Arthedashmahamooliya Adhyaya

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Arthedashmahamooliya Adhyaya
Section/Chapter Sutra Sthana Chapter 30
Tetrad/Sub-section Sangrahadvaya
Preceding Chapter Dashapranayataneeya adhyaya
Succeeding Chapter None
Other Sections Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana

Sutra Sthana Chapter 30, Chapter on the Ten Channels arising from the Heart

Abstract

The last chapter of Sutra Sthana, Arthedashmahamooliya Adhyaya, emphasizes some of the fundamental principles of life, health, and disease. Though the chapter begins with a description of the heart and ten great vessels attached to it and talks about several aspects of vital importance such as shira, dhamani, srotas, ojas, etc., the salient features of a good Ayurvedic practitioner, and goes on to providing a complete definition of Ayu and Ayurveda. Beneficial, non-beneficial, happy and unhappy kinds of life have also been described in the chapter. In the end, an entire table of contents of this treatise has been provided.

Keywords: Hṛidaya, ojas, shira, dhamani, srotas, classification of Ayu.

Introduction

Mahat and artha are two synonyms that indicate hridaya (heart), used in this context exclusively in the literature related to medical science and not elsewhere. After the description of hridaya and the ten great vessels that originate there and elaborating further on ojas, shira, dhamani, strotas, etc., it further describes Ayu and the difference between happy, unhappy, beneficial, and non-beneficial kinds of life. These were briefly mentioned in the first chapter, but here these have been elaborated. The estimation of the lifespan of an individual when unexpected signs and symptoms appear and the role of self-realization and nonviolence in enhancing the longevity of life has been elaborated. Questions like ‘Why is Ayurveda eternal?’ have been taken up in this chapter. Since this is the last chapter of the Sutra Sthana, it also provides an extensive ‘Table of Contents' of the entire text including an elaborate explanation of the sequence of chapters.

Sanskrit text, transliteration and english translation

अर्थेदशमहामूलीयाध्यायोपक्रमः अथातोऽर्थेदशमहामूलीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः||१||

इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः||२||

athātō'rthēdaśamahāmūlīyamadhyāyaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||

iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

athAto~arthedashamahAmUlIyamadhyAyaM vyAkhyAsyAmaH||1||

iti ha smAha bhagavAnAtreyaH||2||

We shall now expound the chapter on “The ten great vessels having their roots in the heart”. Thus said Lord Atreya. [1-2]

Importance of hridaya (heart)

अर्थे दश महामूलाः समासक्ता महाफलाः| महच्चार्थश्च हृदयं पर्यायैरुच्यते बुधैः||३||

षडङ्गमङ्गं विज्ञानमिन्द्रियाण्यर्थपञ्चकम्| आत्मा च सगुणश्चेतश्चिन्त्यं च हृदि संश्रितम्||४||

arthē daśa mahāmūlāḥ samāsaktā mahāphalāḥ| mahaccārthaśca hr̥dayaṁ paryāyairucyatē budhaiḥ||3||

ṣaḍaṅgamaṅgaṁ vijñānamindriyāṇyarthapañcakam| ātmā ca saguṇaścētaścintyaṁ ca hr̥di saṁśritam||4||

arthe dasha mahAmUlAH samAsaktA mahAphalAH| mahaccArthashca hRudayaM paryAyairucyate budhaiH||3||

ShaDa~ggama~ggaM vij~jAnamindriyANyarthapa~jcakam| AtmA ca saguNashcetashcintyaM ca hRudi saMshritam||4||

Ten great vessels originate in the heart and are considered very important. The synonyms of the ‘heart' as given by the scholars are mahat, artha, and hridaya. Shadanga (six divisions of the body, i.e., four limbs, head, and torso), internal organs, consciousness, motor and sensory organs, five objects of sensory perceptions, and the soul (along with its attributes such as joy, etc.), mind and objects of the mind - are all located in the heart (i.e., are dependent on the functioning of the heart). [3-4]

प्रतिष्ठार्थं हि भावानामेषां हृदयमिष्यते| गोपानसीनामागारकर्णिकेवार्थचिन्तकैः||५||

तस्योपघातान्मूर्च्छायं भेदान्मरणमृच्छति|६|

pratiṣṭhārthaṁ hi bhāvānāmēṣāṁ hr̥dayamiṣyatē| gōpānasīnāmāgārakarṇikēvārthacintakaiḥ||5||

tasyōpaghātānmūrcchāyaṁ bhēdānmaraṇamr̥cchati|6|

pratiShThArthaM hi bhAvAnAmeShAM hRudayamiShyate| gopAnasInAmAgArakarNikevArthacintakaiH||5||

tasyopaghAtAnmUrcchAyaM bhedAnmaraNamRucchati|6|

The heart houses the entities mentioned above, just as a central beam supports the framework of a roof. An injury to the heart causes loss of consciousness and rupture causes death. [5-6]

यद्धि तत् स्पर्शविज्ञानं धारि तत्तत्र संश्रितम्||६||

तत् परस्यौजसः स्थानं तत्र चैतन्यसङ्ग्रहः| हृदयं महदर्थश्च तस्मादुक्तं चिकित्सकैः ||७||

yaddhi tat sparśavijñānaṁ dhāri tattatra saṁśritam||6||

tat parasyaujasaḥ sthānaṁ tatra caitanyasaṅgrahaḥ| hr̥dayaṁ mahadarthaśca tasmāduktaṁ cikitsakaiḥ ||7||

yaddhi tat sparshavij~jAnaM dhAri tattatra saMshritam||6||

tat parasyaujasaH sthAnaM tatra caitanyasa~ggrahaH| hRudayaM mahadarthashca tasmAduktaM cikitsakaiH ||7||

The heart sustains tactile perception, life, and body. That the heart is the supreme location of ojas and the locus of consciousness is the reason why physicians call it hridaya, mahat, or artha. [7]

The importance of ojas and its seat at heart

तेन मूलेन महता महामूला मता दश| ओजोवहाः शरीरेऽस्मिन् विधम्यन्ते समन्ततः||८||

tēna mūlēna mahatā mahāmūlā matā daśa| ōjōvahāḥ śarīrē'smin vidhamyantē samantataḥ||8||

tena mUlena mahatA mahAmUlA matA dasha| ojovahAH sharIre~asmin vidhamyante samantataH||8||

Arising from the heart are the ten great vessels that carry ojas, pulsating in this body and suffusing thoroughly. [8]

येनौजसा वर्तयन्ति प्रीणिताः सर्वदेहिनः | यदृते सर्वभूतानां जीवितं नावतिष्ठते||९||

यत् सारमादौ गर्भस्य यत्तद्गर्भरसाद्रसः | संवर्तमानं हृदयं समाविशति यत् पुरा ||१०||

यस्य नाशात्तु नाशोऽस्ति धारि यद्धृदयाश्रितम् | यच्छरीररसस्नेहः प्राणा यत्र प्रतिष्ठिताः||११||

तत्फला बहुधा वा ताः फलन्तीव(ति) महाफलाः|१२|

yēnaujasā vartayanti prīṇitāḥ sarvadēhinaḥ | yadr̥tē sarvabhūtānāṁ jīvitaṁ nāvatiṣṭhatē||9||

yat sāramādau garbhasya yattadgarbharasādrasaḥ | saṁvartamānaṁ hr̥dayaṁ samāviśati yat purā ||10||

yasya nāśāttu nāśō'sti dhāri yaddhr̥dayāśritam | yaccharīrarasasnēhaḥ prāṇā yatra pratiṣṭhitāḥ||11||

tatphalā bahudhā vā tāḥ phalantīva(ti) mahāphalāḥ|12|

yenaujasA vartayanti prINitAH sarvadehinaH | yadRute sarvabhUtAnAM jIvitaM nAvatiShThate||9||

yat sAramAdau garbhasya yattadgarbharasAdrasaH | saMvartamAnaM hRudayaM samAvishati yat purA ||10||

yasya nAshAttu nAsho~asti dhAri yaddhRudayAshritam | yaccharIrarasasnehaH prANA yatra pratiShThitAH||11||

tatphalA bahudhA vA tAH phalantIva(ti) mahAphalAH|12|

It is the ojas, located within the heart, that keeps all the beings content and alive. It is the essence in the fertilization and the essence of rasa in the embryo. It enters the heart during cardiogenesis, and its deficiency or loss leads to degeneration of the body. It is the seat of the essence of unctuous body fluids and vital life forces. Thus, the ojas is supremely important since it results in multiple benefits. [9-12]

ध्मानाद्धमन्यः स्रवणात् स्रोतांसि सरणात्सिराः||१२||

dhmānāddhamanyaḥ sravaṇāt srōtāṁsi saraṇātsirāḥ||12||

dhmAnAddhamanyaH sravaNAt srotAMsi saraNAtsirAH||12||

Because of pulsation (dhma), some of those (vessels) are called dhamanyah. Since fluids move out because of pulsation of the heart (Sravana, i.e., ebbing out) some of these vessels are called strotas. Some of the vessels carry the contents forward (sarana), are called shirah.[12]

तन्महत् ता महामूलास्तच्चोजः परिरक्षता| परिहार्या विशेषेण मनसो दुःखहेतवः||१३||

हृद्यं यत् स्याद्यदौजस्यं स्रोतसां यत् प्रसादनम्| तत्तत् सेव्यं प्रयत्नेन प्रशमो ज्ञानमेव च||१४||

tanmahat tā mahāmūlāstaccōjaḥ parirakṣatā| parihāryā viśēṣēṇa manasō duḥkhahētavaḥ||13||

hr̥dyaṁ yat syādyadaujasyaṁ srōtasāṁ yat prasādanam| tattat sēvyaṁ prayatnēna praśamō jñānamēva ca||14||

tanmahat tA mahAmUlAstaccojaH parirakShatA| parihAryA visheSheNa manaso duHkhahetavaH||13||

hRudyaM yat syAdyadaujasyaM srotasAM yat prasAdanam| tattat sevyaM prayatnena prashamo j~jAnameva ca||14||

The heart, the great vessels, and the ojas need to be protected and preserved. To achieve this, one has to avoid causes of mental suffering especially. Diet, drugs, and behavior that are beneficial for the heart, for the formation of ojas and for keeping the vessels clear (or unblocked) should be adopted, along with the pursuit of mental peace and wisdom. [13-14]

Best factors for life

अथ खल्वेकं प्राणवर्धनानामुत्कृष्टतममेकं बलवर्धनानामेकं बृंहणानामेकं नन्दनानामेकं हर्षणानामेकमयनानामिति | तत्राहिंसा प्राणिनां प्राणवर्धनानामुत्कृष्टतमं, वीर्यं बलवर्धनानां, विद्या बृंहणानाम्, इन्द्रियजयो नन्दनानां, तत्त्वावबोधोहर्षणानां, ब्रह्मचर्यमयनानामिति; एवमायुर्वेदविदो मन्यन्ते||१५||

atha khalvēkaṁ prāṇavardhanānāmutkr̥ṣṭatamamēkaṁ balavardhanānāmēkaṁ br̥ṁhaṇānāmēkaṁnandanānāmēkaṁ harṣaṇānāmēkamayanānāmiti | tatrāhiṁsā prāṇināṁ prāṇavardhanānāmutkr̥ṣṭatamaṁ, vīryaṁ balavardhanānāṁ, vidyā br̥ṁhaṇānām,indriyajayō nandanānāṁ, tattvāvabōdhō harṣaṇānāṁ, brahmacaryamayanānāmiti; ēvamāyurvēdavidōmanyantē||15||

atha khalvekaM prANavardhanAnAmutkRuShTatamamekaM balavardhanAnAmekaM bRuMhaNAnAmekaMnandanAnAmekaM harShaNAnAmekamayanAnAmiti | tatrAhiMsA prANinAM prANavardhanAnAmutkRuShTatamaM, vIryaM balavardhanAnAM, vidyAbRuMhaNAnAm, indriyajayo nandanAnAM, tattvAvabodho harShaNAnAM, brahmacaryamayanAnAmiti;evamAyurvedavido manyante||15||

Isn't there one utmost factor (amongst others) for bestowing longevity, one for improving strength, one which is always to be increased, one among all happiness, one for exaltation/ecstasy and one as a path for self-realization? Yes, there are such factors. Non-violence is the utmost one to bestow longevity of living beings. Valor is the best among promoters of strength. Knowledge is the one which should always be increased. Self-control is the best factor for staying happy. Discovery/understanding/realization is the best one for feeling exalted/ecstatic. And finally, celibacy is the most effective factor in the path for self-realization, as per the view of Ayurvedic scholars. [15]

