiH||37||
रजस्तमोभ्यां हि मनोऽनुबद्धं ज्ञानं विना तत्र हि सर्वदोषाः| गतिप्रवृत्त्योस्तु निमित्तमुक्तं मनः सदोषं बलवच्च कर्म||३८|| rajastamōbhyāṁ hi manō'nubaddhaṁ jñānaṁ vinā tatra hi sarvadōṣāḥ| gatipravr̥ttyōstu nimittamuktaṁ manaḥ sadōṣaṁ balavacca karma||38||
rajastamobhyAM hi mano~anubaddhaM j~jAnaM vinA tatra hi sarvadoShAH| gatipravRuttyostu nimittamuktaM manaH sadoShaM balavacca karma||38||
The soul is never dissociated with the subtle and sense-transcending bhutas, past deeds, mind, intellect, ego and other doshas or vikara. Mind is associated with rajas and tamas, while all defects are caused by ignorance (tamas). The cause of movement and inclination of soul from one body to another is defective mind and potent past deeds. ||37-38||
रोगाः कुतः संशमनं किमेषां हर्षस्य शोकस्य च किं निमित्तम्| शरीरसत्त्वप्रभवा विकाराः कथं न शान्ताः पुनरापतेयुः||३९||
rōgāḥ kutaḥ saṁśamanaṁ kimēṣāṁ harṣasya śōkasya ca kiṁ nimittam| śarīrasattvaprabhavā vikārāḥ kathaṁ na śāntāḥ punarāpatēyuḥ||39||
rogAH kutaH saMshamanaM kimeShAM harShasya shokasya ca kiM nimittam| sharIrasattvaprabhavA vikArAH kathaM na shAntAH punarApateyuH||39||
How do diseases occur? What is their remedy? What is the cause of happiness and sorrow? How could physical and mental disorders, once subdued, not recur? ||39||
प्रज्ञापराधो विषमास्तथाऽर्था हेतुस्तृतीयः परिणामकालः| सर्वामयानां त्रिविधा च शान्तिर्ज्ञानार्थकालाः समयोगयुक्ताः||४०||
prajñāparādhō viṣamāstathā'rthā hētustr̥tīyaḥ pariṇāmakālaḥ| sarvāmayānāṁ trividhā ca śāntirjñānārthakālāḥ samayōgayuktāḥ||40||
praj~jAparAdho viShamAstathA~arthA hetustRutIyaH pariNAmakAlaH| sarvAmayAnAM trividhA ca shAntirj~jAnArthakAlAH samayogayuktAH||40||
Intellectual error (pragyaparadha), unbalanced use of senses and temporal effects- these three are the causes of all disorders. Similarly, the remedy of all disorders lies in the balanced use of intellect, senses and time. ||40||
धर्म्याः क्रिया हर्षनिमित्तमुक्तास्ततोऽन्यथा शोकवशं नयन्ति| शरीरसत्त्वप्रभवास्तु रोगास्तयोरवृत्त्या न भवन्ति भूयः||४१||
dharmyāḥ kriyā harṣanimittamuktāstatō'nyathā śōkavaśaṁ nayanti| śarīrasattvaprabhavāstu rōgāstayōravr̥ttyā na bhavanti bhūyaḥ||41||
dharmyAH kriyA harShanimittamuktAstato~anyathA shokavashaM nayanti| sharIrasattvaprabhavAstu rogAstayoravRuttyA na bhavanti bhUyaH||41||
Virtuous acts bring forth happiness while the contrary ones cause sorrow. The source of all diseases is the body and the mind. When these (body and mind) are absent, the diseases can not recur. ||41||
रूपस्य सत्त्वस्य च सन्ततिर्या नोक्तस्तदादिर्नहि सोऽस्ति कश्चित्| तयोरवृत्तिः क्रियते पराभ्यां धृतिस्मृतिभ्यां परया धिया च||४२||
rūpasya sattvasya ca santatiryā nōktastadādirnahi sō'sti kaścit| tayōravr̥ttiḥ kriyatē parābhyāṁ dhr̥tismr̥tibhyāṁ parayā dhiyā ca||42||
rUpasya sattvasya ca santatiryA noktastadAdirnahi so~asti kashcit| tayoravRuttiH kriyate parAbhyAM dhRutismRutibhyAM parayA dhiyA ca||42||
The beginning of the continuity of physique and psyche is not told and for sure there is no such beginning Their absence can be brought out only by excellent restraint, memory and knowledge. ||42||
