Annapanavidhi Adhyaya

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Annapanavidhi Adhyaya
Section/Chapter Sutra Sthana Chapter 27
Tetrad/Sub-section Annapana Chatushka
Preceding Chapter Atreyabhadrakapyiya Adhyaya
Succeeding Chapter Vividhashitapitiya Adhyaya
Other Sections Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthana, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, Siddhi Sthana

Sutra Sthana Chapter 27, Chapter on the regimen of food and beverages

Abstract

The characteristics of edibles and beverages have been classified into twelve categories by type: cereals, pulses, meat, green vegetables, fruits, green herbs, alcoholic beverages, water, milk and milk products, sweet products including honey, prepared items, and ahara upayogi (useful foods). Since food is considered in Ayurveda to be the source of life as well as diseases, this chapter is dedicated to a discussion on various dietary preparations, including post-prandial drinks and their characteristics. The chapter encompasses various principles of digestion of food and beverages according to its habitat, age, part used, processing method, its mixture. Agni (digestive capacity) of an individual is important for processing the food properly and achieving the desirable effects.

Keywords: Annapana, dietetics, classification of dietary articles, anupana, beverages. cereals, corns, vegetables, fruits, green herbs, sugar and sugar products, wines, meat, milk and milk products, water, cooked food

Introduction

Food is the most important source to achieve health and disease according to Ayurveda, and is even considered as a source of life as well as diseases. Wholesome diet is considered not just to be nourishing, but also to be therapeutic. It has also been given importance in other vedic texts. For instance, Maharshi Kashyapa considered food as mahabheshaja (great medicine) (Ka.S.Khil-4/5-6). However, there are some differences between ahara (food) and bheshaja (medicine) - the former is rasa pradhana (taste-centric) while the latter is veerya pradhana (potency centric).

The etymological meaning of ahara (food) is to collect (ahiyate) for the nutritional purpose of the body. Ahara is a generic term that can mean anna (literally, cereals, but also mean solid food) and pana (beverages or anything drinkable). Ahara can be classified into twelve categories and should be balanced, consisting of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, salts, water, vitamins and essential micronutrients available from shashtika (rice), shali paddy, mudga (pulses), ghrita (clarified butter), saindhava lavana (rock salt), antariksha (rain water), amalaki (Indian gooseberry), madhu (honey) and payas (milk). According to Ayurveda, balanced diet besides nourishing the body, maintains the equilibrium of doshas, dhatus and malas. There are many substances in shaka varga (greens or green vegetables) that are used as diet and medicine, like kakamachi (Solanum nigrum Linn.), patha (Cissampelos pareira Linn.), shatishaka (Hedychium spicaticum Buch-Ham), changeri (Oxalis corniculata Linn.), shakuladani (Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.), vrishapushpa (Adhatoda vasika Nees), gojihva (Launea asplenifolia Hook.f.), tilaparnika (Gynandropsis gynanndra Linn.), prapunnada (Cassia tora Linn.), triparni (Adiantum lunulatum Burm.), parpatakam (Fumaria vaillantti Loisel) etc.

Phala Varga (fruits articles); Following are not used because of non availability, aingudam (Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile), bibhitakam (Terminalia bellerica Roxb.), amlavetasa (Hippophae rhamnoides sub sp. salicifolia), karcurah (Curcuma zedoaria Rosc.), karanja (Pongamia pinnata Pierre) as fruits.

Sanskrit text, Transliteration and English Translation

अथातोऽन्नपानविधिमध्यायंव्याख्यास्यामः॥१॥

इतिहस्माहभगवानात्रेयः॥२॥

athātō'nnapānavidhimadhyāyaṁ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ||1||

iti ha smāha bhagavānātrēyaḥ||2||

athAto&nnapAnavidhimadhyAyaM vyAKyAsyAmaH||1||

iti ha smAha BagavAnAtreyaH||2||

We shall now expound the chapter entitled “Diet and Dietetics.”

Thus said Lord Atreya. [1-2]

Effect of wholesome food

इष्टवर्णगन्धरसस्पर्शंविधिविहितमन्नपानंप्राणिनांप्राणिसञ्ज्ञकानांप्राणमाचक्षतेकुशलाः, प्रत्यक्षफलदर्शनात्; तदिन्धनाह्यन्तरग्नेःस्थितिः; तत्सत्त्वमूर्जयति, तच्छरीरधातुव्यूहबलवर्णेन्द्रियप्रसादकरंयथोक्तमुपसेव्यमानं, विपरीतमहितायसम्पद्यते॥३॥

iṣṭavarṇagandharasasparśaṁ [1] vidhivihitamannapānaṁ prāṇināṁ prāṇisañjñakānāṁ prāṇamācakṣatē kuśalāḥ, pratyakṣaphaladarśanāt; tadindhanā hyantaragnēḥsthitiḥ; tat sattvamūrjayati, taccharīradhātuvyūhabalavarṇēndriyaprasādakaraṁ yathōktamupasēvyamānaṁ, viparītamahitāya sampadyatē||3||

iShTavarNagandharasasparSaM vidhivihitamannapAnaM prANinAM prANisa~jj~jakAnAM prANamAcakShate kuSalAH, pratyakShaPaladarSanAt; tadindhanA hyantaragneH sthitiH; tat sattvamUrjayati, tacCarIradhAtuvyUhabalavarNendriyaprasAdakaraM yathoktamupasevyamAnaM, viparItamahitAya sampadyate||3||

The wise and the learned believe that food and beverages that possess apt colour, smell, taste and touch, taken in the right quantity, at the right time, season and location, are a source of life and vitality for all living beings. This realization came through practical observation. Wholesome food (and a healthy lifestyle) is the fuel that maintains agni (digestion and metabolism process), invigorates the mind, promotes proper distribution of body elements, vitality, complexion, and acuity of the sense-organs. Conversely, unhealthy diet and lifestyle cause vitiation or imbalances in doshas, dhatus, and rasas, thus causing diseases. [3]

Natural qualities

तस्माद्धिताहितावबोधनार्थमन्नपानविधिमखिलेनोपदेक्ष्यामोऽग्निवेश! तत्स्वभावादुदक्तंक्लेदयति, लवणंविष्यन्दयति, क्षारःपाचयति, मधुसन्दधाति, सर्पिःस्नेहयति, क्षीरंजीवयति, मांसंबृंहयति, रसःप्रीणयति, सुराजर्जरीकरोति, शीधुरवधमति, द्राक्षासवोदीपयति, फाणितमाचिनोति, दधिशोफंजनयति, पिण्याकशाकंग्लपयति, प्रभूतान्तर्मलोमाषसूपः, दृष्टिशुक्रघ्नःक्षारः, प्रायःपित्तलमम्लमन्यत्रदाडिमामलकात्, प्रायःश्लेष्मलंमधुरमन्यत्रमधुनःपुराणाच्चशालिषष्टिकयवगोधूमात्, प्रायस्तिकंवातलमवृष्यंचान्यत्रवेगाग्रामृतापटोलपत्रात्, प्रायःकटुकंवातलमवृष्यंचान्यत्रपिप्पलीविश्वभेषजात्॥४॥

tasmāddhitāhitāvabōdhanārthamannapānavidhimakhilēnōpadēkṣyāmō'gnivēśa! [1] tat svabhāvādudaktaṁ klēdayati, lavaṇaṁ viṣyandayati, kṣāraḥ pācayati, madhusandadhāti, sarpiḥ snēhayati, kṣīraṁ jīvayati, māṁsaṁ br̥ṁhayati, rasaḥ prīṇayati, surā jarjarīkarōti, śīdhuravadhamati, drākṣāsavō dīpayati, phāṇitamācinōti, dadhiśōphaṁ janayati, piṇyākaśākaṁ glapayati, prabhūtāntarmalō māṣasūpaḥ, dr̥ṣṭiśukraghnaḥ kṣāraḥ, prāyaḥ pittalamamlamanyatra dāḍimāmalakāt, prāyaḥ ślēṣmalaṁmadhuramanyatra madhunaḥ purāṇācca śāliṣaṣṭikayavagōdhūmāt, prāyastikaṁ vātalamavr̥ṣyaṁ cānyatra vēgāgrāmr̥tāpaṭōlapatrāt, prāyaḥ kaṭukaṁvātalamavr̥ṣyaṁ cānyatra pippalīviśvabhēṣajāt||4||

tasmAddhitAhitAvabodhanArthamannapAnavidhimaKilenopadekShyAmo&gniveSa! ( 'vidhimiti tattadviSiShTakarmanibandhanaM prakAram' iti SivadAsasenaH; ) tat svaBAvAdudaktaM kledayati, lavaNaM viShyandayati, kShAraH pAcayati, madhu sandadhAti, sarpiH snehayati, kShIraM jIvayati, mAMsaM bRuMhayati, rasaH prINayati, surA jarjarIkaroti, SIdhuravadhamati, drAkShAsavo dIpayati, PANitamAcinoti, dadhi SoPaM janayati, piNyAkaSAkaM glapayati, praBUtAntarmalo mAShasUpaH, dRuShTiSukraGnaH kShAraH, prAyaH pittalamamlamanyatra dADimAmalakAt, prAyaH SleShmalaM madhuramanyatra madhunaH purANAcca SAliShaShTikayavagodhUmAt, prAyastikaM vAtalamavRuShyaM cAnyatra vegAgrAmRutApaTolapatrAt, prAyaH kaTukaM vAtalamavRuShyaM cAnyatra pippalIviSvaBeShajAt||4||

O Agnivesha! we shall, therefore, describe in full the science of diet and dietetics for the sake of knowledge of wholesome and unwholesome things.

By its very nature, water moistens, salt liquefies, alkali digests, honey synthesizes, ghee causes unctuousness, milk gives life, meat strengthens and has a restorative effect, soups of meat nourish. On the other hand, alcohol causes senility, sidhu wine causes emaciation, grape-wine stimulates digestion, treacle causes accumulation of doshas, curd causes swelling, and green pinyaka causes exhaustion.

The soup of black gram increases fecal output. Alkalis are injurious to vision and semen. All substances that are acidic in taste, except pomegranate and amla (embelic myrobalan) are mostly pitta-promoters. All substances of sweet taste, except honey, old shali rice, shashtika-rice, barley and wheat are generally kapha-promoters. All substances of bitter taste, except the sprouts of country willow, guduchi, and the wild snake gourd are mostly vata-stimulants and anaphrodisiacs. All substances with pungent taste, except long pepper and ginger, are vata stimulants and aphrodisiacs. [4]

Classification of food articles

परमतोवर्गसङ्ग्रहेणाहारद्रव्याण्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः ॥५॥

शूकधान्यशमीधान्यमांसशाकफलाश्रयान्। वर्गान्हरितमद्याम्बुगोरसेक्षुविकारिकान्॥६॥

दशद्वौचापरौवर्गौकृतान्नाहारयोगिनाम्। रसवीर्यविपाकैश्चप्रभावैश्चप्रचक्ष्महे॥७॥

paramatō vargasaṅgrahēṇāhāradravyāṇyanuvyākhyāsyāmaḥ [1] ||5||

śūkadhānyaśamīdhānyamāṁsaśākaphalāśrayān| vargān haritamadyāmbugōrasēkṣuvikārikān||6||

daśa dvau cāparau vargau kr̥tānnāhārayōginām| rasavīryavipākaiśca prabhāvaiśca pracakṣmahē||7||

paramato vargasa~ggraheNAhAradravyANyanuvyAKyAsyAmaH( 'vargasaMSrayeNa' iti pA.; )||5||

SUkadhAnyaSamIdhAnyamAMsaSAkaPalASrayAn| vargAn haritamadyAmbugorasekShuvikArikAn||6||

daSa dvau cAparau vargau kRutAnnAhArayoginAm| rasavIryavipAkaiSca praBAvaiSca pracakShmahe||7||

We shall now expound the different classifications of the articles of diet.

