Atreyabhadrakapyiya Adhyaya

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Atreyabhadrakapyiya Adhyaya
Section/Chapter Sutra Sthana Chapter 26
Tetrad/Sub-section Annapana Chatushka
Preceding Chapter Yajjah Purushiya Adhyaya
Succeeding Chapter Annapanavidhi Adhyaya
Other Sections Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana

Sutra Sthana Chapter 26, Chapter on the pharmacological principles and concepts associated with wholesome and unwholesome diet

Abstract

The significance of wholesome (hita, pathya) and unwholesome (ahita, apathya) foods was dealt with in the previous chapter (Yajjah Purushiya). In this chapter named after Lord Atreya and a renowned sage Bhadrakapya, certain concepts and pharmacological principles explain the workings of hita and ahita ahara/dravyas. The sages, in the company of other learned exponents (acharyas), assembled to discuss the "correlation between rasa (taste) and diet (ahara)," the gist of which is discussed here. Principles of Ayurvedic pharmacology like rasa (taste), veerya (potency), guna (quality), vipaka (metabolite) and prabhava (specific principle) are discussed to understand the mechanism of action of drugs. Certain food articles and their combination are incompatible to the body and lead to disease due to their antagonistic properties. These are categorized under viruddha. This concept is described in details in the present chapter.

Keywords: Rasa (taste), guna (quality), veerya (energy or potency of active drug molecule), vipaka (metabolite), prabhava (specific principle), mahabhuta, therapeutic value.

Introduction

The scope of Ayurveda was envisaged by the acharyas under three key principles: hetujnana (knowledge of etiology), lingajnana (symptomatology) and aushadhajnana (knowledge of therapeutics). Etiology includes the immediate and distant causes of diseases. Symptomatology includes the signs and symptoms of diseases and health. In continuation of the series on annapana chatushka (tetrad on dietetics), the present chapter is on understanding the basic principles of Ayurvedic pharmacology (aushadhajnana). Aushadhajnana encompasses materia medica and therapeutics. Dravya (matter), guna (quality), karma (action), samanya (that which results in similarity), vishesha (that which results in exclusivity) and samavaya (inseparable or permanent relationship or concomitance) constitute karana (causes, reasons or means) for achieving good health by restoration of dhatu samyata (equilibrium of dosha, tissue elements).

Dravyas are of three categories - some alleviate doshas, some vitiate dhatus, and some are good for the maintenance of positive health. Dravyas act with the help of their inherent qualities (guna). Dravya acts by its nature or with the help of its inherent qualities. It is emphasized that no medicine should be prescribed for incurable diseases and curable conditions should be treated with bheshaja (medicine) possessing opposite qualities (to those of the conditions being treated), administered with due regard to desha (the area or region where the drugs are produced or collected), matra (appropriate dose) and kala (seasonal variations as well as the age of the patient). The success of the treatment primarily depends on the principles involved in processing and prescribing the drugs that are collectively called paradi gunas (10 general attributes). The key factor responsible for the manifestation of the effect of the drug is referred to as veerya. Veerya is the power that performs karya (work or activity). The site of action of one drug is referred as adhikarana, and bodily components like dosha, dhatu, mala, agni, srotas and mind may be considered as adhisthanas. Upaya indicates the mode of administration and the consequent outcome of the upaya is phalam (which ideally should be the restoration of equilibrium of all the functions of body and mind). About principles of drug action rasa, guna, veerya, vipaka and prabhava are considered to be the prime factors that trigger the drug’s actions. This is referred to as gunaprabhava (literally, effects of the qualities).

Rasas, or tastes, are of six types: madhura (sweet), amla (sour), lavana (saline), katu (pungent), tikta (bitter), and kashaya (astringent).

Gunas, or qualities, are of twenty types: guru (heavy), laghu (light), manda (dull, slow), tikshna (sharp, fast), hima (cold), ushna (hot), snigdha (unctuous or greasy), ruksha (dry), shlakshna (smooth, slippery), khara (coarse), sandra (coagulating or solidifying), mridu (soft), kathina (hard), sthira (immobile, static), sara (movable), sukshma (subtle), sthula (grossness), vishada (cleansing) and pichchila (sticky, gluey), and drava (liquidity).

Veerya is either of two gunas (sheeta and ushna) or eight gunas: guru, snigdha, hima, mridu, laghu, ruksha, ushna,and tikshana.

Vipaka is expressed in the form of either two gunas (guru and laghu), or three rasas (madhura, amla,and katu).

Sanskrit text, Transliteration and English Translation

अथात आत्रेयभद्रकाप्यीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||

इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||

athāta ātrēyabhadrakāpyīyamadhyāyaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||

iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

athAta AtreyabhadrakApyIyamadhyAyaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||

iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

Now we shall expound the chapter entitled Atreyabhadrakapyiya. Thus said Lord Atreya. [1-2]

Participants in the conference

आत्रेयो भद्रकाप्यश्च शाकुन्तेयस्तथैव च| पूर्णाक्षश्चैव मौद्गल्यो हिरण्याक्षश्च कौशिकः||३||

यः कुमारशिरा नाम भरद्वाजः स चानघः| श्रीमान् वार्योविदश्चैव राजा मतिमतां वरः||४||

निमिश्च राजा वैदेहो बडिशश्च महामतिः| काङ्कायनश्च बाह्लीको बाह्लीकभिषजां वरः||५||

एते श्रुतवयोवृद्धा जितात्मानो महर्षयः| वने चैत्ररथे रम्ये समीयुर्विजिहीर्षवः||६||

तेषां तत्रोपविष्टानामियमर्थवती कथा| बभूवार्थविदां सम्यग्रसाहारविनिश्चये||७||

ātrēyō bhadrakāpyaśca śākuntēyastathaiva ca| pūrṇākṣaścaiva maudgalyō hiraṇyākṣaśca kauśikaḥ||3||

yaḥ kumāraśirā nāma bharadvājaḥ sa cānaghaḥ| śrīmān vāryōvidaścaiva rājā matimatāṁ varaḥ||4||

nimiśca rājā vaidēhō baḍiśaśca mahāmatiḥ| kāṅkāyanaśca bāhlīkō bāhlīkabhiṣajāṁ varaḥ||5||

ētē śrutavayōvr̥ddhā jitātmānō maharṣayaḥ| vanē caitrarathē ramyē samīyurvijihīrṣavaḥ||6||

tēṣāṁ tatrōpaviṣṭānāmiyamarthavatī kathā| babhūvārthavidāṁ samyagrasāhāraviniścayē||7||

Atreyo bhadrakApyashca shAkunteyastathaiva ca| pUrNAkShashcaiva maudgalyo hiraNyAkShashca kaushikaH||3||

yaH kumArashirA nAma bharadvAjaH sa cAnaghaH| shrImAn vAryovidashcaiva rAjA matimatAM varaH||4||

nimishca rAjA vaideho baDishashca mahAmatiH| kA~gkAyanashca bAhlIko bAhlIkabhiShajAM varaH||5||

ete shrutavayovRuddhA jitAtmAno maharShayaH| vane caitrarathe ramye samIyurvijihIrShavaH||6||

teShAM tatropaviShTAnAmiyamarthavatI kathA| babhUvArthavidAM samyagrasAhAravinishcaye||7||

Once Atreya, Bhadrakapya (descendant of Shakunta), Purnakshasha (descendant of Mudgala), Hiranyaksha (the descendant of Kushika), Kumarashira, Bharadwaja, the pious one, Varyovida, the king and the excellent among the wise, Nimi, the king of Videha; Badisha, the great scholar; Kankayana Bahlika, the excellent among the physicians of Bahlika – these great sages, advanced in scholarship, age and self-control- went to the beautiful forest of Chaitraratha on a pleasure trip. While sitting there, they engaged in a historic dialogue on the correlation between rasa and diet. [3-7]

Discussion on rasa

एक एव रस इत्युवाच भद्रकाप्यः, यं पञ्चानामिन्द्रियार्थानामन्यतमं जिह्वावैषयिकं भावमाचक्षते कुशलाः, स पुनरुदकादनन्य इति| द्वौ रसाविति शाकुन्तेयो ब्राह्मणः, छेदनीय उपशमनीयश्चेति| त्रयो रसा इति पूर्णाक्षो मौद्गल्यः, छेदनीयोपशमनीयसाधारणा इति| चत्वारो रसा इति हिरण्याक्षः कौशिकः, स्वादुर्हितश्च स्वादुरहितश्चास्वादुर्हितश्चास्वादुरहितश्चेति| पञ्च रसा इति कुमारशिरा भरद्वाजः, भौमौदकाग्नेयवायव्यान्तरिक्षाः| षड्रसा इति वार्योविदो राजर्षिः, गुरुलघुशीतोष्णस्निग्धरूक्षाः| सप्त रसा इति निमिर्वैदेहः, मधुराम्ललवणकटुतिक्तकषायक्षाराः| अष्टौ रसा इति बडिशोधामार्गवः,मधुराम्ललवणकटुतिक्तकषायक्षाराव्यक्ताः| अपरिसङ्ख्येया रसा इति काङ्कायनो बाह्लीकभिषक्, आश्रयगुणकर्मसंस्वादविशेषाणामपरिसङ्ख्येयत्वात्||८||

ēka ēva rasa ityuvāca bhadrakāpyaḥ, yaṁ pañcānāmindriyārthānāmanyatamaṁ jihvāvaiṣayikaṁ bhāvamācakṣatē kuśalāḥ, sa punarudakādananya iti| dvau rasāviti śākuntēyō brāhmaṇaḥ, chēdanīya upaśamanīyaścēti| trayō rasā iti pūrṇākṣō maudgalyaḥ, chēdanīyōpaśamanīyasādhāraṇā iti| catvārō rasā iti hiraṇyākṣaḥ kauśikaḥ, svādurhitaśca svādurahitaścāsvādurhitaścāsvādurahitaścēti| pañca rasā iti kumāraśirā bharadvājaḥ, bhaumaudakāgnēyavāyavyāntarikṣāḥ| ṣaḍrasā iti vāryōvidō rājarṣiḥ, gurulaghuśītōṣṇasnigdharūkṣāḥ| sapta rasā iti nimirvaidēhaḥ, madhurāmlalavaṇakaṭutiktakaṣāyakṣārāḥ| aṣṭau rasā iti baḍiśō dhāmārgavaḥ, madhurāmlalavaṇakaṭutiktakaṣāyakṣārāvyaktāḥ| aparisaṅkhyēyā rasā iti kāṅkāyanō bāhlīkabhiṣak, āśrayaguṇakarmasaṁsvādaviśēṣāṇāmaparisaṅkhyēyatvāt||8||

eka eva rasa ityuvAca bhadrakApyaH, yaM pa~jcAnAmindriyArthAnAmanyatamaM jihvAvaiShayikaM bhAvamAcakShate kushalAH, sa punarudakAdananya iti| dvau rasAviti shAkunteyo brAhmaNaH, chedanIya upashamanIyashceti| trayo rasA iti pUrNAkSho maudgalyaH, chedanIyopashamanIyasAdhAraNA iti| catvAro rasA iti hiraNyAkShaH kaushikaH, svAdurhitashca svAdurahitashcAsvAdurhitashcAsvAdurahitashceti| pa~jca rasA iti kumArashirA bharadvAjaH, bhaumaudakAgneyavAyavyAntarikShAH| ShaDrasA iti vAryovido rAjarShiH, gurulaghushItoShNasnigdharUkShAH| sapta rasA iti nimirvaidehaH, madhurAmlalavaNakaTutiktakaShAyakShArAH| aShTau rasA iti baDisho dhAmArgavaH, madhurAmlalavaNakaTutiktakaShAyakShArAvyaktAH| aparisa~gkhyeyA rasA iti kA~gkAyano bAhlIkabhiShak, AshrayaguNakarmasaMsvAdavisheShANAmaparisa~gkhyeyatvAt||8||

“There is only one rasa”, said Bhadrakapya, “which is one of the five sense objects, being the object of gustatory organ, and not different from water". “Two rasas”, said the brahmana descendant of Shakunta, “and these are eliminating and pacifying”. "Three rasas”, said Purnakaksha, the descendant of Mudgala, “such as eliminating, pacifying and general (having both properties)". "Four rasas” said Hiranyaksha, the descendant of Kushika, “such as palatable wholesome, palatable unwholesome, impalatable wholesome and impalatable unwholesome." “Five rasas”, said Kumarashira Bharadwaja, “such as derived from the five basic elements- bhumi, udaka, agni, vayu and ankasha". “Six rasas”, said Vayorvida, the king sage, “such as heavy, light, cold, hot, unctuous and rough”. “Seven rasas”, said Nimi, (the king) of Videha, “such as sweet, sour, saline, pungent, bitter, astringent and alkaline”. "Eight rasas", said Badisha, belonging to the clan of Dhamargava, “such as sweet, sour, saline, pungent bitter, astringent, alkaline and unmanifested". “Rasas are innumerable”, said Kankayana, the physician of Bahlika, “because factors like substratum (substance), property, action and taste are innumerable". [8]

षडेव रसा इत्युवाच भगवानात्रेयः पुनर्वसुः, मधुराम्ललवणकटुतिक्तकषायाः| तेषां षण्णां रसानां योनिरुदकं, छेदनोपशमने द्वे कर्मणी, तयोर्मिश्रीभावात् साधारणत्वं, स्वाद्वस्वादुता भक्तिः, हिताहितौ प्रभावौ, पञ्चमहाभूतविकारास्त्वाश्रयाः प्रकृतिविकृतिविचारदेशकालवशाः, तेष्वाश्रयेषु द्रव्यसञ्ज्ञकेषु गुणा गुरुलघुशीतोष्णस्निग्धरूक्षाद्याः; क्षरणात् क्षारः,नासौ रसः द्रव्यं तदनेकरससमुत्पन्नमनेकरसं कटुकलवणभूयिष्ठमनेकेन्द्रियार्थसमन्वितं करणाभिनिर्वृत्तम्; अव्यक्तीभावस्तु खलु रसानां प्रकृतौ भवत्यनुरसेऽनुरससमन्विते वा द्रव्ये; अपरिसङ्ख्येयत्वं पुनस्तेषामाश्रयादीनां भावानां विशेषापरिसङ्ख्येयत्वान्न युक्तम्, एकैकोऽपि ह्येषामाश्रयादीनां भावानां विशेषानाश्रयते विशेषापरिसङ्ख्येयत्वात्, न च तस्मादन्यत्वमुपपद्यते; परस्परसंसृष्टभूयिष्ठत्वान्न चैषामभिनिर्वृत्तेर्गुणप्रकृतीनामपरिसङ्ख्येयत्वं भवति; तस्मान्न संसृष्टानां रसानां कर्मोपदिशन्ति बुद्धिमन्तः| तच्चैव कारणमपेक्षमाणाः षण्णां रसानां परस्परेणासंसृष्टानां लक्षणपृथक्त्वमुपदेक्ष्यामः||९||

ṣaḍēva rasā ityuvāca bhagavānātrēyaḥ punarvasuḥ, madhurāmlalavaṇakaṭutiktakaṣāyāḥ| tēṣāṁ ṣaṇṇāṁ rasānāṁ yōnirudakaṁ, chēdanōpaśamanē dvē karmaṇī, tayōrmiśrībhāvāt sādhāraṇatvaṁ svādvasvādutā bhaktiḥ , hitāhitau prabhāvau, pañcamahābhūtavikārāstvāśrayāḥ prakr̥tivikr̥tivicāradēśakālavaśāḥ, tēṣvāśrayēṣu dravyasañjñakēṣu guṇā gurulaghuśītōṣṇasnigdharūkṣādyāḥ; kṣaraṇāt kṣāraḥ, nāsau rasaḥ dravyaṁ tadanēkarasasamutpannamanēkarasaṁ kaṭukalavaṇabhūyiṣṭhamanēkēndriyārthasamanvitaṁ karaṇābhinirvr̥ttam; avyaktībhāvastu khalu rasānāṁ prakr̥tau bhavatyanurasē'nurasasamanvitē vā dravyē; aparisaṅkhyēyatvaṁ punastēṣāmāśrayādīnāṁ bhāvānāṁ viśēṣāparisaṅkhyēyatvānna yuktam, ēkaikō'pi hyēṣāmāśrayādīnāṁ bhāvānāṁ viśēṣānāśrayatē viśēṣāparisaṅkhyēyatvāt, na ca tasmādanyatvamupapadyatē; parasparasaṁsr̥ṣṭabhūyiṣṭhatvānna caiṣāmabhinirvr̥ttērguṇaprakr̥tīnāmaparisaṅkhyēyatvaṁ bhavati; tasmānna saṁsr̥ṣṭānāṁ rasānāṁ karmōpadiśanti buddhimantaḥ| taccaiva kāraṇamapēkṣamāṇāḥ ṣaṇṇāṁ rasānāṁ parasparēṇāsaṁsr̥ṣṭānāṁ lakṣaṇapr̥thaktvamupadēkṣyāmaḥ||9||

ShaDeva rasA ityuvAca bhagavAnAtreyaH punarvasuH, madhurAmlalavaNakaTutiktakaShAyAH| teShAM [1] ShaNNAM rasAnAM yonirudakaM, chedanopashamane dve karmaNI, tayormishrIbhAvAt sAdhAraNatvaM, svAdvasvAdutA bhaktiH [2] , hitAhitau prabhAvau,pa~jcamahAbhUtavikArAstvAshrayAH prakRutivikRutivicAradeshakAlavashAH, teShvAshrayeShu dravyasa~jj~jakeShu guNAgurulaghushItoShNasnigdharUkShAdyAH; kSharaNAt kShAraH, nAsau rasaH dravyaM tadanekarasasamutpannamanekarasaMkaTukalavaNabhUyiShThamanekendriyArthasamanvitaM karaNAbhinirvRuttam; avyaktIbhAvastu [3] khalu rasAnAM prakRutau bhavatyanurase~anurasasamanvitevA dravye; aparisa~gkhyeyatvaM punasteShAmAshrayAdInAM bhAvAnAM visheShAparisa~gkhyeyatvAnna yuktam, ekaiko~api hyeShAmAshrayAdInAM bhAvAnAMvisheShAnAshrayate visheShAparisa~gkhyeyatvAt, na ca tasmAdanyatvamupapadyate; parasparasaMsRuShTabhUyiShThatvAnnacaiShAmabhinirvRutterguNaprakRutInAmaparisa~gkhyeyatvaM bhavati; tasmAnna saMsRuShTAnAM rasAnAM karmopadishanti buddhimantaH| taccaiva kAraNamapekShamANAH ShaNNAM rasAnAM paraspareNAsaMsRuShTAnAM lakShaNapRuthaktvamupadekShyAmaH||9||