The method of learning text of Ayurveda

तत्रायुर्वेदविदस्तन्त्रस्थानाध्यायप्रश्नानां पृथक्त्वेन वाक्यशो वाक्यार्थशोऽर्थावयवशश्च प्रवक्तारो मन्तव्याः| तत्राह- कथं तन्त्रादीनि वाक्यशो वाक्यार्थशोऽर्थावयवशश्चोक्तानि भवन्तीति||१६||

अत्रोच्यते- तन्त्रमार्षं कार्त्स्न्येन यथाम्नायमुच्यमानं वाक्यशो भवत्युक्तम्||१७||

बुद्ध्या सम्यगनुप्रविश्यार्थतत्त्वंवाग्भिर्व्याससमासप्रतिज्ञाहेतूदाहरणोपनयनिगमनयुक्ताभिस्त्रिविधशिष्यबुद्धिगम्याभिरुच्यमानं वाक्यार्थशोभवत्युक्तम्||१८|| तन्त्रनियतानामर्थदुर्गाणां पुनर्विभावनैरुक्तमर्थावयवशो भवत्युक्तम्||१९||

tatrāyurvēdavidastantrasthānādhyāyapraśnānāṁ pr̥thaktvēna vākyaśō vākyārthaśō'rthāvayavaśaścapravaktārō mantavyāḥ| tatrāha- kathaṁ tantrādīni vākyaśō vākyārthaśō'rthāvayavaśaścōktāni bhavantīti||16||

atrōcyatē- tantramārṣaṁ kārtsnyēna yathāmnāyamucyamānaṁ vākyaśō bhavatyuktam||17||

buddhyā samyaganupraviśyārthatattvaṁvāgbhirvyāsasamāsapratijñāhētūdāharaṇōpanayanigamanayuktābhistrividhaśiṣyabuddhigamyābhirucyamānaṁ vākyārthaśō bhavatyuktam||18||

tantraniyatānāmarthadurgāṇāṁ punarvibhāvanairuktamarthāvayavaśō bhavatyuktam||19||

tatrAyurvedavidastantrasthAnAdhyAyaprashnAnAM pRuthaktvena vAkyasho vAkyArthasho~arthAvayavashashcapravaktAro mantavyAH| tatrAha- kathaM tantrAdIni vAkyasho vAkyArthasho~arthAvayavashashcoktAni bhavantIti||16||

atrocyate- tantramArShaM kArtsnyena yathAmnAyamucyamAnaM vAkyasho bhavatyuktam||17||

buddhyA samyaganupravishyArthatattvaMvAgbhirvyAsasamAsapratij~jAhetUdAharaNopanayanigamanayuktAbhistrividhashiShyabuddhigamyAbhirucyamAnaM vAkyArthasho bhavatyuktam||18||

tantraniyatAnAmarthadurgANAM punarvibhAvanairuktamarthAvayavasho bhavatyuktam||19||

He can be considered an Ayurveda scholar, who can answer queries regarding the classical text, its sections, chapters and specific topics, precisely. The scholar should be able to quote the lines of the text, interpret them and explain its aspects. So how should this quotation, interpretation, and explanation be done? It should be done as follows: the text of the sages, as expounded by them, should be reproduced as it is - in its full form. After thoroughly comprehending the text, one should be able to explain, elaborately and concisely, and supported by examples or anecdotes, its meaning, presumptions, reasonings, related concepts, and conclusions, in such a manner that it is comprehensible to the three types of students (above average, average and below-average). The text that is complicated to understand, its meaning and its various aspects should be repeated for the attainment of clarity in concepts. [16-19]

Prashnashtak (eight questions)

तत्र चेत् प्रष्टारः स्युः-चतुर्णामृक्सामयजुरथर्ववेदानां कं वेदमुपदिशन्त्यायुर्वेदविदः? किमायुः? कस्मादायुर्वेदः? किमर्थमायुर्वेदः? शाश्वतोऽशाश्वतो वा? कति कानि चास्याङ्गानि? कैश्चायमध्येतव्यः? किमर्थं च? इति||२०||

tatra cēt praṣṭāraḥ syuḥ-caturṇāmr̥ksāmayajuratharvavēdānāṁ kaṁ vēdamupadiśantyāyurvēdavidaḥ? kimāyuḥ? kasmādāyurvēdaḥ? kimarthamāyurvēdaḥ? śāśvatō'śāśvatō vā? kati kāni cāsyāṅgāni? kaiścāyamadhyētavyaḥ? kimarthaṁ ca? iti||20||

tatra cet praShTAraH syuH-caturNAmRuksAmayajuratharvavedAnAM kaMvedamupadishantyAyurvedavidaH? kimAyuH? kasmAdAyurvedaH? kimarthamAyurvedaH? shAshvato~ashAshvato vA? kati kAni cAsyA~ggAni? kaishcAyamadhyetavyaH? kimarthaM ca? iti||20||

Again, when the questions arise as to which among the four vedas– rk, sama, yajus and atharva, should scholars of Ayurveda follow? What is Ayu? Why is the body of knowledge called Ayurveda? What is the purpose of Ayurveda? Is it eternal or transient? What are its branches and how many are they? Who are eligible to study it and why should it be studied? (An ideal practitioner should be able to answer these questions in the manner mentioned in the following verse) [20]

Origin of Ayurveda

तत्र भिषजा पृष्टेनैवं चतुर्णामृक्सामयजुरथर्ववेदानामात्मनोऽथर्ववेदे भक्तिरादेश्या, वेदो ह्याथर्वणोदानस्वस्त्ययनबलिमङ्गलहोमनियमप्रायश्चित्तोपवासमन्त्रादिपरिग्रहाच्चिकित्सां प्राह; चिकित्सा चायुषो हितायोपदिश्यते||२१||

tatra bhiṣajā pr̥ṣṭēnaivaṁ caturṇāmr̥ksāmayajuratharvavēdānāmātmanō'tharvavēdē bhaktirādēśyā, vēdōhyātharvaṇō dānasvastyayanabalimaṅgalahōmaniyamaprāyaścittōpavāsamantrādiparigrahāccikitsāṁprāha; cikitsā cāyuṣō hitāyōpadiśyatē||21||

tatra bhiShajA pRuShTenaivaM caturNAmRuksAmayajuratharvavedAnAmAtmano~atharvavedebhaktirAdeshyA, vedo hyAtharvaNodAnasvastyayanabalima~ggalahomaniyamaprAyashcittopavAsamantrAdiparigrahAccikitsAM prAha; cikitsAcAyuSho hitAyopadishyate||21||

Out of the four vedasrk, yajus, sama, and atharva - physicians owe their loyalty to the Atharva Veda because this deals with the treatment of diseases by resorting to various practices like sacrifices, prayers, and chants, charity, moral discipline, the atonement of sins, austere practices like fasts, etc. These are advocated for treatment as well as for living a healthy, long life. [21]

The meaning of Ayurveda

वेदं चोपदिश्यायुर्वाच्यं; तत्रायुश्चेतनानुवृत्तिर्जीवितमनुबन्धो धारि चेत्येकोऽर्थः||२२||

vēdaṁ cōpadiśyāyurvācyaṁ; tatrāyuścētanānuvr̥ttirjīvitamanubandhō dhāri cētyēkō'rthaḥ||22||

vedaM copadishyAyurvAcyaM  ; tatrAyushcetanAnuvRuttirjIvitamanubandho dhAri cetyeko~arthaH||22||

After answering question on Veda, Ayu is being described. Ayu means the anuvritti (continuity) of chetana (consciousness) i.e., chetananuvritti, being alive (jeevita), bonding with the body (anubandha) and sustenance of life (dhari). [22]

Objective of Ayurveda

तदायुर्वेदयतीत्यायुर्वेदः; कथमिति चेत्? उच्यते-स्वलक्षणतः सुखासुखतो हिताहिततः प्रमाणाप्रमाणतश्च;यतश्चायुष्याण्यनायुष्याणि च द्रव्यगुणकर्माणि वेदयत्यतोऽप्यायुर्वेदः| तत्रायुष्याण्यनायुष्याणि च द्रव्यगुणकर्माणि केवलेनोपदेक्ष्यन्ते तन्त्रेण||२३||

tadāyurvēdayatītyāyurvēdah; kathamiti cēt? ucyatē-svalakṣaṇataḥ sukhāsukhatō hitāhitataḥpramāṇāpramāṇataśca; yataścāyuṣyāṇyanāyuṣyāṇi ca dravyaguṇakarmāṇi vēdayatyatō'pyāyurvēdaḥ| tatrāyuṣyāṇyanāyuṣyāṇi ca dravyaguṇakarmāṇi kēvalēnōpadēkṣyantē tantrēṇa||23||

tadAyurvedayatItyAyurvedaH; kathamiti cet? ucyate- svalakShaNataH sukhAsukhato hitAhitataHpramANApramANatashca; yatashcAyuShyANyanAyuShyANi ca dravyaguNakarmANivedayatyato~apyAyurvedaH| tatrAyuShyANyanAyuShyANi ca dravyaguNakarmANi kevalenopadekShyante tantreNa||23||

Ayurveda is that source of knowledge which teaches about or deals with Ayu. How so? By its characteristics, it imparts the knowledge of joy and suffering, benefit and harm, and authentic/authoritative and unauthentic/unreliable (sources of information). It is also that which informs us about the span of life and substances with properties and actions that result in the same. This will be dealt with in the entire text at various appropriate contexts. [23]

Charactristics of happy and healthy life

तत्रायुरुक्तं स्वलक्षणतो यथावदिहैव पूर्वाध्याये च| तत्र शारीरमानसाभ्यां रोगाभ्यामनभिद्रुतस्य विशेषेण यौवनवतः समर्थानुगतबलवीर्ययशःपौरुषपराक्रमस्यज्ञानविज्ञानेन्द्रियेन्द्रियार्थबलसमुदये वर्तमानस्य परमर्द्धिरुचिरविविधोपभोगस्य समृद्धसर्वारम्भस्य यथेष्टविचारिणःसुखमायुरुच्यते; असुखमतो विपर्ययेण; हितैषिणः पुनर्भूतानां परस्वादुपरतस्य सत्यवादिनः शमपरस्य परीक्ष्यकारिणोऽप्रमत्तस्य त्रिवर्गं परस्परेणानुपहतमुपसेवमानस्य पूजार्हसम्पूजकस्य ज्ञानविज्ञानोपशमशीलस्य वृद्धोपसेविनःसुनियतरागरोषेर्ष्यामदमानवेगस्य सततं विविधप्रदानपरस्य तपोज्ञानप्रशमनित्यस्याध्यात्मविदस्तत्परस्य लोकमिमं चामुंचावेक्षमाणस्य स्मृतिमतिमतो हितमायुरुच्यते; अहितमतो विपर्ययेण||२४||

tatrāyuruktaṁ svalakṣaṇatō yathāvadihaiva pūrvādhyāyē ca| tatra śārīramānasābhyāṁ rōgābhyāmanabhidrutasya viśēṣēṇa yauvanavataḥsamarthānugatabalavīryayaśaḥpauruṣaparākramasya jñānavijñānēndriyēndriyārthabalasamudayēvartamānasya paramarddhiruciravividhōpabhōgasya samr̥ddhasarvārambhasya yathēṣṭavicāriṇaḥsukhamāyurucyatē; asukhamatō viparyayēṇa; hitaiṣiṇaḥ punarbhūtānāṁ parasvāduparatasyasatyavādinaḥ śamaparasya parīkṣyakāriṇō'pramattasya trivargaṁparasparēṇānupahatamupasēvamānasya pūjārhasampūjakasya jñānavijñānōpaśamaśīlasyavr̥ddhōpasēvinaḥ suniyatarāgarōṣērṣyāmadamānavēgasya satataṁ vividhapradānaparasyatapōjñānapraśamanityasyādhyātmavidastatparasya lōkamimaṁ cāmuṁ cāvēkṣamāṇasya smr̥timatimatōhitamāyurucyatē; ahitamatō viparyayēṇa||24||

tatrAyuruktaM svalakShaNato yathAvadihaiva pUrvAdhyAye ca| tatra shArIramAnasAbhyAM rogAbhyAmanabhidrutasya visheSheNa yauvanavataHsamarthAnugatabalavIryayashaHpauruShaparAkramasya j~jAnavij~jAnendriyendriyArthabalasamudayevartamAnasya paramarddhiruciravividhopabhogasya samRuddhasarvArambhasya yatheShTavicAriNaHsukhamAyurucyate; asukhamato viparyayeNa; hitaiShiNaH punarbhUtAnAM parasvAduparatasyasatyavAdinaH shamaparasya parIkShyakAriNo~apramattasya trivargaMparaspareNAnupahatamupasevamAnasya pUjArhasampUjakasya j~jAnavij~jAnopashamashIlasyavRuddhopasevinaH suniyatarAgaroSherShyAmadamAnavegasya satataM vividhapradAnaparasyatapoj~jAnaprashamanityasyAdhyAtmavidastatparasya lokamimaM cAmuM cAvekShamANasyasmRutimatimato hitamAyurucyate; ahitamato viparyayeNa||24||