सत्याश्रये वा द्विविधे यथोक्ते पूर्वं गदेभ्यः प्रतिकर्म नित्यम्| जितेन्द्रियं नानुपतन्ति रोगास्तत्कालयुक्तं यदि नास्ति दैवम्||४३||
satyāśrayē vā dvividhē yathōktē pūrvaṁ gadēbhyaḥ pratikarma nityam| jitēndriyaṁ nānupatanti rōgāstatkālayuktaṁ yadi nāsti daivam||43||
satyAshraye vA dvividhe yathokte pUrvaM gadebhyaH pratikarma nityam| jitendriyaM nAnupatanti rogAstatkAlayuktaM yadi nAsti daivam||43||
Even though the above mentioned two-fold seats of diseases (body and mind) exist, one who always takes precautions against diseases and have control over the senses does not fall prey to diseases except when predestined. ||43||
दैवं पुरा यत् कृतमुच्यते तत् तत्  पौरुषं यत्त्विह कर्म दृष्टम्| प्रवृत्तिहेतुर्विषमः स दृष्टो निवृत्तिहेतुर्हि समः स एव||४४||
daivaṁ purā yat kr̥tamucyatē tat tat  pauruṣaṁ yattviha karma dr̥ṣṭam| pravr̥ttihēturviṣamaḥ sa dr̥ṣṭō nivr̥ttihēturhi samaḥ sa ēva||44||
daivaM purA yat kRutamucyate tat tat  pauruShaM yattviha karma dRuShTam| pravRuttiheturviShamaH sa dRuShTo nivRuttiheturhi samaH sa eva||44||
The deeds of the previous life are known as daiva (fate) and those of the present life as paurusha (personal effort). Imbalance of these (daiva and paurusha) leads to diseases and balance prevents the diseases||44||
हैमन्तिकं दोषचयं वसन्ते प्रवाहयन् ग्रैष्मिकमभ्रकाले| घनात्यये वार्षिकमाशु सम्यक् प्राप्नोति रोगानृतुजान्न जातु  ||४५||
haimantikaṁ dōṣacayaṁ vasantē pravāhayan graiṣmikamabhrakālē| ghanātyayē vārṣikamāśu samyak prāpnōti rōgānr̥tujānna jātu  ||45||
haimantikaM doShacayaM vasante pravAhayan graiShmikamabhrakAle| ghanAtyaye vArShikamAshu samyak prApnoti rogAnRutujAnna jAtu  ||45||
One who eliminates the accumulation of doshas of early winter in spring, of summer in early rains and of rainy season in autumn, never suffers from seasonal disorders. ||45||
नरो हिताहारविहारसेवी समीक्ष्यकारी विषयेष्वसक्तः| दाता समः सत्यपरः क्षमावानाप्तोपसेवी च भवत्यरोगः||४६||
narō hitāhāravihārasēvī samīkṣyakārī viṣayēṣvasaktaḥ| dātā samaḥ satyaparaḥ kṣamāvānāptōpasēvī ca bhavatyarōgaḥ||46||
naro hitAhAravihArasevI samIkShyakArI viShayeShvasaktaH| dAtA samaH satyaparaH kShamAvAnAptopasevI ca bhavatyarogaH||46||
The man who uses wholesome diet and behavior, moves cautiously, is unattached to sensual pleasures, donates, observes equality, is truthful, is forbearing and is devoted to venerable people becomes free from diseases. ||46||
मतिर्वचः कर्म सुखानुबन्धं सत्त्वं विधेयं विशदा च बुद्धिः| ज्ञानं तपस्तत्परता च योगे यस्यास्ति तं नानुपतन्ति  रोगाः||४७||
matirvacaḥ karma sukhānubandhaṁ sattvaṁ vidhēyaṁ viśadā ca buddhiḥ| jñānaṁ tapastatparatā ca yōgē yasyāsti taṁ nānupatanti  rōgāḥ||47||
matirvacaH karma sukhAnubandhaM sattvaM vidheyaM vishadA ca buddhiH| j~jAnaM tapastatparatA ca yoge yasyAsti taM nAnupatanti  rogAH||47||
One who is endowed with such an intellect, speech and (positive) actions which yield good results, who has a submissive mind, clear understanding, and knowledge, and who does penance and continued effort in yoga, does not fall victim to diseases. ||47||
तत्र श्लोकः| इहाग्निवेशस्य महार्थयुक्तं षट्त्रिंशकं प्रश्नगणं महर्षिः| अतुल्यगोत्रे भगवान् यथावन्निर्णीतवान् ज्ञानविवर्धनार्थम्||४८||