Corn, pulse, meat, vegetable, fruits, greens, wines, water, milk and its products, sugarcane and its products: these ten and two more, cooked food and adjuvant of foods. Of these, we shall now explain the taste, potency, post-digestive qualities and specific properties. [6-7]

Class of corns

अथशूकधान्यवर्गः- रक्तशालिर्महाशालिःकलमःशकुनाहृतः तूर्णको दीर्घशूकश्चगौरःपाण्डुकलाङ्गुलौ॥८॥

सुगन्धकोलोहवालःसारिवाख्यःप्रमोदकः। पतङ्गस्तपनीयश्चयेचान्येशालयःशुभाः॥९॥

शीतारसेविपाकेचमधुराश्चाल्पमारुताः। बद्धाल्पवर्चसःस्निग्धाबृंहणाःशुक्रमूत्रलाः॥१०॥

रक्तशालिर्वरस्तेषांतृष्णाघ्नस्त्रिमलापहः । महांस्तस्यानुकलमस्तस्याप्यनुततःपरे॥११॥

यवकाहायनाःपांसुवाप्यनैषधकादयः । शालीनांशालयःकुर्वन्त्यनुकारंगुणागुणैः॥१२॥

atha śūkadhānyavargaḥ- raktaśālirmahāśāliḥ kalamaḥ śakunāhr̥taḥ [1] | tūrṇakō [2] dīrghaśūkaśca gauraḥ pāṇḍukalāṅgulau||8||

sugandhakō lōhavālaḥ sārivākhyaḥ pramōdakaḥ| pataṅgastapanīyaśca yē cānyē śālayaḥ śubhāḥ||9||

śītā rasē vipākē ca madhurāścālpamārutāḥ| baddhālpavarcasaḥ snigdhā br̥ṁhaṇāḥ śukramūtralāḥ||10||

raktaśālirvarastēṣāṁ tr̥ṣṇāghnastrimalāpahaḥ [3] | mahāṁstasyānu kalamastasyāpyanu tataḥ parē||11||

yavakā hāyanāḥ pāṁsuvāpyanaiṣadhakādayaḥ [4] | śālīnāṁ śālayaḥ kurvantyanukāraṁ guṇāguṇaiḥ||12||

atha SUkadhAnyavargaH- raktaSAlirmahASAliH kalamaH SakunAhRutaH | tUrNako dIrGaSUkaSca gauraH pANDukalA~ggulau||8||

sugandhako lohavAlaH sArivAKyaH pramodakaH| pata~ggastapanIyaSca ye cAnye SAlayaH SuBAH||9||

SItA rase vipAke ca madhurAScAlpamArutAH| baddhAlpavarcasaH snigdhA bRuMhaNAH SukramUtralAH||10||

raktaSAlirvarasteShAM tRuShNAGnastrimalApahaH | mahAMstasyAnu kalamastasyApyanu tataH pare||11||

yavakA hAyanAH pAMsuvApyanaiShadhakAdayaH | SAlInAM SAlayaH kurvantyanukAraM guNAguNaiH||12||

The general qualities and varieties of rice:

Red rice (rakta shali), big rice (maha shali), kalamah, shakunahritah, turnaka, dirghashuka, gaurah, panduka, langulau, sugandhaka (basmati rice), lohavalah, sariva, pramodakah, patanaga, tapaniya and other varieties of “good” rice are cold in potency, sweet in taste (after digestion), mild vata-stimulant and can lead to constipation with less faecal output. They are unctuous, nourishing, seminiferous and diuretic. [8-10]

Of these, red rice is the best. It is adipsous and is effective in treating tridosha. The next best is the big rice and the next best is the kalamah and so on, in the order they are mentioned above. [11]

Yavaka, hayana, pansu vapya (deep-water paddy), naishadhaka and other kinds of rice are similar to the above mentioned types of rice regarding their good and bad qualities. [12]

The qualities of shashtika and vrihi

शीतःस्निग्धोऽगुरुःस्वादुस्त्रिदोषघ्नःस्थिरात्मकः। षष्टिकःप्रवरोगौरःकृष्णगौरस्ततोऽनुच॥१३॥

वरकोद्दालकौचीनशारदोज्ज्वलदर्दुराः। गन्धनाः कुरुविन्दाश्चषष्टिकाल्पान्तरागुणैः॥१४॥

मधुरश्चाम्लपाकश्चव्रीहिःपित्तकरोगुरुः। बहुमूत्रपुरीषोष्मात्रिदोषस्त्वेवपाटलः॥१५॥

śītaḥ snigdhō'guruḥ svādustridōṣaghnaḥ sthirātmakaḥ| ṣaṣṭikaḥ pravarō gauraḥ kr̥ṣṇagaurastatō'nu ca||13||

varakōddālakau cīnaśāradōjjvaladardurāḥ| gandhanāḥ kuruvindāśca ṣaṣṭikālpāntarā guṇaiḥ||14|| madhuraścāmlapākaśca vrīhiḥ pittakarō guruḥ| bahumūtrapurīṣōṣmā tridōṣastvēva pāṭalaḥ||15||

SItaH snigdho&guruH svAdustridoShaGnaH sthirAtmakaH| ShaShTikaH pravaro gauraH kRuShNagaurastato&nu ca||13||

varakoddAlakau cInaSAradojjvaladardurAH| gandhanAH kuruvindASca ShaShTikAlpAntarA guNaiH||14||

madhuraScAmlapAkaSca vrIhiH pittakaro guruH| bahumUtrapurIShoShmA tridoShastveva pATalaH||15||

Shashtika rice is cold in potency, unctuous, not heavy, and sweet. It pacifies the three doshas and stabilizes them. The white variety is the best type of shashtika rice and the dark-white comes next in order [13] Varaka (Chinaka- Panicum miliaceum Linn), uddalaka (Vanakodrava- Paspalum scrobiculatum var. sommeronii Stapf.), china, sharada, ujjvala, dardura, the fragrant rice (gandhana), and kuruvinda are slightly different in quality from the shashtika rice. [14]

Vrihi rice is sweet in taste and acidic after digestion, stimulates pitta and is heavy. The patala grain causes excessive urination and defecation, enhances body heat and also increases tridosha. [15]

The qualities of koradusha, shyamaka and other grains

सकोरदूषःश्यामाकःकषायमधुरोलघुः। वातलःकफपित्तघ्नःशीतःसङ्ग्राहिशोषणः॥१६॥

हस्तिश्यामाकनीवारतोयपर्णीगवेधुकाः। प्रशान्तिकाम्भःश्यामाकलौहित्याणुप्रियङ्गवः ॥१७॥

मुकुन्दोझिण्टिगर्मूटी वरुकावरकास्तथा। शिबिरोत्कटजूर्णाह्वाःश्यामाकसदृशागुणैः॥१८॥

sakōradūṣaḥ śyāmākaḥ kaṣāyamadhurō laghuḥ| vātalaḥ kaphapittaghnaḥ śītaḥ saṅgrāhiśōṣaṇaḥ||16||

hastiśyāmākanīvāratōyaparṇīgavēdhukāḥ| praśāntikāmbhaḥśyāmākalauhityāṇupriyaṅgavaḥ [1] ||17||

mukundō jhiṇṭigarmūṭī [2] varukā varakāstathā| śibirōtkaṭajūrṇāhvāḥ śyāmākasadr̥śā guṇaiḥ||18||

sakoradUShaH SyAmAkaH kaShAyamadhuro laGuH| vAtalaH kaPapittaGnaH SItaH sa~ggrAhiSoShaNaH||16||

hastiSyAmAkanIvAratoyaparNIgavedhukAH| praSAntikAmBaHSyAmAkalauhityANupriya~ggavaH ||17||

mukundo JiNTigarmUTI varukA varakAstathA| SibirotkaTajUrNAhvAH SyAmAkasadRuSA guNaiH||18||

Koradusha, or sanwa millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum var. sommeronii Stapf) and shyamaka or common millet (Echinochloa frumentacea Link) are astringents and sweet in taste, light, vata-stimulant kapha and pitta diminishing, and desiccants. Hasti-shyamaka (Echinochloa crus galli- (Linn.) Beauv), nivara (Hygroryaza aristata Nees), toyaparni, gavedhuka (Coix lacryma-Jobi Linn.), prasantika, ambhyashyamaka, lauhitya, anu, Italian millet (Setaria italica Linn. Beauv), mukunda, jhinti, garmuti, varuka (Sarghum halepense Linn.), varaka (shyambeeja), shibira, utkata and great millet (Sorghum vulgare (Linn.) Pers.) have similar qualitites as that of shyamaka. [16-18]

The qualities of barley and bamboo

रूक्षःशीतोऽगुरुःस्वादुर्बहुवातशकृद्यवः। स्थैर्यकृत्सकषायश्च बल्यःश्लेष्मविकारनुत्॥१९॥

रूक्षःकषायानुरसोमधुरःकफपित्तहा। मेदःक्रिमिविषघ्नश्चबल्योवेणुयवोमतः॥२०॥

rūkṣaḥ śītō'guruḥ svādurbahuvātaśakr̥dyavaḥ| sthairyakr̥t sakaṣāyaśca [1] balyaḥ ślēṣmavikāranut||19||

rūkṣaḥ kaṣāyānurasō madhuraḥ kaphapittahā| mēdaḥkrimiviṣaghnaśca balyō vēṇuyavō mataḥ||20||

rUkShaH SIto&guruH svAdurbahuvAtaSakRudyavaH| sthairyakRut sakaShAyaSca balyaH SleShmavikAranut||19||

rUkShaH kaShAyAnuraso madhuraH kaPapittahA| medaHkrimiviShaGnaSca balyo veNuyavo mataH||20||

Barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn.) is dry, cold in potency, not heavy, sweet in taste, increases excessively vata and feces, stabilizes, is astringent in action, promotive of strength and is effective in treating the discordance of kapha.

The bamboo is considered to be dry, astringent (kashaya anurasa), sweet, and is effective in treating kapha and pitta. It removes fat, worms and poison and is strengthening. [19-20]

The properties of wheat

सन्धानकृद्वातहरोगोधूमःस्वादुशीतलः। जीवनोबृंहणोवृष्यःस्निग्धःस्थैर्यकरोगुरुः॥२१॥

नान्दीमुखीमधूलीचमधुरस्निग्धशीतले। इत्ययंशूकधान्यानांपूर्वोवर्गःसमाप्यते॥२२॥

इतिशूकधान्यवर्गःप्रथमः॥१॥

sandhānakr̥dvātaharō gōdhūmaḥ svāduśītalaḥ| jīvanō br̥ṁhaṇō vr̥ṣyaḥ snigdhaḥ sthairyakarō guruḥ||21||

nāndīmukhī madhūlī ca madhurasnigdhaśītalē| ityayaṁ śūkadhānyānāṁ pūrvō vargaḥ samāpyatē||22||

iti śūkadhānyavargaḥ prathamaḥ||1|| sandhAnakRudvAtaharo godhUmaH svAduSItalaH| jIvano bRuMhaNo vRuShyaH snigdhaH sthairyakaro guruH||21||

nAndImuKI madhUlI ca madhurasnigdhaSItale| ityayaM SUkadhAnyAnAM pUrvo vargaH samApyate||22||

iti SUkadhAnyavargaH prathamaH||1||

Wheat (Triticum aestivum Linnaeus) alleviates morbid vata, sweet, cold in potency, vitalizing, nourishing, aphrodisiac, unctuous, stabilizing and heavy. [21]

Nandimukhi (crowfoot grass) and madhuli (Eleusine coracana Gaerin) corn are sweet, unctuous and cold in potency. Thus, ends the first section on monocotyledons. [22]

The class of pulses(di-cotyledons)

अथशमीधान्यवर्गः- कषायमधुरोरूक्षःशीतःपाकेकटुर्लघुः। विशदः श्लेष्मपित्तघ्नोमुद्गःसूप्योत्तमोमतः॥२३॥

वृष्यःपरंवातहरःस्निग्धोष्णोमधुरोगुरुः। बल्योबहुमलःपुंस्त्वंमाषःशीघ्रंददातिच॥२४॥

राजमाषः सरोरुच्यःकफशुक्राम्लपित्तनुत्। तत्स्वादुर्वातलोरूक्षःकषायोविशदोगुरुः॥२५॥

उष्णाःकषायाःपाकेऽम्लाःकफशुक्रानिलापहाः। कुलत्थाग्राहिणःकासहिक्काश्वासार्शसांहिताः॥२६॥