In this chapter, as in the first chapter of Sutra Sthana, a definition of life has been given in the form of Ayu. People whose body and mind are disease-free, and those who are endowed with youth, enthusiasm, strength, virility, reputation, manliness, courage, knowledge of arts and sciences, healthy senses, objects of sensory perceptions, ability of the sensory organs, riches and various luxurious articles for enjoyment, and who can achieve whatever they want and roam as they please are said to lead a happy life. Those who are the well-wishers of all beings, who do not desire the wealth of others, who are truthful, peace loving, who are thoughtful before taking action, who are vigilant, who experience the three important objectives of life (righteousness, wealth and desire) without one affecting the other, who respect superiors, who are endowed with the knowledge of arts, sciences and tranquility, who serve the elders, who have full control over lust, anger, envy, arrogance and pride, who constantly indulge in various types of charity, meditation, acquisition of knowledge and quiet life (solitude), who have full spiritual knowledge and are devoted to it, who work both for the present as well as for the next life, and are endowed with memory and intelligence lead a useful rather beneficial life, while others don't. [24]

Signs of decreasing life span and objective

प्रमाणमायुषस्त्वर्थेन्द्रियमनोबुद्धिचेष्टादीनां विकृतिलक्षणैरुपलभ्यतेऽनिमित्तैः, अयमस्मात् क्षणान्मुहूर्ताद्दिवसात्त्रिपञ्चसप्तदशद्वादशाहात् पक्षान्मासात् षण्मासात् संवत्सराद्वा स्वभावमापत्स्यत इति; तत्र स्वभावः प्रवृत्तेरुपरमोमरणमनित्यता निरोध इत्येकोऽर्थः; इत्यायुषः प्रमाणम्; अतो विपरीतमप्रमाणमरिष्टाधिकारे; देहप्रकृतिलक्षणमधिकृत्यचोपदिष्टमायुषः प्रमाणमायुर्वेदे ||२५|| प्रयोजनं चास्य स्वस्थस्य स्वास्थ्यरक्षणमातुरस्य विकारप्रशमनं च||२६||

pramāṇamāyuṣastvarthēndriyamanōbuddhicēṣṭādīnāṁ vikr̥tilakṣaṇairupalabhyatē'nimittaiḥ, ayamasmātkṣaṇānmuhūrtāddivasāt tripañcasaptadaśadvādaśāhāt pakṣānmāsāt ṣaṇmāsāt saṁvatsarādvāsvabhāvamāpatsyata iti; tatra svabhāvaḥ pravr̥ttēruparamō maraṇamanityatā nirōdha ityēkō'rthaḥ;ityāyuṣaḥ pramāṇam; atō viparītamapramāṇamariṣṭādhikārē; dēhaprakr̥tilakṣaṇamadhikr̥tyacōpadiṣṭamāyuṣaḥ pramāṇamāyurvēdē ||25||

prayōjanaṁ cāsya svasthasya svāsthyarakṣaṇamāturasya vikārapraśamanaṁ ca||26||

pramANamAyuShastvarthendriyamanobuddhiceShTAdInAM vikRutilakShaNairupalabhyate~animittaiH,ayamasmAt kShaNAnmuhUrtAddivasAt tripa~jcasaptadashadvAdashAhAt pakShAnmAsAt ShaNmAsAtsaMvatsarAdvA svabhAvamApatsyata iti; tatra svabhAvaH pravRutteruparamo maraNamanityatA nirodhaityeko~arthaH; ityAyuShaH pramANam; ato viparItamapramANamariShTAdhikAre;dehaprakRutilakShaNamadhikRutya copadiShTamAyuShaH pramANamAyurvede ||25||

prayojanaM cAsya svasthasya svAsthyarakShaNamAturasya vikAraprashamanaM ca||26||

The end of a lifespan is signaled by various abnormal changes in the sensory perception, in the objects of perception, in mind, in the intellect, and in movement. These signals help in predicting the death of an individual at a particular moment or time or day, after three days, five days, a week or ten days and after a fortnight, a month, six months or a year. Svabhava (return to the natural state), uparama of pravritti (cessation of all activities), marana (death), anityata (temporary state) nirodha (restriction in the continuation of life)- all these are synonymous with death. In the absence of such signs and symptoms, the life span is to be determined as unlimited from the prognostic point of view. In Ayurveda, life span is determined by the nature of physique, constitution, and special signs. The purpose of this science is to preserve the health of the healthy and cure the disease of the unhealthy. [25-26]

Eternal qualities of Ayurveda

सोऽयमायुर्वेदः शाश्वतो निर्दिश्यते, अनादित्वात्, स्वभावसंसिद्धलक्षणत्वात्, भावस्वभावनित्यत्वाच्च| न हि नाभूत् कदाचिदायुषः सन्तानो बुद्धिसन्तानो वा, शाश्वतश्चायुषो वेदिता, अनादि च सुखदुःखंसद्रव्यहेतुलक्षणमपरापरयोगात्| एष चार्थसङ्ग्रहो विभाव्यते आयुर्वेदलक्षणमिति| गुरुलघुशीतोष्णस्निग्धरूक्षादीनां द्रव्याणां सामान्यविशेषाभ्यां वृद्धिह्रासौ, यथोक्तं- गुरुभिरभ्यस्यमानैर्गुरूणामुपचयोभवत्यपचयो लघूनां, एवमेवेतरेषामिति, एष भावस्वभावो नित्यः, स्वलक्षणं च द्रव्याणां पृथिव्यादीनां; सन्ति तु द्रव्याणिगुणाश्च नित्यानित्याः| न ह्यायुर्वेदस्याभूत्वोत्पत्तिरुपलभ्यते, अन्यत्रावबोधोपदेशाभ्याम्; एतद्वै द्वयमधिकृत्योत्पत्तिमुपदिशन्त्येके| स्वाभाविकं चास्य लक्षणमकृतकं, यदुक्तमिहाद्येऽध्याये च; यथा- अग्नेरौष्ण्यम्, अपां द्रवत्वम्| भावस्वभावनित्यत्वमपि चास्य, यथोक्तं- गुरुभिरभ्यस्यमानैर्गुरूणामुपचयो भवत्यपचयो लघूनामिति||२७||

sō'yamāyurvēdaḥ śāśvatō nirdiśyatē, anāditvāt, svabhāvasaṁsiddhalakṣaṇatvāt,bhāvasvabhāvanityatvācca| na hi nābhūt kadācidāyuṣaḥ santānō buddhisantānō vā, śāśvataścāyuṣō vēditā, anādi ca sukhaduḥkhaṁsadravyahētulakṣaṇamaparāparayōgāt| ēṣa cārthasaṅgrahō vibhāvyatē āyurvēdalakṣaṇamiti| Gurulaghuśītōṣṇasnigdharūkṣādīnāṁ dravyāṇāṁ sāmānyaviśēṣābhyāṁ vr̥ddhihrāsau, yathōktaṁ-gurubhirabhyasyamānairgurūṇāmupacayō bhavatyapacayō laghūnāṁ, ēvamēvētarēṣāmiti, ēṣabhāvasvabhāvō nityaḥ, svalakṣaṇaṁ ca dravyāṇāṁ pr̥thivyādīnāṁ; santi tu dravyāṇi guṇāśca nityānityāḥ| na hyāyurvēdasyābhūtvōtpattirupalabhyatē, anyatrāvabōdhōpadēśābhyām; ētadvaidvayamadhikr̥tyōtpattimupadiśantyēkē| svābhāvikaṁ cāsya lakṣaṇamakr̥takaṁ, yaduktamihādyē'dhyāyē ca; yathā- agnērauṣṇyam, apāṁdravatvam| bhāvasvabhāvanityatvamapi cāsya, yathōktaṁ- gurubhirabhyasyamānairgurūṇāmupacayōbhavatyapacayō laghūnāmiti||27||

so~ayamAyurvedaH shAshvato nirdishyate, anAditvAt, svabhAvasaMsiddhalakShaNatvAt,bhAvasvabhAvanityatvAcca| na hi nAbhUt kadAcidAyuShaH santAno buddhisantAno vA, shAshvatashcAyuSho veditA, anAdi casukhaduHkhaM sadravyahetulakShaNamaparAparayogAt| eSha cArthasa~ggraho vibhAvyate AyurvedalakShaNamiti| gurulaghushItoShNasnigdharUkShAdInAM dravyANAM sAmAnyavisheShAbhyAM vRuddhihrAsau,yathoktaM- gurubhirabhyasyamAnairgurUNAmupacayo bhavatyapacayo laghUnAM, evamevetareShAmiti,eSha bhAvasvabhAvo nityaH, svalakShaNaM ca dravyANAM pRuthivyAdInAM; santi tu dravyANi guNAshcanityAnityAH| na hyAyurvedasyAbhUtvotpattirupalabhyate, anyatrAvabodhopadeshAbhyAm; etadvaidvayamadhikRutyotpattimupadishantyeke| svAbhAvikaM cAsya lakShaNamakRutakaM, yaduktamihAdye~adhyAye ca; yathA- agnerauShNyam, apAMdravatvam| bhAvasvabhAvanityatvamapi cAsya, yathoktaM- gurubhirabhyasyamAnairgurUNAmupacayobhavatyapacayo laghUnAmiti||27||

Ayurveda is eternal because of the following: It has no beginning; its characteristics are self-evident, and those of things dealt with it are eternal. It has been seen that Ayu (the combination of body, its organs, mind, and soul) and intelligence about Ayu (knowledge about Ayu) are perpetual. Hence Ayu and its knowledge (i.e. Ayurveda) have been eternal. The knower becomes eternal after knowing Ayurveda. Concepts such as happiness and suffering (i.e., health and illness), therapeutics and pathogens, etc. - their causes, signs, and perpetuation are all eternal. This is what is described in Ayurveda. Substances, having properties such as heaviness, lightness, cold, heat, slimy, non-slimy, etc., when combined with other substances, tend to increase by similar properties and decrease by opposite properties. For example, habitual intake of heavy food/drugs increases heaviness and decreases lightness in the body. This is similar to others too. The characteristic of these substances or phenomena is eternal. The characteristics of prithvi etc. are eternal. However, matters and their attributes are both eternal and temporary. Theories that claim “Ayurveda came into existence after its creation” or “Ayurveda was conceived by someone and taught to his students” are false. But based on these statements, some scholars opine that Ayurveda had a beginning. (These characteristics, described in this chapter as well as in the first chapter of Sutra Sthana (i.e., Sutra Sthana 1:42, and 30:23) are innate to Ayurveda and are not fabrications.) Just like the heat of the fire and the liquidity of water, Ayurveda’s phenomena are eternal, e.g. habitual intake of heavy things increases the heaviness and decreases the lightness in the body. [27]

Eight branches of Ayurveda

तस्यायुर्वेदस्याङ्गान्यष्टौ; तद्यथा- कायचिकित्सा, शालाक्यं, शल्यापहर्तृकं, विषगरवैरोधिकप्रशमनं, भूतविद्या,कौमारभृत्यकं, रसायनं, वाजीकरणमिति||२८||

tasyāyurvēdasyāṅgānyaṣṭau; tadyathā- kāyacikitsā, śālākyaṁ, śalyāpahartr̥kaṁ,viṣagaravairōdhikapraśamanaṁ, bhūtavidyā, kaumārabhr̥tyakaṁ, rasāyanaṁ, vājīkaraṇamiti||28||

tasyAyurvedasyA~ggAnyaShTau; tadyathA- kAyacikitsA , shAlAkyaM, shalyApahartRukaM,viShagaravairodhikaprashamanaM, bhUtavidyA, kaumArabhRutyakaM, rasAyanaM, vAjIkaraNamiti||28||