tatra ślōkaḥ| ihāgnivēśasya mahārthayuktaṁ ṣaṭtriṁśakaṁ praśnagaṇaṁ maharṣiḥ| atulyagōtrē bhagavān yathāvannirṇītavān jñānavivardhanārtham||48||
tatra shlokaH| ihAgniveshasya mahArthayuktaM ShaTtriMshakaM prashnagaNaM maharShiH| atulyagotre bhagavAn yathAvannirNItavAn j~jAnavivardhanArtham||48||
Now summing it all up,
In this chapter on atulyagotra the great sage Atreya responded to the thirty six important questions of Agnivesha on conception and disorders at birth, furthering our knowledge in the matter. ||48||
इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृते शारीरस्थानेऽतुल्यगोत्रीयं शारीरं नाम द्वितीयोऽध्यायः||२||
ityagnivēśakr̥tē tantrē carakapratisaṁskr̥tē śārīrasthānē'tulyagōtrīyaṁ śārīraṁ nāma dvitīyō'dhyāyaḥ||2||
ityagniveshakRute tantre carakapratisaMskRute shArIrasthAne~atulyagotrIyaM shArIraM nAmadvitIyo~adhyAyaH||2||
Thus ends the second chapter titled Atulyagotriya Sharira in Sharira Sthana, composed by Agnivesha and redacted by Charaka.
- The prerequisites of a healthy conception includethe clan (gotra) of male, ovulatory period (rajah-kshayante), psychic component (rahovisrishta), posture during coitus (mithuna) and shukra. The expectant couples have to be very conscious of these facts to achieve a healthy embryo.
- The word shukra denotes different components in both male and female. In a broad sense, it could mean the whole semen, sperm, ovum and sex hormones. Here it refers to sperm, also called sukshma-beeja (CK on CS.Sa.2/3).
- Consanguineous marriages have been practiced since long. Since such unions increase the chances of genetic disorders in the offspring, sages forbade it. Lord Atreya advised against consanguineous marriages, as indicated in Charaka Samhita.
- Shukra has four mahabhuta before fertilization and fifth (akasha) joins after fertilization.
- Requirement for normal healthy birth: Shukra (sperm), asrik (ovum), atma (soul), garbhayashaya sampat (healthy uterus), kalasampat (suitable time for conception),wholesome food and good antenatal care.
- Reasons for delayed conception in a fertile woman: Abnormal uterus and vagina, psychiatric illness, abnormal sperm and ovum, unwholesome diet, faulty lifestyle, wrong timing of intercourse and loss of physical strength.
- Reasons for abortion: Affliction by evil spirits.
- Reasons for multiple pregnancies (twins, etc.), differences in physique and other characteristics of twins: Improper division of the zygote by vayu
- Reasons for congenital defects/sexual disorders: Primarily vitiated vayu- but the reason behind vitiation is past deeds
- Three causes of diseases: Intellectual errors, unbalanced use of sense organs and temporal effects
This chapter is quite comprehensive and considers various principles of embryology. The important ones are related to twin formation and development and congenital/chromosomal diseases all of which are said to be caused by vitiated vayu. These principles are backed up by cross references in the same samhita or other samhitas. These cross references are well illustrated below. It can be inferred that if vayu is kept under control, many of the complications in pregnancy can be avoided.