मधुरामधुराःपाकेग्राहिणोरूक्षशीतलाः। मकुष्ठकाःप्रशस्यन्तेरक्तपित्तज्वरादिषु॥२७॥

चणकाश्चमसूराश्चखण्डिकाःसहरेणवः। लघवःशीतमधुराःसकषायाविरूक्षणाः॥२८॥

पित्तश्लेष्मणिशस्यन्तेसूपेष्वालेपनेषुच। तेषांमसूरःसङ्ग्राहीकलायोवातलःपरम्॥२९॥

स्निग्धोष्णोमधुरस्तिक्तःकषायःकटुकस्तिलः। त्वच्यःकेश्यश्चबल्यश्चवातघ्नःकफपित्तकृत्॥३०॥

मधुराःशीतलागुर्व्योबलघ्न्योरूक्षणात्मिकाः। सस्नेहाबलिभिर्भोज्याविविधाःशिम्बिजातयः॥३१॥

शिम्बीरूक्षाकषायाचकोष्ठेवातप्रकोपिनी। नचवृष्यानचक्षुष्याविष्टभ्यचविपच्यत॥।३२॥

आढकीकफपित्तघ्नीवातला, कफवातनुत्। अवल्गुजःसैडगजो, निष्पावावातपित्तलाः॥३३॥

काकाण्डोमा(ला)त्मगुप्तानांमाषवत्फलमादिशेत्। द्वितीयोऽयंशमीधान्यवर्गःप्रोक्तोमहर्षिणा॥३४॥

इतिशमीधान्यवर्गोद्वितीयः॥२॥

atha śamīdhānyavargaḥ- kaṣāyamadhurō rūkṣaḥ śītaḥ pākē kaṭurlaghuḥ| viśadaḥ [1] ślēṣmapittaghnō mudgaḥ sūpyōttamō mataḥ||23||

vr̥ṣyaḥ paraṁ vātaharaḥ snigdhōṣṇō madhurō guruḥ| balyō bahumalaḥ puṁstvaṁ māṣaḥ śīghraṁ dadāti ca||24||

rājamāṣaḥ [2] sarō rucyaḥ kaphaśukrāmlapittanut| tatsvādurvātalō rūkṣaḥ kaṣāyō viśadō guruḥ||25||

uṣṇāḥ kaṣāyāḥ pākē'mlāḥ kaphaśukrānilāpahāḥ| kulatthā grāhiṇaḥ kāsahikkāśvāsārśasāṁ hitāḥ||26||

madhurā madhurāḥ pākē grāhiṇō rūkṣaśītalāḥ| makuṣṭhakāḥ praśasyantē raktapittajvarādiṣu||27||

caṇakāśca masūrāśca khaṇḍikāḥ saharēṇavaḥ| laghavaḥ śītamadhurāḥ sakaṣāyā virūkṣaṇāḥ||28||

pittaślēṣmaṇi śasyantē sūpēṣvālēpanēṣu ca| tēṣāṁ masūraḥ saṅgrāhī kalāyō vātalaḥ param||29||

snigdhōṣṇō madhurastiktaḥ kaṣāyaḥ kaṭukastilaḥ| tvacyaḥ kēśyaśca balyaśca vātaghnaḥ kaphapittakr̥t||30||

madhurāḥ śītalā gurvyō balaghnyō rūkṣaṇātmikāḥ| sasnēhā balibhirbhōjyā vividhāḥ śimbijātayaḥ||31||

śimbī rūkṣā kaṣāyā ca kōṣṭhē vātaprakōpinī| na ca vr̥ṣyā na cakṣuṣyā viṣṭabhya ca vipacyatē||32||

āḍhakī kaphapittaghnī vātalā, kaphavātanut| avalgujaḥ saiḍagajō, niṣpāvā vātapittalāḥ||33||

kākāṇḍōmā(lā)tmaguptānāṁ māṣavat phalamādiśēt| dvitīyō'yaṁ śamīdhānyavargaḥ prōktō maharṣiṇā||34||

iti śamīdhānyavargō dvitīyaḥ ||2|| atha SamIdhAnyavargaH-

kaShAyamadhuro rUkShaH SItaH pAke kaTurlaGuH| viSadaH SleShmapittaGno mudgaH sUpyottamo mataH||23||

vRuShyaH paraM vAtaharaH snigdhoShNo madhuro guruH| balyo bahumalaH puMstvaM mAShaH SIGraM dadAti ca||24||

rAjamAShaH saro rucyaH kaPaSukrAmlapittanut| tatsvAdurvAtalo rUkShaH kaShAyo viSado guruH||25||

uShNAH kaShAyAH pAke&mlAH kaPaSukrAnilApahAH| kulatthA grAhiNaH kAsahikkASvAsArSasAM hitAH||26||

madhurA madhurAH pAke grAhiNo rUkShaSItalAH| makuShThakAH praSasyante raktapittajvarAdiShu||27||

caNakASca masUrASca KaNDikAH sahareNavaH| laGavaH SItamadhurAH sakaShAyA virUkShaNAH||28||

pittaSleShmaNi Sasyante sUpeShvAlepaneShu ca| teShAM masUraH sa~ggrAhI kalAyo vAtalaH param||29||

snigdhoShNo madhurastiktaH kaShAyaH kaTukastilaH| tvacyaH keSyaSca balyaSca vAtaGnaH kaPapittakRut||30||

madhurAH SItalA gurvyo balaGnyo rUkShaNAtmikAH| sasnehA baliBirBojyA vividhAH SimbijAtayaH||31||

SimbI rUkShA kaShAyA ca koShThe vAtaprakopinI| na ca vRuShyA na cakShuShyA viShTaBya ca vipacyata|||32||

ADhakI kaPapittaGnI vAtalA, kaPavAtanut| avalgujaH saiDagajo, niShpAvA vAtapittalAH||33||

kAkANDomA(lA)tmaguptAnAM mAShavat PalamAdiSet| dvitIyo&yaM SamIdhAnyavargaH prokto maharShiNA||34||

iti SamIdhAnyavargo dvitIyaH||2||

The qualities of greengram (Vigna radiata Linn. Wilczec):

Now begins the section on pulses (di-cotyledons). Green-gram (mudga) is considered the best of pulses. It is astringent and sweet in taste, dry, cold in potency, pungent (after digestion), and light. It alleviates the vitiated kapha and pitta. [23]

The qualities of black gram (Vigna mungo Linn. Hepper syn. Phaseolus mungo): Black gram is an excellent aphrodisiac, effective in treating vata, unctuous, hot, sweet, heavy (to digest) and strength promoting. It also increases fecal volume. [24]

The qualities of the black eye-pea (Vigna unguiculata Linn. Walp):

Black eye-pea is a relishing variant of dicotyledon that has laxative and alleviating properties against disorders of kapha shukra and acid-dyspepsia. It is sweet in taste like black gram, vata-stimulant, dry, (works as an) astringent, cleaning (action) and is heavy to digest. [25]

The qualities of the horse-gram (Dolichos biflorus Linn.): Horse-gram (Dolichos biflorus Linn.) is hot, astringent in taste, acidic (on digestion) and alleviates disorders of kapha shukra and vata. It is beneficial in cough, hiccup, dyspepsia and piles. [26]

The qualities of the moth-gram (Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal):

The moth-gram (Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.)) is sweet in taste and on digestion, astringent in action, with dry property and cold in potency. It is recommended in raktapitta, in fevers and in similar conditions. [27]

General qualities of chickpea, lentil, vetchling and common pea:

Chick-pea (Cicer arietinum Linn), lentils (Lens culinaris Medic.), vetchling (Lathyrus sativus Linn.), and common pea (Pisum sativum sub sp. sativum, Co. ver speciosum Dierb. Alef) are light, cold in potency, sweet, astringent in taste and strongly dehydrating. [28]

They are recommended in pitta and kapha conditions and in preparation of nourishing soups and ointments. Amongst these two, the lentil is an astringent in action while the vetchling excessively stimulate vata. [29]

Qualities of tila (Sesamum indicum Linn):

Tila (Sesamum indicum Linn) is unctuous, hot, sweet, bitter and astringent. It is conducive to the growth of skin and hair, boosts strength and is effective in treating vata while causing kapha and pitta. [30]

Qualities of the legumes:

All varieties of legumes are sweet, cold in potency, heavy, destructive of strength and dehydrating. They should be taken only by strong persons and in conjunction with unctuous article. [31]

The shimbi jataya (variety of legumes) is dry, astringent in taste, provokes vata in the abdomen and is an anaphrodisiac. It also, is not good for the eye and causes slow and irregular digestion. [32]

Pigeon-pea (Cajanus cajan Linn. Mill Sp) is useful in curing kapha and pitta and stimulates vata, while avalguja (bakuchi seeds, Psoralea corylifolia Linn.) seeds and the seeds of edagaja (wild senna, Cassia tora Linn) are effective in curing kapha and vata. The lablab (Dolichos lablab Linn. Var. typicus Prain.) stimulates vata and pitta. [33]

Sword bean (Mucuna monosperma DC), linseed (Linum usitatissimum Linn) and cowage (Mucuna prurita Hook) can be considered similar in effect to black gram. [34]

Thus, the second group of pulses i.e. dicotyledons, expounded by the learned sage.

Class of mamsa (meat)

अथमांसवर्गः- गोखराश्वतरोष्ट्राश्वद्वीपिसिंहर्क्षवानराः। वृकोव्याघ्रस्तरक्षुश्चबभ्रुमार्जारमूषिकाः॥३५॥

लोपाकोजम्बुकःश्येनोवान्तादश्चाषवायसौ। शशघ्नीमधुहाभासोगृध्रोलूककुलिङ्गकाः॥३६॥

धूमिकाकुररश्चेतिप्रसहामृगपक्षिणः।

atha māṁsavargaḥ- gōkharāśvatarōṣṭrāśvadvīpisiṁharkṣavānarāḥ| vr̥kō vyāghrastarakṣuśca babhrumārjāramūṣikāḥ||35||

lōpākō jambukaḥ śyēnō vāntādaścāṣavāyasau| śaśaghnī madhuhā bhāsō gr̥dhrōlūkakuliṅgakāḥ||36||

dhūmikā kuraraścēti prasahā mr̥gapakṣiṇaḥ|37| atha mAMsavargaH- goKarASvataroShTrASvadvIpisiMharkShavAnarAH| vRuko vyAGrastarakShuSca baBrumArjAramUShikAH||35||

lopAko jambukaH Syeno vAntAdaScAShavAyasau| SaSaGnI madhuhA BAso gRudhrolUkakuli~ggakAH||36||

dhUmikA kuraraSceti prasahA mRugapakShiNaH|

Listed now are the “tearer” beasts (i.e., beasts that can rend/tear with their horns/jaws/horns) that are sources of meat fit for human consumption : the cow (Bos taurus), the ass (Asinus equidae), the mule, the camel (Camelus dromedarius), the horse (Equus caballus), the panther (Felis pardus), the lion (Felis leo), the bear (Melusus labiatus), the monkey (Semnopithecus sp), the wolf (Canis lupus), the tiger (Felis tigris), the hyena (Hyaena striata), the large brown mongoose (Herpestes mungo), the cat (Felis domesticus), the mouse (Mus musculus), the fox (Vulpus bengalensis), the jackal (Canis aureus), the hawk (Accipiter gentilis), the dog (Canis familiaris), the blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata), the crow (Corvus splendens), the golden eagle (Aquilar chrysaetos), the honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus), the bearded vulure (Gypatus barbatus), the vulture (Vulture monachus), the Indian horned owl (Bubo bengalensis), the sparrow hawk (Ploceus bengalensis), the owlet (Athene brama), and the fish-eagle (Pandion heliestus).[35-36]

श्वेतःश्यामश्चित्रपृष्ठःकालकःकाकुलीमृगः॥३७॥

कूर्चिकाचिल्लटोभेकोगोधाशल्लकगण्डकौ। कदलीनकुलःश्वाविदितिभूमिशयाःस्मृताः॥३८॥

śvētaḥ śyāmaścitrapr̥ṣṭhaḥ kālakaḥ kākulīmr̥gaḥ||37||

kūrcikā cillaṭō bhēkō gōdhā śallakagaṇḍakau| kadalī nakulaḥ śvāviditi bhūmiśayāḥ smr̥tāḥ||38||