Ayurveda has eight branches viz., 1. Internal Medicine, 2. The science is of diseases specific to the supra-clavicular region, i.e., Otorhinolaryngology (ENT) + Ophthalmology 3. Surgery, 4. Toxicology, 5. Psychiatry 6. Pediatrics, 7. The science of rejuvenation and 8. The science of sexual medicine. [28]

Learners of Ayurveda and their objectives

स चाध्येतव्यो ब्राह्मणराजन्यवैश्यैः| तत्रानुग्रहार्थं प्राणिनां ब्राह्मणैः, आरक्षार्थं राजन्यैः, वृत्त्यर्थं वैश्यैः; सामान्यतो वा धर्मार्थकामपरिग्रहार्थं सर्वैः| तत्र यदध्यात्मविदां धर्मपथस्थानां धर्मप्रकाशकानां वा मातृपितृभ्रातृबन्धुगुरुजनस्य वा विकारप्रशमने प्रयत्नवान् भवति,यच्चायुर्वेदोक्तमध्यात्ममनुध्यायति वेदयत्यनुविधीयते वा, सोऽस्य परो धर्मः; या पुनरीश्वराणां वसुमतां वा सकाशात्सुखोपहारनिमित्ता भवत्यर्थावाप्तिरारक्षणं च, या च स्वपरिगृहीतानां प्राणिनामातुर्यादारक्षा, सोऽस्यार्थः; यत् पुनरस्यविद्वद्ग्रहणयशः [२] शरण्यत्वं च, या च सम्मानशुश्रूषा, यच्चेष्टानां विषयाणामारोग्यमाधत्ते सोऽस्य कामः| इति यथाप्रश्नमुक्तमशेषेण||२९||

sa cādhyētavyō brāhmaṇarājanyavaiśyaiḥ| tatrānugrahārthaṁ prāṇināṁ brāhmaṇaiḥ, ārakṣārthaṁ rājanyaiḥ, vr̥ttyarthaṁ vaiśyaiḥ; sāmānyatō vādharmārthakāmaparigrahārthaṁ sarvaiḥ| tatra yadadhyātmavidāṁ dharmapathasthānāṁ dharmaprakāśakānāṁ vāmātr̥pitr̥bhrātr̥bandhugurujanasya vā vikārapraśamanē prayatnavān bhavati,yaccāyurvēdōktamadhyātmamanudhyāyati vēdayatyanuvidhīyatē vā, sō'sya parō dharmaḥ; yāpunarīśvarāṇāṁ vasumatāṁ vā sakāśāt sukhōpahāranimittā bhavatyarthāvāptirārakṣaṇaṁ ca, yā casvaparigr̥hītānāṁ prāṇināmāturyādārakṣā, sō'syārthaḥ; yat punarasya vidvadgrahaṇayaśaḥ śaraṇyatvaṁ ca, yā ca sammānaśuśrūṣā, yaccēṣṭānāṁ viṣayāṇāmārōgyamādhattē sō'sya kāmaḥ| iti yathāpraśnamuktamaśēṣēṇa||29||

sa cAdhyetavyo brAhmaNarAjanyavaishyaiH| tatrAnugrahArthaM prANinAM brAhmaNaiH, ArakShArthaM rAjanyaiH, vRuttyarthaM vaishyaiH;sAmAnyato vA dharmArthakAmaparigrahArthaM sarvaiH| tatra yadadhyAtmavidAM dharmapathasthAnAM dharmaprakAshakAnAM vAmAtRupitRubhrAtRubandhugurujanasya vA vikAraprashamane prayatnavAn bhavati,yaccAyurvedoktamadhyAtmamanudhyAyati vedayatyanuvidhIyate vA, so~asya paro dharmaH; yApunarIshvarANAM vasumatAM vA sakAshAt sukhopahAranimittA bhavatyarthAvAptirArakShaNaM ca, yA casvaparigRuhItAnAM prANinAmAturyAdArakShA, so~asyArthaH; yat punarasya vidvadgrahaNayashaH sharaNyatvaM ca, yA ca sammAnashushrUShA, yacceShTAnAM viShayANAmArogyamAdhatte so~asyakAmaH| iti yathAprashnamuktamasheSheNa||29||

Ayurveda should be studied by Brahmanas (for providing solace to all), Kings (for protecting his subjects), and Vaishyas or traders/business-people (for earning their livelihood). In general, Ayurveda can be studied by all for the attainment of righteousness, wealth, and desire. Righteousness can be attained by treating spiritual scholars who practice and propagate righteousness as a mother, father, a brother, a friend or as a superior. Righteousness can also be achieved by studying and practicing the spiritual knowledge contained in Ayurveda. One can earn wealth and protection by treating kings and other wealthy individuals. The practitioner of Ayurveda can also protect his subordinates and servants by his practice. He can fulfill his desires by gaining respect from the learned people for his abilities to protect others, by reputation, and by keeping his beloved ones like his spouse free from diseases. Thus, all the queries are answered in their entirety. [29]

Eight segments to be learned in Ayurveda

अथ भिषगादित एव भिषजा प्रष्टव्योऽष्टविधं भवति- तन्त्रं, तन्त्रार्थान्, स्थानं, स्थानार्थान्, अध्यायम्, अध्यायार्थान्, प्रश्नं,प्रश्नार्थांश्चेति; पृष्टेन चैतद्वक्तव्यमशेषेण वाक्यशो वाक्यार्थशोऽर्थावयवशश्चेति ||३०||

atha bhiṣagādita ēva bhiṣajā praṣṭavyō'ṣṭavidhaṁ bhavati-tantraṁ, tantrārthān, sthānaṁ, sthānārthān,adhyāyam, adhyāyārthān, praśnaṁ, praśnārthāṁścēti; pr̥ṣṭēna caitadvaktavyamaśēṣēṇa vākyaśōvākyārthaśō'rthāvayavaśaścēti ||30||

atha bhiShagAdita eva bhiShajA praShTavyo~aShTavidhaM bhavati- tantraM, tantrArthAn, sthAnaM,sthAnArthAn, adhyAyam, adhyAyArthAn, prashnaM, prashnArthAMshceti; pRuShTenacaitadvaktavyamasheSheNa vAkyasho vAkyArthasho~arthAvayavashashceti ||30||

A physician should ask other physicians eight questions (to learn Ayurveda):

  1. classical text
  2. object of text
  3. section
  4. object of section
  5. chapter
  6. object of the chapter
  7. question/query
  8. object of the query raised.

Along these lines the query should be dealt by quoting the text, interpreting it and explanation of its various aspects. [30]

Classical text and its object

तत्रायुर्वेदः शाखा विद्या सूत्रं ज्ञानं शास्त्रं लक्षणं तन्त्रमित्यनर्थान्तरम् ||३१||

तन्त्रार्थः पुनः स्वलक्षणैरुपदिष्टः| स चार्थः प्रकरणैर्विभाव्यमानो भूय एव शरीरवृत्तिहेतुव्याधिकर्मकार्यकालकर्तृकरणविधिविनिश्चयाद्दशप्रकरणः, तानि चप्रकरणानि केवलेनोपदेक्ष्यन्ते तन्त्रेण||३२||

tatrāyurvēdaḥ śākhā vidyā sūtraṁ jñānaṁ śāstraṁ lakṣaṇaṁ tantramityanarthāntaram ||31||

tantrārthaḥ punaḥ svalakṣaṇairupadiṣṭaḥ| sa cārthaḥ prakaraṇairvibhāvyamānō bhūya ēvaśarīravr̥ttihētuvyādhikarmakāryakālakartr̥karaṇavidhiviniścayāddaśaprakaraṇaḥ, tāni ca prakaraṇānikēvalēnōpadēkṣyantē tantrēṇa||32||

tatrAyurvedaH shAkhA vidyA sUtraM j~jAnaM shAstraM lakShaNaM tantramityanarthAntaram ||31||

tantrArthaH punaH svalakShaNairupadiShTaH| sa cArthaH prakaraNairvibhAvyamAno bhUya evasharIravRuttihetuvyAdhikarmakAryakAlakartRukaraNavidhivinishcayAddashaprakaraNaH, tAni caprakaraNAni kevalenopadekShyante tantreNa||32||

Shakha, Vidya, Sutra, Jnana, Shastra, Lakshana, and Tantra are synonyms of Ayurveda. The purpose of this science has been explained in its definition. Various topics discussed in this science are Anatomy, Physiology, Etiology, Disease, Treatment, Attainment of health, Chronobiology, Physicians, Therapies, and Procedures. These are ten aspects that will be explained in this treatise. [31-32]

Sections and their objects

तन्त्रस्यास्याष्टौ स्थानानि; तद्यथा- श्लोकनिदानविमानशारीरेन्द्रियचिकित्सितकल्पसिद्धिस्थानानि| तत्र त्रिंशदध्यायकं श्लोकस्थानम्, अष्टाष्टाध्यायकानि निदानविमानशारीरस्थानानि, द्वादशकमिन्द्रियाणां, त्रिंशकंचिकित्सितानां, द्वादशके कल्पसिद्धिस्थाने भवतः||३३||

tantrasyāsyāṣṭau sthānāni  ; tadyathā- ślōkanidānavimānaśārīrēndriyacikitsitakalpasiddhisthānāni| tatra triṁśadadhyāyakaṁ ślōkasthānam, aṣṭāṣṭādhyāyakāni nidānavimānaśārīrasthānāni,dvādaśakamindriyāṇāṁ, triṁśakaṁ cikitsitānāṁ, dvādaśakē kalpasiddhisthānē bhavataḥ||33||

tantrasyAsyAShTau sthAnAni  ; tadyathA- shlokanidAnavimAnashArIrendriyacikitsitakalpasiddhisthAnAni| tatra triMshadadhyAyakaM shlokasthAnam, aShTAShTAdhyAyakAni nidAnavimAnashArIrasthAnAni,dvAdashakamindriyANAM, triMshakaM cikitsitAnAM, dvAdashake kalpasiddhisthAne bhavataH||33||

The following are the eight sections that form Charaka Samhita:-

  1. Shloka Sthana (or Sutra Sthana) or the section on general principles having thirty chapters;
  2. Nidana Sthana or the section on diagnosis of diseases having eight chapters;
  3. Vimana Sthana or the section on specific determination of drugs etc., having eight chapters;
  4. Sharira Sthana or the section on anatomy including embryology having eight chapters;
  5. Indriya Sthana or the section on prognostic signs having twelve chapters;
  6. Chikitsa Sthana or the section on therapeutics having thirty chapters;
  7. Kalpa Sthana or the section on pharmaceuticals having twelve chapters; and;
  8. Siddhi Sthana or the section on the successful administration of Panchakarma (five elimination therapies) having twelve chapters; [33]

भवति चात्र- द्वे त्रिंशके द्वादशकं त्रयं च त्रीण्यष्टकान्येषु समाप्तिरुक्ता| श्लोकौषधारिष्टविकल्पसिद्धिनिदानमानाश्रयसञ्ज्ञकेषु||३४||

bhavati cātra- dvē triṁśakē dvādaśakaṁ trayaṁ ca trīṇyaṣṭakānyēṣu samāptiruktā| ślōkauṣadhāriṣṭavikalpasiddhinidānamānāśrayasañjñakēṣu||34||

bhavati cAtra- dve triMshake dvAdashakaM trayaM ca trINyaShTakAnyeShu samAptiruktA| shlokauShadhAriShTavikalpasiddhinidAnamAnAshrayasa~jj~jakeShu||34||

Thus it can be said that Sutra(shloka) and Chikitsa(aushadha) sections have thirty chapters each, Indriya(arishta), Kalpa(vikalpa) and Siddhi sections have twelve chapters each, and Nidana, Vimana, and Sharira(ashraya) sections have eight chapters each. This is the entire treatise. [34]

स्वे स्वे स्थाने यथास्वं च स्थानार्थ उपदेक्ष्यते| सविंशमध्यायशतं शृणु नामक्रमागतम्||३५||

svē svē sthānē yathāsvaṁ ca sthānārtha upadēkṣyatē| saviṁśamadhyāyaśataṁ śr̥ṇu nāmakramāgatam||35||

sve sve sthAne yathAsvaM ca sthAnArtha upadekShyate| saviMshamadhyAyashataM shRuNu nAmakramAgatam||35||