Introduction to process of embryogenesis (Verse 2)
In the preceding chapter, pre-conception factors associated with the human origin, and spiritual factors applicable to treatment in the form of naishthika and moksha were discussed. In atulyagotriya, characteristics of a healthy conception, and genetic disorders associated with consanguinity have been described (CK, on CS.Sa.2/1-2).
The word garbhadhirupa may be interpreted in a broader way to include the entire process of embryogenesis by which an embryo grows and develops into a healthy foetus. Here, garbha means the conjugation of shukra-shonita and jivatma as described in the texts and roopa means full manifestation. The word, adi denotes the entire process from the conjugation to full manifestation.(2)
Pre-requisites for conception (Verse 3)
Sexual intercourse within the same clan causes adharma, thus contraindicated in dharmashastra (CK on CS.Sa.2/3). Hence atulyagotra implies non-consanguineous cohabitation. The term rajakshaya implies menstrual (bleeding) phase, which is of three days and during this period sexual intercourse is contraindicated (CK on CS.Sa.2/3). Post-menstrual phase is considered to be an appropriate time to conceive. This period is referred as ritu and the duration is expressly described in the texts (SS.Sa.2/33, Sa.3/6; AS.Sa.1/40; AH.Sa.1/27; KS.Sa.5/5, Manu.3/46-47). It is also observed that the first three days and the 16th day of ritukala is not suitable for conception (Dal.SS.Sa3/6). Analyzing the above facts, it could be stated that rajah-kshayante referred here is the post menstrual ovulatory phase and is from the 4th to the 15th day of the menstrual cycle.
The influence of psychic component is very important to conceive and is described in many ways. A lonely place (rahovisrishta) is advised because any hindrance to the act affects emission of semen during coitus (CK on CS.Sa.2/3). A positive, healthy state of mind (saumanasya) is said to be the best state to conceive (CS.Su.25/40). If the woman thinks about an animal during coitus, the progeny takes the character of that animal (CS.Sa.2/25, 8/14; SS.Sa.2/46; AS. Su.13/3, Sa.1/53, AH.Sa.1/31). Similarly, proper methods for sex (mithuna) are indicated and it is advised not to follow wrong methods (CK on CS.Sa.2/3).Normal and abnormal postures (CS.Sa.8/6,58, AS.Sa.1/58-59), contraindication of coitus for both male and female along with their effects (CS.Sa.8/6, SS.Sa.10/56, Ci.24/110-123, AS.Sa.1/21,58; BP.Pur.3/26,5/300-302; BhS.Su.7/5-7) are found in many places. Four mahabhutas and six sources are the constituents of the sukshma-beeja which is taken with word shukra (CK on CS.Sa.2/3) viz. the sperm. (3)
Description of shukra (Verse 4-6)
The word shukra referred here is described under the term beeja in the context of factors responsible for conception in different texts (CS.Su.11/23, SS.Sa.2/33, AS. Sa.1/68, KS.Sa.5/5). The author also uses aartava(ovum) and shukra (sperm) interchangeably with the word beeja (Dal.SS.Sa.2/33). Similarly, healthy pum-beeja (quality sperm) is taken with shuddha shukra (AD, AH.Sa.1/8-9). Regarding the constituents and sources of shukra, it is stated that all the four mahabhutas (i.e., all except akasha) equally contribute in creating semen and the best qualities of these four constituents produce pure semen (CK on CS.Sa.2/4) otherwise it becomes abnormal (GD on CS.Sa.2/4). Though semen is panchabhautika, akasha is not mentioned here since it does not have any kinetic property. Thus, ejaculated semen is said to be chatushpada. However, akasha being all pervasive, it combines with semen in the uterus (where the semen finally becomes panchabhautika).