SvetaH SyAmaScitrapRuShThaH kAlakaH kAkulImRugaH||37||

kUrcikA cillaTo Beko godhA SallakagaNDakau| kadalI nakulaH SvAviditi BUmiSayAH smRutAH||38||

And listed now are the burrowing creatures that can be considered fit for human consumption:

The white (Python molurus), the dark-brown (Python molurus), the reticulated (Python reticulus) and the black (Python molurus) ones are the four varieties of pythons; and the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), musk shrew (Neomys fodiens), frog (Rana sp), iguana lizard (Iguanidae), pangolin (Manis pentadactyla), gecko lizard (Gekkonidae), marmot (Marmota), mongoose (Herpestes mungo), and porcupine (Acanthion leucura). [37-38]

सृमरश्चमरःखङ्गोमहिषोगवयोगजः। न्यङ्कुर्वराहश्चानूपामृगाःसर्वेरुरुस्तथा॥३९॥

sr̥maraścamaraḥ khaṅgō mahiṣō gavayō gajaḥ| nyaṅkurvarāhaścānūpā mr̥gāḥ sarvē rurustathā||39||

sRumaraScamaraH Ka~ggo mahiSho gavayo gajaH| nya~gkurvarAhaScAnUpA mRugAH sarve rurustathA||39||

Wetland or marshy animals that are fit for consumption are:

The wild boar (Sus cristatus), the yak (Poephagus grumnicus), the rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), the buffalo (Bos bubalus), the gayal ox (Bos frontalis), the elephant (Elaphus indicus), the antelope, the hog (Cervus porcinus) and the swamp deer (Rucervus durancelli) [39]

कूर्मःकर्कटकोमत्स्यःशिशुमारस्तिमिङ्गिलः। शुक्तिशङ्खोद्रकुम्मीरचुलुकीमकरादयः॥४०॥

इतिवारिशयाःप्रोक्ता...

kūrmaḥ karkaṭakō matsyaḥ śiśumārastimiṅgilaḥ| śuktiśaṅkhōdrakummīraculukīmakarādayaḥ||40||

iti vāriśayāḥ prōktā...|41|

kUrmaH karkaTako matsyaH SiSumArastimi~ggilaH| SuktiSa~gKodrakummIraculukImakarAdayaH||40||

iti vAriSayAH proktA...

Acquatic animals fit for human consumption are:

The tortoise (Chelonia), the crab (Brachyura), the fish (Pisces), the estuarine crocodile, the whale (Cetacea), the pearl oyster (Margaritifera), the snails (Gastropoda), the cat-fish, the gangetic garial (Crocodylus porosus), the sus or gangetic dolphin (Delphinus gangetica) and the magar (Neomeris phocaenoides), the great Indian crocodile (Sea monster) —these are the aquatic animals (in the group of edible meat) [40]

वक्ष्यन्तेवारिचारिणः। हंसःक्रौञ्चोबलाकाचबकःकारण्डवःप्लवः॥४१॥

शरारिःपुष्कराह्वश्चकेशरीमणितुण्डकः । मृणालकण्ठोमद्गुश्चकादम्बःकाकतुण्डकः॥४२॥

उत्क्रोशःपुण्डरीकाक्षोमेघरावोऽम्बकुक्कुटी। आरानन्दीमुखीवाटीसुमुखाःसहचारिणः॥४३॥

रोहिणीकामकालीचसारसोरक्तशीर्षकः। चक्रवाकस्तथाऽन्येचखगाःसन्त्यम्बुचारिणः॥४४॥

...vakṣyantē vāricāriṇaḥ| haṁsaḥ krauñcō balākā ca bakaḥ kāraṇḍavaḥ plavaḥ||41||

śarāriḥ puṣkarāhvaśca kēśarī maṇituṇḍakaḥ [1] | mr̥ṇālakaṇṭhō madguśca kādambaḥ kākatuṇḍakaḥ||42||

utkrōśaḥ puṇḍarīkākṣō mēgharāvō'mbakukkuṭī| ārā nandīmukhī vāṭī sumukhāḥ sahacāriṇaḥ||43||

rōhiṇī kāmakālī ca sārasō raktaśīrṣakaḥ| cakravākastathā'nyē ca khagāḥ santyambucāriṇaḥ||44||

...vakShyante vAricAriNaH| haMsaH krau~jco balAkA ca bakaH kAraNDavaH plavaH||41||

SarAriH puShkarAhvaSca keSarI maNituNDakaH | mRuNAlakaNTho madguSca kAdambaH kAkatuNDakaH||42||

utkroSaH puNDarIkAkSho meGarAvo&mbakukkuTI| ArA nandImuKI vATI sumuKAH sahacAriNaH||43||

rohiNI kAmakAlI ca sAraso raktaSIrShakaH| cakravAkastathA&nye ca KagAH santyambucAriNaH||44||

The following are the acquatic creatures that are fit for human consumption:

The swan (Cygnus olor), the demoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo), crane(balaka, Ardea nivea), the goliath heron (ardea goliath), the goose (Anser albifrons), the pelican (Pelicanus onocrotalus), the skimmer or scissor bill (Rynchops), the lily trotter (Ardea sibirica), the curlew (keshari, Oedicnemus crepitans), the oyster-catcher (Haematopus ostralegus), the snake-bird (Mrinalakantha, Plotus anhinga), the little cormorant (madgu, Phalacrocorax pygmeus), greylag goose (kadamba, anser anser), the common river tern (Kakatundaka, Sterna hirundo), mallard(utkosha, Anas platyrhynchos), the white-eyed pochard (Pundarikaksha, Nyroca ferina), the trumpeter swan (megharava, Cygnus buccinators), the moorhen (ambukukkuti, Gallinula chloropus), the cobbler’s owl bird or avocet (ara, Recurvirostra avosetta), the flamingo (nandimukha, Phoenicopterus roseus), the little grebe (vati, Podiceps ruficellis) or the laughing gull (Sumukha, Anas galericulata), petrel (Sahacharin, Oceanitidae), common teal (rohini, Anas crecca),tropic bird (Kamakali, Phaethon rubricauda), Indian crane (sarasa, Megalornis grus), the purple heron (raktashirshaka, Ardea purpurea), and the ruddy shel-duck(Chakravaka, Anas sp.) [41-44]

पृषतःशरभोरामःश्वदंष्ट्रोमृगमातृका। शशोरणौकुरङ्गश्चगोकर्णःकोट्टकारकः॥४५॥

चारुष्कोहरिणैणौचशम्बरःकालपुच्छकः। ऋष्यश्चवरपोतश्चविज्ञेयाजाङ्गलामृगाः॥४६॥

pr̥ṣataḥ śarabhō rāmaḥ śvadaṁṣṭrō mr̥gamātr̥kā| śaśōraṇau kuraṅgaśca gōkarṇaḥ kōṭṭakārakaḥ||45||

cāruṣkō hariṇaiṇau ca śambaraḥ kālapucchakaḥ| r̥ṣyaśca varapōtaśca vijñēyā jāṅgalā mr̥gāḥ||46||

pRuShataH SaraBo rAmaH SvadaMShTro mRugamAtRukA| SaSoraNau kura~ggaSca gokarNaH koTTakArakaH||45||

cAruShko hariNaiNau ca SambaraH kAlapucCakaH| RuShyaSca varapotaSca vij~jeyA jA~ggalA mRugAH||46||

Some of the wild antelopes (or jangala animals) that are fit for human consumption are:

The chital or spotted deer(prisata, Cervus axis), the elk or wapiti (sharabha, Cervus canadensis), kashmir red deer (rama, Cervus elaphus), the mouse deer (Shadamshtra, Tragulus meminna), red deer (mrigamatrika, Cervus elaphus), the hare or rabbit (shasha, Leporidae), the oorial or wild sheep(urana, Ovis vignei), the Indian antelope (kuranga, Antilope cervicapra), the cow-eared deer (gokarna , Antelope picta), the Indian muntjak or barking deer (kottakaraka, Cervus muntjae), the gazelle (charushka, Gazelle bennetti), the black or Indian antelope(Harina, Antilope cervicapra), fawn deer (ena, Cervus rusa), the Indian sambhar (sambhara, Cervus unicolor), the black-tailed deer (kalapucchaka, odocoilus), the musk deer and the small antelope (varapota, Antilope cervicapra).[45-46]

लावोवर्तीरकश्चैववार्तीकःसकपिञ्जलः। चकोरश्चोपचक्रश्चकुक्कुभोरक्तवर्त्मकः॥४७॥

लावाद्याविष्किरास्त्वेतेवक्ष्यन्तेवर्तकादयः। वर्तकोवर्तिकाचैवबर्हीतित्तिरिकुक्कुटौ॥४८॥

कङ्कशारपदेन्द्राभगोनर्दगिरिवर्तकाः। क्रकरोऽवकरश्चैववारडश्चेति विष्किराः॥४९॥

lāvō vartīrakaścaiva vārtīkaḥ sakapiñjalaḥ| cakōraścōpacakraśca kukkubhō raktavartmakaḥ||47||

lāvādyā viṣkirāstvētē vakṣyantē vartakādayaḥ| vartakō vartikā caiva barhī tittirikukkuṭau||48||

kaṅkaśārapadēndrābhagōnardagirivartakāḥ| krakarō'vakaraścaiva vāraḍaścēti [1] viṣkirāḥ||49||

lAvo vartIrakaScaiva vArtIkaH sakapi~jjalaH| cakoraScopacakraSca kukkuBo raktavartmakaH||47||

lAvAdyA viShkirAstvete vakShyante vartakAdayaH| vartako vartikA caiva barhI tittirikukkuTau||48||

ka~gkaSArapadendrABagonardagirivartakAH| krakaro&vakaraScaiva vAraDaSceti viShkirAH||49||

The following gallinaceous birds are fit for human consumption:

The common quail (lava, Turnix suscitates), the rain quail (vartiraka, Coturnix coromandelica), the jungle bush quail (vartika, Coturnix sylvatica), the grey partridge (kapinjala, Francolinus vulgaris), Greek pheasant (Chakora, Perdix rufa), the sushi chukor- smaller Greek pheasant (upachakra, Perdix rufa), the crow pheasant (kukubha, Coccyzus), red jungle fowl (raktavartamaka, Gallus ferruginous): these beginning with the quail are the gallinaceous birds. We shall now enumerate the list of birds beginning with the male bustard or button quail (vartaka, Turnix indica), the female bustard or button quail (vartika, Coturnix sylvatica), the peacock (barhi, Pavo cristatus), the partridge (tittiri, Arborophila torquala), the red spur fowl (rooster) (Kukkuta, Galloperdix spadicca), heron (kanka, Ardeidae), the stork (sarapada, Ciconia boycinia), hedge sparrow (Indrabha, Leucocerea aureola), the hill partridge (gonarda, Ardea sibirica), the mountain quail (girivartaka, Coturnix coturnix), the snipe (krakara, Ardea virago) and the spoon bill (varapada, Platela leucorodia) [47-49]

शतपत्रोभृङ्गराजःकोयष्टिर्जीवजीवकः। कैरातःकोकिलोऽत्यूहोगोपापुत्रःप्रियात्मजः॥५०॥

लट्टालट्ट(टू)षकोबभ्रुर्वटहाडिण्डिमानकः। जटीदुन्दुभिपाक्कारलोहपृष्ठकुलिङ्गकाः ॥५१॥