The objectives of the sequence of the various sections within the treatise, and the names of the one hundred twenty chapters shall be described as follows: [35]

दीर्घञ्जीवोऽप्यपामार्गतण्डुलारग्वधादिकौ| षड्विरेकाश्रयश्चेति चतुष्को भेषजाश्रयः||३६||

मात्रातस्याशितीयौ च नवेगान्धारणं तथा| इन्द्रियोपक्रमश्चेति चत्वारः स्वास्थ्यवृत्तिकाः ||३७||

खुड्डाकश्च चतुष्पादो महांस्तिस्रैषणस्तथा| सह वातकलाख्येन विद्यान्नैर्देशिकान् बुधः||३८||

स्नेहनस्वेदनाध्यायावुभौ यश्चोपकल्पनः| चिकित्साप्राभृतश्चैव सर्व एव प्रकल्पनाः||३९||

कियन्तःशिरसीयश्च त्रिशोफाष्टोदरादिकौ| रोगाध्यायो महांश्चैव रोगाध्यायचतुष्टयम्||४०||

अष्टौनिन्दितसङ्ख्यातस्तथा लङ्घनतर्पणे| विधिशोणितिकश्चैव व्याख्यातास्तत्र योजनाः||४१||

यज्जःपुरुषसङ्ख्यातो भद्रकाप्यान्नपानिकौ| विविधाशितपीतीयश्चत्वारोऽन्नविनिश्चयाः||४२||

दशप्राणायतनिकस्तथाऽर्थेदशमूलिकः| द्वावेतौ प्राणदेहार्थौ प्रोक्तौ वैद्यगुणाश्रयौ||४३||

औषधस्वस्थनिर्देशकल्पनारोगयोजनाः| चतुष्काः षट् क्रमेणोक्ताः सप्तमश्चान्नपानिकः||४४||

द्वौ चान्त्यौ सङ्ग्रहाध्यायाविति त्रिंशकमर्थवत्| श्लोकस्थानं समुद्दिष्टं तन्त्रस्यास्य शिरः शुभम् ||४५||

चतुष्काणां महार्थानां स्थानेऽस्मिन् सङ्ग्रहः कृतः| श्लोकार्थः सङ्ग्रहार्थश्च श्लोकस्थानमतः स्मृतम्||४६||

ज्वराणां रक्तपित्तस्य गुल्मानां मेहकुष्ठयोः| शोषोन्मादनिदाने च स्यादपस्मारिणां च यत्||४७||

इत्यध्यायाष्टकमिदं निदानस्थानमुच्यते| रसेषु त्रिविधे कुक्षौ ध्वंसे जनपदस्य च||४८||

त्रिविधे रोगविज्ञाने स्रोतःस्वपि च वर्तने| रोगानीके व्याधिरूपे रोगाणां च भिषग्जिते||४९||

अष्टौ विमानान्युक्तानि मानार्थानि महर्षिणा| कतिधापुरुषीयं च गोत्रेणातुल्यमेव च||५०||

खुड्डिका महती चैव गर्भावक्रान्तिरुच्यते| पुरुषस्य शरीरस्य विचयौ द्वौ विनिश्चितौ||५१||

शरीरसङ्ख्या सूत्रं च जातेरष्टममुच्यते | इत्युद्दिष्टानि मुनिना शारीराण्यत्रिसूनुना||५२||

वर्णस्वरीयः पुष्पाख्यस्तृतीयः परिमर्शनः| चतुर्थ इन्द्रियानीकः पञ्चमः पूर्वरूपिकः||५३||

कतमानिशरीरीयः पन्नरूपोऽप्यवाक्शिराः| यस्यश्यावनिमित्तश्च सद्योमरण एव च||५४||

अणुज्योतिरिति ख्यातस्तथा गोमयचूर्णवान्| द्वादशाध्यायकं स्थानमिन्द्रियाणामिति स्मृतम् ||५५||

अभयामलकीयं च प्राणकामीयमेव च| करप्रचितकं वेदसमुत्थानं रसायनम्||५६||

संयोगशरमूलीयमासिक्तक्षीरकं तथा| माषपर्णभृतीयं च पुमाञ्जातबलादिकम्||५७||

चतुष्कद्वयमप्येतदध्यायद्वयमुच्यते| रसायनमिति ज्ञेयं वाजीकरणमेव च||५८||

ज्वराणां रक्तपित्तस्य गुल्मानां मेहकुष्ठयोः| शोषोन्मादेऽप्यपस्मारे क्षतशोथोदरार्शसाम्||५९||

ग्रहणीपाण्डुरोगाणां श्वासकासातिसारिणाम्| छर्दिवीसर्पतृष्णानां विषमद्यविकारयोः||६०||

द्विव्रणीयं त्रिमर्मीयमूरुस्तम्भिकमेव च| वातरोगे वातरक्ते योनिव्यापत्सु चैव यत्||६१||

त्रिंशच्चिकित्सितान्युक्तान्यतः कल्पान् प्रचक्ष्महे| फलजीमूतकेक्ष्वाकुकल्पो धामार्गवस्य च||६२||

पञ्चमो वत्सकस्योक्तः षष्ठश्च कृतवेधने| श्यामात्रिवृतयोः कल्पस्तथैव चतुरङ्गुले||६३||

तिल्वकस्य सुधायाश्च सप्तलाशङ्खिनीषु च| दन्तीद्रवन्त्योः कल्पश्च द्वादशोऽयं समाप्यते||६४||

कल्पना पञ्चकर्माख्या बस्तिसूत्री तथैव च| स्नेहव्यापदिकी सिद्धिर्नेत्रव्यापदिकी तथा||६५||

सिद्धिः शोधनयोश्चैव बस्तिसिद्धिस्तथैव च| प्रासृती मर्मसङ्ख्याता सिद्धिर्बस्त्याश्रया च या||६६||

फलमात्रा तथा सिद्धिः सिद्धिश्चोत्तरसञ्ज्ञिता| सिद्धयो द्वादशैवैतास्तन्त्रं चासु समाप्यते||६७||

स्वे स्वे स्थाने तथाऽध्याये चाध्यायार्थः प्रवक्ष्यते| तं ब्रूयात् सर्वतः सर्वं यथास्वं ह्यर्थसङ्ग्रहात्||६८||

dīrghañjīvō'pyapāmārgataṇḍulāragvadhādikau| ṣaḍvirēkāśrayaścēti catuṣkō bhēṣajāśrayaḥ||36||

mātrātasyāśitīyau ca navēgāndhāraṇaṁ tathā| indriyōpakramaścēti catvāraḥ svāsthyavr̥ttikāḥ ||37||

khuḍḍākaśca catuṣpādō mahāṁstisraiṣaṇastathā| saha vātakalākhyēna vidyānnairdēśikān budhaḥ||38||

snēhanasvēdanādhyāyāvubhau yaścōpakalpanaḥ| cikitsāprābhr̥taścaiva sarva ēva prakalpanāḥ||39||

kiyantaḥśirasīyaśca triśōphāṣṭōdarādikau| rōgādhyāyō mahāṁścaiva rōgādhyāyacatuṣṭayam||40||

aṣṭauninditasaṅkhyātastathā laṅghanatarpaṇē| vidhiśōṇitikaścaiva vyākhyātāstatra yōjanāḥ||41||

yajjaḥpuruṣasaṅkhyātō bhadrakāpyānnapānikau| vividhāśitapītīyaścatvārō'nnaviniścayāḥ||42||

daśaprāṇāyatanikastathā'rthēdaśamūlikaḥ| dvāvētau prāṇadēhārthau prōktau vaidyaguṇāśrayau||43||

auṣadhasvasthanirdēśakalpanārōgayōjanāḥ| catuṣkāḥ ṣaṭ kramēṇōktāḥ saptamaścānnapānikaḥ||44||

dvau cāntyau saṅgrahādhyāyāviti triṁśakamarthavat| ślōkasthānaṁ samuddiṣṭaṁ tantrasyāsya śiraḥ śubham ||45||

catuṣkāṇāṁ mahārthānāṁ sthānē'smin saṅgrahaḥ kr̥taḥ| ślōkārthaḥ saṅgrahārthaśca ślōkasthānamataḥ smr̥tam||46||

jvarāṇāṁ raktapittasya gulmānāṁ mēhakuṣṭhayōḥ| śōṣōnmādanidānē ca syādapasmāriṇāṁ ca yat||47||

ityadhyāyāṣṭakamidaṁ nidānasthānamucyatē| rasēṣu trividhē kukṣau dhvaṁsē janapadasya ca||48||

trividhē rōgavijñānē srōtaḥsvapi ca vartanē| rōgānīkē vyādhirūpē rōgāṇāṁ ca bhiṣagjitē||49||

aṣṭau vimānānyuktāni mānārthāni maharṣiṇā| katidhāpuruṣīyaṁ ca gōtrēṇātulyamēva ca||50||

khuḍḍikā mahatī caiva garbhāvakrāntirucyatē| puruṣasya śarīrasya vicayau dvau viniścitau||51||

śarīrasaṅkhyā sūtraṁ ca jātēraṣṭamamucyatē | ityuddiṣṭāni muninā śārīrāṇyatrisūnunā||52||

varṇasvarīyaḥ puṣpākhyastr̥tīyaḥ parimarśanaḥ| caturtha indriyānīkaḥ pañcamaḥ pūrvarūpikaḥ||53||

katamāniśarīrīyaḥ pannarūpō'pyavākśirāḥ| yasyaśyāvanimittaśca sadyōmaraṇa ēva ca||54||

aṇujyōtiriti khyātastathā gōmayacūrṇavān| dvādaśādhyāyakaṁ sthānamindriyāṇāmiti smr̥tam ||55||

abhayāmalakīyaṁ ca prāṇakāmīyamēva ca| karapracitakaṁ vēdasamutthānaṁ rasāyanam||56||

saṁyōgaśaramūlīyamāsiktakṣīrakaṁ tathā| māṣaparṇabhr̥tīyaṁ ca pumāñjātabalādikam||57||

catuṣkadvayamapyētadadhyāyadvayamucyatē| rasāyanamiti jñēyaṁ vājīkaraṇamēva ca||58||

jvarāṇāṁ raktapittasya gulmānāṁ mēhakuṣṭhayōḥ| śōṣōnmādē'pyapasmārē kṣataśōthōdarārśasām||59||

grahaṇīpāṇḍurōgāṇāṁ śvāsakāsātisāriṇām| chardivīsarpatr̥ṣṇānāṁ viṣamadyavikārayōḥ||60||

dvivraṇīyaṁ trimarmīyamūrustambhikamēva ca| vātarōgē vātaraktē yōnivyāpatsu caiva yat||61||

triṁśaccikitsitānyuktānyataḥ kalpān pracakṣmahē| phalajīmūtakēkṣvākukalpō dhāmārgavasya ca||62||

pañcamō vatsakasyōktaḥ ṣaṣṭhaśca kr̥tavēdhanē| śyāmātrivr̥tayōḥ kalpastathaiva caturaṅgulē||63||

tilvakasya sudhāyāśca saptalāśaṅkhinīṣu ca| dantīdravantyōḥ kalpaśca dvādaśō'yaṁ samāpyatē||64||

kalpanā pañcakarmākhyā bastisūtrī tathaiva ca| snēhavyāpadikī siddhirnētravyāpadikī tathā||65||

siddhiḥ śōdhanayōścaiva bastisiddhistathaiva ca| prāsr̥tī marmasaṅkhyātā siddhirbastyāśrayā ca yā||66||

phalamātrā tathā siddhiḥ siddhiścōttarasañjñitā| siddhayō dvādaśaivaitāstantraṁ cāsu samāpyatē||67||

svē svē sthānē tathā'dhyāyē cādhyāyārthaḥ pravakṣyatē| taṁ brūyāt sarvataḥ sarvaṁ yathāsvaṁ hyarthasaṅgrahāt||68||

dIrgha~jjIvo~apyapAmArgataNDulAragvadhAdikau| ShaDvirekAshrayashceti catuShko bheShajAshrayaH||36||

mAtrAtasyAshitIyau ca navegAndhAraNaM tathA| indriyopakramashceti catvAraH svAsthyavRuttikAH [7] ||37||

khuDDAkashca catuShpAdo mahAMstisraiShaNastathA| saha vAtakalAkhyena vidyAnnairdeshikAn budhaH||38||

snehanasvedanAdhyAyAvubhau yashcopakalpanaH| cikitsAprAbhRutashcaiva sarva eva prakalpanAH||39||