The semen createdfrom a six-rasa diet is said to be pure. Excessive use of madhura rasa promotes semen while amla etc. destroys it (CK on CS.Sa.2/4).It is also found that if there is unvitiated shukra, healthy shonita, healthy garbhashaya, and observation of prescribed diets and specific lifestyles for both male and female partners, conception is definite (CS.Sa.8/17, Ci.30/125-26; AS.Ut.39/79; AH.Ut.34/61-62).The word sampad is related to all shukra, asriga, atma, ashaya and kala. Unafflicted (adushta) shukra, asriga and ashaya, conjugation of soul with shukra-shonita, having auspicious deeds, and normal season (i.e., no extremities in weather conditions etc.) are characteristics of ideal factors for a healthy conception. From the standpoint of kala, or time, the ideal time for delivery is ninth or tenth month of pregnancy (CK on C.S. Sha. 2/6 and C. S. Sha. 4/25 ) as up to this time the fetus gets well developed.
It is said that due to its specific nature, the garbha descends for labor in its appropriate time (SS.Ni.8/7-8). Development of vairagya (indifference) by fetus from its intrauterine stay (HS.6th sthana.1/23) and attainment of full maturity of the body (BhS.Sa.3/13) are also responsible for delivery of a mature fetus in proper time and with ease. (6)
Factors affecting conception (Verse 7)
Delays in conception (by fertile women) due to affliction by various yonivyapadas(..) have been described in various texts (CS.Ci.30/38; AS.Ut.38/53; AH.Ut.33/52). There are several other reasons that have been documented under Naigameshahrita garbha or nagodara (delayed labor) (SS.Sa.10/57, KS.Kh 9/39), paripluta or divya-garbha(..) (KS.Kh.9/39-40), bhootah rita garbha(..) (AS.Sa.1/17, AH.Sa.2/62). All these phenomena could be termed subfertility. (7) It is important to remind the reader that the later stages of raktagulma resemble pregnancy in their signs and symptoms, as described by other commentators and sages such as Kashyapa (KS.Kh.9/37,AD.AH.Sa.2/61,CS.Ni.3/14, Ci.5/19; AS.Ni.11/45; AH.Ni.11/50; KS.Ci.8/17). Ignorant people could misjudge bleeding in raktagulma as destruction of the fetus by evil spirits(Dutta DC, 1998) or hydatidiform mole (Dawn CS,1998) (10)
Factors affecting sex of the fetus (Verse 12)
It is generally accepted in various Ayurvedic texts that there is predominance of artava and shukrain the female or male child respectively (SS.Sa.3/5; AS.Sa.2/5; AH.Sa.1/5; BP.Pur.3/40; BhS.Sa.3/10). The partner ejaculating his/her seed first would determine the respective sex of the progeny (AD,AH.Sa.1/5). Irrespective of quantity, the functional potency of shukra and artava influences the formation of sex (Dal, SS.Sa.3/5). Shukra and artava may be influenced by quantity of doshas affected by age, day, night, season, stage of food consumption (BP.Pur.3/40), thus impacting sex of fetus. Relative predominance of retas (semen) and indriya (sexual power) are also responsible for sex formation (HS.6th Sthan.1/26-27). Dakshina-nadi (right ovary) and vama-nadi (left ovary) are considered as “seats” for the formation of male and female child respectively (YR. Yonivyapada). Per some texts, God’s will is also responsible for sex formation (ShrS. Pur.6/12). Apart from this, the day of coitus (either odd or even) is responsible for female or male child respectively (CS.Sa.8/5; SS.Sa.2/28,30, Sa.3/12; AS.Sa.1/48; AH.Sa1/28; KS.Sa.5/6, BhS.Sa5/5; BP.Pur.3/21). It is also explained that if there is predominance of shukra but female ejaculates her ovum first, the child will be born male with feminine characters and vice-versa (AD.AH.Sa.1/5) (12)
Cause of multiple pregnancies (Verse 14)
Multiple pregnancies happen due to division of the zygote (orshukra-artava) by vitiated vata - an observation noted in all Ayurvedic texts and accepted by all commentators (SS.Sa.2/37; AS.Sa.2/6; AH.Sa.1/6; KS.Ka.6/59; BP.Pur.3/39). Apart from this phenomenon, instability of mind of the couple during coitus is responsible for producing twins as it influences the doshas and dhatus that produce fetal parts (HS.6th sthana.1/38-39). And finally, there are karmic deeds of the soul of the fetus that the parents have no control over. (CK on CS.Sa.2/13-14). (14)
Long intrauterine stay (Verse 15)