कपोतशुकशारङ्गाश्चिरटीकङ्कुयष्टिकाः। सारिकाकलविङ्कश्चचटकोऽङ्गारचूडकः॥५२॥

पारावतःपाण्ड(न)विकइत्युक्ताःप्रतुदाद्विजाः।

śatapatrō bhr̥ṅgarājaḥ kōyaṣṭirjīvajīvakaḥ| kairātaḥ kōkilō'tyūhō gōpāputraḥ priyātmajaḥ||50||

laṭṭā laṭṭa(ṭū)ṣakō babhrurvaṭahā ḍiṇḍimānakaḥ| jaṭī dundubhipākkāralōhapr̥ṣṭhakuliṅgakāḥ [1] ||51||

kapōtaśukaśāraṅgāściraṭīkaṅkuyaṣṭikāḥ| sārikā kalaviṅkaśca caṭakō'ṅgāracūḍakaḥ||52||

pārāvataḥ pāṇḍa(na)vika ityuktāḥ pratudā dvijāḥ|53|

Satapatro BRu~ggarAjaH koyaShTirjIvajIvakaH| kairAtaH kokilo&tyUho gopAputraH priyAtmajaH||50||

laTTA laTTa(TU)Shako baBrurvaTahA DiNDimAnakaH| jaTI dunduBipAkkAralohapRuShThakuli~ggakAH ||51||

kapotaSukaSAra~ggASciraTIka~gkuyaShTikAH| sArikA kalavi~gkaSca caTako&~ggAracUDakaH||52||

pArAvataH pANDa(na)vika ityuktAH pratudA dvijAH|

The following birds from the Pecker family are suitable for human consumption:

The black woodpecker (shatapatra, Picus martius), the king bird of paradise–shrike (Bhringaraja, Lanalidae), the green-bill coucal (kojashthi, Centropus chlororhynchos), peacock pheasant (jivajivaka, Chalcurus), red-faced malkoha (kairata, Pheanicophaeus pyrrhocephalus), the koel (kokila, Eudynamys honorata), the red-vented bulbul (Atyuha, Molpastes haemorrhous), the cowbird (gopaputra, Molothrus), the Indian babbler (priyatmaja, Argya caudata), the pied flycatcher (latva, Muscicapidae atricapilla), paradise flycatcher (lattashaka, Muscicapidae techitrea), the Bengal tree pie (Babhru-vataha, Dendrocitta rufa), the toucan (dindimantaka, Ramphastos toco), the hoopoe (jati, Upupa indica), the grey hornbill (dundubhi, Lophoceros birostris), the green barbet (pakkara, Thereiceryx zeylonicus), the king fisher (lauhaprishtha, Alcedo ispida), the baya or weaver bird (kulingaka, Ploceus benghalensis), the dove (kapota, Chalcophaps indica), the green parakeet (shuka, Psittacula spengeli), the ringneck parakeet (saranga, Palaeonis torquatus), the babbler (Chirati, Timaliidae), the blossom headed parakeet (kanku, Torquatus rosa),the sun bird or honey-sucker (yastika, Nectariniidae), mynah (sharika, Turdus salica), the house sparrow (kalavinka, Passer domesticus), the tree sparrow (chataka, Passer montanus), the black bulbul (angarachudaka, Hypsipetes leucocephalus), the pigeon (paravata, Columba treron) and the wood pigeon (pandanavika, Columba palumbus).[50-52]

प्रसह्यभक्षयन्तीतिप्रसहास्तेनसञ्ज्ञिताः॥५३॥

भूशयाबिलवासित्वादानूपानूपसंश्रयात् । जलेनिवासाज्जलजाजलेचर्याज्जलेचराः॥५४॥

स्थलजाजाङ्गलाःप्रोक्तामृगाजाङ्गलचारिणः। विकीर्यविष्किराश्चेतिप्रतुद्यप्रतुदाःस्मृताः॥५५॥

योनिरष्टविधात्वेषामांसानांपरिकीर्तिता।

prasahya bhakṣayantīti prasahāstēna sañjñitāḥ||53||

bhūśayā bilavāsitvādānūpānūpasaṁśrayāt [3] | jalē nivāsājjalajā jalēcaryājjalēcarāḥ||54||

sthalajā jāṅgalāḥ prōktā mr̥gā jāṅgalacāriṇaḥ| vikīrya viṣkirāścēti pratudya pratudāḥ smr̥tāḥ||55||

yōniraṣṭavidhā tvēṣā māṁsānāṁ parikīrtitā|56|

prasahya BakShayantIti prasahAstena sa~jj~jitAH||53||

BUSayA bilavAsitvAdAnUpAnUpasaMSrayAt | jale nivAsAjjalajA jalecaryAjjalecarAH||54||

sthalajA jA~ggalAH proktA mRugA jA~ggalacAriNaH| vikIrya viShkirASceti pratudya pratudAH smRutAH||55||

yoniraShTavidhA tveShA mAMsAnAM parikIrtitA|

And now we define the various groups of animals listed above. The first are the “tearers”. The creatures that eat their food by rending or tearing – using their horns, claws, or talons - are known as tearers or of the tearer group of creatures. Those that dwell beneath the ground are called burrowing creatures. Those that dwell in wetlands or marshy lands are known as wetland creatures. Owing to their living in water, some creatures are known as aquatic creatures or water dwellers. Those that move about in water as well as land are known as water-roamers or amphibious creatures. Those (antelopes) that dwell and roam in the jungles are known as jangala creatures. Those that scatter food with their claws and pick them up are known as gallinaceous birds and those that peck at their food are called peckers. These are the eight varieties of sources of flesh. [53-55]

प्रसहाभूशयानूपवारिजावारिचारिणः॥५६॥

गुरूष्णस्निग्धमधुराबलोपचयवर्धनाः। वृष्याःपरंवातहराःकफपित्तविवर्धनाः॥५७॥

हिताव्यायामनित्येभ्योनरादीप्ताग्नयश्चये। प्रसहानांविशेषेणमांसंमांसाशिनांभिषक्॥५८॥

जीर्णार्शोग्रहणीदोषशोषार्तानांप्रयोजयेत्। लावाद्योवैष्किरोवर्गःप्रतुदाजाङ्गलामृगाः॥५९॥

लघवःशीतमधुराःसकषायाहितानृणाम्। पित्तोत्तरेवातमध्येसन्निपातेकफानुगे॥६०॥

विष्किरावर्तकाद्यास्तुप्रसहाल्पान्तरागुणैः।

prasahā bhūśayānūpavārijā vāricāriṇaḥ||56||

gurūṣṇasnigdhamadhurā balōpacayavardhanāḥ| vr̥ṣyāḥ paraṁ vātaharāḥ kaphapittavivardhanāḥ||57||

hitā vyāyāmanityēbhyō narā dīptāgnayaśca yē| prasahānāṁ viśēṣēṇa māṁsaṁ māṁsāśināṁ bhiṣak||58||

jīrṇārśōgrahaṇīdōṣaśōṣārtānāṁ prayōjayēt| lāvādyō vaiṣkirō vargaḥ pratudā jāṅgalā mr̥gāḥ||59||

laghavaḥ śītamadhurāḥ sakaṣāyā hitā nr̥ṇām| pittōttarē vātamadhyē sannipātē kaphānugē||60||

viṣkirā vartakādyāstu prasahālpāntarā guṇaiḥ|61|

prasahA BUSayAnUpavArijA vAricAriNaH||56||

gurUShNasnigdhamadhurA balopacayavardhanAH| vRuShyAH paraM vAtaharAH kaPapittavivardhanAH||57||

hitA vyAyAmanityeByo narA dIptAgnayaSca ye| prasahAnAM viSeSheNa mAMsaM mAMsASinAM BiShak||58||

jIrNArSograhaNIdoShaSoShArtAnAM prayojayet| lAvAdyo vaiShkiro vargaH pratudA jA~ggalA mRugAH||59||

laGavaH SItamadhurAH sakaShAyA hitA nRuNAm| pittottare vAtamadhye sannipAte kaPAnuge||60||

viShkirA vartakAdyAstu prasahAlpAntarA guNaiH|

Next we talk of the general qualities of the flesh of these animals:

The tearer, the burrower, the wetland, the aquatic and the amphibious— these five groups are heavy, hot, unctuous, sweet and these enhance strength and obesity. They are also aphrodisiacs and are very effective against vata while greatly aggravating kapha and pitta. They are wholesome to individuals who exercise daily and whose digestive fire is strong. [56-60]

The physician should prescribe the flesh of the tearer group of carnivorous animals to patients suffering from chronic piles, assimilation disorders and consumption. [58]

Now the general qualities of the quail and bustard families of gallinaceous birds, the pecker class of birds, and the jangala antelopes. The flesh of the common quail family of gallinaceous birds, pecker family of birds and jangala animals is light, cold in potency, sweet, and slightly astringent in taste and is beneficial to those who suffer from vitiation of three doshas in which pitta is predominant, vata is moderate and kapha is relatively less aggravated. The flesh of the gallinaceous birds of the bustard family, however differs slightly in action from that of the flesh of the tearer group and therefore is called out separately. [59-60]

Qualities of meat of goat and sheep

नातिशीतगुरुस्निग्धं मांसमाजमदोषलम्॥६१॥

शरीरधातुसामान्यादनभिष्यन्दिबृंहणम्। मांसंमधुरशीतत्वाद्गुरुबृंहणमाविकम्॥६२॥

योनावजाविके मिश्रगोचरत्वादनिश्चिते।

nātiśītagurusnigdhaṁ [1] māṁsamājamadōṣalam||61||

śarīradhātusāmānyādanabhiṣyandi br̥ṁhaṇam| māṁsaṁ madhuraśītatvādguru br̥ṁhaṇamāvikam||62||

yōnāvajāvikē [2] miśragōcaratvādaniścitē|63|

The flesh of the goat (capra hircus) is not very cold in potency, not heavy, and not unctuous. It helps keep the doshas in harmony with the human body-elements and acts as a nourishing without being deliquescent in effect. [61]

The flesh of the sheep (ovis) is heavy due to it being cold in potency, sweet in taste (and digestion) and nourishing. The sheep and the goat are found both in wet and jangala settings and hence cannot be grouped in any particular category defined above. [62]

सामान्येनोपदिष्टानांमांसानांस्वगुणैःपृथक्॥६३॥

केषाञ्चिद्गुणवैशेष्याद्विशेषउपदेक्ष्यते। दर्शनश्रोत्रमेधाग्निवयोवर्णस्वरायुषाम्॥६४॥

बर्हीहिततमोबल्योवातघ्नोमांसशुक्रलः। गुरूष्णस्निग्धमधुराःस्वरवर्णबलप्रदाः॥६५॥

बृंहणाःशुक्रलाश्चोक्ताहंसामारुतनाशनाः। स्निग्धाश्चोष्णाश्चवृष्याश्चबृंहणाःस्वरबोधनाः॥६६॥

बल्याःपरंवातहराःस्वेदनाश्चरणायुधाः। गुरूष्णोमधुरोनातिधन्वानूपनिषेवणात्॥६७॥

तित्तिरिःसञ्जयेच्छीघ्रंत्रीन्दोषाननिलोल्बणान्। पित्तश्लेष्मविकारेषुसरक्तेषुकपिञ्जलाः॥६८॥

मन्दवातेषुशस्यन्तेशैत्यमाधुर्यलाघवात्। लावाःकषायमधुरालघवोऽग्निविवर्धनाः॥६९॥

सन्निपातप्रशमनाःकटुकाश्चविपाकतः। गोधाविपाकेमधुराकषायकटुकारसे॥७०॥

वातपित्तप्रशमनीबृंहणीबलवर्धनी। शल्लकोमधुराम्लश्चविपाकेकटुकःस्मृतः॥७१॥

वातपित्तकफघ्नश्चकासश्वासहरस्तथा। कषायविशदाः शीतारक्तपित्तनिबर्हणाः॥७२॥

विपाकेमधुराश्चैवकपोतागृहवासिनः। तेभ्योलघुतराःकिञ्चित्कपोतावनवासिनः ॥७३॥

शीताःसङ्ग्राहिणश्चैवस्वल्पमूत्रकराश्चते। शुकमांसंकषायाम्लंविपाकेरूक्षशीतलम्॥७४॥

शोषकासक्षयहितंसङ्ग्राहिलघुदीपनम्। चटकामधुराःस्निग्धाबलशुक्रविवर्धनाः॥७५॥

सन्निपातप्रशमनाःशमनामारुतस्यच। कषायोविशदोरूक्षःशीतःपाकेकटुर्लघुः॥७६॥

शशःस्वादुःप्रशस्तश्चसन्निपातेऽनिलावरे। मधुरामधुराःपाकेत्रिदोषशमनाःशिवाः॥७७॥

लघवोबद्धविण्मूत्राःशीताश्चैणाःप्रकीर्तिताः। स्नेहनंबृंहणंवृष्यंश्रमघ्नमनिलापहम्॥७८॥