kiyantaHshirasIyashca trishophAShTodarAdikau| rogAdhyAyo mahAMshcaiva rogAdhyAyacatuShTayam||40||

aShTauninditasa~gkhyAtastathA la~gghanatarpaNe| vidhishoNitikashcaiva vyAkhyAtAstatra yojanAH||41||

yajjaHpuruShasa~gkhyAto bhadrakApyAnnapAnikau| vividhAshitapItIyashcatvAro~annavinishcayAH||42||

dashaprANAyatanikastathA~arthedashamUlikaH| dvAvetau prANadehArthau proktau vaidyaguNAshrayau||43||

auShadhasvasthanirdeshakalpanArogayojanAH| catuShkAH ShaT krameNoktAH saptamashcAnnapAnikaH||44||

dvau cAntyau sa~ggrahAdhyAyAviti triMshakamarthavat| shlokasthAnaM samuddiShTaM tantrasyAsya shiraH shubham ||45||

catuShkANAM mahArthAnAM sthAne~asmin sa~ggrahaH kRutaH| shlokArthaH sa~ggrahArthashca shlokasthAnamataH smRutam||46||

jvarANAM raktapittasya gulmAnAM mehakuShThayoH| shoShonmAdanidAne ca syAdapasmAriNAM ca yat||47||

ityadhyAyAShTakamidaM nidAnasthAnamucyate| raseShu trividhe kukShau dhvaMse janapadasya ca||48||

trividhe rogavij~jAne srotaHsvapi ca vartane| rogAnIke vyAdhirUpe rogANAM ca bhiShagjite||49||

aShTau vimAnAnyuktAni mAnArthAni maharShiNA| katidhApuruShIyaM ca gotreNAtulyameva ca||50||

khuDDikA mahatI caiva garbhAvakrAntirucyate| puruShasya sharIrasya vicayau dvau vinishcitau||51||

sharIrasa~gkhyA sUtraM ca jAteraShTamamucyate | ityuddiShTAni muninA shArIrANyatrisUnunA||52||

varNasvarIyaH puShpAkhyastRutIyaH parimarshanaH| caturtha indriyAnIkaH pa~jcamaH pUrvarUpikaH||53||

katamAnisharIrIyaH pannarUpo~apyavAkshirAH| yasyashyAvanimittashca sadyomaraNa eva ca||54||

aNujyotiriti khyAtastathA gomayacUrNavAn| dvAdashAdhyAyakaM sthAnamindriyANAmiti smRutam ||55||

abhayAmalakIyaM ca prANakAmIyameva ca| karapracitakaM vedasamutthAnaM rasAyanam||56||

saMyogasharamUlIyamAsiktakShIrakaM tathA| mAShaparNabhRutIyaM ca pumA~jjAtabalAdikam||57||

catuShkadvayamapyetadadhyAyadvayamucyate| rasAyanamiti j~jeyaM vAjIkaraNameva ca||58||

jvarANAM raktapittasya gulmAnAM mehakuShThayoH| shoShonmAde~apyapasmAre kShatashothodarArshasAm||59||

grahaNIpANDurogANAM shvAsakAsAtisAriNAm| chardivIsarpatRuShNAnAM viShamadyavikArayoH||60||

dvivraNIyaM trimarmIyamUrustambhikameva ca| vAtaroge vAtarakte yonivyApatsu caiva yat||61||

triMshaccikitsitAnyuktAnyataH kalpAn pracakShmahe| phalajImUtakekShvAkukalpo dhAmArgavasya ca||62||

pa~jcamo vatsakasyoktaH ShaShThashca kRutavedhane| shyAmAtrivRutayoH kalpastathaiva catura~ggule||63||

tilvakasya sudhAyAshca saptalAsha~gkhinIShu ca| dantIdravantyoH kalpashca dvAdasho~ayaM samApyate||64||

kalpanA pa~jcakarmAkhyA bastisUtrI tathaiva ca| snehavyApadikI siddhirnetravyApadikI tathA||65||

siddhiH shodhanayoshcaiva bastisiddhistathaiva ca| prAsRutI marmasa~gkhyAtA siddhirbastyAshrayA ca yA||66||

phalamAtrA tathA siddhiH siddhishcottarasa~jj~jitA| siddhayo dvAdashaivaitAstantraM cAsu samApyate||67||

sve sve sthAne tathA~adhyAye cAdhyAyArthaH pravakShyate| taM brUyAt sarvataH sarvaM yathAsvaM hyarthasa~ggrahAt||68||

The names of chapters are:

  1. The quest for longevity;
  2. Dehusked seed of Apamarga (Achyranthes aspera Linn);
  3. Aragvadha (Cassia fistula Linn)
  4. Six hundred purgatives; This marks the end of the tetrad on drugs.
  5. Measurement of eating;
  6. Human dietetics;
  7. Non-suppression of natural urges;
  8. Description of sense organs; The above mentioned four chapters constitute the quadrate on the maintenance of positive health.
  9. The minor chapter on the four aspects of therapeutics;
  10. The major chapter on the four aspects of therapeutics;
  11. Three basic desires of life;
  12. Vata – its merits and demerits; the above mentioned four chapters constitute the tetrad on the physician, medicine, etc.;
  13. Oleation;
  14. Fomentation;
  15. Requirements of a physician;
  16. Duties of a physician; The above mentioned four chapters constitute the tetrad on therapeutic measures.
  17. Enumeration of diseases relating to the head;
  18. Three types of swelling;
  19. Eight abdominal diseases;
  20. The major chapter on the enumeration of diseases; The above mentioned four chapters constitute the tetrad on diseases.
  21. Eight types of inappreciable persons;
  22. Lightening and nourishing therapies;
  23. Refreshing regimen;
  24. Blood purification and the regimen, therefore; The above mentioned four chapters constitute the tetrad on therapeutics.
  25. Origin of man and his diseases;
  26. Discourse among Atreya, Bhadrakapya, etc.
  27. Properties of diets and drinks;
  28. Various types of diets and drinks; The above mentioned four chapters constitute the tetrad on dietetics.

Finally, the last two chapters deal with ten seats of life forces and the ten vital roots in the heart respectively. Thus, the Sutra Sthana constitutes of seven tetrads (each containing four chapters) on drugs, maintenance of positive health, physicians including medicines, etc., therapeutics measures, diseases, some of the fundamental pillars of health management – medicines, physicians, therapeutics, and dietetics are described consecutively. The first section, as well as the entire treatise, is summarized in the last two chapters. Thus, the first section of thirty chapters is very important. The Sutra Sthana, with its 30 chapters, can be regarded as the brain of the whole treatise and is also known as the shloka section.

The Nidana Sthana, or the section on the diagnosis of diseases, includes a detailed study of jwara (fever), raktapitta (a condition characterized by bleeding from various parts of the body), gulma (abdominal tumour), meha (obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes mellitus), kushtha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), shosha (consumption), unmada (insanity) and apasmara (epilepsy). The Nidana Sthana or the section on the diagnosis of diseases contains the above eight chapters providing for the diagnosis of the said ailments.

This forms the basis for the subsequent section of the Vimana Sthana that addresses specific topics of rasa or taste, trividhakuksiya (three factions of the stomach capacity), janapadodhvasma (epidemic diseases), trividharogavisesavijnana (three factors for the specific determination of diseases), strotas (channels of circulation), roganika (classification of diseases), vyadhitarupiya (classification of patients), and rogabhishagjitiya (treatment of diseases).

Vimana Sthana is followed by the Sharira Sthana (the section on anatomy including embryology) which includes katidhapurusiya (classification of constituents of the individuals), atulyagotriya (exogamy), khuddikagarbhavakranti (minor chapter on the formation of foetus), mahatigarbhavakranti (major chapter on the formation of foetus), purushavichaya (individual self as a replica of the universal self), shariravichaya (analysis of the body), sharirasamkhya (enumeration of the organs of the body), and jatisutriya (process of delivery).

The Sharira Sthana is followed by Indriya Sthana (prognosis of diseases) which includes the following 12 chapters: Vanasvariya (prognosis indicated by complexion and voice); Puspitaka (infallibility of prognostic signs and symptoms); Parimarsana (prognosis indicated by palpation); Indriyanika (prognosis indicated by the function of sense organs); Purvarupiya (prognosis indicated by premonitory symptoms); Katamanishaririya (prognosis indicated by the nature of diseases); Pannarupiti (prognosis indicated by the distorted images in the pupil); Avaksirasiya (prognosis indicated by symptoms like the inverted reflection of images in the pupil); Yasyasyavanimittiya (prognosis indicated by such signs as dark-blue colour of the eye etc.); Sadyomaraniya (prognostic signs of imminent death); Anujyotiya (prognosis indicated by signs like loss of the complexion of the body); and Gomayachurniya (prognosis indicated by signs like the appearance of powder like thing in the head resembling that of cow dung cake). Indriya Sthana or the section on the prognosis of diseases has twelve chapters dealing with the above topics.

The Chikitsa Sthana (section on therapeutics) follows Indriya Sthana with the following 30 chapters. The first two chapters deal with rejuvenation therapies and aphrodisiacs respectively and are the following:

  1. The First Chapter:
    1. Use of Abhaya (Terminalia cbebula Linn) and Amalaki (Emblica Officinalis Gaertn) for rejuvenation;
    2. The desire for longevity;
    3. Use of Amalaki (Emblica Officinalis Gaertn.) culled by hand;
    4. Propagation of the science of rejuvenation.
  2. The Second Chapter:
    1. Use of the preparation of the root of sara (Saccbarum munja Roxb.)
    2. Use of the rice soaked in milk and such other preparations;
    3. Use of milk collected from a cow fed with mashaparna (Teramnus labialis);
    4. Duties of a man who has gained strength, among others.

The remaining 28 chapters of Chikitsa Sthana deal with therapeutics of the said conditions: jwara (fever); raktapitta ( a condition characterized by bleeding from various parts of the body); gulma ( a type of abdominal tumour); meha (obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes mellitus); kushtha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy); sosha (consumption); unmada (insanity); apasmara (epilepsy); kshatha (phthisis); shotha (oedema), udara (obstinate abdominal diseases including ascitis); arshas (piles); grahani (sprue); pandu (anemia), shvasa (conditions causing dyspnoea including bronchial asthma); kasa (cough); atisara (diarrhoea); chhardi (vomiting); visarpa (acute spreading diseases of the skin including erysipelas); trishna (thirst); vishavikara (poisoning); madyavikara (alcoholism); dvivraniya (two types of ulcers); trimarmiya (diseases appearing in three vital organs of the body); urustambha (spastic paraplegia); vataroga (diseases specially caused by the vitiation of vata); vatarakta (gout); and yonivyapat (gynecological diseases). Chikitsa Sthana or the section on therapeutics has thirty chapters. (The first chapter deals with Rasayana or rejuvenation therapy. In consists of four sub-chapters dealing with the above topics; The remaining twenty-eight chapters of this section deal with the treatment of the said conditions.

Kalpa Sthana, the next section (on pharmaceuticals) has twelve chapters dealing with the preparations of the following drugs: Phala (Randia dumetorum Lam.); jimutaka (Luffa echinata Roxb); iksvaka (Ligenaria siceraria Standl.); dhamargava (Luffa cylindrical M. Roem); vatsaka (Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall.); krtavedhana (Luffa acutanula Roxb.); syamatrivrta (Operculina turpetbum R. B.); chaturangula (Cassia fistula Linn); tilvaka (Symplocos racemosa Roxb); sudha (Euphorbia nerifolia Linn); saptala (Acacia concinna D.C.); and sankhini (Canscora decussate Roem et. Sch.); danti (Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg.), and dravanti (Jatropha glandulifera Roxb.).