(After this) Lord Punarvasu Atreya said, "Rasas are only six: madhura (sweet), amla (sour), lavana (saline), katu (pungent), tikta (bitter) and kashaya (astringent). Their primordial source is water. Elimination and pacification the two actions, in moderate both being mixed up. Palatability or otherwise are subjective likings. Wholesome and unwholesome are effects. The products of five mahabhutas (bhumi, udaka, agni, vayu and ankasha) are actually the substratum of rasas dependent on the natural composition, products, preparation, place and time. Heavy, light, cold, hot, unctuous, rough, etc. are the properties residing in those substrata known as dravya (substance or drug). Kshara is called such because of ksharana (having been poured out or having corrosive action). It is not a rasa, but a dravya (substance) having been derived from many rasas and having the amalgamations of many rasas - predominantly katu (pungent) and lavana (saline) - and produced by a particular method of preparation. Unmanifestedness is there in primordial source of rasa, anurasa (secondary rasa) and in the substance having anurasa. Countlessness of rasas because of countlessness of factors like substratum etc. is not a convincing hypothesis because even a single rasa is attached to innumerable factors like substratum etc. and yet it does not forego its identity. Even in cases of combinations of rasas, there is no innumerableness of its primordial source, natural properties and actions. That is why the intelligent ones do not describe the action of the combined rasas. Based on this fact, (I) will describe the characters of uncombined six rasas separately.” [9]

The Five Elements, their properties and actions

अग्रे तु तावद्द्रव्यभेदमभिप्रेत्य किञ्चिदभिधास्यामः| सर्वं द्रव्यं पाञ्चभौतिकमस्मिन्नर्थे; तच्चेतनावदचेतनं च, तस्य गुणाः शब्दादयो गुर्वादयश्च द्रवान्ताः, कर्म पञ्चविधमुक्तं वमनादि||१०||

agrē tu tāvaddravyabhēdamabhiprētya kiñcidabhidhāsyāmaḥ| sarvaṁ dravyaṁ pāñcabhautikamasminnarthē ; taccētanāvadacētanaṁ ca, tasya guṇāḥ śabdādayō gurvādayaśca dravāntāḥ, karma pañcavidhamuktaṁ vamanādi||10||

agre tu tAvaddravyabhedamabhipretya ki~jcidabhidhAsyAmaH| sarvaM dravyaM pA~jcabhautikamasminnarthe [1] ; taccetanAvadacetanaM ca, tasya guNAH shabdAdayo gurvAdayashca dravAntAH, karma pa~jcavidhamuktaMvamanAdi||10||

“First of all, I will tell something about the drugs. In this context, a drug constitutes of five bhutas: prithvi, apa, tejas, vayu and akasha. It is (of two types) sentient and insentient. Its properties are shabda etc. and those from guru to drava, and its action are said to be five-fold-vamana etc”. [10]

तत्रद्रव्याणिगुरुखरकठिनमन्दस्थिरविशदसान्द्रस्थूलगन्धगुणबहुलानि पार्थिवानि , तान्युपचयसङ्घातगौरवस्थैर्यकराणि; द्रवस्निग्धशीतमन्दमृदुपिच्छिलरसगुणबहुलान्याप्यानि, तान्युपक्लेदस्नेहबन्धविष्यन्दमार्दवप्रह्लादकराणि; उष्णतीक्ष्णसूक्ष्मलघुरूक्षविशदरूपगुणबहुलान्याग्नेयानि, तानि दाहपाकप्रभाप्रकाशवर्णकराणि; लघुशीतरूक्षखरविशदसूक्ष्मस्पर्शगुणबहुलानि वायव्यानि, तानि रौक्ष्यग्लानिविचारवैशद्यलाघवकराणि; मृदुलघुसूक्ष्मश्लक्ष्णशब्दगुणबहुलान्याकाशात्मकानि, तानि मार्दवसौषिर्यलाघवकराणि||११||

tatra dravyāṇi gurukharakaṭhinamandasthiraviśadasāndrasthūlagandhaguṇabahulāni pārthivāni, tānyupacayasaṅghātagauravasthairyakarāṇi; dravasnigdhaśītamandamr̥dupicchilarasaguṇabahulānyāpyāni, tānyupaklēdasnēhabandhaviṣyandamārdavaprahlādakarāṇi; uṣṇatīkṣṇasūkṣmalaghurūkṣaviśadarūpaguṇabahulānyāgnēyāni, tānidāhapākaprabhāprakāśavarṇakarāṇi;laghuśītarūkṣakharaviśadasūkṣmasparśaguṇabahulāni vāyavyāni, tāni raukṣyaglānivicāravaiśadyalāghavakarāṇi; mr̥dulaghusūkṣmaślakṣṇaśabdaguṇabahulānyākāśātmakāni, tāni mārdavasauṣiryalāghavakarāṇi||11||

tatra dravyANi gurukharakaThinamandasthiravishadasAndrasthUlagandhaguNabahulAni pArthivAni [1] , tAnyupacayasa~gghAtagauravasthairyakarANi;dravasnigdhashItamandamRudupicchilarasaguNabahulAnyApyAni, tAnyupakledasnehabandhaviShyandamArdavaprahlAdakarANi;uShNatIkShNasUkShmalaghurUkShavishadarUpaguNabahulAnyAgneyAni, tAni dAhapAkaprabhAprakAshavarNakarANi;laghushItarUkShakharavishadasUkShmasparshaguNabahulAni vAyavyAni, tAni raukShyaglAnivicAravaishadyalAghavakarANi;mRudulaghusUkShmashlakShNashabdaguNabahulAnyAkAshAtmakAni, tAni mArdavasauShiryalAghavakarANi||11||

Dravyas (drugs) which have properties of guru (heavy), khara (coarse), kathina (hard), manda (slow), sthira (stable), vishada (non-slimy), sandra (solid), sthula (gross) possess the predominant gandha guna of parthiva (i.e., primarily made up of prithvi bhuta) exert actions like upachaya (development), sanghata (compactness), gaurava (heaviness) and sthairya (firmness).

Those having properties of drava (liquid), snigdha (unctuous), sheeta (cold), manda (slow), mridu (soft), pichchila (slimy) and the predominant rasa is apya (i.e., constituting primarily of apa bhuta) exert actions like upakleda (moistening), sneha (unction), bandha (binding), vishyanda (oozing), mardava (softening) and pralhad (exhilaration).

Dravyas with properties of ushna (hot), tikshna (sharp), sukshma (minute), laghu (light), ruksha (rough), vishada (non-slimy) and predominant rupa is agneya (i.e., constituting primarily of agni (tejas bhuta)) produce daha (burning/heat), paka (digestion), prabha (luster), prakash (light) and varna (complexion).

Dravyas having properties of laghu (light), sheeta (cold), ruksha (rough), khara (coarse), vishada (non-slimy), sukshma (minute) and the predominant sparsha is vayavya (i.e., primarily made up of vayu bhuta). They produce actions of raukshya (roughness), glani (depression), vichara (movement), vaishdya (non-sliminess) and laghava (lightness).

Dravyas having predominance in the properties of mridu (soft), laghu (light), sukshma (minute), shlakshna (smooth)and the predominantly shabda are akashiya (constituted predominantly of akasha bhuta). They exert actions of softening, hollowing and making light. [11]

अनेनोपदेशेन नानौषधिभूतं जगति किञ्चिद्द्रव्यमुपलभ्यते तां तां युक्तिमर्थं च तं तमभिप्रेत्य||१२||

anēnōpadēśēna nānauṣadhibhūtaṁ jagati kiñciddravyamupalabhyatē tāṁ tāṁ yuktimarthaṁ ca taṁ tamabhiprētya||12||

anenopadeshena nAnauShadhibhUtaM jagati ki~jciddravyamupalabhyate tAM tAM yuktimarthaM ca taM tamabhipretya||12||

On this basis, there is no substance in the universe which cannot be used as a medicinal drug, on the condition that they are used with rational method and with a definite objective. [12]

Description of drug action

न तु केवलं गुणप्रभावादेव द्रव्याणि कार्मुकाणि भवन्ति; द्रव्याणि हि द्रव्यप्रभावाद्गुणप्रभावाद्द्रव्यगुणप्रभावाच्च तस्मिंस्तस्मिन् काले तत्तदधिकरणमासाद्य तां तां च युक्तिमर्थं च तं तमभिप्रेत्य यत् कुर्वन्ति, तत् कर्म; येन कुर्विन्ति, तद्वीर्यं; यत्र कुर्वन्ति, तदधिकरणं; यदा कुर्वन्ति, स कालः; यथा कुर्वन्ति, स उपायः; यत् साधयन्ति, तत् फलम्||१३||

na tu kēvalaṁ guṇaprabhāvādēva dravyāṇi kārmukāṇi bhavanti; dravyāṇi hi dravyaprabhāvādguṇaprabhāvāddravyaguṇaprabhāvācca tasmiṁstasmin kālē tattadadhikaraṇamāsādya tāṁ tāṁ ca yuktimarthaṁ ca taṁ tamabhiprētya yat kurvanti, tat karma; yēna kurvinti, tadvīryaṁ; yatra kurvanti, tadadhikaraṇaṁ; yadā kurvanti, sa kālaḥ; yathā kurvanti, sa upāyaḥ; yat sādhayanti, tat phalam||13||

na tu kevalaM guNaprabhAvAdeva dravyANi kArmukANi bhavanti; dravyANi hi dravyaprabhAvAdguNaprabhAvAddravyaguNaprabhAvAcca tasmiMstasmin kAletattadadhikaraNamAsAdya tAM tAM ca yuktimarthaM ca taM tamabhipretya yat kurvanti, tat karma; yena kurvinti, tadvIryaM; yatra kurvanti, tadadhikaraNaM; yadAkurvanti, sa kAlaH; yathA kurvanti, sa upAyaH; yat sAdhayanti, tat phalam||13||

The activity of drugs is not due to its properties only, but their own intrinsic composition, properties and both combined together in particular time, on reaching a particular locus, with a particular mechanism and objective are also involved in the mode of action of drug. What they perform is karma (action), by means of which they act is veerya (potency), where they act is adhikarana (locus of action), when they act is kala (time), how they act is upaya (mechanism) and what they achieve is phalam (result). [13]

Combinations of rasa

भेदश्चैषां त्रिषष्टिविधविकल्पो द्रव्यदेशकालप्रभावाद्भवति, तमुपदेक्ष्यामः||१४||

bhēdaścaiṣāṁ triṣaṣṭividhavikalpō dravyadēśakālaprabhāvādbhavati, tamupadēkṣyāmaḥ||14||

bhedashcaiShAM triShaShTividhavikalpo dravyadeshakAlaprabhAvAdbhavati, tamupadekShyAmaH||14||

There are sixty-three types of variations of rasas according to substance, place and time, that is mentioned in the following verses. [14]

स्वादुरम्लादिभिर्योगं शेषैरम्लादयः पृथक्| यान्ति पञ्चदशैतानि द्रव्याणि द्विरसानि तु||१५||

पृथगम्लादियुक्तस्य योगः शेषैः पृथग्भवेत्| मधुरस्य तथाऽम्लस्य लवणस्य कटोस्तथा||१६||

त्रिरसानि यथासङ्ख्यं द्रव्याण्युक्तानि विंशतिः| वक्ष्यन्ते तु चतुष्केण द्रव्याणि दश पञ्च च||१७||

स्वाद्वम्लौ सहितौ योगं लवणाद्यैः पृथग्गतौ| योगं शेषैः पृथग्यातश्चतुष्करससङ्ख्यया||१८||

सहितौ स्वादुलवणौ तद्वत् कट्वादिभिः पृथक्| युक्तौ शेषैः पृथग्योगं यातः स्वादूषणौ तथा||१९||

कट्वाद्यैरम्ललवणौ संयुक्तौ सहितौ पृथक्| यातः शेषैः पृथग्योगं शेषैरम्लकटू तथा||२०||

युज्यते तु कषायेण सतिक्तौ लवणोषणौ|२१| षट् तु पञ्चरसान्याहुरेकैकस्यापवर्जनात्||२१||

षट् चैवैकरसानि स्युरेकं षड्रसमेव तु|२२| इति त्रिषष्टिर्द्रव्याणां निर्दिष्टा रससङ्ख्यया||२२||

svāduramlādibhiryōgaṁ śēṣairamlādayaḥ pr̥thak| yānti pañcadaśaitāni dravyāṇi dvirasāni tu||15||

pr̥thagamlādiyuktasya yōgaḥ śēṣaiḥ pr̥thagbhavēt| madhurasya tathā'mlasya lavaṇasya kaṭōstathā||16||

trirasāni yathāsaṅkhyaṁ dravyāṇyuktāni viṁśatiḥ| vakṣyantē tu catuṣkēṇa dravyāṇi daśa pañca ca||17||

svādvamlau sahitau yōgaṁ lavaṇādyaiḥ pr̥thaggatau| yōgaṁ śēṣaiḥ pr̥thagyātaścatuṣkarasasaṅkhyayā||18||

sahitau svādulavaṇau tadvat kaṭvādibhiḥ pr̥thak| yuktau śēṣaiḥ pr̥thagyōgaṁ yātaḥ svādūṣaṇau tathā||19||

kaṭvādyairamlalavaṇau saṁyuktau sahitau pr̥thak| yātaḥ śēṣaiḥ pr̥thagyōgaṁ śēṣairamlakaṭū tathā||20||

yujyatē tu kaṣāyēṇa satiktau lavaṇōṣaṇau| ṣaṭ tu pañcarasānyāhurēkaikasyāpavarjanāt||21||

ṣaṭ tu pañcarasānyāhurēkaikasyāpavarjanāt| iti triṣaṣṭirdravyāṇāṁ nirdiṣṭā rasasaṅkhyayā||22||

svAduramlAdibhiryogaM sheShairamlAdayaH pRuthak| yAnti pa~jcadashaitAni dravyANi dvirasAni tu||15||

pRuthagamlAdiyuktasya yogaH sheShaiH pRuthagbhavet| madhurasya tathA~amlasya lavaNasya kaTostathA||16||

trirasAni yathAsa~gkhyaM dravyANyuktAni viMshatiH|17| vakShyante [2] tu catuShkeNa dravyANi dasha pa~jca ca||17||

svAdvamlau sahitau yogaM lavaNAdyaiH pRuthaggatau| yogaM sheShaiH pRuthagyAtashcatuShkarasasa~gkhyayA||18||

sahitau svAdulavaNau tadvat kaTvAdibhiH pRuthak| yuktau sheShaiH pRuthagyogaM yAtaH svAdUShaNau tathA||19||

kaTvAdyairamlalavaNau saMyuktau sahitau pRuthak| yAtaH sheShaiH pRuthagyogaM sheShairamlakaTU tathA||20||

yujyate tu kaShAyeNa satiktau lavaNoShaNau|21| ShaT tu pa~jcarasAnyAhurekaikasyApavarjanAt||21||

ShaT caivaikarasAni syurekaM ShaDrasameva tu|22|

Combination of two rasas such as sweet with sour etc. and sour with others, lead to creation of fifteen combinations.

Likewise, combination of three rasas together result in twenty substances. There are fifteen combinations of four rasas together. They are formed as follows: The group of sweet and sour tastes, combines with any two of remaining tastes beginning with salt in six different ways. They this form the ‘group of fours’ of tastes.

Thereafter, the group of two-sweet and salt combining consecutively with pungent, bitter and astringent, form with the addition of sour, astringent and pungent respectively, three separate ‘group of fours’.

Thereafter the group of twos of sweet and pungent combining with residuary group of two of bitter and astringent tastes, forms ‘group of fours’. Thus with the sweet taste as a constant factor, there are ten distinct groups ‘four tastes’.

Now, dropping the sweet taste, the group of two of sour and salt combining consecutively with pungent, sour and astringent tastes forms with the addition respectively of bitter, astringent and pungent tastes, three separate groups of ‘four tastes’. (1) sour-salt-pungent-bitter (2) sour-salt-bitter-astringent (3) sour-salt-astringent-pungent.

Now, dropping the salt taste, the group of two of sour and salt combine with the residuary two groups of bitter and astringent to form one fresh group of four tastes.

Finally, dropping both sweet and sour tastes, salt and pungent combine with astringent and bitter to form the fifteenth and the last group of four tastes.

By dropping from the total complex of tastes one taste at a time, there are formed six groups of quinary tastes. Then there are six groups of single tastes and the single group of six tastes. [15-22]

त्रिषष्टिः स्यात्त्वसङ्ख्येया रसानुरसकल्पनात् | रसास्तरतमाभ्यां तां सङ्ख्यामतिपतन्ति हि||२३||

triṣaṣṭiḥ syāttvasaṅkhyēyā rasānurasakalpanāt | rasāstaratamābhyāṁ tāṁ saṅkhyāmatipatanti hi||23||

iti triShaShTirdravyANAM nirdiShTA rasasa~gkhyayA||22||

triShaShTiH syAttvasa~gkhyeyA rasAnurasakalpanAt [3] | rasAstaratamAbhyAM [4] tAM sa~gkhyAmatipatanti hi||23||

The count of 63 (combinations of rasa) becomes countless when factoring in the anurasas and innumerable variations of rasas. [23]

संयोगाः सप्तपञ्चाशत् कल्पना तु त्रिषष्टिधा| रसानां तत्र योग्यत्वात् कल्पिता रसचिन्तकैः||२४||

saṁyōgāḥ saptapañcāśat kalpanā tu triṣaṣṭidhā| rasānāṁ tatra yōgyatvāt kalpitā rasacintakaiḥ||24||

saMyogAH saptapa~jcAshat kalpanA tu triShaShTidhA| rasAnAM tatra yogyatvAt [1] kalpitA rasacintakaiH||24||

Thus, the scholars of rasa, have mentioned fifty-seven combinations and sixty-three forms of rasas (after adding six pure forms of rasas in fifty-seven combinations) on the basis of their applicability. [24]

क्वचिदेको रसः कल्प्यः संयुक्ताश्च रसाः क्वचित्| दोषौषधादीन् सञ्चिन्त्य भिषजा सिद्धिमिच्छता||२५||

द्रव्याणि द्विरसादीनि संयुक्तांश्च रसान् बुधाः| रसानेकैकशो वाऽपि कल्पयन्ति गदान् प्रति||२६||

kvacidēkō rasaḥ kalpyaḥ saṁyuktāśca rasāḥ kvacit| dōṣauṣadhādīn sañcintya bhiṣajā siddhimicchatā||25||

dravyāṇi dvirasādīni saṁyuktāṁśca rasān budhāḥ| rasānēkaikaśō vā'pi kalpayanti gadān prati||26||

kvacideko rasaH kalpyaH saMyuktAshca rasAH kvacit| doShauShadhAdIn sa~jcintya bhiShajA siddhimicchatA||25||

dravyANi dvirasAdIni saMyuktAMshca rasAn budhAH| rasAnekaikasho vA~api kalpayanti gadAn prati||26||

The physician, desirous of success, should administer rasas, in pure forms or in combinations based on doshas, drugs etc. In diseases, the wise physicians administer drugs made up of combinations of two or more rasas etc., and also the combined or single rasa separately (as required). [25-26]

यः स्याद्रसविकल्पज्ञः स्याच्च दोषविकल्पवित्| न स मुह्येद्विकाराणां हेतुलिङ्गोपशान्तिषु ||२७||

yaḥ syādrasavikalpajñaḥ syācca dōṣavikalpavit| na sa muhyēdvikārāṇāṁ hētuliṅgōpaśāntiṣu ||27||

yaH syAdrasavikalpaj~jaH syAcca doShavikalpavit| na sa muhyedvikArANAM hetuli~ggopashAntiShu [1] ||27||