वराहपिशितंबल्यंरोचनंस्वेदनंगुरु। गव्यंकेवलवातेषुपीनसेविषमज्वरे॥७९॥

शुष्ककासश्रमात्यग्निमांसक्षयहितंचतत्। स्निग्धोष्णंमधुरंवृष्यंमाहिषंगुरुतर्पणम्॥८०॥

दार्ढ्यंबृहत्त्वमुत्साहंस्वप्नंचजनयत्यपि। गुरूष्णामधुराबल्याबृंहणाःपवनापहाः॥८१॥

मत्स्याःस्निग्धाश्चवृष्याश्चबहुदोषाःप्रकीर्तिताः। शैवालशष्पभोजित्वात्स्वप्नस्यचविवर्जनात्॥८२॥

रोहितोदीपनीयश्चलघुपाकोमहाबलः। वर्ण्योवातहरोवृष्यश्चक्षुष्योबलवर्धनः॥८३॥

मेधास्मृतिकरःपथ्यःशोषघ्नःकूर्मउच्यते। खङ्गमांसमभिष्यन्दिबलकृन्मधुरंस्मृतम्॥८४॥

स्नेहनंबृंहणंवर्ण्यंश्रमघ्नमनिलापहम्। धार्तराष्ट्रचकोराणांदक्षाणांशिखिनामपि॥८५॥

चटकानांचयानिस्युरण्डानिचहितानिच। क्षीणरेतःसुकासेषुहृद्रोगेषुक्षतेषुच॥८६॥

मधुराण्यविदाहीनिसद्योबलकराणिच। शरीरबृंहणेनान्यत्खाद्यंमांसाद्विशिष्यते॥८७॥

इतिवर्गस्तृतीयोऽयंमांसानांपरिकीर्तितः।

sāmānyēnōpadiṣṭānāṁ māṁsānāṁ svaguṇaiḥ pr̥thak||63||

kēṣāñcidguṇavaiśēṣyādviśēṣa upadēkṣyatē| darśanaśrōtramēdhāgnivayōvarṇasvarāyuṣām||64||

barhī hitatamō balyō vātaghnō māṁsaśukralaḥ| gurūṣṇasnigdhamadhurāḥ svaravarṇabalapradāḥ||65||

br̥ṁhaṇāḥ śukralāścōktā haṁsā mārutanāśanāḥ| snigdhāścōṣṇāśca vr̥ṣyāśca br̥ṁhaṇāḥ svarabōdhanāḥ||66||

balyāḥ paraṁ vātaharāḥ svēdanāścaraṇāyudhāḥ| gurūṣṇō madhurō nātidhanvānūpaniṣēvaṇāt||67||

tittiriḥ sañjayēcchīghraṁ trīn dōṣānanilōlbaṇān| pittaślēṣmavikārēṣu saraktēṣu kapiñjalāḥ||68||

mandavātēṣu śasyantē śaityamādhuryalāghavāt| lāvāḥ kaṣāyamadhurā laghavō'gnivivardhanāḥ||69||

sannipātapraśamanāḥ kaṭukāśca vipākataḥ| gōdhā vipākē madhurā kaṣāyakaṭukā rasē||70||

vātapittapraśamanī br̥ṁhaṇī balavardhanī| śallakō madhurāmlaśca vipākē kaṭukaḥ smr̥taḥ||71||

vātapittakaphaghnaśca kāsaśvāsaharastathā| kaṣāyaviśadāḥ [3] śītā raktapittanibarhaṇāḥ||72||

vipākē madhurāścaiva kapōtā gr̥havāsinaḥ| tēbhyō laghutarāḥ kiñcit kapōtā vanavāsinaḥ [4] ||73||

śītāḥ saṅgrāhiṇaścaiva svalpamūtrakarāśca tē| śukamāṁsaṁ kaṣāyāmlaṁ vipākē rūkṣaśītalam||74||

śōṣakāsakṣayahitaṁ saṅgrāhi laghu dīpanam| caṭakā madhurāḥ snigdhā balaśukravivardhanāḥ||75||

sannipātapraśamanāḥ śamanā mārutasya ca| kaṣāyō viśadō rūkṣaḥ śītaḥ pākē kaṭurlaghuḥ||76||

śaśaḥ svāduḥ praśastaśca sannipātē'nilāvarē| madhurā madhurāḥ pākē tridōṣaśamanāḥ śivāḥ||77||

laghavō baddhaviṇmūtrāḥ śītāścaiṇāḥ prakīrtitāḥ| snēhanaṁ br̥ṁhaṇaṁ vr̥ṣyaṁ śramaghnamanilāpaham||78||

varāhapiśitaṁ balyaṁ rōcanaṁ svēdanaṁ guru| gavyaṁ kēvalavātēṣu pīnasē viṣamajvarē||79||

śuṣkakāsaśramātyagnimāṁsakṣayahitaṁ ca tat| snigdhōṣṇaṁ madhuraṁ vr̥ṣyaṁ māhiṣaṁ guru tarpaṇam||80||

dārḍhyaṁ br̥hattvamutsāhaṁ svapnaṁ ca janayatyapi| gurūṣṇā madhurā balyā br̥ṁhaṇāḥ pavanāpahāḥ||81||

matsyāḥ snigdhāśca vr̥ṣyāśca bahudōṣāḥ prakīrtitāḥ| śaivālaśaṣpabhōjitvātsvapnasya ca vivarjanāt||82||

rōhitō dīpanīyaśca laghupākō mahābalaḥ| varṇyō vātaharō vr̥ṣyaścakṣuṣyō balavardhanaḥ||83||

mēdhāsmr̥tikaraḥ pathyaḥ śōṣaghnaḥ kūrma ucyatē| khaṅgamāṁsamabhiṣyandi balakr̥nmadhuraṁ smr̥tam||84||

snēhanaṁ br̥ṁhaṇaṁ varṇyaṁ śramaghnamanilāpaham| dhārtarāṣṭracakōrāṇāṁ dakṣāṇāṁ śikhināmapi||85||

caṭakānāṁ ca yāni syuraṇḍāni ca hitāni ca| kṣīṇarētaḥsu kāsēṣu hr̥drōgēṣu kṣatēṣu ca||86||

madhurāṇyavidāhīni sadyōbalakarāṇi ca| śarīrabr̥ṁhaṇē nānyat khādyaṁ māṁsādviśiṣyatē||87||

iti vargastr̥tīyō'yaṁ māṁsānāṁ parikīrtitaḥiti māṁsavargastr̥tīyaḥ

sAmAnyenopadiShTAnAM mAMsAnAM svaguNaiH pRuthak||63||

keShA~jcidguNavaiSeShyAdviSeSha upadekShyate| darSanaSrotramedhAgnivayovarNasvarAyuShAm||64||

barhI hitatamo balyo vAtaGno mAMsaSukralaH| gurUShNasnigdhamadhurAH svaravarNabalapradAH||65||

bRuMhaNAH SukralAScoktA haMsA mArutanASanAH| snigdhAScoShNASca vRuShyASca bRuMhaNAH svarabodhanAH||66||

balyAH paraM vAtaharAH svedanAScaraNAyudhAH| gurUShNo madhuro nAtidhanvAnUpaniShevaNAt||67||

tittiriH sa~jjayecCIGraM trIn doShAnanilolbaNAn| pittaSleShmavikAreShu sarakteShu kapi~jjalAH||68||

mandavAteShu Sasyante SaityamAdhuryalAGavAt| lAvAH kaShAyamadhurA laGavo&gnivivardhanAH||69||

sannipAtapraSamanAH kaTukASca vipAkataH| godhA vipAke madhurA kaShAyakaTukA rase||70||

vAtapittapraSamanI bRuMhaNI balavardhanI| Sallako madhurAmlaSca vipAke kaTukaH smRutaH||71||

vAtapittakaPaGnaSca kAsaSvAsaharastathA| kaShAyaviSadAH SItA raktapittanibarhaNAH||72||

vipAke madhurAScaiva kapotA gRuhavAsinaH| teByo laGutarAH ki~jcit kapotA vanavAsinaH ||73||

SItAH sa~ggrAhiNaScaiva svalpamUtrakarASca te| SukamAMsaM kaShAyAmlaM vipAke rUkShaSItalam||74||

SoShakAsakShayahitaM sa~ggrAhi laGu dIpanam| caTakA madhurAH snigdhA balaSukravivardhanAH||75||

sannipAtapraSamanAH SamanA mArutasya ca| kaShAyo viSado rUkShaH SItaH pAke kaTurlaGuH||76||

SaSaH svAduH praSastaSca sannipAte&nilAvare| madhurA madhurAH pAke tridoShaSamanAH SivAH||77||

laGavo baddhaviNmUtrAH SItAScaiNAH prakIrtitAH| snehanaM bRuMhaNaM vRuShyaM SramaGnamanilApaham||78||

varAhapiSitaM balyaM rocanaM svedanaM guru| gavyaM kevalavAteShu pInase viShamajvare||79||

SuShkakAsaSramAtyagnimAMsakShayahitaM ca tat| snigdhoShNaM madhuraM vRuShyaM mAhiShaM guru tarpaNam||80||

dArDhyaM bRuhattvamutsAhaM svapnaM ca janayatyapi| gurUShNA madhurA balyA bRuMhaNAH pavanApahAH||81||

matsyAH snigdhASca vRuShyASca bahudoShAH prakIrtitAH| SaivAlaSaShpaBojitvAtsvapnasya ca vivarjanAt||82||

rohito dIpanIyaSca laGupAko mahAbalaH| varNyo vAtaharo vRuShyaScakShuShyo balavardhanaH||83||

medhAsmRutikaraH pathyaH SoShaGnaH kUrma ucyate| Ka~ggamAMsamaBiShyandi balakRunmadhuraM smRutam||84||

snehanaM bRuMhaNaM varNyaM SramaGnamanilApaham| dhArtarAShTracakorANAM dakShANAM SiKinAmapi||85||

caTakAnAM ca yAni syuraNDAni ca hitAni ca| kShINaretaHsu kAseShu hRudrogeShu kShateShu ca||86||

madhurANyavidAhIni sadyobalakarANi ca| SarIrabRuMhaNe nAnyat KAdyaM mAMsAdviSiShyate||87||

iti vargastRutIyo&yaM mAMsAnAM parikIrtitaH|

Now that the general properties of flesh have been stated, we shall describe the specific qualities of the flesh of some of these creatures:

The flesh of the peacock is most conducive to enhancing sight, hearing, intelligence, body-heat, youth, complexion, voice and life. It is strengthening, is effective in treating vata and promotes the growth of flesh tissues and semen. [63-64]

The flesh of the swan is heavy, hot, unctuous, sweet, enhances voice, complexion, strength, production of semen, is nourishing, and is effective in treating vata.