The final section, Siddhi Sthana (on the successful administration of the five elimination therapies), has the following 12 chapters: Factors to be considered for the successful administration of elimination therapies; Persons fit and unfit for the administration of elimination therapies; Administration of enema therapy; Management of complications due to the administration of therapies (such as unctuous enema); Management of complications due to defects in the cannula and the other parts of the equipment used for enema; Management of complications in emesis and purgation therapies; Management of complications in enema therapy; Enema of one prastha (768 g) in quantity; Management of diseases occurring in the marma sthana or the three vital regions of the body;Enema for different types of diseases; Enema prepared of Phala (Randia dumetorum Lam) etc.; and Urethral and vaginal douches. These are, in brief, the sections and chapters that form the Siddhi Sthana or the section on the successful administration of five elimination therapies has twelve chapters dealing with the above topics; contents of each chapter will be described in the respective chapters and sections. All these, in brief, will be described in all the respective chapters and sections. [36-68]

पृच्छा तन्त्राद्यथाम्नायं विधिना प्रश्न उच्यते| प्रश्नार्थो युक्तिमांस्तस्य तन्त्रेणैवार्थनिश्चयः ||६९||

निरुक्तं तन्त्रणात्तन्त्रं, स्थानमर्थप्रतिष्ठया| अधिकृत्यार्थमध्यायनामसञ्ज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ||७०||

इति सर्वं यथाप्रश्नमष्टकं सम्प्रकाशितम्| कार्त्स्न्येन चोक्तस्तन्त्रस्य सङ्ग्रहः सुविनिश्चितः||७१||

pr̥cchā tantrādyathāmnāyaṁ vidhinā praśna ucyatē| praśnārthō yuktimāṁstasya tantrēṇaivārthaniścayaḥ ||69||

Niruktaṁ tantraṇāttantraṁ, sthānamarthapratiṣṭhayā| adhikr̥tyārthamadhyāyanāmasañjñā pratiṣṭhitā ||70||

iti sarvaṁ yathāpraśnamaṣṭakaṁ samprakāśitam| kārtsnyēna cōktastantrasya saṅgrahaḥ suviniścitaḥ||71||

pRucchA tantrAdyathAmnAyaM vidhinA prashna ucyate| prashnArtho yuktimAMstasya tantreNaivArthanishcayaH ||69||

niruktaM tantraNAttantraM, sthAnamarthapratiShThayA| adhikRutyArthamadhyAyanAmasa~jj~jA pratiShThitA ||70||

iti sarvaM yathAprashnamaShTakaM samprakAshitam| kArtsnyena coktastantrasya sa~ggrahaH suvinishcitaH||71||

A query on any topic within the classical texts, in accordance with Vedic tradition /manner, is called a prashna (question). The response to the prashna is known as prashnartha. Because the text protects the life of a person with its information, it is also called tantra (tantrana means to sustain the body or to observe the healthy rules). A sthana (section) is called so because the information relevant to the theme of the section have been "placed" within that section (pratistha = sthapana= placed). Adhyayas, or chapters, from the specific topics that address a particular aspect or dimension of the section. Thus, clarifications/answers to all the eight questions (raised in para 20 of this chapter) along with a clear summary of the entire text are given. [69-71]

सन्ति पाल्लविकोत्पाताः सङ्क्षोभं जनयन्ति ये| वर्तकानामिवोत्पाताः सहसैवाविभाविताः||७२||

तस्मात्तान् पूर्वसञ्जल्पे सर्वत्राष्टकमादिशेत्| परावरपरीक्षार्थं तत्र शास्त्रविदां बलम्||७३||

शब्दमात्रेण तन्त्रस्य केवलस्यैकदेशिकाः| भ्रमन्त्यल्पबलास्तन्त्रे ज्याशब्देनेव वर्तकाः||७४||

santi pāllavikōtpātāḥ saṅkṣōbhaṁ janayanti yē| vartakānāmivōtpātāḥ sahasaivāvibhāvitāḥ||72||

Tasmāttān pūrvasañjalpē sarvatrāṣṭakamādiśēt| parāvaraparīkṣārthaṁ tatra śāstravidāṁ balam||73||

śabdamātrēṇa tantrasya kēvalasyaikadēśikāḥ| bhramantyalpabalāstantrē jyāśabdēnēva vartakāḥ||74||

santi pAllavikotpAtAH sa~gkShobhaM janayanti ye| vartakAnAmivotpAtAH sahasaivAvibhAvitAH||72||

tasmAttAn pUrvasa~jjalpe sarvatrAShTakamAdishet| parAvaraparIkShArthaM tatra shAstravidAM balam||73||

shabdamAtreNa tantrasya kevalasyaikadeshikAH| bhramantyalpabalAstantre jyAshabdeneva vartakAH||74||

Some people (physicians) who have incomplete knowledge of this science, at times create difficulties for others just like the sudden flight of the bustard (a kind of bird) on seeing signs of danger. Therefore, to assess their knowledge in this science and their superiority or inferiority, one should put forward the eight kinds of questions (mentioned previously) to them before a formal discussion. Only persons well versed in the science can answer such questions. Those who do not know the science fully will panic by the very mention of the entire text just like bustards get frightened by the sound of a bowstring. [72-74]

पशुः पशूनां दौर्बल्यात् कश्चिन्मध्ये वृकायते| स सत्यं वृकमासाद्य प्रकृतिं भजते पशुः||७५||

तद्वदज्ञोऽज्ञमध्यस्थः कश्चिन्मौखर्यसाधनः| स्थापयत्याप्तमात्मानमाप्तं त्वासाद्य भिद्यते||७६||

बभ्रुर्गूढ इवोर्णाभिरबुद्धिरबहुश्रुतः| किं वै वक्ष्यति सञ्जल्पे कुण्डभेदी जडो यथा||७७||

सद्वृत्तैर्न विगृह्णीयाद्भिषगल्पश्रुतैरपि| हन्यात् प्रश्नाष्टकेनादावितरांस्त्वाप्तमानिनः ||७८||

दम्भिनो मुखरा ह्यज्ञाः प्रभूताबद्धभाषिणः| प्रायः, प्रायेण सुमुखाः सन्तो युक्ताल्पभाषिणः||७९||

तत्त्वज्ञानप्रकाशार्थमहङ्कारमनाश्रितः| स्वल्पाधाराज्ञमुखरान्मर्षयेन्न विवादिनः||८०||

परो भूतेष्वनुक्रोशस्तत्त्वज्ञान(ने)परा दया| येषां तेषामसद्वादनिग्रहे निरता मतिः||८१||

paśuḥ paśūnāṁ daurbalyāt kaścinmadhyē vr̥kāyatē| sa satyaṁ vr̥kamāsādya prakr̥tiṁ bhajatē paśuḥ||75||

tadvadajñō'jñamadhyasthaḥ kaścinmaukharyasādhanaḥ| sthāpayatyāptamātmānamāptaṁ tvāsādya bhidyatē||76||

babhrurgūḍha ivōrṇābhirabuddhirabahuśrutaḥ| kiṁ vai vakṣyati sañjalpē kuṇḍabhēdī jaḍō yathā||77||

sadvr̥ttairna vigr̥hṇīyādbhiṣagalpaśrutairapi| hanyāt praśnāṣṭakēnādāvitarāṁstvāptamāninaḥ ||78||

dambhinō mukharā hyajñāḥ prabhūtābaddhabhāṣiṇaḥ| prāyaḥ, prāyēṇa sumukhāḥ santō yuktālpabhāṣiṇaḥ||79||

tattvajñānaprakāśārthamahaṅkāramanāśritaḥ| svalpādhārājñamukharānmarṣayēnna vivādinaḥ||80||

parō bhūtēṣvanukrōśastattvajñāna(nē)parā dayā| yēṣāṁ tēṣāmasadvādanigrahē niratā matiḥ||81||

pashuH pashUnAM daurbalyAt kashcinmadhye vRukAyate| sa satyaM vRukamAsAdya prakRutiM bhajate pashuH||75||

tadvadaj~jo~aj~jamadhyasthaH kashcinmaukharyasAdhanaH| sthApayatyAptamAtmAnamAptaM tvAsAdya bhidyate||76||

babhrurgUDha ivorNAbhirabuddhirabahushrutaH| kiM vai vakShyati sa~jjalpe kuNDabhedI jaDo yathA||77||

sadvRuttairna vigRuhNIyAdbhiShagalpashrutairapi| hanyAt prashnAShTakenAdAvitarAMstvAptamAninaH ||78||

dambhino mukharA hyaj~jAH prabhUtAbaddhabhAShiNaH| prAyaH, prAyeNa sumukhAH santo yuktAlpabhAShiNaH||79||

tattvaj~jAnaprakAshArthamaha~gkAramanAshritaH| svalpAdhArAj~jamukharAnmarShayenna vivAdinaH||80||

paro bhUteShvanukroshastattvaj~jAna(ne)parA dayA| yeShAM teShAmasadvAdanigrahe niratA matiH||81||

Amongst weaker animals, any animal may act like a wolf ( or pretend to be very strong/superior). But when it comes across a real wolf, its true nature is revealed. Similarly, a talkative unknowledgeable person may pretend to be an apta- a trustworthy knowledgeable authority (in Ayurveda) - while among other ignorant people, but when he comes across a true apta, his facade is shattered. Just like a handicapped babru (large-brown mongoose) does not look like a normal babru and just like a dimwitted man cannot speak amongst scholars, a physician with incomplete knowledge (of Ayurveda) cannot speak amongst knowledgeable physicians. One should not challenge a righteous man even though he is not thoroughly versed in this science. But he who poses to be an expert must be challenged with the eight kinds of questions to break his facade. A fraud who is ignorant, excessively talkative, or gets into irrelevant conversations or arguments is a stupid/idiotic physician. Genuine physicians are pleasant, well behaved, humble, and speak less but are concise and terse. The frauds, who debate meaninglessly should not be forgiven/spared as they are detrimental to the society. Supreme physicians are those who are greatly compassionate towards all creatures, eager to teach and are adept in refuting false arguments. [75-81]

असत्पक्षाक्षणित्वार्तिदम्भपारुष्यसाधनाः| भवन्त्यनाप्ताः स्वे तन्त्रे प्रायः परविकत्थकाः||८२||

तान् कालपाशसदृशान् वर्जयेच्छास्त्रदूषकान्| प्रशमज्ञानविज्ञानपूर्णाः सेव्या भिषक्तमाः||८३||

asatpakṣākṣaṇitvārtidambhapāruṣyasādhanāḥ| bhavantyanāptāḥ svē tantrē prāyaḥ paravikatthakāḥ||82||

tān kālapāśasadr̥śān varjayēcchāstradūṣakān| praśamajñānavijñānapūrṇāḥ sēvyā bhiṣaktamāḥ||83||

asatpakShAkShaNitvArtidambhapAruShyasAdhanAH| bhavantyanAptAH sve tantre prAyaH paravikatthakAH||82||

tAn kAlapAshasadRushAn varjayecchAstradUShakAn| prashamaj~jAnavij~jAnapUrNAH sevyA bhiShaktamAH||83||

Those who are inefficient and lack proper knowledge of Ayurveda take refuge in fraudulent schools of thought, make many excuses for lack of time or sudden illness, are pretentious, use rude language and speak ill of others during debates. They are like the noose of Kala (God of death). They slander the scriptures and bring the science to disrepute. They should, therefore, be shunned. On the other hand, one should avail (services of) good physicians who are always calm and composed, fully knowledgeable in Ayurveda. [82-83]

समग्रं दुःखमायत्तमविज्ञाने द्वयाश्रयम्| सुखं समग्रं विज्ञाने विमले च प्रतिष्ठितम्||८४||

इदमेवमुदारार्थमज्ञानां न प्रकाशकम्| शास्त्रं दृष्टिप्रणष्टानां यथैवादित्यमण्डलम्||८५||

samagraṁ duḥkhamāyattamavijñānē dvayāśrayam| sukhaṁ samagraṁ vijñānē vimalē ca pratiṣṭhitam||84||

idamēvamudārārthamajñānāṁ na prakāśakam| śāstraṁ dr̥ṣṭipraṇaṣṭānāṁ yathaivādityamaṇḍalam||85||

samagraM duHkhamAyattamavij~jAne dvayAshrayam| sukhaM samagraM vij~jAne vimale ca pratiShThitam||84||

idamevamudArArthamaj~jAnAM na prakAshakam| shAstraM dRuShTipraNaShTAnAM yathaivAdityamaNDalam||85||

All the sufferings - diseases of both body and mind - are caused by ignorance. All happiness /health is due to the clear knowledge. Just as the Sun cannot help a blind man to see things even with all its light, similarly Ayurveda, which generously guides us through the path of dharma, artha, kama, and moksha, cannot guide someone devoid of its understanding or is a skeptic. [84-85]

Summary

तत्र श्लोकाः- अर्थे दशमहामूलाः सञ्ज्ञा चासां यथा कृता| अयनान्ताः षडग्र्याश्च रूपं वेदविदां च यत्||८६||

सप्तकश्चाष्टकश्चैव परिप्रश्नाः सनिर्णयाः| यथा वाच्यं यदर्थं च षड्विधाश्चैकदेशिकाः||८७||