One, who is conversant with the variations of rasas and doshas, does not confuse in diagnosing the cause and symptoms of the disease and decide the course of treatment of diseases. [27]

व्यक्तः शुष्कस्य चादौ च रसो द्रव्यस्य लक्ष्यते| विपर्ययेणानुरसो रसो नास्ति हि सप्तमः||२८||

vyaktaḥ śuṣkasya cādau ca rasō dravyasya lakṣyatē| viparyayēṇānurasō rasō nāsti hi saptamaḥ||28||

vyaktaH shuShkasya cAdau ca raso dravyasya lakShyate| viparyayeNAnuraso raso nAsti hi saptamaH||28||

Rasa is that which is perceived at first in dry form (of the substance). The contrary (perceived afterwards and drug in wet form) is known as anurasa (subsidiary taste). There is no seventh rasa (as unmanifested one). [28]

Guna (properties)

परापरत्वे युक्तिश्च सङ्ख्या संयोग एव च| विभागश्च पृथक्त्वं च परिमाणमथापि च||२९||

संस्कारोऽभ्यास इत्येते गुणा ज्ञेयाः परादयः| सिद्ध्युपायाश्चिकित्साया लक्षणैस्तान् प्रचक्ष्महे||३०||

देशकालवयोमानपाकवीर्यरसादिषु| परापरत्वे, युक्तिश्च योजना या तु युज्यते||३१||

सङ्ख्या स्याद्गणितं, योगः सह संयोग उच्यते| द्रव्याणां द्वन्द्वसर्वैककर्मजोऽनित्य एव च||३२||

विभागस्तु विभक्तिः स्याद्वियोगो भागशो ग्रहः| पृथक्त्वं स्यादसंयोगो वैलक्षण्यमनेकता||३३||

परिमाणं पुनर्मानं, संस्कारः करणं मतम्| भावाभ्यसनमभ्यासः शीलनं सततक्रिया||३४||

इति स्वलक्षणैरुक्ता गुणाः सर्वे परादयः| चिकित्सा यैरविदितैर्न यथावत् प्रवर्तते||३५||

parāparatvē yuktiśca saṅkhyā saṁyōga ēva ca| vibhāgaśca pr̥thaktvaṁ ca parimāṇamathāpi ca||29||

saṁskārō'bhyāsa ityētē guṇā jñēyāḥ parādayaḥ| siddhyupāyāścikitsāyā lakṣaṇaistān pracakṣmahē||30||

dēśakālavayōmānapākavīryarasādiṣu| parāparatvē, yuktiśca yōjanā yā tu yujyatē||31||

saṅkhyā syādgaṇitaṁ, yōgaḥ saha saṁyōga ucyatē| dravyāṇāṁ dvandvasarvaikakarmajō'nitya ēva ca||32||

vibhāgastu vibhaktiḥ syādviyōgō bhāgaśō grahaḥ| pr̥thaktvaṁ syādasaṁyōgō vailakṣaṇyamanēkatā||33||

parimāṇaṁ punarmānaṁ, saṁskāraḥ karaṇaṁ matam| bhāvābhyasanamabhyāsaḥ śīlanaṁ satatakriyā||34||

iti svalakṣaṇairuktā guṇāḥ sarvē parādayaḥ| cikitsā yairaviditairna yathāvat pravartatē||35||

parAparatve yuktishca sa~gkhyA saMyoga eva ca| vibhAgashca pRuthaktvaM ca parimANamathApi ca||29||

saMskAro~abhyAsa ityete guNA j~jeyAH parAdayaH| siddhyupAyAshcikitsAyA lakShaNaistAn pracakShmahe||30||

deshakAlavayomAnapAkavIryarasAdiShu| parAparatve, yuktishca yojanA yA tu yujyate||31||

sa~gkhyA syAdgaNitaM, yogaH saha saMyoga ucyate| dravyANAM dvandvasarvaikakarmajo~anitya eva ca||32||

vibhAgastu vibhaktiH syAdviyogo bhAgasho grahaH| pRuthaktvaM syAdasaMyogo vailakShaNyamanekatA||33||

parimANaM punarmAnaM, saMskAraH karaNaM matam| bhAvAbhyasanamabhyAsaH shIlanaM satatakriyA||34||

iti svalakShaNairuktA guNAH sarve parAdayaH| cikitsA yairaviditairna yathAvat pravartate||35||

Paratva (excellence), aparatva (non-excellence), yukti (rationale), sankhya (enumeration), samyoga (conjunction), vibhaga (disjunction), prithaktva (separateness), parimana (measurement), sanskara (processing) and abhyasa (practice): these properties are known as paradi (beginning with para). They are the means of success (in treatment), I am explaining them with definitions.

Paratva and aparatva are used in relation to place, time, age, measure, vipaka, veerya, rasa etc. Yukti is the rational planning (of therapeutic measures). Sankhya is mathematics (including statistics). Joining together (of entities) is samyoga. This is of three types according to the active participation of both, all or one partner. It is non-eternal. Vibhaga is also of three types – vibhakti (excision), viyoga (disjoining) and bhagaso graha (division). Prithaktva is of three types: asamyoga (spatial separateness), vailaksanya (class separateness), and anekata (individual separateness). Parimana denotes measures (of all types, including weights). Samskara is processing. Abhyasa is regular use of substance, habituation and practice. Thus, all the paradi properties are described with their definitions, which if unknown, do not let the therapy proceed properly. [29-35]

गुणा गुणाश्रया नोक्तास्तस्माद्रसगुणान् भिषक्| विद्याद्द्रव्यगुणान् कर्तुरभिप्रायाः पृथग्विधाः||३६||

guṇā guṇāśrayā nōktāstasmādrasaguṇān bhiṣak| vidyāddravyaguṇān karturabhiprāyāḥ pr̥thagvidhāḥ||36||

guNA guNAshrayA noktAstasmAdrasaguNAn bhiShak| vidyAddravyaguNAn [11] karturabhiprAyAH pRuthagvidhAH||36||

Properties are not said to be located within properties (i.e., within themselves). Hence a physician should take the properties of rasas as those of dravyas, taking into account the different intentions of the author. [36]

अतश्च प्रकृतं बुद्ध्वा देशकालान्तराणि च| तन्त्रकर्तुरभिप्रायानुपायांश्चार्थमादिशेत्||३७||

ataśca prakr̥taṁ buddhvā dēśakālāntarāṇi ca| tantrakarturabhiprāyānupāyāṁścārthamādiśēt||37||

atashca prakRutaM buddhvA deshakAlAntarANi ca| tantrakarturabhiprAyAnupAyAMshcArthamAdishet||37||

Hence one should decide the meaning after knowing the context, the factors like place and time, author's intentions and the scriptural methods (like tantrayukti). [37]

षड्विभक्तीः प्रवक्ष्यामि रसानामत उत्तरम्| षट् पञ्चभूतप्रभवाः सङ्ख्याताश्च यथा रसाः||३८||

ṣaḍvibhaktīḥ pravakṣyāmi rasānāmata uttaram| ṣaṭ pañcabhūtaprabhavāḥ saṅkhyātāśca yathā rasāḥ||38||

ShaDvibhaktIH pravakShyAmi rasAnAmata uttaram| ShaT pa~jcabhUtaprabhavAH sa~gkhyAtAshca yathA rasAH||38||

Hereafter, I will tell about the six divisions of rasa and also that the rasas have originated from the five bhutas. [38]

Basic composition of rasa

सौम्याः खल्वापोऽन्तरिक्षप्रभवाः प्रकृतिशीता लघ्व्यश्चाव्यक्तरसाश्च, तास्त्वन्तरिक्षाद्भ्रश्यमाना भ्रष्टाश्च पञ्चमहाभूतगुणसमन्विता जङ्गमस्थावराणां भूतानां मूर्तीरभिप्रीणयन्ति, तासु मूर्तिषु षडभिमूर्च्छन्ति रसाः||३९||

saumyāḥ khalvāpō'ntarikṣaprabhavāḥ prakr̥tiśītā laghvyaścāvyaktarasāśca, tāstvantarikṣādbhraśyamānā bhraṣṭāśca pañcamahābhūtaguṇasamanvitā jaṅgamasthāvarāṇāṁ bhūtānāṁ mūrtīrabhiprīṇayanti, tāsu mūrtiṣu ṣaḍabhimūrcchanti rasāḥ||39||

saumyAH khalvApo~antarikShaprabhavAH prakRutishItA laghvyashcAvyaktarasAshca, tAstvantarikShAdbhrashyamAnA bhraShTAshcapa~jcamahAbhUtaguNasamanvitA [13] ja~ggamasthAvarANAM bhUtAnAM mUrtIrabhiprINayanti, tAsu [14] mUrtiShu ShaDabhimUrcchanti rasAH||39||

Water is predominantly composed of soma (ap), generated in sky, naturally cold, light and having unmanifested rasas. This, while falling from the sky, gets endowed with the properties of five bhutas and thus dropped (on the ground) nourishes the physical forms of animals and plants. In this process, six rasas manifest in water. [39]

तेषां षण्णां रसानां सोमगुणातिरेकान्मधुरो रसः, पृथिव्यग्निभूयिष्ठत्वादम्लः, सलिलाग्निभूयिष्ठत्वाल्लवणः, वाय्वग्निभूयिष्ठत्वात् कटुकः, वाय्वाकाशातिरिक्तत्वात्तिक्तः, पवनपृथिवीव्यतिरेकात् कषाय इति| एवमेषां रसानां षट्त्वमुपपन्नं न्यूनातिरेकविशेषान्महाभूतानां भूतानामिव स्थावरजङ्गमानां नानावर्णाकृतिविशेषाः; षडृतुकत्वाच्च कालस्योपपन्नो महाभूतानां न्यूनातिरेकविशेषः||४०||

tēṣāṁ ṣaṇṇāṁ rasānāṁ sōmaguṇātirēkānmadhurō rasaḥ, pr̥thivyagnibhūyiṣṭhatvādamlaḥ, salilāgnibhūyiṣṭhatvāllavaṇaḥ, vāyvagnibhūyiṣṭhatvāt kaṭukaḥ, vāyvākāśātiriktatvāttiktaḥ, pavanapr̥thivīvyatirēkāt kaṣāya iti| ēvamēṣāṁ rasānāṁ ṣaṭtvamupapannaṁ nyūnātirēkaviśēṣānmahābhūtānāṁ bhūtānāmiva sthāvarajaṅgamānāṁ nānāvarṇākr̥tiviśēṣāḥ; ṣaḍr̥tukatvācca kālasyōpapannō mahābhūtānāṁ nyūnātirēkaviśēṣaḥ||40||

teShAM ShaNNAM rasAnAM somaguNAtirekAnmadhuro [16] rasaH, pRuthivyagnibhUyiShThatvAdamlaH, salilAgnibhUyiShThatvAllavaNaH, vAyvagnibhUyiShThatvAtkaTukaH, vAyvAkAshAtiriktatvAttiktaH, pavanapRuthivIvyatirekAt kaShAya iti| evameShAM rasAnAM ShaTtvamupapannaM nyUnAtirekavisheShAnmahAbhUtAnAM bhUtAnAmiva sthAvaraja~ggamAnAM nAnAvarNAkRutivisheShAH;ShaDRutukatvAcca kAlasyopapanno mahAbhUtAnAM nyUnAtirekavisheShaH||40||

Of the six rasas, madhura rasa is produced by the predominance of soma (ap), amla by that of prithvi and agni, lavana by that of ap and agni, katu by that of vayu and agni, tikta by that of vayu and akasha, and kashaya by that of vayu and prithvi. Thus, the six manifestations of rasas take place according to shortage and excess of mahabhutas like various complexions and shapes in plants and animals. The shortage and excess of mahabhutas is possible due to kala (the time factor) having six seasons. [40]

तत्राग्निमारुतात्मका रसाः प्रायेणोर्ध्वभाजः, लाघवादुत्प्लवनत्वाच् वायोरूर्ध्वज्वलनत्वाच्च वह्नेः; सलिलपृथिव्यात्मकास्तु प्रायेणाधोभाजः, पृथिव्या गुरुत्वान्निम्नगत्वाच्चोदकस्य; व्यामिश्रात्मकाः पुनरुभयतोभाजः||४१||

tatrāgnimārutātmakā rasāḥ prāyēṇōrdhvabhājaḥ, lāghavādutplavanatvācca vāyōrūrdhvajvalanatvācca vahnēḥ; salilapr̥thivyātmakāstu prāyēṇādhōbhājaḥ, pr̥thivyā gurutvānnimnagatvāccōdakasya; vyāmiśrātmakāḥ punarubhayatōbhājaḥ||41||

tatrAgnimArutAtmakA rasAH prAyeNordhvabhAjaH, lAghavAdutplavanatvAcca [19] vAyorUrdhvajvalanatvAcca vahneH; salilapRuthivyAtmakAstu prAyeNAdhobhAjaH,pRuthivyA gurutvAnnimnagatvAccodakasya; vyAmishrAtmakAH punarubhayatobhAjaH||41||

Amongst these, the rasas having agni and vayu often move upwards because of vayu’s property of lightness and rushing up and agni’s property of flaming up. Those predominant in apa and prithvi often move downwards due to heaviness of prithvi and downward moving tendency of apa (water). Those having mixed constitutions move both ways. [41]

तेषां षण्णां रसानामेकैकस्य यथाद्रव्यं गुणकर्माण्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः||४२||

tēṣāṁ ṣaṇṇāṁ rasānāmēkaikasya yathādravyaṁ guṇakarmāṇyanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ||42||

teShAM ShaNNAM rasAnAmekaikasya yathAdravyaM guNakarmANyanuvyAkhyAsyAmaH||42||

Now I shall describe the properties and actions of each of the six rasas according to dravyas (which are their substrata). [42]

Actions of madhura rasa and effects of its excessive use

तत्र, मधुरो रसः शरीरसात्म्याद्रसरुधिरमांसमेदोस्थिमज्जौजःशुक्राभिवर्धन आयुष्यः षडिन्द्रियप्रसादनो बलवर्णकरः पित्तविषमारुतघ्नस्तृष्णादाहप्रशमनस्त्वच्यः केश्यः कण्ठ्यो बल्यः प्रीणनो जीवनस्तर्पणो बृंहणः स्थैर्यकरः क्षीणक्षतसन्धानकरो घ्राणमुखकण्ठौष्ठजिह्वाप्रह्लादनो दाहमूर्च्छाप्रशमनः षट्पदपिपीलिकानामिष्टतमः स्निग्धः शीतो गुरुश्च| स एवङ्गुणोऽप्येक एवात्यर्थमुपयुज्यमानः स्थौल्यं मार्दवमालस्यमतिस्वप्नं गौरवमनन्नाभिलाषमग्नेर्दौर्बल्यमास्यकण्ठयोर्मांसाभिवृद्धिं श्वासकासप्रतिश्यायालसकशीतज्वरानाहास्यमाधुर्यवमथुसञ्ज्ञास्वरप्रणाशगलगण्डगण्डमालाश्लीपद- गलशोफबस्तिधमनीगलोपलेपाक्ष्यामयाभिष्यन्दानित्येवम्प्रभृतीन् कफजान् विकारानुपजनयति (१)|४३|

tatra, madhurō rasaḥ śarīrasātmyādrasarudhiramāṁsamēdōsthimajjaujaḥśukrābhivardhana āyuṣyaḥ ṣaḍindriyaprasādanō balavarṇakaraḥ pittaviṣamārutaghnastr̥ṣṇādāhapraśamanastvacyaḥ kēśyaḥ kaṇṭhyō balyaḥ prīṇanō jīvanastarpaṇō br̥ṁhaṇaḥ sthairyakaraḥ kṣīṇakṣatasandhānakarō ghrāṇamukhakaṇṭhauṣṭhajihvāprahlādanō dāhamūrcchāpraśamanaḥ ṣaṭpadapipīlikānāmiṣṭatamaḥ snigdhaḥ śītō guruśca| sa ēvaṅguṇō'pyēka ēvātyarthamupayujyamānaḥ sthaulyaṁ mārdavamālasyamatisvapnaṁ gauravamanannābhilāṣamagnērdaurbalyamāsyakaṇṭhayōrmāṁsābhivr̥ddhiṁ śvāsakāsapratiśyāyālasakaśītajvarānāhāsyamādhuryavamathusañjñāsvarapraṇāśagalagaṇḍagaṇḍamālāślīpada- galaśōphabastidhamanīgalōpalēpākṣyāmayābhiṣyandānityēvamprabhr̥tīn kaphajān vikārānupajanayati (1)|43|

tatra, madhuro rasaH sharIrasAtmyAdrasarudhiramAMsamedosthimajjaujaHshukrAbhivardhana AyuShyaH ShaDindriyaprasAdano balavarNakaraHpittaviShamArutaghnastRuShNAdAhaprashamanastvacyaH keshyaH kaNThyo balyaH prINano jIvanastarpaNo bRuMhaNaH sthairyakaraHkShINakShatasandhAnakaro ghrANamukhakaNThauShThajihvAprahlAdano [20] dAhamUrcchAprashamanaH ShaTpadapipIlikAnAmiShTatamaH snigdhaH shItogurushca| sa eva~gguNo~apyeka evAtyarthamupayujyamAnaH sthaulyaM mArdavamAlasyamatisvapnaMgauravamanannAbhilAShamagnerdaurbalyamAsyakaNThayormAMsAbhivRuddhiMshvAsakAsapratishyAyAlasakashItajvarAnAhAsyamAdh
uryavamathusa~jj~jAsvarapraNAshagalagaNDagaNDamAlAshlIpada-galashophabastidhamanIgalopalepAkShyAmayAbhiShyandAnityevamprabhRutIn kaphajAn vikArAnupajanayati (1)|43|

Amongst the six rasas, the madhura rasa, because of its suitability to the body, promotes rasa, rakta, mamsa, medas, asthi, majja, ojas and shukra. It is also conducive to increasing the lifespan of the person, is pleasing to the six sense organs, promotes strength and lustre, alleviates pitta and vayu, neutralizes poisons, and pacifies thirst and heat. It is beneficial for skin, hair, throat and strength and is nourishing, vitalizing, saturating, bulk-promoting and stabilizing. It promotes healing of wounds of the emaciated. It provides good feeling in nose, mouth, throat, lips and tongue; alleviates fainting, is most liked by the bees and ants, and is unctuous, cold and heavy.