The flesh of the rooster/fowl is unctuous, hot, aphrodisiac, and nourishing. It also helps strengthen the voice, is effective in treating vata and is sudorific (produces sweating) [66]

The flesh of the partridge is heavy, hot, and sweet. The bird’s habitat is neither limited to marshy nor to jangala country. Partridge meat rapidly controls the three doshas, especially vata. [67]

The flesh of the grey partridge is cold in potency, sweet and light and is recommended in pitta, kapha, blood and mild vata disorders. [68]

The flesh of the common-quail is astringent, sweet in taste, light, very effective in enhancing digestive fire, alleviates tridosha, and is pungent on digestion. [69]

The flesh of the iguana is sweet on digestion, astringent and pungent in taste, alleviates vata and pitta and is nourishing and strengthening. [70]

The flesh of the pangolin is sweet and sour in taste and is said to be pungent on digestion. It alleviates the tridosha and is effective in treating cough and dyspepsia. [71]

The flesh of the domestic pigeon is astringent in taste, tender, cold in potency, is effective in treating raktapitta and is sweet (in digestion). [72]

The flesh of the wild pigeon is slightly lighter than that of the birds mentioned above, is cold in potency, astringent, and reduces the secretion of urine. [73]

The flesh of the green parakeet is astringent in taste and sour on digestion, dry in property and cold in potency. It is beneficial in curing the diseases such as consumption, cough and wasting. The flesh is astringent in action, light to digest and stimulates agni. [74]

The flesh of the sparrow is sweet and unctuous, very effective in promoting strength and semen and alleviating tridosha especially vata. [75]

Rabbit meat is astringent in taste, limpid, dry, cold in potency, pungent on digestion, light and sweet. It is recommended in alleviating tridosha where vata is relatively mild. [76]

The flesh of the blackbuck is said to be sweet (in taste as well as on digestion), alleviates tridosha, generally is wholesome, light, aggravates constipation and restricts urination, and is cold in potency. [77]

The flesh of the hog promotes unctuousness, is nourishing, (is an) aphrodisiac, removes fatigue, alleviates vata, strengthens, and is appetizing, sudorific and heavy. [78]

The flesh of the cow is beneficial in curing disorders due to vata, rhinitis, vishama jwara (fever with irregular pattern), dry cough, fatigue, excessive agni, and atrophy of the flesh. [79]

The flesh of the buffalo is unctuous, hot in potency, sweet, aphrodisiac, heavy to digest and nourishing. It also promotes firmness and corpulence, and sleep. [80]

The flesh of the fish in general is heavy to digest, hot in potency, sweet in taste, strengthening, nourishing, is effective in treating vata, unctuous, and an aphrodisiac. It however has many hazardous properties as well. [81]

As rohita fish eats moss and doesn’t sleep at all, its flesh is appetizing, light to digest and greatly promotes strength. [82]

The flesh of the tortoise is said to promote healthy complexion, strength, intelligence and memory, and is effective in treating consumption and vata. It is an aphrodisiac, is beneficial to sight, and is wholesome. [83]

The flesh of the rhinoceros is said to be deliquescent, promotes strength and completion, and is effective in treating vata. It is sweet, unctuous, nourishing, and restorative. [84]

The eggs of the swan, the chakor, the rooster, the peacock, and the sparrow are beneficial in oligo-spermia, cough, cardiac disorder and pulmonary lesions. They are sweet, non-irritant and immediately strengthening. [85-86]

No other food except flesh is nourishing. Thus, the third group of meats is described.

इतिमांसवर्गस्तृतीयः॥३॥

ti vargastr̥tīyō'yaṁ māṁsānāṁ parikīrtitaḥiti māṁsavargastr̥tīyaḥ

iti mAMsavargastRutIyaH||3||

This concludes the third category of edible meat.

Class of vegetables

अथशाकवर्गः- पाठाशुषाशटीशाकंवास्तुकंसुनिषण्णाकम्॥८८॥

विद्याद्ग्राहित्रिदोषघ्नंभिन्नवर्चस्तुवास्तुकम्। त्रिदोषशमनीवृष्याकाकमाचीरसायनी॥८९॥

नात्युष्णशीतवीर्याचभेदिनीकुष्ठनाशिनी। राजक्षवकशाकंतुत्रिदोषशमनंलघु॥९०॥

ग्राहिशस्तंविशेषेणग्रहण्यर्शोविकारिणाम्। कालशाकंतुकटुकंदीपनंगरशोफजित्॥९१॥

लघूष्णंवातलंरूक्षंकालायं शाकमुच्यते। दीपनीचोष्णवीर्याचग्राहिणीकफमारुते॥९२॥

प्रशस्यतेऽम्लचाङ्गेरीग्रहण्यर्शोहिताचसा। मधुरामधुरापाकेभेदिनीश्लेष्मवर्धनी॥९३॥

वृष्यास्निग्धाचशीताचमदघ्नीचाप्युपोदिका। रूक्षोमदविषघ्नश्चप्रशस्तोरक्तपित्तिनाम्॥९४॥

मधुरोमधुरःपाकेशीतलस्तण्डुलीयकः। मण्डूकपर्णीवेत्राग्रंकुचेलावनतिक्तकम्॥९५॥

कर्कोटकावल्गुजकौपटोलंशकुलादनी वृषपुष्पाणिशार्ङ्गेष्टाकेम्बूकंसकठिल्लकम्॥९६॥

नाडीकलायंगोजिह्वावार्ताकंतिलपर्णिका। कौलकंकार्कशंनैम्बंशाकंपार्पटकंचयत्॥९७॥

कफपित्तहरंतिक्तंशीतंकटुविपच्यते।

atha śākavargaḥ- pāṭhāśuṣāśaṭīśākaṁ vāstukaṁ suniṣaṇṇākam||88||

vidyādgrāhi tridōṣaghnaṁ bhinnavarcastu vāstukam| tridōṣaśamanī vr̥ṣyā kākamācī rasāyanī||89||

nātyuṣṇaśītavīryā ca bhēdinī kuṣṭhanāśinī| rājakṣavakaśākaṁ tu tridōṣaśamanaṁ laghu||90||

grāhi śastaṁ viśēṣēṇa grahaṇyarśōvikāriṇām| kālaśākaṁ tu kaṭukaṁ dīpanaṁ garaśōphajit||91||

laghūṣṇaṁ vātalaṁ rūkṣaṁ kālāyaṁ [1] śākamucyatē| dīpanī cōṣṇavīryā ca grāhiṇī kaphamārutē||92||

praśasyatē'mlacāṅgērī grahaṇyarśōhitā ca sā| madhurā madhurā pākē bhēdinī ślēṣmavardhanī||93||

vr̥ṣyā snigdhā ca śītā ca madaghnī cāpyupōdikā| rūkṣō madaviṣaghnaśca praśastō raktapittinām||94||

madhurō madhuraḥ pākē śītalastaṇḍulīyakaḥ| maṇḍūkaparṇī vētrāgraṁ kucēlā vanatiktakam||95||

karkōṭakāvalgujakau paṭōlaṁ śakulādanī| vr̥ṣapuṣpāṇi śārṅgēṣṭā kēmbūkaṁ sakaṭhillakam||96||

nāḍī kalāyaṁ gōjihvā vārtākaṁ tilaparṇikā| kaulakaṁ kārkaśaṁ naimbaṁ śākaṁ pārpaṭakaṁ ca yat||97||

kaphapittaharaṁ tiktaṁ śītaṁ kaṭu vipacyatē|98|

atha SAkavargaH- pAThASuShASaTISAkaM vAstukaM suniShaNNAkam||88||

vidyAdgrAhi tridoShaGnaM Binnavarcastu vAstukam| tridoShaSamanI vRuShyA kAkamAcI rasAyanI||89||

nAtyuShNaSItavIryA ca BedinI kuShThanASinI| rAjakShavakaSAkaM tu tridoShaSamanaM laGu||90||

grAhi SastaM viSeSheNa grahaNyarSovikAriNAm| kAlaSAkaM tu kaTukaM dIpanaM garaSoPajit||91||

laGUShNaM vAtalaM rUkShaM kAlAyaM SAkamucyate| dIpanI coShNavIryA ca grAhiNI kaPamArute||92||

praSasyate&mlacA~ggerI grahaNyarSohitA ca sA| madhurA madhurA pAke BedinI SleShmavardhanI||93||

vRuShyA snigdhA ca SItA ca madaGnI cApyupodikA| rUkSho madaviShaGnaSca praSasto raktapittinAm||94||

madhuro madhuraH pAke SItalastaNDulIyakaH| maNDUkaparNI vetrAgraM kucelA vanatiktakam||95||

karkoTakAvalgujakau paTolaM SakulAdanI vRuShapuShpANi SAr~ggeShTA kembUkaM sakaThillakam||96||

nADI kalAyaM gojihvA vArtAkaM tilaparNikA| kaulakaM kArkaSaM naimbaM SAkaM pArpaTakaM ca yat||97||

kaPapittaharaM tiktaM SItaM kaTu vipacyate|

Now begins the class of vegetables. Patha (Cissampelos pareira Linn.), negro coffee (Cassia occidentalis Linn.), shatishaka, and marsilea (or sunishannaka) are considered as astringents and effective agents for alleviating three doshas. Vastuka is also laxative. [88]

The black night shade (Solanum nigrum Linn.) alleviates the three doshas, is an aphrodisiac, rejuvenates, is neither very hot nor cold in potency, is a laxative, and is effective in treating skin lesions. [89]

The rajakshavaka (asthma weed, or Euphorbia thymifolia Linn.) is effective in alleviating tridosha, is light to digest, is an astringent and is specially recommended for patients suffering from assimilation disorders and piles. [90]

The kalashaka (jute plant, (Corcorus capsularis Linn.)) is said to be pungent and appetizing, and is effective in treating the effect of poison and edema. The kalaya (chickling vetch) is said to be light, hot, dry, and promotes vata. [91]

Changeri (the yellow Wood-sorrel or Indian sorrel, or (Oxalis corniculata Linn.)) is hot in potency, is an appetizer and an astringent. It is recommended in kapha and vata disorders and is beneficial in assimilation-disorders and piles. [92]

Upodika (the Indian spinach, (Basella rubra Linn.)) is sweet (in taste and on digestion), unctuous, cold in potency, is a laxative, aggravates kapha, and is effective in treating intoxication. [93]

Tanduliyaka (The prickly amaranth, or (Amaranthus spinosus Linn.)) is dry, nullifies the effects of intoxication and poison and is beneficial in raktapitta. It is sweet (in taste and on digestion) and is cold in potency. [94]

Indian pennywort (Centella asiatica Linn.), country willow (Calamus tenuis Roxb.), raj-patha /kuchela, vanatiktaka (Mollugo spergula Linn.), sponge gourd (karkotaka, Momordica dioca Roxb), avalgujaka-bakuchi seeds (Psoralea corylifolia Linn.), patolam-pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) and shakuladani- kurroa (Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth), the flowers of vasaka (Adhatoda vasika Nees), sharngeshtha (Dregia volubilis (Linn.f) Benth), kebuka (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk), hog’s weed (kathillaka, Boerhavia diffusa Linn.), wild tossa jute (nadi shaka, Corchorus olitarious Linn.), chickling vetch (kalaya, Lathyrus sativus Linn.), elephant’s foot (gojihva, Launaea asplenifolia Hook.f.), brinjal (vartaka, Solanum melongena Linn.) and dog mustard (tilaparnika, Cleome icosandra Linn.), carilla (kaulakam, Momordia charantia Linn.), karkasa (Momordica sp.), neem leaves (nimbashakam, Azadirachta indica A.Juss) and trailing rungia (parpatakam, Fumaria vaillantti Loisel): these are regulators of kapha and pitta, bitter in taste, cold in potency and pungent on digestion. [95-97]

सर्वाणिसूप्यशाकानिफञ्जीचिल्लीकुतुम्बकः॥९८॥

आलुकानिचसर्वाणिसपत्राणिकुटिञ्जरम् । शणशाल्मलिपुष्पाणिकर्बुदारःसुवर्चला॥९९॥

निष्पावःकोविदारश्चपत्तुरश्चुच्चुपर्णिका। कुमारजीवोलोट्टाकःपालङ्क्यामारिषस्तथा॥१००॥

कलम्बनालिकासूर्यःकुसुम्भवृकधूमकौ। लक्ष्मणाचप्रपुन्नाडोनलिनीकाकुठेरकः॥१०१॥

लोणिकायवशाकंचकूष्माण्डकमवल्गुजम्। यातुकःशालकल्याणीत्रिपर्णीपीलुपर्णिका॥१०२॥

शाकंगुरुचरूक्षंचप्रायोविष्टभ्यजीर्यति। मधुरंशीतवीर्यंचपुरीषस्यचभेदनम्॥१०३॥

स्विन्नंनिष्पीडितरसंस्नेहाढ्यंतत्प्रशस्यते। शणस्यकोविदारस्यकर्बुदारस्यशाल्मलेः॥१०४॥

पुष्पंग्राहिप्रशस्तंचरक्तपित्तेविशेषतः। न्यग्रोधोदुम्बराश्वत्थप्लक्षपद्मादिपल्लवाः॥१०५॥