अर्थेदशमहामूले सर्वमेतत् प्रकाशितम्| सङ्ग्रहश्चायमध्यायस्तन्त्रस्यास्यैव केवलः||८८||

यथा सुमनसां सूत्रं सङ्ग्रहार्थं विधीयते| सङ्ग्रहार्थं तथाऽर्थानामृषिणा सङ्ग्रहः कृतः||८९||

tatra ślōkāḥ- arthē daśamahāmūlāḥ sañjñā cāsāṁ yathā kr̥tā| ayanāntāḥ ṣaḍagryāśca rūpaṁ vēdavidāṁ ca yat||86||

saptakaścāṣṭakaścaiva paripraśnāḥ sanirṇayāḥ| yathā vācyaṁ yadarthaṁ ca ṣaḍvidhāścaikadēśikāḥ||87||

arthēdaśamahāmūlē sarvamētat prakāśitam| saṅgrahaścāyamadhyāyastantrasyāsyaiva kēvalaḥ||88||

yathā sumanasāṁ sūtraṁ saṅgrahārthaṁ vidhīyatē| saṅgrahārthaṁ tathā'rthānāmr̥ṣiṇā saṅgrahaḥ kr̥taḥ||89||

tatra shlokAH- arthe dashamahAmUlAH sa~jj~jA cAsAM yathA kRutA| ayanAntAH ShaDagryAshca rUpaM vedavidAM ca yat||86||

saptakashcAShTakashcaiva pariprashnAH sanirNayAH| yathA vAcyaM yadarthaM ca ShaDvidhAshcaikadeshikAH||87||

arthedashamahAmUle sarvametat prakAshitam| sa~ggrahashcAyamadhyAyastantrasyAsyaiva kevalaH||88||

yathA sumanasAM sUtraM sa~ggrahArthaM vidhIyate| sa~ggrahArthaM tathA~arthAnAmRuShiNA sa~ggrahaH kRutaH||89||

The nomenclature of the ten vessels attached to the heart (mahamula), the foremost ones among the six categories of regimen, the characteristic features of learned physicians, the eight kinds of questions along with their replies, methods for replying, their elaboration and six types of fraudulent physicians/quacks – all these have been described in this chapter on the “Ten great vessels having their roots in the heart”. A summary of the entire treatise is given in this chapter. Just as flowers are strung into a garland with the help of a thread (sutra), so also are the topics/objects of the whole text are briefly woven here in the Sutra Sthana. [86-89]

इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृते श्लोकस्थानेऽर्थेदशमहामूलीयो नाम त्रिंशोऽध्यायः||३०||

अग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृतेइयताऽवधिना सर्वं सूत्रस्थानं समाप्यते ityagnivēśakr̥tē tantrē carakapratisaṁskr̥tē ślōkasthānē'rthēdaśamahāmūlīyō nāma triṁśō'dhyāyaḥ||30||

agnivēśakr̥tē tantrē carakapratisaṁskr̥tēiyatā'vadhinā sarvaṁ sūtrasthānaṁ samāpyatē ityagniveshakRute tantre carakapratisaMskRute shlokasthAne~arthedashamahAmUlIyo nAmatriMsho~adhyAyaH agniveshakRute tantre carakapratisaMskRuteiyatA~avadhinA sarvaM sUtrasthAnaM samApyate||30||

Thus concludes the 30th chapter on the “Ten Great Vessels having Their Roots in the Heart” of the Sutra section of the work by Agnivesha as composed by Charaka. Here ends the section on general principles of Ayurveda (Sutra Sthana) of Agnivesha’s work as composed by Charaka.

Tattva Vimarsha

  • The heart is a vital organ with ten channels, circulating ojas, responsible for maintaining life.
  • The heart is the center for psycho-cognitive functions and distinct spiritual characters. It has complex bidirectional inter-relationship with a brain.
  • Presence and absence of ojas is an indicator of life and death.
  • The heart, ten channels, and ojas are nourished by diet, exercise, and peaceful mind. The heart and ojas shall be specifically protected from mental sufferings.
  • Non-violence is the utmost one to bestow longevity of living beings.
  • Valor is the best among promoters of strength.
  • Knowledge is the one which should always be increased.
  • Self-control is the best factor for staying happy.
  • Discovery/understanding/realization is the best one for feeling exalted/ecstatic.
  • Celibacy is the most effective factor in the path for self-realization.
  • Ayu (life) is the continuity of consciousness, being alive, bonding with the body and its sustenance. Ayurveda deals with its beneficial factors to stay healthy and happy.
  • The end of a lifespan is signaled by various abnormal changes in the sensory perception, in the objects of perception, in mind, in the intellect, and in movement.
  • Ayurveda is eternal because of the following: It has no beginning; its characteristics are self-evident, and those of things dealt with it are eternal.
  • All the sufferings - diseases of both body and mind - are caused by ignorance. All happiness /health is due to the clear knowledge.
  • Ayurvedic expert is the one who knows fundamental principles and their therapeutic applications, and he can explain to his pupils of less or high intelligence.

Vidhi Vimarsha

There are a few compelling similarities between ancient Greek medical literature and Ayurveda. However, ‘which school of medicine borrowed these ideas from whom?' - Has been an unresolved mystery. Some of the ideas that are significantly common to these two systems are humorism, the mechanism of blood formation, breathing, and circulation. One of the points that are widely debated in this context is the supremacy of brain versus the supremacy of heart. It looks like Hippocrates, Aristotle, Erasistratus and Galen had this confusion over the exact functions of the heart and the brain. They ascribed to the heart the functions such as perception of the sensations, motor control, intellect, emotions, etc. The above verse may be read with this background in mind. [1] Another explanation could, however, be that these vital entities are functionally dependent on the heart, though not exactly located there.

The functions of the brain are in fact well-documented in Ashtaṅga Hṛdaya, in the context of prāṇa vāyu, whose anatomical location is mūrdhā (head). Vāgbhaṭa in this context explains the functions of prāṇa vāyu to be the control of higher mental activities, heart, respiration, swallowing, spitting, belching, sneezing and other sensory modalities. Even in Bhela Saṃhitā, the location of mind has been documented to be in the head. (Verse 3, 4)

The detailed information on different kinds of blood vessels, functions of the heart, and physiology of circulation can be found in a published review paper titled “The history of the discovery of blood circulation: unrecognized contributions of Ayurveda masters." ¬¬[1] (Verse 12)

The ideal way of reading, understanding and teaching a good textbook in the manner that is comprehensible for all categories of students has been explained here. Repetition of the concepts that are complex has been further highlighted. The contemporary theories on education to highlight the optimal repetition to enable good comprehension. (Verse 16, 17, 18, 19)

Unlike various healthcare systems available today, Ayurveda is unique in its broad approach to health in particular and life in general. Besides managing diseases, its primary aim is to improve the quality of health and thus, prevention of diseases. Ayurveda considers myriad factors affecting human health in societies – at a macro or gross level – as well as at an individual (or micro level). Since each has a different Prakriti (body type), the factors favoring health have been systematically classified so that a healthcare provider can choose those factors by the person's body type and guide him/her to achieve a state of optimum health while preventing diseases. Similarly, in the case of diseases, personalized treatment with minimal side effects can be provided through Ayurveda. In the current world, where diseases, especially cancer, antibiotic resistant infections and autoimmune diseases are rapidly increasing, it is important to understand what health is and how to prevent disease. Sushruta has defined health as "a state of a dynamic equilibrium between entities that constitute a human being such as doshas, agni, dhatu, mala, atma, indriya, and manas." These factors have been elaborated at different relevant places in chapters of Charaka Samhita.

Estimation of life span

As indicated earlier in this chapter and preceding chapters, Ayurveda is that source of knowledge which teaches and deals with Ayu (life). How so? By its characteristics, it imparts knowledge of joy and suffering, benefit and harm, and authentic/authoritative and unauthentic/unreliable (sources of information). It is also that body of knowledge which informs us about long life and short life (i.e., lifespan) and substances with its properties & actions that decide a person’s longevity.

The end of a life span is signaled by the abnormal changes in the sensory perception, in the objects of perception, in mind, in the intellect, and in movement. These signals help in the prediction of the death of an individual at a particular moment or time or day, after three days, five days, a week or ten days and after a fortnight, a month, six months or a year. Svabhāva (return to the natural state), uparama of pravriti (cessation of all activities), maraṇa (death), anityata (temporary state), nirodha (restriction in the continuation of life)- all these are synonymous with death. This is at the end of life. In the absence of such signs and symptoms, the life span is to be determined as unlimited from the prognostic point of view. In Ayurveda, the life span is determined by nature of the physique, constitution, and special signs. The purpose of this Science (Ayurveda) is to preserve the health of the healthy and cure the disease of the unhealthy.

Non-violence and other factors for sustaining life

Leading a righteous, non-violent life bestows longevity in human beings while maintaining harmony within societies and the environment at large. As discussed earlier in this (and the preceding) chapter, Valor is the best value among those that promote strength; knowledge is one thing that should always be increased; self-control should always be exercised to stay happy; discovery/understanding/realization helps the most in creating a feeling of exaltation/ecstasy, while celibacy is the most important attribute necessary in the path to self-realization, as per the view of Ayurvedic scholars.

Medical Education: Current medical education is disease-centric but and does not consider disease prevention as its priority. This is because of lack of understanding about what health is and how it can be preserved protected and rejuvenated. To provide complete care, a physician should be trained in both health and disease management. He should receive knowledge from authentic books and understand the practical applications of the concepts from experienced teachers before he starts taking care of people on his own. Besides increased incidence of diseases in humans, there is increasing polarization and intolerance in our societies causing discord and violence. There is environmental degradation of the planet evidenced by global warming and increased pollution. All these phenomena imply a deteriorating health of humans, society and the planet at large. Ayurveda considers the human individual as a microcosm that reflects the health of the universe at large – the macrocosm. A healthy planet would need to have healthy societies, requiring healthy human beings. Imbalances within the bodily elements – the doshas, dhatus, etc. – lead to imbalances between the individual and his environment. This underscores the value of imbibing the knowledge about health from Charaka Samhita.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Patwardhan K. The history of the discovery of blood circulation: unrecognized contributions of Ayurveda masters. Adv Physiol Educ. 2012 Jun;36(2):77-82. doi: 10.1152/advan.00123.2011.

Glossary

  1. Dhamanī /Dhamanyah: A kind of blood vessel that pulsates; Dhamanyah originate in the heart and may carry different substances like Rasa, Rakta, and Ojas.
  2. Hridaya: The heart; According to Suśruta, Phupphusa (left lung) and Pleeha (spleen) are situated on the left side of Hridaya, whereas Yakrita (liver) and Klomia (right lung) on the right side. A few scholars suggest that the term Hridaya means ‘central’ or ‘vital’ organ, and therefore, can stand for different organs in different contexts.
  3. Ojas: The essence of all seven dhatus that is vital for life; also suggestive of bala (immunity). The ten attributes of ojas are guru (heavy), sheeta (cold), mridu (soft), shlakshna (smooth), bahala (abundant), madhura (sweet), sthira (stable), prasanna (bright), picchila (sticky), and snigdha (unctuous). Functionally this is very closely related to kapha.
  4. Rasa: The first dhatu among the seven dhatavah (or dhatus). This is a liquid that is pumped out of hridaya (heart), and that circulates continuously all over the body to nourish the other dhatavah. Vyana Vayu and Samana Vayu help in its circulation. The major function of rasa dhatu is prinana (nourishing).
  5. Sira / Sirah: A kind of blood vessel that transports the contents from one place to another; According to Vagbhata, they originate in the heart. They carry various substances including Rasa, Rakta, and Ojas.
  6. Srotas / Srotamsi: Structures meant for the transportation of dhatus that are undergoing the process of transformation. The appearance of a srota is similar to the dhatu that it transports. These are of two types: Sthula (gross), and Anu or Sukshma (minute). This term is also suggestive of a kind of vessel that facilitates the fluid exchange. Sushruta states that there are eleven pairs of srotamsi (channels) that transport eleven different biological entities: Prana, Anna, Udaka, Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa, Meda, Mutra, Purisha, Shukra, and Artava. Charaka explains that there are thirteen gross Srotamsi in the body that carry the following entities: Prana, Anna, Udaka, Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa, Meda, Asthi, Majja, Shukra, Mutra, Purisha, and Sveda.