This rasa, though having so many qualities, if used singly and excessively, causes obesity, softness, laziness, excessive sleep, heaviness, loss of desire for food, poor digestion with mildness of appetite, abnormal growth in mouth and throat, dyspnea, cough, coryza, alasaka, fever with shivering, hardness in bowels, sweetness in mouth, vomiting, loss of consciousness and voice, goitre, cervical adenitis, filariasis, pharyngitis, (mucous) coating in bladder, arteries and throat, eye diseases, conjunctivitis etc. [43.1]

Actions of amla rasa and effects of its excessive use

अम्लो रसो भक्तं रोचयति, अग्निं दीपयति, देहं बृंहयति ऊर्जयति, मनो बोधयति, इन्द्रियाणि दृढीकरोति, बलं वर्धयति, वातमनुलोमयति, हृदयं तर्पयति, आस्यमास्रावयति, भुक्तमपकर्षयति क्लेदयति जरयति, प्रीणयति, लघुरुष्णः स्निग्धश्च| स एवङ्गुणोऽप्येक एवात्यर्थमुपयुज्यमानो दन्तान् हर्षयति, तर्षयति, सम्मीलयत्यक्षिणी, संवेजयति लोमानि, कफं विलापयति, पित्तमभिवर्धयति, रक्तं दूषयति,मांसं विदहति, कायं शिथिलीकरोति, क्षीणक्षतकृशदुर्बलानां श्वयथुमापादयति, अपि च क्षताभिहतदष्टदग्धभग्नशूनप्रच्युतावमूत्रितपरिसर्पितमर्दितच्छिन्नभिन्नविश्लिष्टोद्विद्धोत्पिष्टादीनि पाचयत्याग्नेयस्वभावात्, परिदहति कण्ठमुरो हृदयं च (२)|४३|

amlō rasō bhaktaṁ rōcayati, agniṁ dīpayati, dēhaṁ br̥ṁhayati ūrjayati, manō bōdhayati, indriyāṇi dr̥ḍhīkarōti, balaṁ vardhayati, vātamanulōmayati, hr̥dayaṁ tarpayati, āsyamāsrāvayati, bhuktamapakarṣayati klēdayati jarayati, prīṇayati, laghuruṣṇaḥ snigdhaśca| sa ēvaṅguṇō'pyēka ēvātyarthamupayujyamānō dantān harṣayati, tarṣayati, sammīlayatyakṣiṇī, saṁvējayati lōmāni, kaphaṁ vilāpayati, pittamabhivardhayati, raktaṁ dūṣayati,māṁsaṁ vidahati, kāyaṁ śithilīkarōti, kṣīṇakṣatakr̥śadurbalānāṁ śvayathumāpādayati, api ca kṣatābhihatadaṣṭadagdhabhagnaśūnapracyutāvamūtritaparisarpitamarditacchin nabhinnaviśliṣṭōdviddhōtpiṣṭādīni pācayatyāgnēyasvabhāvāt, paridahati kaṇṭhamurō hr̥dayaṁ ca (2)|43|

amlo raso bhaktaM rocayati, agniM dIpayati, dehaM bRuMhayati Urjayati, mano bodhayati, indriyANi dRuDhIkaroti, balaM vardhayati, vAtamanulomayati, hRudayaMtarpayati, AsyamAsrAvayati, bhuktamapakarShayati kledayati jarayati, prINayati, laghuruShNaH snigdhashca| sa eva~gguNo~apyeka evAtyarthamupayujyamAno dantAn harShayati, tarShayati, sammIlayatyakShiNI, saMvejayati lomAni, kaphaM vilApayati,pittamabhivardhayati, raktaM dUShayati,mAMsaM vidahati, kAyaM shithilIkaroti, kShINakShatakRushadurbalAnAM shvayathumApAdayati, api cakShatAbhihatadaShTadagdhabhagnashUnapracyutAvamUtritaparisarpitamarditacchinnabhinnavishliShTodviddhotpiShTAdIni pAcayatyAgneyasvabhAvAt, paridahatikaNThamuro hRudayaM ca (2)|43|

Amla rasa makes food relishing, stimulates agni, enhances body bulk and energizes it, awakens the mind, firms the sense organs, increases bala (strength), causes vatanulomana (normal movement of vata), nourishes the heart, increases secretions in the mouth, propels, moistens, and digests food, gives satisfaction, and is light, hot and unctuous.

This, though endowed with so many qualities, if used singly and excessively, makes teeth sensitive, causes thirst, causes closure of eyes, raises the body hair, liquifies kapha, aggravates pitta, affects blood morbidity, causes heat in muscles and laxity in body, produces swelling in wasted, injured, emaciated and debilitated persons, because of its agneya nature causes suppuration in wounds, injuries, bites, burns, fractures, swellings, dislocations, poisoned spots due to urination and contact of insects, compressed, excised, incised, punctured and crushed etc., and causes burning sensation in throat, chest and the cardiac region. [43.2]

Actions of lavana rasa and effects of its excessive use

लवणो रसः पाचनः क्लेदनो दीपनश्च्यावनश्छेदनो भेदनस्तीक्ष्णः सरो विकास्यधःस्रंस्यवकाशकरो वातहरः स्तम्भबन्धसङ्घातविधमनः सर्वरसप्रत्यनीकभूतः, आस्यमास्रावयति, कफं विष्यन्दयति, मार्गान् विशोधयति, सर्वशरीरावयवान् मृदूकरोति, रोचयत्याहारम्, आहारयोगी, नात्यर्थं गुरुः स्निग्ध उष्णश्च| स एवङ्गुणोऽप्येक एवात्यर्थमुपयुज्यमानः पित्तं कोपयति, रक्तं वर्धयति, तर्षयति, मूर्च्छयति , तापयति, दारयति, कुष्णाति मांसानि, प्रगालयति कुष्ठानि, विषं वर्धयति, शोफान् स्फोटयति, दन्तांश्च्यावयति, पुंस्त्वमुपहन्ति, इन्द्रियाण्युपरुणद्भि, वलिपलितखालित्यमापादयति, अपि च लोहितपित्ताम्लपित्तविसर्पवातरक्तविचर्चिकेन्द्रलुप्तप्रभृतीन्विकारानुपजनयति (३)|४३|

lavaṇō rasaḥ pācanaḥ klēdanō dīpanaścyāvanaśchēdanō bhēdanastīkṣṇaḥ sarō vikāsyadhaḥsraṁsyavakāśakarō vātaharaḥ stambhabandhasaṅghātavidhamanaḥ sarvarasapratyanīkabhūtaḥ, āsyamāsrāvayati, kaphaṁ viṣyandayati, mārgān viśōdhayati, sarvaśarīrāvayavān mr̥dūkarōti, rōcayatyāhāram, āhārayōgī, nātyarthaṁ guruḥ snigdha uṣṇaśca| sa ēvaṅguṇō'pyēka ēvātyarthamupayujyamānaḥ pittaṁ kōpayati, raktaṁ vardhayati, tarṣayati, mūrcchayati , tāpayati, dārayati, kuṣṇāti māṁsāni, pragālayati kuṣṭhāni, viṣaṁ vardhayati, śōphān sphōṭayati, dantāṁścyāvayati, puṁstvamupahanti, indriyāṇyuparuṇadbhi, valipalitakhālityamāpādayati, api ca lōhitapittāmlapittavisarpavātaraktavicarcikēndraluptaprabhr̥tīnvikārānupajanayati (3)|43|

lavaNo rasaH pAcanaH kledano dIpanashcyAvanashchedano bhedanastIkShNaH saro vikAsyadhaHsraMsyavakAshakaro [22] vAtaharaHstambhabandhasa~gghAtavidhamanaH sarvarasapratyanIkabhUtaH, AsyamAsrAvayati, kaphaM viShyandayati, mArgAn vishodhayati, sarvasharIrAvayavAnmRudUkaroti, rocayatyAhAram, AhArayogI, nAtyarthaM guruH snigdha uShNashca| sa eva~gguNo~apyeka evAtyarthamupayujyamAnaH pittaM kopayati, raktaM vardhayati, tarShayati, mUrcchayati [23] , tApayati, dArayati, kuShNAti mAMsAni,pragAlayati kuShThAni, viShaM vardhayati, shophAn sphoTayati, dantAMshcyAvayati, puMstvamupahanti, indriyANyuparuNadbhi, valipalitakhAlityamApAdayati, api calohitapittAmlapittavisarpavAtaraktavicarcikendraluptaprabhRutInvikArAnupajanayati (3)|43|

Lavana rasa is digestive, moistening, appetizing, pouring, expectorant, mass-breaking, irritant, laxative, quickly spreading in body, oozing, space-creating, vata alleviating, diminishes stiffness, viscid, diminishes the perception of other tastes if added in excess, increases secretions in mouth, liquefies kapha, cleanses channels, softens all the body-parts, gives relish to food, is a supplement of food. It is not very heavy, unctuous and hot.

This, though having so many qualities, if used singly and excessively, vitiates pitta, aggravates rakta, causes thirst, fainting, heat, tearing, sloughing, increases leprosy and other skin diseases, aggravates poisons, weakens teeth, aggravates inflammations, impairs potency, hinders sense organs, gives rise to wrinkles, grey hair and baldness, and also produces disorders like internal hemorrhage, acid gastritis, erysipelas, vatarakta, eczema, alopecia etc. [43.3]

Actions of katu rasa and effects of its excessive use

कटुको रसो वक्त्रं शोधयति, अग्निं दीपयति, भुक्तं शोषयति, घ्राणमास्रावयति, चक्षुर्विरेचयति, स्फुटीकरोतीन्द्रियाणि, अलसकश्वयथूपचयोदर्दाभिष्यन्दस्नेहस्वेदक्लेदमलानुपहन्ति, रोचयत्यशनं, कण्डूर्विनाशयति , व्रणानवसादयति, क्रिमीन् हिनस्ति, मांसं विलिखति, शोणितसङ्घातं भिनत्ति, बन्धांश्छिनत्ति, मार्गान् विवृणोति, श्लेष्माणं शमयति, लघुरुष्णो रूक्षश्च| स एवङ्गुणोऽप्येक एवात्यर्थमुपयुज्यमानो विपाकप्रभावात् पुंस्त्वमुपहन्ति, रसवीर्यप्रभावान्मोहयन्ति, ग्लापयति, सादयति, कर्शयति, मूर्च्छयति, नमयति, तमयति, भ्रमयति, कण्ठं परिदहति, शरीरतापमुपजनयति, बलं क्षिणोति, तृष्णां जनयति; अपि च वाय्वग्निगुणबाहुल्याद्भ्रमदवथुकम्पतोदभेदैश्चरणभुजपार्श्वपृष्ठप्रभृतिषु मारुतजान् विकारानुपजनयति (४)

kaṭukō rasō vaktraṁ śōdhayati, agniṁ dīpayati, bhuktaṁ śōṣayati, ghrāṇamāsrāvayati, cakṣurvirēcayati, sphuṭīkarōtīndriyāṇi, alasakaśvayathūpacayōdardābhiṣyandasnēhasvēdaklēdamalānupahanti, rōcayatyaśanaṁ, kaṇḍūrvināśayati , vraṇānavasādayati, krimīn hinasti, māṁsaṁ vilikhati, śōṇitasaṅghātaṁ bhinatti, bandhāṁśchinatti, mārgān vivr̥ṇōti, ślēṣmāṇaṁ śamayati, laghuruṣṇō rūkṣaśca| sa ēvaṅguṇō'pyēka ēvātyarthamupayujyamānō vipākaprabhāvāt puṁstvamupahanti, rasavīryaprabhāvānmōhayanti, glāpayati, sādayati, karśayati, mūrcchayati, namayati, tamayati, bhramayati, kaṇṭhaṁ paridahati, śarīratāpamupajanayati, balaṁ kṣiṇōti, tr̥ṣṇāṁ janayati; api ca āyvagniguṇabāhulyādbhramadavathukampatōdabhēdaiścaraṇabhujapārśvapr̥ṣṭhaprabhr̥tiṣu mārutajān vikārānupajanayati (4)

kaTuko raso vaktraM shodhayati, agniM dIpayati, bhuktaM shoShayati, ghrANamAsrAvayati, cakShurvirecayati, sphuTIkarotIndriyANi,alasakashvayathUpacayodardAbhiShyandasnehasvedakledamalAnupahanti, rocayatyashanaM, kaNDUrvinAshayati [25] , vraNAnavasAdayati, krimIn hinasti, mAMsaMvilikhati, shoNitasa~gghAtaM bhinatti, bandhAMshchinatti, mArgAn vivRuNoti, shleShmANaM shamayati, laghuruShNo rUkShashca| sa eva~gguNo~apyeka evAtyarthamupayujyamAno vipAkaprabhAvAt puMstvamupahanti, rasavIryaprabhAvAnmohayanti, glApayati, sAdayati, karshayati,mUrcchayati, namayati, tamayati, bhramayati, kaNThaM paridahati, sharIratApamupajanayati, balaM kShiNoti, tRuShNAM janayati; api cavAyvagniguNabAhulyAdbhramadavathukampatodabhedaishcaraNabhujapArshvapRuShThaprabhRutiShu mArutajAn vikArAnupajanayati (4)

Katu rasa cleanses mouth, stimulates digestion, absorbs food, causes secretion from the nose and eyes, makes the sense organs clear, alleviates alasaka, swelling, corpulence, urticarial patches, blocked channels, unction, sweating, moisture and dirt, making food relishing, destroys itching, depresses wounds, kills germs, scrapes muscles, checks the coagulation of blood, cuts the bindings, expands the channels, pacifies kapha, and is light, hot and rough.

This though having so many properties, if used singly and excessively, can damage sexual potency due to the effect of vipaka, cause mental confusion, malaise, depression, emaciation, fainting, bending, feeling of darkness, giddiness, burning in throat, body-heat, loss of strength and thirst due to the effect of rasa and veerya and prabhava, over and above, due to abundance of vayu and agni, it produces vatika disorders in feet, hands, sides, back etc. particularly with symptoms like dizziness, burning pain, tremors, piercing and tearing pains. [43.4]

Actions of tikta rasa and effects of its excessive use

तिक्तो रसः स्वयमरोचिष्णुरप्यरोचकघ्नो विषघ्नः क्रिमिघ्नो मूर्च्छादाहकण्डूकुष्ठतृष्णाप्रशमनस्त्वङ्मांसयोः स्थिरीकरणो ज्वरघ्नो दीपनः पाचनः स्तन्यशोधनो लेखनः क्लेदमेदोवसामज्जलसीकापूयस्वेदमूत्रपुरीषपित्तश्लेष्मोपशोषणो रूक्षः शीतो लघुश्च| स एवङ्गुणोऽप्येक एवात्यर्थमुपयुज्यमानो रौक्ष्यात्खरविषदस्वभावाच्च रसरुधिरमांसमेदोस्थिमज्जशुक्राण्युच्छोषयति, स्रोतसां खरत्वमुपपादयति, बलमादत्ते, कर्शयति, ग्लपयति, मोहयति, भ्रमयति, वदनमुपशोषयति, अपरांश्च वातविकारानुपजनयति (५)

tiktō rasaḥ svayamarōciṣṇurapyarōcakaghnō viṣaghnaḥ krimighnō mūrcchādāhakaṇḍūkuṣṭhatr̥ṣṇāpraśamanastvaṅmāṁsayōḥ sthirīkaraṇō jvaraghnō dīpanaḥ pācanaḥ stanyaśōdhanō lēkhanaḥ klēdamēdōvasāmajjalasīkāpūyasvēdamūtrapurīṣapittaślēṣmōpaśōṣaṇō rūkṣaḥ śītō laghuśca| sa ēvaṅguṇō'pyēka ēvātyarthamupayujyamānō raukṣyātkharaviṣadasvabhāvācca rasarudhiramāṁsamēdōsthimajjaśukrāṇyucchōṣayati, srōtasāṁ kharatvamupapādayati, balamādattē, karśayati, glapayati, mōhayati, bhramayati, vadanamupaśōṣayati, aparāṁśca vātavikārānupajanayati (5)

tikto rasaH svayamarociShNurapyarocakaghno viShaghnaH krimighno mUrcchAdAhakaNDUkuShThatRuShNAprashamanastva~gmAMsayoH sthirIkaraNo jvaraghnodIpanaH pAcanaH stanyashodhano lekhanaH kledamedovasAmajjalasIkApUyasvedamUtrapurIShapittashleShmopashoShaNo rUkShaH shIto laghushca| sa eva~gguNo~apyeka evAtyarthamupayujyamAno raukShyAtkharaviShadasvabhAvAcca rasarudhiramAMsamedosthimajjashukrANyucchoShayati, srotasAMkharatvamupapAdayati, balamAdatte, karshayati, glapayati, mohayati, bhramayati, vadanamupashoShayati, aparAMshca vAtavikArAnupajanayati (5)

Tikta rasa, though itself non-relishing, enhances appetite, is anti-poison, anthelmintic, alleviates fainting, burning sensation, itching, skin disorders and thirst, provides firmness to skin and muscles, is antipyretic, appetizer, digestive, galactodepurant (i.e., an agent that cleanses any adverse reaction of milk), lekhana (making thin), absorbs moisture, reduces fat, muscle-fat, marrow, lymph, pus, sweat, urine, feces, pitta and kapha; and is rough, cold and light.

This, though possessing so many qualities, if used singly and excessively, on account of its roughness, coarseness and non-sliminess, dries up rasa, rakta, mamsa, medas, asthi, majja and shukra, causes coarseness in channels, takes away strength, produces emaciation, malaise, mental confusion, giddiness, dryness of mouth and other vatika disorders. [43.5]

Actions of kashaya rasa and effects of its excessive use

कषायो रसः संशमनः सङ्ग्राही सन्धानकरः पीडनो रोपणः शोषणः स्तम्भनः श्लेष्मरक्तपित्तप्रशमनः शरीरक्लेदस्योपयोक्ता रूक्षः शीतोऽलघुश्च| स एवङ्गुणोऽप्येक एवात्यर्थमुपयुज्यमान आस्यं शोषयति, हृदयं पीडयति, उदरमाध्मापयति, वाचं निगृह्णाति, स्रोतांस्यवबध्नाति, श्यावत्वमापादयति, पुंस्त्वमुपहन्ति, विष्टभ्य जरां गच्छति, वातमूत्रपुरीषरेतांस्यवगृह्णाति, कर्शयति, ग्लपयति, तर्षयति, स्तम्भयति, खरविशदरूक्षत्वात् पक्षवधग्रहापतानकार्दितप्रभृतींश्च वातविकारानुपजनयति||४३||

kaṣāyō rasaḥ saṁśamanaḥ saṅgrāhī sandhānakaraḥ pīḍanō rōpaṇaḥ śōṣaṇaḥ stambhanaḥ ślēṣmaraktapittapraśamanaḥ śarīraklēdasyōpayōktā rūkṣaḥ śītō'laghuśca| sa ēvaṅguṇō'pyēka ēvātyarthamupayujyamāna āsyaṁ śōṣayati, hr̥dayaṁ pīḍayati, udaramādhmāpayati, vācaṁ nigr̥hṇāti, srōtāṁsyavabadhnāti, śyāvatvamāpādayati, puṁstvamupahanti, viṣṭabhya jarāṁ gacchati, vātamūtrapurīṣarētāṁsyavagr̥hṇāti, karśayati, glapayati, tarṣayati, stambhayati, kharaviśadarūkṣatvāt pakṣavadhagrahāpatānakārditaprabhr̥tīṁśca vātavikārānupajanayati||43||

kaShAyo rasaH saMshamanaH sa~ggrAhI sandhAnakaraH pIDano ropaNaH shoShaNaH stambhanaH shleShmaraktapittaprashamanaH sharIrakledasyopayoktArUkShaH shIto~alaghushca| sa eva~gguNo~apyeka evAtyarthamupayujyamAna AsyaM shoShayati, hRudayaM pIDayati, udaramAdhmApayati, vAcaM nigRuhNAti, srotAMsyavabadhnAti,shyAvatvamApAdayati, puMstvamupahanti, viShTabhya jarAM gacchati, vAtamUtrapurISharetAMsyavagRuhNAti, karshayati, glapayati, tarShayati, stambhayati,kharavishadarUkShatvAt pakShavadhagrahApatAnakArditaprabhRutIMshca vAtavikArAnupajanayati||43||

Kashya rasa is pacifying, astringent, union-promoting, compressing, healing, absorbing, checking (discharges), pacifies kapha, rakta and pitta, utilizes the body fluid, is rough, cold and slightly light.