Two conditions, namely garbha-shosha (..) and garbha-parisriti (..), have been cited as reasons for the phenomenon termed as “long intrauterine stay”. This kind of manifestation is also found in vata-abhipanna garbha (..) (SS.Sa.10/57), emaciated fetus afflicted with vataja disorders (AS.Sa.2/37) and vatodara (..) (BhS.Sa.3/6-7). This condition could be correlated with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). (15)
It is interesting to note that none of the vedic texts – Ayurvedic or otherwise – blamed the mother for complications and abnormalities in pregnancy. Instead, they seem to attribute those to God’s will and the karmic deeds of the children born with those defects. (16)
Dwireta (Hermaphroditism) (Verse 18)
Manifestations of dwireta could be any of these:
- Normal morphology like nose, eyes etc. of male and female, devoid of specific sexual organs such as vagina, penis etc. but having secondary characters of both the sexes, such as breast, moustaches etc. This is caused due to the combination of male and female seeds (sperm and ovum) in equal proportion, afflicted (upatapta) in the genetic code responsible for producing beeja (beeja-janaka-beejabhaga).
- Possessing appropriate sexual organs of a male or a female, but no secondary characters. In this case, kala and karma are considered to be key factors. The sexual organs are present since the time of conception, hence they manifest, but the factors that are responsible for the development of breasts and moustaches (in females and males respectively) become weaker during puberty. The afflicted seeds dominate only secondary sex characters and do not allow them to manifest at all. These phenomena are entirely dependent on past deeds. When shukra and shonita combine in equal proportion, there is equal dominance of shukra and artava causing genetic mutation (CK on CS.Sa.2/18, SS.Sa.3/5; AS.Sa.2/5; AH.Sa.1/5). It is referred as napunsaka in several vedic texts. In addition to this, Harita accepted that if doshas, bala, prakriti and vikriti of a couple are present in equal proportions in the offspring, then a female hermaphrodite would take birth (HS.6th sthana.1/37-40). However, even in such cases, God’s will is said to be responsible (Shr.S.Pur.6/12).
Defects in conception due to non passage of shukra (Verse 19-20)
Among other disorders mentioned in this chapter, pavanendriya is a condition in which pavana (air) is ejaculated during coitus (CK on CS.Sa.2/18). In fact, it may be ‘devoid of semen’, and hence incapable to fertilize the ovum. Shandha is also an affliction where there is absence of semen (SS.Sa.2/44). (18)
Samskaravaha is a condition in which shukra flows out after blockings in the channels (shukrashaya dwara) are cleared using therapeutic procedures (basti, vajikarana etc.). Asekya, saugandhika, kumbhika and irshaka described by Sushruta (SS. Sa.2/44) could also be administered to help ejaculation of śhukra (CK on CS.Sa.2/19).
Mandavega (sluggish desire), alpa- beeja (diminished seed), abala (devoid of inherent strength- nisargabala rahita), aharsha (lack of passion) and kleeba (dushtabeeja; damaged genetic portion)- lead to stree- shanda or pum-shanda, conditions that cause problems in conception and afflict female or male partners respectively (CK on CS.Sa.2/19). These are also referred, respectively, as stree-shandha and nara-shandha in other texts (SS.Sa.2/42-43). (19)
Signs and symptoms in pregnancy indicating the sex of the child (Verse 25)
Apart from the factors mentioned earlier, the sex of the child could also be influenced by certain traits of the mothers, such as milk secretion only from the right breast, walking with lifting right leg first, heaviness in right lateral abdomen, and romaraji (hair line) directed upwards - in all these cases, the mother will deliver a male child. If showing the opposite traits, the child would be a girl. If the abdomen is depressed on both sides and projected forward, while the woman would be showing mixed signs, the child born will be a hermaphrodite. It is also stated that if the yoni is thick in center the child will be a female, while if it is beautiful, protuberant and fatty then a male child will be born (KS.Su.28/6). Thoughts or mood of the mother during conception is also pointed by different scholars as key factors (CS.Sa.8/14;SS.Sa.2/46; AS.Sa.1/53; AH.Sa.1/31; BP.Pur.3/62). As already mentioned in this chapter, dreams, drinks, foods, conduct, and activities - if feminine, would result in a female child, if masculine, a male child, and if of mixed type, then a transgender child (CK on CS.Sa.2/24).