This, though possessing so many qualities, if used singly and excessively, dries up mouth, causes heart-ache, it causes distended abdomen, obstructs speech, constricts body channels, darkens complexion, decreases reproductive potency, delays digestion, causes distension of abdomen, checks flatus, urine, feces and semen, produces emaciation, malaise, thirst, stiffness, and because of its coarseness, non-sliminess and roughness, causes vatika disorders like hemiplegia, spasm, convulsions, facial paralysis etc. [43]

इत्येवमेते षड्रसाः पृथक्त्वेनैकत्वेन वा मात्रशः सम्यगुपयुज्यमाना उपकाराय भवन्त्यध्यात्मलोकस्य, अपकारकराः पुनरतोऽन्यथा भवन्त्युपयुज्यमानाः; तान् विद्वानुपकारार्थमेव मात्रशः सम्यगुपयोजयेदिति||४४||

ityēvamētē ṣaḍrasāḥ pr̥thaktvēnaikatvēna vā mātraśaḥ samyagupayujyamānā upakārāya bhavantyadhyātmalōkasya, apakārakarāḥ punaratō'nyathā bhavantyupayujyamānāḥ; tān vidvānupakārārthamēva mātraśaḥ samyagupayōjayēditi||44||

ityevamete ShaDrasAH pRuthaktvenaikatvena vA mAtrashaH [27] samyagupayujyamAnA upakArAya bhavantyadhyAtmalokasya, apakArakarAH punarato~anyathAbhavantyupayujyamAnAH; tAn vidvAnupakArArthameva mAtrashaH samyagupayojayediti||44||

These six rasas, when used in proper quantity, are beneficial for all human beings, otherwise become harmful. Hence the wise should use these properly in proper quantity in order to derive benefit (from them) [44]

Veerya (potency)

भवन्ति चात्र- शीतं वीर्येण यद्द्रव्यं मधुरं रसपाकयोः| तयोरम्लं यदुष्णं च यद्द्रव्यं कटुकं तयोः||४५||

bhavanti cātra- śītaṁ vīryēṇa yaddravyaṁ madhuraṁ rasapākayōḥ| tayōramlaṁ yaduṣṇaṁ ca yaddravyaṁ kaṭukaṁ tayōḥ||45||

bhavanti cAtra- shItaM vIryeNa yaddravyaM madhuraM rasapAkayoH| tayoramlaM yaduShNaM ca yaddravyaM kaTukaM tayoH||45||

The substance (drug or diet) which is madhura in rasa and vipaka (biotransformation) is sheeta (cold) in veerya (potency). Likewise, the substance, amla (or katu) in rasa and vipaka, is ushna (hot) in veerya. [45]

तेषां रसोपदेशेन निर्देश्यो गुणसङ्ग्रहः| वीर्यतोऽविपरीतानां पाकतश्चोपदेक्ष्यते||४६||

यथा पयो यथा सर्पिर्यथा वा चव्यचित्रकौ| एवमादीनि चान्यानि निर्दिशेद्रसतो भिषक्||४७||

tēṣāṁ rasōpadēśēna nirdēśyō guṇasaṅgrahaḥ| vīryatō'viparītānāṁ pākataścōpadēkṣyatē||46||

yathā payō yathā sarpiryathā vā cavyacitrakau| ēvamādīni cānyāni nirdiśēdrasatō bhiṣak||47||

teShAM [29] rasopadeshena nirdeshyo guNasa~ggrahaH| vIryato~aviparItAnAM pAkatashcopadekShyate||46||

yathA payo yathA sarpiryathA vA cavyacitrakau| evamAdIni cAnyAni nirdishedrasato bhiShak||47||

In cases where veerya and vipaka are in conformity with rasa, the properties are known by the rasa itself as in cases of milk, ghee, (madhura-sheeta) and chavya- chitraka (katu-ushna). In such other cases too, the physician should know (the properties) on the basis of rasa. [46-47]

मधुरं किञ्चिदुष्णं स्यात् कषायं तिक्तमेव च| यथा महत्पञ्चमूलं यथाऽब्जानूपमामिषम्||४८||

लवणं सैन्धवं नोष्णमम्लमामलकं तथा| अर्कागुरुगुडूचीनां तिक्तानामुष्णमुच्यते||४९||

madhuraṁ kiñciduṣṇaṁ syāt kaṣāyaṁ tiktamēva ca| yathā mahatpañcamūlaṁ yathā'bjānūpamāmiṣam||48||

lavaṇaṁ saindhavaṁ nōṣṇamamlamāmalakaṁ tathā| arkāguruguḍūcīnāṁ tiktānāmuṣṇamucyatē||49||

madhuraM [30] ki~jciduShNaM syAt kaShAyaM tiktameva ca| yathA mahatpa~jcamUlaM yathA~abjAnUpamAmiSham||48||

lavaNaM [31] saindhavaM noShNamamlamAmalakaM tathA| arkAguruguDUcInAM tiktAnAmuShNamucyate||49||

There are certain exceptions to this: some substances, though madhura, kashya and tikta in rasa, are ushna in veerya such as brihat pancha mula and meat of aquatic and marshy animals. Rock salt, though being lavana, and amalaka, though being amla in rasa, is not ushna (in veerya). Arka, aguru and guduchi are tikta (in rasa) but ushna (in veerya). [48-49]

किञ्चिदम्लं हि सङ्ग्राहि किञ्चिदम्लं भिनत्ति च| यथा कपित्थं सङ्ग्राहि भेदि चामलकं तथा||५०||

पिप्पली नागरं वृष्यं कटु चावृष्यमुच्यते| कषायः स्तम्भनः शीतः सोऽभयायामतोऽन्यथा||५१||

तस्माद्रसोपदेशेन न सर्वं द्रव्यामादिशेत्| दृष्टं तुल्यरसेऽप्येवं द्रव्ये द्रव्ये गुणान्तरम्||५२||

kiñcidamlaṁ hi saṅgrāhi kiñcidamlaṁ bhinatti ca| yathā kapitthaṁ saṅgrāhi bhēdi cāmalakaṁ tathā||50||

pippalī nāgaraṁ vr̥ṣyaṁ kaṭu cāvr̥ṣyamucyatē| kaṣāyaḥ stambhanaḥ śītaḥ sō'bhayāyāmatō'nyathā||51||

tasmādrasōpadēśēna na sarvaṁ dravyāmādiśēt| dr̥ṣṭaṁ tulyarasē'pyēvaṁ dravyē dravyē guṇāntaram||52||

ki~jcidamlaM hi sa~ggrAhi ki~jcidamlaM bhinatti ca| yathA kapitthaM sa~ggrAhi bhedi cAmalakaM tathA||50||

pippalI [32] nAgaraM vRuShyaM kaTu cAvRuShyamucyate| kaShAyaH stambhanaH shItaH so~abhayAyAmato~anyathA||51||

tasmAdrasopadeshena [33] na sarvaM dravyAmAdishet| dRuShTaM tulyarase~apyevaM dravye dravye guNAntaram||52||

Likewise, there are also variations in actions of rasa. Some substance of amla rasa is astringent (such as kapittha) while other is purgative (such as amalaka). Katu rasa is non-aphrodisiac but pippali and shunthi (through katurasa) are aphrodisiac. Kashaya rasa is stambhana (stopping or stalling) and sheeta (cold) but haritaki (through kashaya) is the exception (it is laxative and hot). Hence only on the basis of rasa, one cannot prescribe all the substances when even in substances of similar rasa, difference in properties is observed in individual cases. [50-52]

रौक्ष्यात् कषायो रूक्षाणामुत्तमो मध्यमः कटुः| तिक्तोऽवरस्तथोष्णानामुष्णत्वाल्लवणः परः||५३||

मध्योऽम्लः कटुकश्चान्त्यः स्निग्धानां मधुरः परः| मध्योऽम्लो लवणश्चान्त्यो रसः स्नेहान्निरुच्यते||५४||

मध्योत्कृष्टावराः शैत्यात् कषायस्वादुतिक्तकाः | स्वादुर्गुरुत्वादधिकः कषायाल्लवणोऽवरः||५५||

अम्लात् कटुस्ततस्तिक्तो लघुत्वादुत्तमोत्तमः| केचिल्लघूनामवरमिच्छन्ति लवणं रसम्||५६||

गौरवे लाघवे चैव सोऽवरस्तूभयोरपि|५७|

raukṣyāt kaṣāyō rūkṣāṇāmuttamō madhyamaḥ kaṭuḥ| tiktō'varastathōṣṇānāmuṣṇatvāllavaṇaḥ paraḥ||53||

madhyō'mlaḥ kaṭukaścāntyaḥ snigdhānāṁ madhuraḥ paraḥ| madhyō'mlō lavaṇaścāntyō rasaḥ snēhānnirucyatē||54||

madhyōtkr̥ṣṭāvarāḥ śaityāt kaṣāyasvādutiktakāḥ | svādurgurutvādadhikaḥ kaṣāyāllavaṇō'varaḥ||55||

amlāt kaṭustatastiktō laghutvāduttamōttamaḥ| kēcillaghūnāmavaramicchanti lavaṇaṁ rasam||56||

gauravē lāghavē caiva sō'varastūbhayōrapi|57|

aukShyAt kaShAyo rUkShANAmuttamo madhyamaH kaTuH| tikto~avarastathoShNAnAmuShNatvAllavaNaH paraH||53||

madhyo~amlaH kaTukashcAntyaH snigdhAnAM madhuraH paraH| madhyo~amlo lavaNashcAntyo rasaH snehAnnirucyate||54||

madhyotkRuShTAvarAH shaityAt kaShAyasvAdutiktakAH [34] | svAdurgurutvAdadhikaH kaShAyAllavaNo~avaraH||55||

amlAt kaTustatastikto laghutvAduttamottamaH| kecillaghUnAmavaramicchanti [35] lavaNaM rasam||56||

gaurave lAghave caiva [36] so~avarastUbhayorapi|57|

From the point of view of six prominent gunas, the rasas have been positioned in three degree. Considering rukshatva (dryness), kashaya comes in the highest degree, katu in the medium degree and tikta in the lowest degree. Considering ushnatva (hotness), lavana comes on the top, amla in the middle, katuka on the bottom. From the point of view of snigdhatva (unctuousness), madhura is in the highest degree, amla in the middle and lavana in the lowest one.

Considering sheetatwa (coldness), madhura, kashaya and tikta come in order of superiority. Considering gurutva (heaviness), madhura comes in the highest degree, kashaya comes next, and lavana in the lowest degree. Considering laghutva (lightness), tikta comes on the top, then katu and lastly amla. Some take lavana as the inferior one in the category light rasas. Thus, lavana is placed in the lowest order considering both gaurava (heaviness) and laghutva (lightness). [53-56]

Vipaka (metabolites)

परं चातो विपाकानां लक्षणं सम्प्रवक्ष्यते||५७||

कटुतिक्तकषायाणां विपाकः प्रायशः कटुः| अम्लोऽम्लं पच्यते स्वादुर्मधुरं लवणस्तथा||५८||

paraṁ cātō vipākānāṁ lakṣaṇaṁ sampravakṣyatē||57||

kaṭutiktakaṣāyāṇāṁ vipākaḥ prāyaśaḥ kaṭuḥ| amlō'mlaṁ pacyatē svādurmadhuraṁ lavaṇastathā||58||

paraM [38] cAto vipAkAnAM lakShaNaM sampravakShyate||57||

kaTutiktakaShAyANAM vipAkaH prAyashaH kaTuH| amlo~amlaM pacyate svAdurmadhuraM lavaNastathA||58||

Hereafter, vipaka will be described. Substances having katu, tikta and kashaya rasas have often katu vipaka, amla is transformed into amla, vipaka, and madhura and lavana have madhura vipaka. [57-58]

मधुरो लवणाम्लौ च स्निग्धभावात्त्रयो रसाः| वातमूत्रपुरीषाणां प्रायो मोक्षे सुखा मताः||५९||

कटुतिक्तकषायास्तु रूक्षभावात्त्रयो रसाः| दुःखाय मोक्षे दृश्यन्ते वातविण्मूत्ररेतसाम्||६०||

madhurō lavaṇāmlau ca snigdhabhāvāttrayō rasāḥ| vātamūtrapurīṣāṇāṁ prāyō mōkṣē sukhā matāḥ||59||

kaṭutiktakaṣāyāstu rūkṣabhāvāttrayō rasāḥ| duḥkhāya mōkṣē dr̥śyantē vātaviṇmūtrarētasām||60||

madhuro lavaNAmlau ca snigdhabhAvAttrayo rasAH| vAtamUtrapurIShANAM prAyo mokShe sukhA matAH||59||

kaTutiktakaShAyAstu rUkShabhAvAttrayo rasAH| duHkhAya mokShe dRushyante vAtaviNmUtraretasAm||60||

Madhura, lavana and amla: these three rasas, due to snigdhatva (unctuousness), are often conducive to elimination of flatus, urine and faeces.

On the contrary, katu, tikta and kashaya: these three rasas, due to rukshatva (dryness), create hindrances in the elimination of flatus, faeces, urine and semen. [59-60]

शुक्रहा बद्धविण्मूत्रो विपाको वातलः कटुः| मधुरः सृष्टविण्मूत्रो विपाकः कफशुक्रलः||६१||

पित्तकृत् सृष्टविण्मूत्रः पाकोऽम्लः शुक्रनाशनः| तेषां गुरुः स्यान्मधुरः कटुकाम्लावतोऽन्यथा||६२||

śukrahā baddhaviṇmūtrō vipākō vātalaḥ kaṭuḥ| madhuraḥ sr̥ṣṭaviṇmūtrō vipākaḥ kaphaśukralaḥ||61||

pittakr̥t sr̥ṣṭaviṇmūtraḥ pākō'mlaḥ śukranāśanaḥ| tēṣāṁ guruḥ syānmadhuraḥ kaṭukāmlāvatō'nyathā||62||

shukrahA baddhaviNmUtro vipAko vAtalaH kaTuH| madhuraH sRuShTaviNmUtro vipAkaH kaphashukralaH||61||

pittakRut sRuShTaviNmUtraH pAko~amlaH shukranAshanaH| teShAM guruH syAnmadhuraH kaTukAmlAvato~anyathA||62||

Katu vipaka impairs shukra (semen), obstructs (excretion of) faeces and urine and aggravates vata. Madhura vipaka helps excretion of urine and faeces from the body, increases kapha and semen. Amla vipaka aggravates pitta, helps excretion of faeces and urine and damages semen. Amongst them, madhura vipaka is guru (heavy) and the other two (katu and amla) vipakas are laghu. [61-62]

विपाकलक्षणस्याल्पमध्यभूयिष्ठतां प्रति| द्रव्याणां गुणवैशेष्यात्तत्र तत्रोपलक्षयेत्||६३||

vipākalakṣaṇasyālpamadhyabhūyiṣṭhatāṁ prati| dravyāṇāṁ guṇavaiśēṣyāttatra tatrōpalakṣayēt||63||

vipAkalakShaNasyAlpamadhyabhUyiShThatAM [41] prati| dravyANAM guNavaisheShyAttatra tatropalakShayet||63||

According to variations in gunas (properties) there is also variation in degree (lowest, medium and highest) of vipaka. [63]

मृदुतीक्ष्णगुरुलघुस्निग्धरूक्षोष्णशीतलम्| वीर्यमष्टविधं केचित्, केचिद्द्विविधमास्थिताः||६४||

शीतोष्णमिति, वीर्यं तु क्रियते येन या क्रिया| नावीर्यं कुरुते किञ्चित् सर्वा वीर्यकृता क्रिया||६५||

mr̥dutīkṣṇagurulaghusnigdharūkṣōṣṇaśītalam| vīryamaṣṭavidhaṁ kēcit, kēciddvividhamāsthitāḥ||64||

śītōṣṇamiti, vīryaṁ tu kriyatē yēna yā kriyā| nāvīryaṁ kurutē kiñcit sarvā vīryakr̥tā kriyā||65||

mRudutIkShNagurulaghusnigdharUkShoShNashItalam| vIryamaShTavidhaM kecit, keciddvividhamAsthitAH||64||

shItoShNamiti, vIryaM tu kriyate yena yA kriyA| nAvIryaM kurute ki~jcit sarvA vIryakRutA kriyA||65||

Some hold that there is eight-fold veerya: mridu (soft), tikshna (sharp), guru (heavy), laghu (light), snigdha (unctuous), ruksha (rough), ushna (hot) and sheeta (cold) while some opine that there are only two veeryas : sheeta (cold) and ushna (hot). In fact, veerya (potency) is that which is responsible for each and every action. The substance can exert no action in absence of veerya and as such (it is concluded that) all actions are exerted due to veerya. [64-65]

Characteristics of rasa, veerya, vipaka

रसो निपाते द्रव्याणां, विपाकः कर्मनिष्ठया| वीर्यं यावदधीवासान्निपाताच्चोपलभ्यते||६६||

rasō nipātē dravyāṇāṁ, vipākaḥ karmaniṣṭhayā| vīryaṁ yāvadadhīvāsānnipātāccōpalabhyatē||66||

raso nipAte dravyANAM, vipAkaH karmaniShThayA| vIryaM yAvadadhIvAsAnnipAtAccopalabhyate||66||

Rasa is perceived by its contact with the body (particularly tongue). Vipaka is perceived by (observing) the final effect (on body) and veerya is comprehended (by the action exerted) during the period from administration till excretion (of the drug). [66]

रसवीर्यविपाकानां सामान्यं यत्र लक्ष्यते| विशेषः कर्मणां चैव प्रभावस्तस्य स स्मृतः||६७||

rasavīryavipākānāṁ sāmānyaṁ yatra lakṣyatē| viśēṣaḥ karmaṇāṁ caiva prabhāvastasya sa smr̥taḥ||67||

rasavIryavipAkAnAM sAmAnyaM yatra lakShyate| visheShaH karmaNAM caiva prabhAvastasya sa smRutaH||67||

In cases, where, inspite of similarity in rasa, veerya and vipaka, there is difference in action, this (difference) is said to be due to prabhava (specific potency). [67]

कटुकः कटुकः पाके वीर्योष्णश्चित्रको मतः| तद्वद्दन्ती प्रभावात्तु विरेचयति मानवम् ||६८||

विषं विषघ्नमुक्तं यत् प्रभावस्तत्र कारणम्| ऊर्ध्वानुलोमिकं यच्च तत् प्रभावप्रभावितम्||६९||

मणीनां धारणीयानां कर्म यद्विविधात्मकम्| तत् प्रभावकृतं तेषां प्रभावोऽचिन्त्य उच्यते ||७०||

सम्यग्विपाकवीर्याणि प्रभावश्चाप्युदाहृतः| किञ्चिद्रसेन कुरुते कर्म वीर्येण चापरम्||७१||

द्रव्यं गुणेन पाकेन प्रभावेण च किञ्चन| रसं विपाकस्तौ वीर्यं प्रभावस्तानपोहति||७२||

kaṭukaḥ kaṭukaḥ pākē vīryōṣṇaścitrakō mataḥ| tadvaddantī prabhāvāttu virēcayati mānavam ||68||

viṣaṁ viṣaghnamuktaṁ yat prabhāvastatra kāraṇam| ūrdhvānulōmikaṁ yacca tat prabhāvaprabhāvitam||69||

maṇīnāṁ dhāraṇīyānāṁ karma yadvividhātmakam| tat prabhāvakr̥taṁ tēṣāṁ prabhāvō'cintya ucyatē ||70||

samyagvipākavīryāṇi prabhāvaścāpyudāhr̥taḥ| kiñcidrasēna kurutē karma vīryēṇa cāparam||71||

dravyaṁ guṇēna pākēna prabhāvēṇa ca kiñcana| rasaṁ vipākastau vīryaṁ prabhāvastānapōhati||72||

kaTukaH kaTukaH pAke vIryoShNashcitrako mataH| tadvaddantI prabhAvAttu virecayati mAnavam [51] ||68||

viShaM viShaghnamuktaM yat prabhAvastatra [52] kAraNam| UrdhvAnulomikaM yacca tat prabhAvaprabhAvitam||69||

maNInAM dhAraNIyAnAM karma yadvividhAtmakam| tat prabhAvakRutaM teShAM prabhAvo~acintya ucyate [53] ||70||

samyagvipAkavIryANi prabhAvashcApyudAhRutaH| ki~jcidrasena [54] kurute karma vIryeNa cAparam||71||

dravyaM guNena pAkena prabhAveNa ca ki~jcana| rasaM vipAkastau vIryaM prabhAvastAnapohati||72||

balasAmye rasAdInAmiti naisargikaM balam|73|

(For instance) just as chitraka is katu in rasa and vipaka and ushna in veerya, similar is danti but the latter is purgative (while the former is not). Poison acts as antidote to poison, here also the cause is prabhava. Likewise, the action of urdhwabhagahara (emetics) and anulomika (purgatives) is due to prabhava. Various effects of gems worn (on the body) is also due to prabhava, but their prabhava is incomprehenisble. Thus, vipaka, veerya and prabhava are explained well. Some drug acts by (means of) rasa, other by veerya and other by guna, vipaka or prabhava. In case of equality of strength, vipaka subdues rasa, veerya subdues both, and prabhava all these three. These are the natural relative degree of strength. [68-72]

Means of knowing rasa

बलसाम्ये रसादीनामिति नैसर्गिकं बलम्| षण्णां रसानां विज्ञानमुपदेक्ष्याम्यतः परम्||७३||

स्नेहनप्रीणनाह्लादमार्दवैरुपलभ्यते| मुखस्थो मधुरश्चास्यं व्याप्नुवँल्लिम्पतीव च||७४||

दन्तहर्षान्मुखास्रावात् स्वेदनान्मुखबोधनात्| विदाहाच्चास्यकण्ठस्य प्राश्यैवाम्लं रसं वदेत्||७५||

प्रलीयन् क्लेदविष्यन्दमार्दवं कुरुते मुखे| यः शीघ्रं लवणो ज्ञेयः स विदाहान्मुखस्य च||७६||

संवेजयेद्यो रसानां निपाते तुदतीव च| विदहन्मुखनासाक्षि संस्रावी स कटुः स्मृतः||७७||

प्रतिहन्ति निपाते यो रसनं स्वदते न च| स तिक्तो मुखवैशद्यशोषप्रह्लादकारकः ||७८||

वैशद्यस्तम्भजाड्यैर्यो रसनं योजयेद्रसः| बध्नातीव च यः कण्ठं कषायः स विकास्यपि||७९||

balasāmyē rasādīnāmiti naisargikaṁ balam| ṣaṇṇāṁ rasānāṁ vijñānamupadēkṣyāmyataḥ param||73||

snēhanaprīṇanāhlādamārdavairupalabhyatē| mukhasthō madhuraścāsyaṁ vyāpnuvamँllimpatīva ca||74||

dantaharṣānmukhāsrāvāt svēdanānmukhabōdhanāt| vidāhāccāsyakaṇṭhasya prāśyaivāmlaṁ rasaṁ vadēt||75||

pralīyan klēdaviṣyandamārdavaṁ kurutē mukhē| yaḥ śīghraṁ lavaṇō jñēyaḥ sa vidāhānmukhasya ca||76||

saṁvējayēdyō rasānāṁ nipātē tudatīva ca| vidahanmukhanāsākṣi saṁsrāvī sa kaṭuḥ smr̥taḥ||77||

pratihanti nipātē yō rasanaṁ svadatē na ca| sa tiktō mukhavaiśadyaśōṣaprahlādakārakaḥ ||78||

vaiśadyastambhajāḍyairyō rasanaṁ yōjayēdrasaḥ| badhnātīva ca yaḥ kaṇṭhaṁ kaṣāyaḥ a vikāsyapi||79||

ShaNNAM rasAnAM vij~jAnamupadekShyAmyataH param||73||

snehanaprINanAhlAdamArdavairupalabhyate| mukhastho madhurashcAsyaM vyApnuva@mllimpatIva ca||74||

dantaharShAnmukhAsrAvAt svedanAnmukhabodhanAt| vidAhAccAsyakaNThasya prAshyaivAmlaM rasaM vadet||75||

pralIyan kledaviShyandamArdavaM kurute mukhe| yaH shIghraM lavaNo j~jeyaH sa vidAhAnmukhasya ca||76||

saMvejayedyo rasAnAM nipAte tudatIva ca| vidahanmukhanAsAkShi saMsrAvI sa kaTuH smRutaH||77||

pratihanti nipAte yo rasanaM svadate na ca| sa tikto mukhavaishadyashoShaprahlAdakArakaH [58] ||78||

vaishadyastambhajADyairyo rasanaM yojayedrasaH| badhnAtIva ca yaH kaNThaM kaShAyaH sa vikAsyapi||79||

Hereafter, I will describe the characters of the six rasas. Madhura rasa is known by its actions – unction, pleasure, exhilaration and softening. While in mouth, it pervades and as if making a coating there.

If, after putting in mouth, the teeth become sensitive, or if there is salivation, sweating, gustatory sensations and burning in mouth and throat, that should be labelled as amla rasa.

Lavana rasa is dissolved quickly and produces moistening, watering, softening and burning in mouth.

That which, on contact, irritates and produces piercing pain in tongue and simulate secretions with burning from mouth, nose and eyes is pungent.

That which, on contact with tongue, destroys all other gustatory perceptions so that no other taste is perceived and also gives rise to non-sliminess and dryness in mouth, along with cheerfulness, is tikta (rasa).

Kashaya is that which produces non-sliminess, stiffness and insensibility in tongue, as if choking the throat and is also vikasiin nature. [73-79]

एवमुक्तवन्तं भगवन्तमात्रेयमग्निवेश उवाच- भगवन्! श्रुतमेतदवितथमर्थसम्पद्युक्तं भगवतो यथावद्द्रव्यगुणकर्माधिकारे वचः, परं त्वाहारविकाराणां वैरोधिकानां लक्षणमनतिसङ्क्षेपेणोपदिश्यमानं शुश्रूषामह इति||८०||

ēvamuktavantaṁ bhagavantamātrēyamagnivēśa uvāca- bhagavan! śrutamētadavitathamarthasampadyuktaṁ bhagavatō yathāvaddravyaguṇakarmādhikārē vacaḥ, paraṁ tvāhāravikārāṇāṁ vairōdhikānāṁ lakṣaṇamanatisaṅkṣēpēṇōpadiśyamānaṁ śuśrūṣāmaha iti||80||

evamuktavantaM bhagavantamAtreyamagnivesha uvAca- bhagavan! shrutametadavitathamarthasampadyuktaM bhagavato yathAvaddravyaguNakarmAdhikArevacaH, paraM tvAhAravikArANAM [61] vairodhikAnAM lakShaNamanatisa~gkShepeNopadishyamAnaM shushrUShAmaha iti||80||

Having listened to this description by Lord Atreya, Agnivesha said, “Sir, we heard your factual and significant talk on dravya, guna and karma. Now we want to hear not too brief description of the antagonistic food items”. [80]

Viruddha dravya (antagonistic substances)

तमुवाच भगवानात्रेयः- देहधातुप्रत्यनीकभूतानि द्रव्याणि देहधातुभिर्विरोधमापद्यन्ते; परस्परगुणविरुद्धानि कानिचित्, कानिचित् संयोगात्, संस्कारादपराणि, देशकालमात्रादिभिश्चापराणि, तथा स्वभावादपराणि||८१||

tamuvāca bhagavānātrēyaḥ- dēhadhātupratyanīkabhūtāni dravyāṇi dēhadhātubhirvirōdhamāpadyantē; parasparaguṇaviruddhāni kānicit, kānicit saṁyōgāt, saṁskārādaparāṇi, dēśakālamātrādibhiścāparāṇi, tathā svabhāvādaparāṇi||81||

tamuvAca bhagavAnAtreyaH- dehadhAtupratyanIkabhUtAni dravyANi dehadhAtubhirvirodhamApadyante; parasparaguNaviruddhAni kAnicit, kAnicit saMyogAt,saMskArAdaparANi, deshakAlamAtrAdibhishcAparANi, tathA svabhAvAdaparANi||81||

Lord Atreya addressed to him – the substances which are contrary to deha-dhatus behave with virodha (antagonism) to them. This antagonism may be in terms of properties, combination, processing, place, time, dose etc. or natural composition. [81]

तत्र यान्याहारमधिकृत्य भूयिष्ठमुपयुज्यन्ते तेषामेकदेशं वैरोधिकमधिकृत्योपदेक्ष्यामः- न मत्स्यान् पयसा सहाभ्यवहरेत्, उभयं ह्येतन्मधुरं मधुरविपाकं महाभिष्यन्दि शीतोष्णत्वाद्विरुद्धवीर्यं विरुद्धवीर्यत्वाच्छोणितप्रदूषणाय महाभिष्यन्दित्वान्मार्गोपरोधाय च||८२||

tatra yānyāhāramadhikr̥tya bhūyiṣṭhamupayujyantē tēṣāmēkadēśaṁ vairōdhikamadhikr̥tyōpadēkṣyāmaḥ- na matsyān payasā sahābhyavaharēt, ubhayaṁ hyētanmadhuraṁ madhuravipākaṁ mahābhiṣyandi śītōṣṇatvādviruddhavīryaṁ viruddhavīryatvācchōṇitapradūṣaṇāya mahābhiṣyanditvānmārgōparōdhāya ca||82||

tatra yAnyAhAramadhikRutya bhUyiShThamupayujyante teShAmekadeshaM vairodhikamadhikRutyopadekShyAmaH- na matsyAn payasA sahAbhyavaharet,ubhayaM hyetanmadhuraM madhuravipAkaM mahAbhiShyandi shItoShNatvAdviruddhavIryaM viruddhavIryatvAcchoNitapradUShaNAyamahAbhiShyanditvAnmArgoparodhAya ca||82||

Amongst them, I will mention the incompatible (vairodhika) food which is mostly used, such as, one should not take fish with milk. Both of them are having madhura (rasa). Madhura vipaka, mahabhishyandi (great obstructor of the channels), because milk is sheeta and fish is ushna which is viruddhavÍrya (antagonistic in terms of veerya), due to conflicting veeryas, it vitiates blood and due to being mahabhishyandi, creates obstruction in channels. [82]

तन्निशम्यात्रेयवचनमनु भद्रकाप्योऽग्निवेशमुवाच- सर्वानेव मत्स्यान् पयसा सहाभ्यवहरेदन्यत्रैकस्माच्चिलिचिमात्, स पुनः शकली लोहितनयनः सर्वतो लोहितराजी रोहिताकारः प्रायो भूमौ चरति, तं चेत् पयसा सहाभ्यवहरेन्निःसंशयं शोणितजानां विबन्धजानां च व्याधीनामन्यतममथवा मरणं प्राप्नुयादिति||८३||

tanniśamyātrēyavacanamanu bhadrakāpyō'gnivēśamuvāca- sarvānēva matsyān payasā sahābhyavaharēdanyatraikasmāccilicimāt, sa punaḥ śakalī lōhitanayanaḥ sarvatō lōhitarājī rōhitākāraḥ prāyō bhūmau carati, taṁ cēt payasā sahābhyavaharēnniḥsaṁśayaṁ śōṇitajānāṁ vibandhajānāṁ ca vyādhīnāmanyatamamathavā maraṇaṁ prāpnuyāditi||83||

tannishamyAtreyavacanamanu bhadrakApyo~agniveshamuvAca- sarvAneva matsyAn payasA sahAbhyavaharedanyatraikasmAccilicimAt, sa punaH shakalIlohitanayanaH sarvato lohitarAjI rohitAkAraH prAyo bhUmau carati, taM cet payasA sahAbhyavaharenniHsaMshayaM shoNitajAnAM vibandhajAnAM cavyAdhInAmanyatamamathavA maraNaM prApnuyAditi||83||

Having heard the statement of Atreya, Bhadrakapya said to Agnivesha, “one may take all types of fish alongwith milk except only one -chilchima. That scaly, red-eyed, with alround red strips, having shape like that of rohita often moves on land. If one takes it along with milk, he undoubtedly becomes victim of one of the disorders of rakta (blood) or vibandha (constipation) or death”. [83]

नेति भगवानात्रेयः- सर्वानेव मत्स्यान्न पयसा सहाभ्यवहरेद्विशेषतस्तु चिलिचिमं, स हि महाभिष्यन्दित्वात् स्थूललक्षणतरानेतान् व्याधीनुपजनयत्यामविषमुदीरयति च| ग्राम्यानूपौदकपिशितानि च मधुतिलगुडपयोमाषमूलकबिसैर्विरूढधान्यैर्वा नैकध्यमद्यात्, तन्मूलं हि बाधिर्यान्ध्यवेपथुजाड्यकलमूकतामैण्मिण्यमथवा मरणमाप्नोति| न पौष्करं रोहिणीकं शाकं कपोतान् वा सर्षपतैलभ्रष्टान्मधुपयोभ्यां सहाभ्यवहरेत्, तन्मूलं हि शोणिताभिष्यन्दधमनीप्रवि(ति)चयापस्मारशङ्खकगलगण्डरोहिणीनामन्यतमं प्राप्नोत्यथवा मरणमिति| न मूलकलशुनकृष्णगन्धार्जकसुमुखसुरसादीनि भक्षयित्वा पयः सेव्यं, कुष्ठाबाधभयात्| न जातुकशाकं न निकुचं पक्वं मधुपयोभ्यां सहोपयोज्यम्, एतद्धि मरणायाथवा बलवर्णतेजोवीर्योपरोधायालघुव्याधये षाण्ढ्याय चेति| तदेव निकुचं पक्वं न माषसूपगुडसर्पिर्भिः सहोपयोज्यं वैरोधिकत्वात्| तथाऽऽम्राम्रातकमातुलुङ्गनिकुचकरमर्दमोचदन्तशठबदरकोशाम्रभव्यजाम्बवकपित्थतिन्तिडीक- पारावताक्षोडपनसनालिकेरदाडिमामलकान्येवम्प्रकाराणि चान्यानि द्रव्याणि सर्वं चाम्लं द्रवमद्रवं च पयसा सह विरुद्धम्| तथा कङ्गुवनकमकुष्ठककुलत्थमाषनिष्पावाः पयसा सह विरुद्धाः| पद्मोत्तरिकाशाकं शार्करो मैरेयो मधु च सहोपयुक्तं विरुद्धं वातं चातिकोपयति| हारिद्रकः सर्षपतैलभृष्टो विरुद्धः पित्तं चातिकोपयति| पायसो मन्थानुपानो विरुद्धः श्लेष्माणं चातिकोपयति| उपोदिका तिलकल्कसिद्धा हेतुरतीसारस्य| बलाका वारुण्या सह कुल्माषैरपि विरुद्धा, सैव शूकरवसापरिभृष्टा सद्यो व्यापादयति| मयूरमांसमेरण्डसीसकावसक्तमेरण्डाग्निप्लुष्टमेरण्डतैलयुक्तं सद्यो व्यापादयति| हारिद्रकमांसं हारिद्रसीसकावसक्तं हारिद्राग्निप्लुष्टं सद्यो व्यापादयति; तदेव भस्मपांशुपरिध्वस्तं सक्षौद्रं सद्यो मरणाय| मत्स्यनिस्तालनसिद्धाः पिप्पल्यस्तथा काकमाची मधु च मरणाय| मधु चोष्णमुष्णार्तस्य च मधु मरणाय| मधुसर्पिषी समघृते, मधु वारि चान्तरिक्षं समघृतं, मधु पुष्करबीजं, मधु पीत्वोष्णोदकं, भल्लातकोष्णोदकं, तक्रसिद्धः कम्पिल्लकः, पर्युषिता काकमाची, अङ्गारशूल्यो भासश्चेति विरुद्धानि| इत्येतद्यथाप्रश्नमभिनिर्दिष्टं भवतीति||८४||