Regarding the resemblance of the child, as mentioned in this chapter, certain attributes or traits of the kid could resemble the person the mother is attracted to during conception. (CK on CS.Sa.2/25). Physical resemblance depends largely on factors such as the four sets of four mahabhutas (except akasha), matrija (maternal), pitrija (paternal), aharaja- from the mother’s nutrition prior to conception, and atmaja- past deeds. Though all these factors are equally responsible, the resemblance depends on the predominance of either of the maternal and paternal factors (CK on CS.Sa.2/25). Factors responsible for behavioral and mental resemblances are also similar to those responsible for physical resemblance, with genetic factors (jati )also counted in. (CK on CS.Sa.2/25,GD on CS.Sa.2/25).
Effects of shukra dosha (Verse 30)
Apart from the factors already analyzed earlier in the Vidhi Vimarsha, shukra-dosha (CS.Su.28/18) and vitiated vata (CS.Su.12/8) including vitiated vata in shukra (CS.Ci.28/34) are said to be responsible for congenital abnormalities. Any part of the seed, or beeja (beejabhaga), if defective, would result in a defective body part, indicating chromosomal or genetic defects (CS.Sa.3/17). Defects in indriyas are attributed to daiva, or fate, in the texts (CK.CS.Sa.3/17). Similarly, abnormalities in diet and behavior of women (CS.Sa.4/30), mental state of women (CS.Sa.2/25)) etc. influence the fetus. Bad deeds or sins (paapa) committed in the past life, vitiated vata, non-fulfillment of dauhrida, and skepticism of parents are also responsible for teratogenicity (SS.Sa.2/50-52).
Pregnancy before attaining 16 years of age, conception during first three days of menstrual cycle and bearing down in absence of labor pain are also responsible for abnormalities in the child (AS.Sa.1/5, KS.Sa.5/5). A woman not using proper rasas during ritukala delivers abnormal child (BhS.Sa 5/4). The couple suffering from udavarta, consuming unwholesome diet (BhS.Su.12/15-16), vitiation of akasha as well as daiva could also cause abnormalities in the child (BhS.Sa.3/15-16). (30)
Effect of past deeds (Verse 31-36)
Manojavo- ‘self’ due to pervasive, does not transmigrate but along with pace of mind and subtle bhutas it moves from dying to an originating body. It all happens due to the influence of past deeds (CK on CS.Sa.2/31). (31)
Beejadharma-the bhutas inheriting in soul is like that of seed, as seed produces similar sprout, the inheriting bhutas also produce similar form of the body (CK on CS.Sa.2/35).