nēti bhagavānātrēyaḥ- sarvānēva matsyānna payasā sahābhyavaharēdviśēṣatastu cilicimaṁ, sa hi mahābhiṣyanditvāt sthūlalakṣaṇatarānētān vyādhīnupajanayatyāmaviṣamudīrayati ca| grāmyānūpaudakapiśitāni ca madhutilaguḍapayōmāṣamūlakabisairvirūḍhadhānyairvā naikadhyamadyāt, tanmūlaṁ hi bādhiryāndhyavēpathujāḍyakalamūkatāmaiṇmiṇyamathavā maraṇamāpnōti| na pauṣkaraṁ rōhiṇīkaṁ śākaṁ kapōtān vā sarṣapatailabhraṣṭānmadhupayōbhyāṁ sahābhyavaharēt, tanmūlaṁ hi śōṇitābhiṣyandadhamanīpravi(ti)cayāpasmāraśaṅkhakagalagaṇḍarōhiṇīnāmanyatamaṁ prāpnōtyathavā maraṇamiti| na mūlakalaśunakr̥ṣṇagandhārjakasumukhasurasādīni bhakṣayitvā payaḥ sēvyaṁ, kuṣṭhābādhabhayāt| na jātukaśākaṁ na nikucaṁ pakvaṁ madhupayōbhyāṁ sahōpayōjyam, ētaddhi maraṇāyāthavā balavarṇatējōvīryōparōdhāyālaghuvyādhayē ṣāṇḍhyāya cēti| tadēva nikucaṁ pakvaṁ na māṣasūpaguḍasarpirbhiḥ sahōpayōjyaṁ vairōdhikatvāt| tathāmrāmrātakamātuluṅganikucakaramardamōcadantaśaṭhabadarakōśāmrabhavyajāmbavakapitthatintiḍīka- pārāvatākṣōḍapanasanālikēradāḍimāmalakānyēvamprakārāṇi cānyāni dravyāṇi sarvaṁ cāmlaṁ dravamadravaṁ ca payasā saha viruddham| tathā kaṅguvanakamakuṣṭhakakulatthamāṣaniṣpāvāḥ payasā saha viruddhāḥ| padmōttarikāśākaṁ śārkarō mairēyō madhu ca sahōpayuktaṁ viruddhaṁ vātaṁ cātikōpayati| hāridrakaḥ sarṣapatailabhr̥ṣṭō viruddhaḥ pittaṁ cātikōpayati| pāyasō manthānupānō viruddhaḥ ślēṣmāṇaṁ cātikōpayati| upōdikā tilakalkasiddhā hēturatīsārasya| balākā vāruṇyā saha kulmāṣairapi viruddhā, saiva śūkaravasāparibhr̥ṣṭā sadyō vyāpādayati| mayūramāṁsamēraṇḍasīsakāvasaktamēraṇḍāgnipluṣṭamēraṇḍatailayuktaṁ sadyō vyāpādayati| hāridrakamāṁsaṁ hāridrasīsakāvasaktaṁ hāridrāgnipluṣṭaṁ sadyō vyāpādayati; tadēva bhasmapāṁśuparidhvastaṁ sakṣaudraṁ sadyō maraṇāya| matsyanistālanasiddhāḥ pippalyastathā kākamācī madhu ca maraṇāya| madhu cōṣṇamuṣṇārtasya ca madhu maraṇāya| madhusarpiṣī samaghr̥tē, madhu vāri cāntarikṣaṁ samaghr̥taṁ, madhu puṣkarabījaṁ, madhu pītvōṣṇōdakaṁ, bhallātakōṣṇōdakaṁ, takrasiddhaḥ kampillakaḥ, paryuṣitā kākamācī, aṅgāraśūlyō bhāsaścēti viruddhāni| ityētadyathāpraśnamabhinirdiṣṭaṁ bhavatīti||84||

neti bhagavAnAtreyaH- sarvAneva matsyAnna payasA sahAbhyavaharedvisheShatastu cilicimaM, sa hi mahAbhiShyanditvAt sthUlalakShaNatarAnetAnvyAdhInupajanayatyAmaviShamudIrayati ca| grAmyAnUpaudakapishitAni ca madhutilaguDapayomAShamUlakabisairvirUDhadhAnyairvA [63] naikadhyamadyAt, tanmUlaM hibAdhiryAndhyavepathujADyakalamUkatAmaiNmiNyamathavA [64] maraNamApnoti| na pauShkaraM rohiNIkaM shAkaM kapotAn vA sarShapatailabhraShTAnmadhupayobhyAM sahAbhyavaharet, tanmUlaM hishoNitAbhiShyandadhamanIpravi(ti)cayApasmArasha~gkhakagalagaNDarohiNInAmanyatamaM prApnotyathavA maraNamiti| na mUlakalashunakRuShNagandhArjakasumukhasurasAdIni bhakShayitvA payaH sevyaM, kuShThAbAdhabhayAt| na jAtukashAkaM na nikucaM pakvaM madhupayobhyAM sahopayojyam, etaddhi maraNAyAthavA balavarNatejovIryoparodhAyAlaghuvyAdhaye ShANDhyAya ceti| tadeva nikucaM pakvaM na mAShasUpaguDasarpirbhiH sahopayojyaM vairodhikatvAt| tathA~a~amrAmrAtakamAtulu~gganikucakaramardamocadantashaThabadarakoshAmrabhavyajAmbavakapitthatintiDIka-pArAvatAkShoDapanasanAlikeradADimAmalakAnyevamprakArANi cAnyAni dravyANi sarvaM cAmlaM dravamadravaM ca payasA saha viruddham| tathA ka~gguvanakamakuShThakakulatthamAShaniShpAvAH [65] payasA saha viruddhAH| padmottarikAshAkaM shArkaro maireyo madhu ca sahopayuktaM viruddhaM vAtaM cAtikopayati| hAridrakaH sarShapatailabhRuShTo viruddhaH pittaM cAtikopayati| pAyaso manthAnupAno viruddhaH shleShmANaM cAtikopayati| upodikA tilakalkasiddhA heturatIsArasya| balAkA vAruNyA saha kulmAShairapi viruddhA, saiva shUkaravasAparibhRuShTA sadyo vyApAdayati| mayUramAMsameraNDasIsakAvasaktameraNDAgnipluShTameraNDatailayuktaM sadyo vyApAdayati| hAridrakamAMsaM hAridrasIsakAvasaktaM hAridrAgnipluShTaM sadyo vyApAdayati; tadeva bhasmapAMshuparidhvastaM sakShaudraM sadyo maraNAya| matsyanistAlanasiddhAH pippalyastathA kAkamAcI madhu ca maraNAya| madhu coShNamuShNArtasya ca madhu maraNAya| madhusarpiShI samaghRute, madhu vAri cAntarikShaM samaghRutaM, madhu puShkarabIjaM, madhu pItvoShNodakaM, bhallAtakoShNodakaM, takrasiddhaHkampillakaH, paryuShitA kAkamAcI, a~ggArashUlyo bhAsashceti viruddhAni| ityetadyathAprashnamabhinirdiShTaM bhavatIti||84||

“No”, said Lord Atreya. “One should not take any fish along with milk particularly chilchima because it being a great obstructor of channels produces these disorders with gross symptoms and also excites amavisha. Meat of domestic, marshy and aquatic animals should not be taken mixed with honey, sesamum, jaggery, milk, black gram, radish, lotus stalk or germinated grains because it causes deafness, blindness, tremors, coldness, indistinct voice, dumbness, nasal voice or death. The potherb of pushkara or rohini or (meat of) pigeon fried with mustard oil should not be taken along with honey and milk because it causes obstruction in blood-circulation, atherosclerosis, epilepsy, goitre, rohini or death. After eating radish, garlic, sigru, arjaka, tulshi etc. one should not take milk because of risk of skin diseases. The potherb of jatuka or ripe (fruit of) nikucha should not be taken alongwith honey and milk as it causes death or loss of strength, luster, energy and prowess, impotency, and several severe diseases. The same ripe (fruit of) nikucha should not be taken with soup of blackgram, jaggery and ghee because they are antagonistic to each other. Likewise, amra, amrataka, matulunga, nikucha, karamarda, mocha, dantashatha, badara, koshamra, bhavya, jambu, kapittha, tintidika, parawata, akshoda, panasa, narikela, dadima, amalaka – these fruits and similar other substances, all sour liquids or non-liquids are antagonistic to milk. Kangu, vanaka, makusthaka, kulattha, black gram, and nikucha are antagonistic to milk. The potherb of padmottarika (kusumbha), sharkara and maireya (types of wine) and madhu, all used together are antagonistic, and vitiate vata too much. Haridraka (a bird) fried with mustard oil is antagonistic and vitiates pitta too much. Payasa (rice cooked with milk) taken with after-meal drink of mantha (a drink prepared from roasted grain flour) is antagonistic and vitiates kapha too much. Upodika (a potherb) cooked with sesamum paste causes diarrhea. (Meat of) balaka (crane) along with varuni (a type of wine) or kulmada (grains soaked with water and then fried) is antagonistic. The same fried with lard causes instantaneous death. Meat of peacock attached to the stick of eranda, cooked in the fire with castor wood fuel, and mixed with castor oil causes instantaneous death. Meat of haridraka attached with stick of haridraka, cooked in the fire of haridra causes instantaneous death. The same mixed with ash and dust along with honey also causes instantaneous death. Pippali fried with fish-cooking media and kakamachi mixed with honey causes death. Hot honey taken by a person afflicted with heat leads to death. Likewise, honey and ghee in equal quantity, honey and rainwater in equal quantity, honey and lotus seed, hot water after taking honey, hot water after taking bhallataka, kampillaka cooked with buttermilk, stale kakamachi and bhasa roasted on iron rod-all these are antagonistic. Thus, described according to the question. [84]

Definition of viruddha

भवन्ति चात्र श्लोकाः- यत् किञ्चिद्दोषमास्राव्य न निर्हरति कायतः| आहारजातं तत् सर्वमहितायोपपद्यते||८५|| bhavanti cātra ślōkāḥ- yat kiñciddōṣamāsrāvya na nirharati kāyataḥ| āhārajātaṁ tat sarvamahitāyōpapadyatē||85||

bhavanti cAtra shlokAH- yat ki~jciddoShamAsrAvya [67] na nirharati kAyataH| AhArajAtaM tat sarvamahitAyopapadyate||85||

The entire (drug or) diet that excites the dosha but does not eliminate it out of the body, is harmful. [85]

Types of viruddha

यच्चापि देशकालाग्निमात्रासात्म्यानिलादिभिः| संस्कारतो वीर्यतश्च कोष्ठावस्थाक्रमैरपि||८६||

परिहारोपचाराभ्यां पाकात् संयोगतोऽपि च| विरुद्धं तच्च न हितं हृत्सम्पद्विधिभिश्च यत्||८७||

विरुद्धं देशतस्तावद्रूक्षतीक्ष्णादि धन्वनि| आनूपे स्निग्धशीतादि भेषजं यन्निषेव्यते||८८||

कालतोऽपि विरुद्धं यच्छीतरूक्षादिसेवनम्| शीते काले, तथोष्णे च कटुकोष्णादिसेवनम्||८९||

विरुद्धमनले तद्वदन्नपानं चतुर्विधे| मधुसर्पिः समधृतं मात्रया तद्विरुध्यते||९०||

कटुकोष्णादिसात्म्यस्य स्वादुशीतादिसेवनम्| यत्तत् सात्म्यविरुद्धं तु विरुद्धं त्वनिलादिभिः||९१||

या समानगुणाभ्यासविरुद्धान्नौषधक्रिया| संस्कारतो विरुद्धं तद्यद्भोज्यं विषवद्भवेत्||९२||

एरण्डसीसकासक्तं शिखिमांसं यथैव हि| विरुद्धं वीर्यतो ज्ञेयं वीर्यतः शीतलात्मकम्||९३||

तत् संयोज्योष्णवीर्येण द्रव्येण सह सेव्यते| क्रूरकोष्ठस्य चात्यल्पं मन्दवीर्यमभेदनम्||९४||

मृदकोष्ठस्य गुरु च भेदनीयं तथा बहु| एतत् कोष्ठविरुद्धं तु, विरुद्धं स्यादवस्थया||९५||

श्रमव्यवायव्यायामसक्तस्यानिलकोपनम्| निद्रालसस्यालसस्य भोजनं श्लेष्मकोपनम्||९६||

यच्चानुत्सृज्य विण्मूत्रं भुङ्क्ते यश्चाबुभुक्षितः| तच्च क्रमविरुद्धं स्याद्यच्चातिक्षुद्वशानुगः||९७||

परिहारविरुद्धं तु वराहादीन्निषेव्य यत्| सेवेतोष्णं घृतादींश्च पीत्वा शीतं निषेवते||९८||

विरुद्धं पाकतश्चापि दुष्टदुर्दारुसाधितम्| अपक्वतण्डुलात्यर्थपक्वदग्धं च यद्भवेत्| संयोगतो विरुद्धं तद्यथाऽम्लं पयसा सह||९९||

अमनोरुचितं यच्च हृद्विरुद्धं तदुच्यते| सम्पद्विरुद्धं तद्विद्यादसञ्जातरसं तु यत्||१००||

अतिक्रान्तरसं वाऽपि विपन्नरसमेव वा| ज्ञेयं विधिविरुद्धं तु भुज्यते निभृते न यत्| तदेवंविधमन्नं स्याद्विरुद्धमुपयोजितम्||१०१||

yaccāpi dēśakālāgnimātrāsātmyānilādibhiḥ| saṁskāratō vīryataśca kōṣṭhāvasthākramairapi||86||

parihārōpacārābhyāṁ pākāt saṁyōgatō'pi ca| viruddhaṁ tacca na hitaṁ hr̥tsampadvidhibhiśca yat||87||

viruddhaṁ dēśatastāvadrūkṣatīkṣṇādi dhanvani| ānūpē snigdhaśītādi bhēṣajaṁ yanniṣēvyatē||88||

kālatō'pi viruddhaṁ yacchītarūkṣādisēvanam| śītē kālē, tathōṣṇē ca kaṭukōṣṇādisēvanam||89||

viruddhamanalē tadvadannapānaṁ caturvidhē| madhusarpiḥ samadhr̥taṁ mātrayā tadvirudhyatē||90||

kaṭukōṣṇādisātmyasya svāduśītādisēvanam| yattat sātmyaviruddhaṁ tu viruddhaṁ tvanilādibhiḥ||91||

yā samānaguṇābhyāsaviruddhānnauṣadhakriyā| saṁskāratō viruddhaṁ tadyadbhōjyaṁ viṣavadbhavēt||92||

ēraṇḍasīsakāsaktaṁ śikhimāṁsaṁ yathaiva hi| viruddhaṁ vīryatō jñēyaṁ vīryataḥ śītalātmakam||93||

tat saṁyōjyōṣṇavīryēṇa dravyēṇa saha sēvyatē| krūrakōṣṭhasya cātyalpaṁ mandavīryamabhēdanam||94||

mr̥dakōṣṭhasya guru ca bhēdanīyaṁ tathā bahu| ētat kōṣṭhaviruddhaṁ tu, viruddhaṁ syādavasthayā||95||

śramavyavāyavyāyāmasaktasyānilakōpanam| nidrālasasyālasasya bhōjanaṁ ślēṣmakōpanam||96||

yaccānutsr̥jya viṇmūtraṁ bhuṅktē yaścābubhukṣitaḥ| tacca kramaviruddhaṁ syādyaccātikṣudvaśānugaḥ||97||

parihāraviruddhaṁ tu varāhādīnniṣēvya yat| sēvētōṣṇaṁ ghr̥tādīṁśca pītvā śītaṁ niṣēvatē||98||

viruddhaṁ pākataścāpi duṣṭadurdārusādhitam| apakvataṇḍulātyarthapakvadagdhaṁ ca yadbhavēt| saṁyōgatō viruddhaṁ tadyathā'mlaṁ payasā saha||99||

amanōrucitaṁ yacca hr̥dviruddhaṁ taducyatē| sampadviruddhaṁ tadvidyādasañjātarasaṁ tu yat||100||

atikrāntarasaṁ vā'pi vipannarasamēva vā| jñēyaṁ vidhiviruddhaṁ tu bhujyatē nibhr̥tē na yat| tadēvaṁvidhamannaṁ syādviruddhamupayōjitam||101||

yaccApi deshakAlAgnimAtrAsAtmyAnilAdibhiH| saMskArato vIryatashca koShThAvasthAkramairapi||86||

parihAropacArAbhyAM pAkAt saMyogato~api ca| viruddhaM tacca na hitaM hRutsampadvidhibhishca yat||87||

viruddhaM deshatastAvadrUkShatIkShNAdi dhanvani| AnUpe snigdhashItAdi bheShajaM yanniShevyate||88||

kAlato~api viruddhaM yacchItarUkShAdisevanam| shIte kAle, tathoShNe ca kaTukoShNAdisevanam||89||

viruddhamanale tadvadannapAnaM caturvidhe| madhusarpiH samadhRutaM mAtrayA tadvirudhyate||90||

kaTukoShNAdisAtmyasya svAdushItAdisevanam| yattat sAtmyaviruddhaM tu viruddhaM tvanilAdibhiH||91||

yA samAnaguNAbhyAsaviruddhAnnauShadhakriyA| saMskArato viruddhaM tadyadbhojyaM viShavadbhavet||92||

eraNDasIsakAsaktaM shikhimAMsaM yathaiva hi| viruddhaM vIryato j~jeyaM vIryataH shItalAtmakam||93||

tat saMyojyoShNavIryeNa dravyeNa saha sevyate| krUrakoShThasya cAtyalpaM mandavIryamabhedanam||94||

mRudakoShThasya guru ca bhedanIyaM tathA bahu| etat koShThaviruddhaM tu, viruddhaM syAdavasthayA||95||

shramavyavAyavyAyAmasaktasyAnilakopanam| nidrAlasasyAlasasya bhojanaM shleShmakopanam||96||

yaccAnutsRujya viNmUtraM bhu~gkte yashcAbubhukShitaH| tacca kramaviruddhaM syAdyaccAtikShudvashAnugaH||97||

parihAraviruddhaM tu varAhAdInniShevya yat| sevetoShNaM ghRutAdIMshca pItvA shItaM niShevate||98||

viruddhaM pAkatashcApi duShTadurdArusAdhitam| apakvataNDulAtyarthapakvadagdhaM ca yadbhavet| saMyogato viruddhaM tadyathA~amlaM payasA saha||99||

amanorucitaM yacca hRudviruddhaM taducyate| sampadviruddhaM tadvidyAdasa~jjAtarasaM tu yat||100||

atikrAntarasaM vA~api vipannarasameva vA| j~jeyaM vidhiviruddhaM tu bhujyate nibhRute na yat| tadevaMvidhamannaM syAdviruddhamupayojitam||101||

That, which is antagonistic with respect to place, time, agni, dose, suitability, dosha, processing, potency, bowels, health condition, order, contra-indication, indication, cooking, combination, palatability, richness (in properties), rules of eating, is considered unwholesome or unfit for human consumption.

If in an arid zone rough and sharp substances, and in marshy region unctuous and cold ones are used, those would be known to be antagonistic in terms of place.

Likewise, if one takes rough and cold food in the winter and pungent and hot articles in the summer, it is antagonistic in terms of time. Similar is the antagonism of food and drinks in four types of agni.

Honey and ghee taken together in equal quantity is antagonistic in terms of dose.

The use of sweet and cold substances by a person accustomed to pungent and hot is antagonism in terms of suitability.

Use of diet, drug and behaviour similar to doshas in properties but adverse to the person's practice is antagonistic to doshas.

When the edible becomes poisonous by particular processing such as in case of peacock's meat attached to castor stick (eranda), it is known to be antagonistic in terms of processing.

Antagonism in terms of potency is that when sheeta veerya and ushna veerya substances are taken in combination.

Antagonism in bowels is that when too little drug of mild potency with limited effectiveness in breaking hard mass is administered to persons suffering from hard bowels, and on the other hand, heavy, highly potent drug is administered to those suffering from soft bowel. When vata-vitiating substances are administered to persons indulging in overwork, sexual intercourse and exercise while kapha-vitiating ones to those who oversleep or are lazy, it is an example of antagonism with respect to health conditions.

Antagonism in terms of order is that where one takes food before excreting feces and urine and without appetite or excessive hunger. If hot things are taken after intake of pork etc. or cold ones after intake of ghee etc. it is known as antagonism with respect to indication and contra-indication.

Antagonism in terms of cooking consists of cooking using damaged or bad fuel or if the grains are left uncooked, over-cooked or burnt. Sour things taken with milk is antagonism in terms of combination.