Chakrapani had accepted the views of Sankhya philosophy and stated that subtle body (ativahika sharira) gives rise to the gross body (vyaktasharira). Again, he explains that though the shukra and rajas is the cause of body (fetus), they only produce (fetus) when engrained in or combined with or attached with subtle body, and not otherwise. Thus, the subtle body (sukshma bhuta) inherited in soul combines with seeds (sperm and ovum) produces fetus, the cause of origin of body is being the past deeds (CK on CS.Sa.2/35).(35) It is stated that due to tara-tama (quantitative) variations in rajas and tamas as well as multi focal karmas; the variations occur in subtle bodies (CK on CS.Sa.2/36). (36)
Role of mind (Verse 38)
Mind is attached with all the subtle bhutas etc. due to the infliction of rajas and tamas; the cause is being the devoid of tattvajnana. Mind afflicted with doshas is responsible for transmigration (to other body) and inclination (to action related to dharma and adharma) of soul thus cause for the whole universe. Again, the other factor responsible for such transmigration and inclination is potent past deeds (CK on CS.Sa.2/37-38). (38)
Use of intellect, senses and time (Verse 41)
Perverted (mithyayoga), negative (ayoga) and excessive (atiyoga) are three folds of vishamayoga of time etc. said as the cause of disorders (both psychic and somatic) described in the texts (CS.Su.1/54, Su.11/37, 43, Sa.1/98, 102,130-131). Samayoga (balanced combination) of time etc. is the cause of prakriti (normalcy) (CS.Su.11/43) or sukha (pleasure) (CS.Su.1/55, Sa.1/129). (40)
During salvation, the link between body and mind is totally disconnected, the stage where the continuity of disease recurrence is totally lost (CK on CS.Sa.2/41). (41)
Union of physique and psyche can be achieved through the state of yoga (union with self) and moksha (emancipation). In this context role of restraint, memory and knowledge is discussed (CS.Sa.1/143- 147) (42)
Control over body and mind to overcome diseases (Verse 43)
Preventive measures (anagata chikitsa) to be practiced regularly to overcome the diseases of body and mind. The word jitendriya is stated for abstinence from intellectual error and unbalanced use of senses. The disease occurring due to consequences of time cannot be prevented as the potent predestined (daiva) certainly cause disease at that moment (CK on CS.Sa.2/43).
For preventive purpose, one should practice those livelihoods which are not contradictory to dharma (social and religious ethics) (CS.Su.5/104), bodily dhatus having been stabilized in normal condition, diseases do not arise (CS. Su.7/49), wholesome practice of diet, conduct and actions are also advised as preventive measures (CS.Su.7/60). Similarly avoiding intellectual errors etc. are to be followed for preventing exogenous diseases (Su.7/53-54). (43)
Pravritti-hetu (cause of inclination) means initiating cause of disease. Vishama and sama interpreted as adharma and dharma respectively. Some consider cause of samsara (creation) and moksha (salvation) with pravritti and nivritti-hetu respectively (CK on CS.Sa.2/44)
Daiva (Verse 44)
Daiva is also said to be unavoidable, indestructible related to previous body and is continuing (CS.Su.11/31); cause of disease in (particular) time (CS.Sa.1/116).The coordination of daiva and purushakara (deeds self done in present life) in terms of inferiority etc. and their effects (CS.Vi.3/29-33) as well as influence to each other are well described (CS.Vi.3/33-35). Self deeds are also totally responsible for the disease (CS.Ni.7/19-23) (44)
Accumulated doshas should be evacuated in the first month of spring, rainy and winter to prevent the innate disorders (Su.7/46-50). (45) Sama-equality in all living beings (CK on CS.Sa.2/46). (46)
Commentator interprets mati as smriti (memory), chinta (thoughts) etc., jnana as tattva-jnana (knowledge of the reality) (CK on CS.Sa.2/47). Different preventive measures against diseases are referred in many places (Su.7/47-50, 8/17-29, 28/34-44). (47)
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- Atulya-gotra (Atulyagotra, अतुल्यगोत्र:): Dissimilar or different clan
- Garbha (Garbha, गर्भ:) : Union of sperm, ovum and self in the uterus; embryo, foetus.
- Ojōśanā (ōjōśanā, ओजोशना): that eats ojas, evil spirits.
- Bīja (Bīja, बीज:): The seed i.e either śukra (sperm) or ārtava (ovum)
- Klība (Klība, क्लीब:): Sterility, It is of two types— naraṣaṇḍa and nārīṣaṇḍa (male and female sterility).
- Manojavo (manōjavō, मनोजवो): Thetermusedtodenotethespeedofmind.Whenselfcombineswithmindittransmigratefromonebodytootherwiththatspeed.
- Prajñāparādha (prajñāparādh, प्रज्ञापराध:): It is defined as unwholesome action due to derangement of intellect, restraint and memory; intellectual error (CS.Sa.1/102)
- Pratikarma (Pratikarma, प्रतिकर्म:): Synonym of cikitsa; remedy, treatment, measure and so on.