Antagonism in terms of palatability is taking of unlikeable things. Antagonism in terms of richness (of qualities) is that if there is immature, overmature or damaged rasa in a substance.

It is antagonism in terms of rules if the food is not taken in privacy. Food taken in the above way is known as antagonistic. [86-101]

Diseases due to antagonism

षाण्ढ्यान्ध्यवीसर्पदकोदराणां विस्फोटकोन्मादभगन्दराणाम्| मूर्च्छामदाध्मानगलग्रहाणां पाण्ड्वामयस्यामविषस्य चैव||१०२||

किलासकुष्ठग्रहणीगदानां शोथाम्लपित्तज्वरपीनसानाम् | सन्तानदोषस्य तथैव मृत्योर्विरुद्धमन्नं प्रवदन्ति हेतुम्||१०३||

ṣāṇḍhyāndhyavīsarpadakōdarāṇāṁ visphōṭakōnmādabhagandarāṇām| mūrcchāmadādhmānagalagrahāṇāṁ pāṇḍvāmayasyāmaviṣasya caiva||102||

kilāsakuṣṭhagrahaṇīgadānāṁ śōthāmlapittajvarapīnasānām | santānadōṣasya tathaiva mr̥tyōrviruddhamannaṁ pravadanti hētum||103||

shANDhyAndhyavIsarpadakodarANAM visphoTakonmAdabhagandarANAm| mUrcchAmadAdhmAnagalagrahANAM pANDvAmayasyAmaviShasya caiva||102||

kilAsakuShThagrahaNIgadAnAM shothAmlapittajvarapInasAnAm [68] | santAnadoShasya tathaiva mRutyorviruddhamannaM pravadanti hetum||103||

Antagonistic (viruddha) food is the cause of impotency, blindness, erysipelas, ascites, pustules, insanity, fistula-in-ano, fainting, narcosis, tympanitis, spasm in the throat, anaemia, ama visha, leucoderma, leprosy, grahaniroga, oedema, acid gastritis, fever, rhinitis, genetic disorders and even death. [102-103]

Management

एषां खल्वपरेषां च वैरोधिकनिमित्तानां व्याधीनामिमे भावाः प्रतिकारा भवन्ति| तद्यथा- वमनं विरेचनं च, तद्विरोधिनां च द्रव्याणां संशमनार्थमुपयोगः, तथाविधैश्च द्रव्यैः पूर्वमभिसंस्कारः शरीरस्येति||१०४||

ēṣāṁ khalvaparēṣāṁ ca vairōdhikanimittānāṁ vyādhīnāmimē bhāvāḥ pratikārā bhavanti| tadyathā- vamanaṁ virēcanaṁ ca, tadvirōdhināṁ ca dravyāṇāṁ saṁśamanārthamupayōgaḥ, tathāvidhaiśca dravyaiḥ pūrvamabhisaṁskāraḥ śarīrasyēti||104||

eShAM khalvapareShAM ca vairodhikanimittAnAM vyAdhInAmime bhAvAH pratikArA [69] bhavanti| tadyathA- vamanaM virecanaM ca, tadvirodhinAM ca dravyANAM saMshamanArthamupayogaH, tathAvidhaishca dravyaiH pUrvamabhisaMskAraH sharIrasyeti||104||

The measures which are used to counteract the above and other disorders caused by antagonistic food articles include emesis, purgation, use of antidotes for pacification and prior conditioning of the body with similar substances. [104]

भवतश्चात्र- विरुद्धाशनजान् रोगान् प्रतिहन्ति विवेचनम्| वमनं शमनं चैव पूर्वं वा हितसेवनम्||१०५||

सात्म्यतोऽल्पतया वाऽपि दीप्ताग्नेस्तरुणस्य च| स्निग्धव्यायामबलिनां विरुद्धं वितथं भवेत्||१०६||

bhavataścātra- viruddhāśanajānrōgān pratihanti vivēcanam| vamanaṁ śamanaṁ caiva pūrvaṁ vā hitasēvanam||105||

sātmyatō'lpatayā vā'pi dīptāgnēstaruṇasya ca| snigdhavyāyāmabalināṁ viruddhaṁ vitathaṁ bhavēt||106||

bhavatashcAtra- viruddhAshanajAn [70] rogAn pratihanti vivecanam| vamanaM shamanaM caiva pUrvaM vA hitasevanam||105||

sAtmyato~alpatayA vA~api dIptAgnestaruNasya ca| snigdhavyAyAmabalinAM viruddhaM vitathaM bhavet||106||

Purgation, emesis, pacification or prior use of wholesome substance alleviates the disorders caused by antagonistic (viruddha) food. Antagonism is neutralized by suitability, small quantity, strong digestive power, in young, and in persons having unction, physical exercise, and strength. [105-106]

Summary

तत्र श्लोकाः- मतिरासीन्महर्षीणां या या रसविनिश्चये| द्रव्याणि गुणकर्मभ्यां द्रव्यसङ्ख्या रसाश्रया||१०७||

कारणं रससङ्ख्याया रसानुरसलक्षणम्| परादीनां गुणानां च लक्षणानि पृथक्पृथक्||१०८||

पञ्चात्मकानां षट्त्वं च रसानां येन हेतुना| ऊर्ध्वानुलोमभाजश्च यद्गुणातिशयाद्रसाः||१०९||

षण्णां रसानां षट्त्वे च सविभक्ता विभक्तयः| उद्देशश्चापवादश्च द्रव्याणां गुणकर्मणि||११०||

प्रवरावरमध्यत्वं रसानां गौरवादिषु| पाकप्रभावयोर्लिङ्गं वीर्यसङ्ख्याविनिश्चयः||१११||

षण्णामास्वाद्यमानानां रसानां यत् स्वलक्षणम्| यद्यद्विरुध्यते यस्माद्येन यत्कारि चैव यत्||११२||

वैरोधिकनिमित्तानां व्याधीनामौषधं च यत्| आत्रेयभद्रकाप्यीये तत् सर्वमवदन्मुनिः||११३||

tatra ślōkāḥ- matirāsīnmaharṣīṇāṁ yā yā rasaviniścayē| dravyāṇi guṇakarmabhyāṁ dravyasaṅkhyā rasāśrayā||107||

kāraṇaṁ rasasaṅkhyāyā rasānurasalakṣaṇam| parādīnāṁ guṇānāṁ ca lakṣaṇāni pr̥thakpr̥thak||108||

pañcātmakānāṁ ṣaṭtvaṁ ca rasānāṁ yēna hētunā| ūrdhvānulōmabhājaśca yadguṇātiśayādrasāḥ||109||

ṣaṇṇāṁ rasānāṁ ṣaṭtvē ca savibhaktā vibhaktayaḥ| uddēśaścāpavādaśca dravyāṇāṁ guṇakarmaṇi||110||

pravarāvaramadhyatvaṁ rasānāṁ gauravādiṣu| pākaprabhāvayōrliṅgaṁ vīryasaṅkhyāviniścayaḥ||111||

ṣaṇṇāmāsvādyamānānāṁ rasānāṁ yat svalakṣaṇam| yadyadvirudhyatē yasmādyēna yatkāri caiva yat||112||

vairōdhikanimittānāṁ vyādhīnāmauṣadhaṁ ca yat| ātrēyabhadrakāpyīyē tat sarvamavadanmuniḥ||113|

tatra shlokAH- matirAsInmaharShINAM yA yA rasavinishcaye| dravyANi guNakarmabhyAM dravyasa~gkhyA rasAshrayA||107||

kAraNaM rasasa~gkhyAyA rasAnurasalakShaNam| parAdInAM guNAnAM ca lakShaNAni pRuthakpRuthak||108||

pa~jcAtmakAnAM ShaTtvaM ca rasAnAM yena hetunA| UrdhvAnulomabhAjashca yadguNAtishayAdrasAH||109||

ShaNNAM rasAnAM ShaTtve ca savibhaktA [71] vibhaktayaH| uddeshashcApavAdashca dravyANAM guNakarmaNi||110||

pravarAvaramadhyatvaM rasAnAM gauravAdiShu| pAkaprabhAvayorli~ggaM vIryasa~gkhyAvinishcayaH||111||

ShaNNAmAsvAdyamAnAnAM rasAnAM yat svalakShaNam| yadyadvirudhyate yasmAdyena yatkAri caiva yat||112||

vairodhikanimittAnAM vyAdhInAmauShadhaM ca yat| AtreyabhadrakApyIye tat sarvamavadanmuniH||113||

In summary, different views of the sages regarding rasa, drugs according to properties and actions, number of drugs according to rasa, argument in the number (six) of in six rasa, definition of rasa and anurasa, and definitions of paradi gunas separately, division of five bhutas in six rasas, preponderance of properties in up-moving and down-moving drugs, variations in combination of rasas, characters and exceptions in properties and actions of drugs (rasas), three degrees of rasa according to guna etc. definition of vipaka and prabhava, decision about the number of veerya, characters of six rasas, the concept of antagonism (viruddha) as applicable to food and drugs, along with their effects and their treatment – all this has been described by the sage in the chapter of Atreya, Bhadrakapya etc. [107-113]

Thus, ends the twenty sixth chapter on Atreya Bhadrakapya etc. in Sutra Sthana in the treatise composed by Agnivesha and redacted by Charaka. (26)

Tattva Vimarsha

  • Rasa (taste) of any substance is six in number, and the source element for the manifestation of all forms of tastes is jala mahabhuta.
  • According to the science of Ayurveda, all matter (animate or inanimate) is made up of the five mahabhutas (five basic elements).
  • The matter is the substratum of rasa.
  • There is nothing in the world which does not have therapeutic value, and at the same time, everything cannot be used for the treatment of every disease.
  • Drugs or diet abounding in the properties of given mahabhuta are useful in making good the deficiency of that mahabhuta in the body.
  • A physician, well acquainted with the classification of rasa and doshas, seldom commits blunders in ascertaining the etiology, symptomatology, and treatment of diseases.
  • Drugs and diets having particular taste cause disease and if administered with due care, they can also cure disease.
  • General principles of drug action are described with the help of the attributes namely rasa (taste), guna(quality),veerya (potency/energy of molecules to produce action), vipaka (factor of metabolism) and prabhava (specific principle).
  • The accomplishment of treatment is totally dependent on paradi gunas which are general attributes dealing with processing and prescribing of drugs Charaka emphatically stated that without understanding the concept of paradi guna, a physician cannot be successful in curing the disease.
  • Rasa helps not only in understanding the panchbhautic composition of drug/diet but also serves as a tool for identification of the rest of the principles of drug action like veerya and vipaka.
  • Certain drugs may have the attributes (veerya, vipaka, etc.) and activities which are not in conformity with rasa. The substances having similar tastes may not produce similar activities.
  • Rasas are categorized into superior, moderate and inferior basing on six guna like ruksha, snigdha, ushna, sheeta, guru, and laghu. Vipaka is classified similarly based on rasa.
  • Assessment of principles of drug action is as follows "Rasa or taste of drugs and diets can be ascertained immediately after their contact with the tongue. Their vipaka can be ascertained by the action (in the form of aggravation of kapha etc.). Their veerya can be determined (between the stages of rasa and vipaka) through their association with the body and or even immediately after coming into contact with the body. Among these, the rasas are the only attributes that can be perceived. The rest are inferred by actions only.
  • Vipaka is the process of transformation (metabolism) of five mahabhutas.
  • Inability to explain the rationality of drug action is attributed to a specific principle called prabhava, inherent in dravya.
  • Unwholesome drugs and diet (viruddha ahara), dislodge the vitiated doshas but fail to expel them out of the body. Variant principles, like the place, time, digestive power, mode of preparation, combination (synergistic and antagonistic), etc. play a crucial role in making drug/diet as the unwholesome substance.
  • Unwholesome diet is responsible for causation of production of ama and other conditions like sterility, mental disease, skin diseases, acid dyspepsia, fever, fetal disease (santandosha) and even death.

Vidhi Vimarsha

  1. Assessment of panchamahabhuta in a substance can be carried out by taking into consideration, the most conspicuous characteristic of each mahabhuta. For example, gandha guna, rasa guna, rupaguna, sparsh guna and shabd guna are chief characteristics of prithvi, jala, agni, vayu and akasha mahabhutas respectively. By these organ-specific methods, it becomes easy to assess the panchbhutika constitution of the substance. Rest of the gunas given for each mahabhuta should be clinically evaluated.
  2. The gustatory effect of the initial, as well as final contact of the drug either in the dry or wet state with the tongue, is known as rasa or taste. Rasa is the only principle of drug action which can be directly perceived (pratyaksha gamya). This is to be assessed in human volunteers by a single blind method with a performa consisting of chief characteristics of each rasa. As mentioned in Charaka Samhita (su. 26/73-79) sugarcane, milk, and sugar candy are all said to be sweet, but there is an obvious difference in the taste of these substances. So, the intensity of each rasa can be assessed by taste threshold method. Electronic tongue if developed may help to validate the information about the intensity of rasa.
  3. Veerya and vipaka are inferred through the activities or final effects (karma) produced by intake of drug/diet.
  4. Vipaka is a pharmacokinetic principle, and its activities are referred at the level of koshtha (mutra and purisha), dhatu (shukra) and doshas. Rasa and veerya are pharmacodynamic principles. Assessment of veerya and vipaka are to be evaluated clinically.
  5. The concept of viruddhaahara indicates the concepts of incompatibility and allergic reactions. For example, neither honey nor ghee is toxic to the body but if they both taken in equal quantity becomes unwholesome. A combination of it must be subjected to chemical analysis and pharmacological evaluation to assess the adverse effects.
  6. Treatment of disease induced by viruddhaahara includes vamana, virechana, administration of antagonistic drugs and adaptation of prophylactic measures.
  7. The concept of prabhava clearly indicates the principle which contributes to the specific activity of the drug and is inexplicable in nature. Danti root which acts as a purgative loses its effectiveness when soaked in water and administered. Observations indicate that danti has water soluble qualities that contribute to its ability to work as a purgative ref. Once the causative principle is identified, the activity of danti can be explained in a rational way, and it cannot be quoted as an example of prabhava. In the light of photochemical research, the explanation of drug action becomes rational and the prabhava, a specific principle can be deleted from the list of principles of drug action.
Practical application of rasa, virya, vipaka and prabhava

Let us examine the principles of Ayurvedic pharmacology in the light of modern science:

Rasa

Acharya Priya Vrat Sharma has discussed concept of rasa based on the physicochemical constitution of dravyas as follows: madhura (sugar, fat, and amino acids), amla (acids), lavana (salts), katu (essential oils, phenols), tikta (certain alkaloids and glycosides), and kashaya (tannins). According to his hypothesis, carbohydrates and proteins are present in madhura rasa dravyas; all the amla rasa dravyas show acidic properties and all the drugs in lavana varga contain sodium chloride (NaCl). All the dravyas of katu varga contain essential oils while half of all katu dravyas contain alkaloids or glycosides or phenols. All the tikta dravyas contain alkaloids, and only 10% of dravyas contain glycosides. Many of the kashaya rasas contain tannin[1].

Guna

In recent years, some effort has been made to refine the objective parameters used for assessing snigdha-ruksha and sheeta-ushna gunas by employing animal experimentation. Absolute evaluation of one guna is not possible in a living body since there are infinite factors related to each and every biological event. Metabolic study (dipana pachana experiment), intestinal secretion and motility test, and swimming stress test (swimming induced hypothermia) have been employed to assess the effects of various drugs having snigdha-ruksha and sheeta- ushna gunas. Sheeta and snigdha guna drugs have shown an increase in body weight in metabolic experiments compared to ushna and ruksha guna drugs. Snigdha guna drugs alleviated stress-induced hypothermia whereas ruksha guna drugs aggravated it[2] [3]

Veerya

An attempt has been made to assess the effects of sheeta and ushna veerya drugs (samana pratyayarabdha dravyas) on basal metabolic rate (BMR). Two sheeta veerya drugs, namely, yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and two ushna veerya drugs, namely, chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica) and jatiphala (Myristica fragrans) were considered for this study. In healthy volunteers, initial BMR was recorded with McKesson metabolizer. Then the drug was administered three times a day (chitraka and jatiphala 2gm each and yashtimadhu and shatavari 5gm each). A significant increase (p<0.05) was observed with yashti, while the increase in BMR with shatavari was not very significant. Chitraka and jatiphala brought about a significant decrease in BMR(p<0.05). Therefore, sheetaveerya and ushnaveerya drugs which represent the saumyatva and agneyatva of a drug or food may be responsible for synthesizing or metabolizing the dhatus due to their santarpaka or apatarpaka actions[4].

Vipaka

An attempt has been made to assess vipaka of certain drugs by their effect on malas (feces and urine) and doshas (vata, pitta, and kapha). Drugs, namely bala and shatavari (madhura vipaka), vrikshamla and amalaki (amla vipaka and madhura vipaka), maricha and pippali (katu vipaka and madhura vipaka), kushtha and nimba (katu vipaka), and lodhra and Ashoka (katu vipaka) were taken up for the study. The study was done for six days. For the first two days, kapardika bhasma (250 mg., thrice a day) as placebo was administered and from the third day onwards the trial drug, in decoction form, (96 ml, twice a day) was given to healthy volunteers for two days. The remaining two days were used for following up. The influence of these drugs on doshas and malas were assessed using a structured proforma. Madhura and Amla vipaka drugs increased the quantity of urine and stool. Madhura vipaka drugs increased kapha dosha while Amla vipaka drugs increased pitta dosha. Katu vipaka drugs decreased the urine and stool output and increased vata dosha[5].

Prabhava

It is quite apparent that the acharyas formulated the hypothesis that explained the workings of drugs after observing various activities. In the context of the failure of the hypothetical principles to explain the drug action in a rational way, the concept of prabhava was formulated which may be interpreted as an empirical principle. Drugs with similar chemical structure should have similar actions. But it is not possible to predict the activity of a drug entirely by its chemical structure. Drugs with similar structures but having entirely different effects are known as isomers, for example, Antazoline and Tolazoline appear chemically similar but former is an antihistamine and the latter is an adrenergic blocking agent. Conversely, many dissimilar chemical agents have similar action, for example, phenobarbitone, chloralhydrate, and paraldehyde are all depressants of the central nervous system. The concept of prabhava may be interpreted using the concept of isomerism[6].

References

  1. K. Nishteswar, Basic concepts of ayurvedic pharmacology, Chaukhamba Sanskrit series office, Varanasi,2008,pp:xii
  2. Supriya. S. Balerao A comprehensive study of gunas and evolution of some ojective parameters in the context of snigdha and ruksha gunas Thesis, IPGT&RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar,1998
  3. Santosh Mane Evolution and evaluation of some objective parameters for ushna and sita gunas based on panchabhoutik theory and experiments. Thesis,IPGT&RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar,2008.
  4. K Nishteswar, Basic concepts of Ayurvedic pharmacology, Choukhambha Sanskrit Series office, Varanasi,2009 pp-109-114
  5. Naveen H. Dave, Vipaka karmanishtaya Thesis, IPGT&RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar,1998
  6. Dwarkanath C.,The Fundemental Principles of Ayurveda, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series, Varanasi; 2009: pp-180