कषायाःस्तम्भनाःशीताहिताःपित्तातिसारिणाम्। वायुंवत्सादनीहन्यात्कफंगण्डीरचित्रकौ॥१०६॥

श्रेयसीबिल्वपर्णीचबिल्वपत्रंतुवातनुत्। भण्डीशतावरीशाकंबलाजीवन्तिकंचयत्॥१०७॥

पर्वण्याःपर्वपुष्प्याश्चवातपित्तहरंस्मृतम्। लघुभिन्नशकृत्तिक्तंलाङ्गलक्युरुबूकयोः॥१०८॥

तिलवेतसशाकंचशाकंपञ्चाङ्गुलस्यच। वातलंकटुतिक्ताम्लमधोमार्गप्रवर्तनम्॥१०९॥

रूक्षाम्लमुष्णंकौसुम्भंकफघ्नंपित्तवर्धनम्। त्रपुसैर्वारुकंस्वादुगुरुविष्टम्भिशीतलम्॥११०॥

मुखप्रियंचरूक्षंचमूत्रलंत्रपुसंत्वति। एर्वारुकंचसम्पक्वंदाहतृष्णाक्लमार्तिनुत्॥१११॥

वर्चोभेदीन्यलाबूनि रूक्षशीतगुरूणिच। चिर्भटैर्वारुकेतद्वद्वर्चोभेदहितेतुते॥११२॥

सक्षारं पक्वकूष्माण्डंमधुराम्लंतथालघु। सृष्टमूत्रपुरीषंचसर्वदोषनिबर्हणम्॥११३॥

sarvāṇi sūpyaśākāni phañjī cillī kutumbakaḥ||98||

ālukāni ca sarvāṇi sapatrāṇi kuṭiñjaram [3] | śaṇaśālmalipuṣpāṇi karbudāraḥ suvarcalā||99||

niṣpāvaḥ kōvidāraśca patturaścuccuparṇikā| kumārajīvō lōṭṭākaḥ pālaṅkyā māriṣastathā||100||

kalambanālikāsūryaḥ kusumbhavr̥kadhūmakau| lakṣmaṇā ca prapunnāḍō nalinīkā kuṭhērakaḥ||101||

lōṇikā yavaśākaṁ ca kūṣmāṇḍakamavalgujam| yātukaḥ śālakalyāṇī triparṇī pīluparṇikā||102||

śākaṁ guru ca rūkṣaṁ ca prāyō viṣṭabhya jīryati| madhuraṁ śītavīryaṁ ca purīṣasya ca bhēdanam||103||

svinnaṁ niṣpīḍitarasaṁ snēhāḍhyaṁ tat praśasyatē| śaṇasya kōvidārasya karbudārasya śālmalēḥ||104||

puṣpaṁ grāhi praśastaṁ ca raktapittē viśēṣataḥ| nyagrōdhōdumbarāśvatthaplakṣapadmādipallavāḥ||105||

kaṣāyāḥ stambhanāḥ śītā hitāḥ pittātisāriṇām| vāyuṁ vatsādanī hanyāt kaphaṁ gaṇḍīracitrakau||106||

śrēyasī bilvaparṇī ca bilvapatraṁ tu vātanut| bhaṇḍī śatāvarīśākaṁ balā jīvantikaṁ ca yat||107||

parvaṇyāḥ parvapuṣpyāśca vātapittaharaṁ smr̥tam| laghu bhinnaśakr̥ttiktaṁ lāṅgalakyurubūkayōḥ||108||

tilavētasaśākaṁ ca śākaṁ pañcāṅgulasya ca| vātalaṁ kaṭutiktāmlamadhōmārgapravartanam||109||

rūkṣāmlamuṣṇaṁ kausumbhaṁ kaphaghnaṁ pittavardhanam| trapusairvārukaṁ svādu guru viṣṭambhi śītalam||110||

mukhapriyaṁ ca rūkṣaṁ ca mūtralaṁ trapusaṁ tvati| ērvārukaṁ ca sampakvaṁ dāhatr̥ṣṇāklamārtinut||111||

varcōbhēdīnyalābūni [4] rūkṣaśītagurūṇi ca| cirbhaṭairvārukē tadvadvarcōbhēdahitē tu tē||112||

sakṣāraṁ [5] pakvakūṣmāṇḍaṁ madhurāmlaṁ tathā laghu| sr̥ṣṭamūtrapurīṣaṁ ca sarvadōṣanibarhaṇam||113||

sarvANi sUpyaSAkAni Pa~jjI cillI kutumbakaH||98||

AlukAni ca sarvANi sapatrANi kuTi~jjaram | SaNaSAlmalipuShpANi karbudAraH suvarcalA||99||

niShpAvaH kovidAraSca patturaScuccuparNikA| kumArajIvo loTTAkaH pAla~gkyA mAriShastathA||100||

kalambanAlikAsUryaH kusumBavRukadhUmakau| lakShmaNA ca prapunnADo nalinIkA kuTherakaH||101||

loNikA yavaSAkaM ca kUShmANDakamavalgujam| yAtukaH SAlakalyANI triparNI pIluparNikA||102||

SAkaM guru ca rUkShaM ca prAyo viShTaBya jIryati| madhuraM SItavIryaM ca purIShasya ca Bedanam||103||

svinnaM niShpIDitarasaM snehADhyaM tat praSasyate| SaNasya kovidArasya karbudArasya SAlmaleH||104||

puShpaM grAhi praSastaM ca raktapitte viSeShataH| nyagrodhodumbarASvatthaplakShapadmAdipallavAH||105||

kaShAyAH stamBanAH SItA hitAH pittAtisAriNAm| vAyuM vatsAdanI hanyAt kaPaM gaNDIracitrakau||106||

SreyasI bilvaparNI ca bilvapatraM tu vAtanut| BaNDI SatAvarISAkaM balA jIvantikaM ca yat||107||

parvaNyAH parvapuShpyASca vAtapittaharaM smRutam| laGu BinnaSakRuttiktaM lA~ggalakyurubUkayoH||108||

tilavetasaSAkaM ca SAkaM pa~jcA~ggulasya ca| vAtalaM kaTutiktAmlamadhomArgapravartanam||109||

rUkShAmlamuShNaM kausumBaM kaPaGnaM pittavardhanam| trapusairvArukaM svAdu guru viShTamBi SItalam||110||

muKapriyaM ca rUkShaM ca mUtralaM trapusaM tvati| ervArukaM ca sampakvaM dAhatRuShNAklamArtinut||111||

varcoBedInyalAbUni rUkShaSItagurUNi ca| cirBaTairvAruke tadvadvarcoBedahite tu te||112||

sakShAraM pakvakUShmANDaM madhurAmlaM tathA laGu| sRuShTamUtrapurIShaM ca sarvadoShanibarhaNam||113||

All pot-herbs: bind weed (phanji, Rivea ornata (Roxb.) chois), chilli/white goose foot (Chenopodium album Linn.), white dead nettle shrub (kutumbaka, Lamium album L.), all tubers of aluka (Dioscoria species) variety with their leaves, kutinjara patra (Digeria muricate (Linn.) Mart), Bengal hemp plant (shana, Chotalaria verrucosa Linn.), flowers of silk cotton (shalmalipushpa, Salmalia malabarica Schott), white mountain ebony (karbudara, Bauhinia variegata Linn.), heliotrope (suvarchala, Malva rotundifolia Linn.), lablab (nishpava, Dolichos lablab Linn.),variegated mountain ebony ( kovidara, Bauhinia purpurea Linn), coxcomb (pattura, Alternanthra sessilis (Linn.) R.Br.ex DC), multa jute (chunchuparnika, Corchorus Sp.), kumarajiva (Amaranthus paniculatus Linn.), lottaka (Amaranthus tricolor Linn.), spinach (palankya, Spinacia oleracea Linn.), marisha- amaranth (Amaranthus blitus Linn. var. oleracea Duthie), kalambanalika (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk), mustard (asuryah, Brassica juncea (Linn.) Czern & Coss), safflower (kusumbha, Carthamus tinctorius Linn.), vrikdhumak- young shirish, lakshmana, prapunnada- fetid cassia (Cassia tora Linn.), nalini- lotus stalk (tuber of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.), kutherakah- shrubby basil (Ocimum sp.), lonika- common Indian purslane (Portulaca quadrifida Linn.), yavashakam- (Chenopodium purpurascens), kushmanda- white gourd (Benincasa hispida (Thunb) Cogn.), avalgujam- babchi leaves (Psoralea corylifolia Linn.), yatuka (Desmodium sp.), shalkalyani (Alternanthera sp.), triparni- maidenhair (Adiantum lunulatum Burm.), peeluparnika- trilobed virgin’s bower (Maerua arenaria Hook.F & Th.)- are heavy, dry, delayed in digestion, sweet, cold in potency and loosen the feces. After being boiled and drained of the juice, and mixed with plenty of unctuous substance, they are good for eating. [98-103]

The flowers of Bengal hemp- shana pushpa (Crotalaria juncea Linn), kovidara pushpa (Bauhinia purpurea Linn), karbudara pushpa- white mountain ebony (Bauhinia variegata Linn.) and shalmali pushpa- silk cotton (Salmalia malabarica (DC) Schott & Endl) are astringent and specially recommended in raktapitta. [104]

The tender leaves of the nyagrodha- banyan (Ficus benghalensis Linn), udumbara- gular fig (Ficus racemosa Linn.), ashvattha- holy fig (Ficus religiosa Linn.), plaksha- yellow barked fig (Ficus lacor Buch-Ham) and padma- lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) etc. are astringent in taste, styptic, cold in potency and especially useful in diarrhea of the pitta type. [105]

Vatsadani, or guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Willd Miers) pacify vata while gandira and chitraka- white flowered leadwort (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) pacify kapha. Sheyasi- elephant pepper (Pluchea lanceolata C.B. Clarke), bilvaparni (Limonia crenulata Roxb.) and bilvapatram- bael (Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb.) leaves pacify vata. [106]

Bhandi- (Albizia lebbeck (Linn.) Willd), shatavari shaka- climbing asparagus (Asparagus racemosus Willd), bala- heart-leaved sida (Sida cordifolia Linn.), jivanti shaka-cork swallow wort (Leptadenia reticulata W.& A.) and parvanyah- the leaves of scutch grass (Polygonum sp.), and parvapushpi (Polygonum sp.) are said to are effective in curing vata and pitta [107-108]

Tiktam Langali- The glory lily (Gloriosa superba Linn.) and urubukayoh patrashakam- red flowered castor oil plant (Ricinus communis Linn.) are light, laxative and bitter. Tila shaka- (Sesamum indicum Linn.), vetasa-goat willow (Salix caprea Linn.), and panchangulasyashakam- castor oil plant (Ricinus sp.) are vata promoters, pungent, bitter, sour in taste, and stimulate the downward movement of bowels. Kusumbha- the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius Linn.) vegetable is dry, acid, hot, is effective in treating kapha and promotes pitta. [109]

Trapusha- Common cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linn.) and ervaruka- phut cucumber (Cucumis utilissimus Roxb.) are sweet, heavy, slow to digest, and cold in potency. The common cucumber is palatable, dry and a powerful diuretic. The phut cucumber, if fully ripe, allays burning, thirst, exhaustion and pain. [110]

Alabu- the bottle-gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.) is a laxative, dry, cold in potency and heavy. [111]

Chirbhata- Sweet melon (Cucumis momordica Duth and Full) and phut cucumber are similar to alabu- the bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.) except that they are wholesome in loose motions. The ripe white gourd- kushmanda (Benincasa hispida (Thunb) Cogn.) is slightly alkaline, sour-sweet, light, reduces urination and defecation, and alleviates tri-dosha. [112-113]

केलूटंचकदम्बंचनदीमाषकमैन्दुकम्। विशदंगुरुशीतंचसमभिष्यन्दिचोच्यते॥११४॥

उत्पलानिकषायाणिरक्तपित्तहराणिच। तथातालप्रलम्बंस्यादुरःक्षतरुजापहम्॥११५॥

खर्जूरंतालशस्यंचरक्तपित्तक्षयापहम्। तरूटबिसशालूकक्रौञ्चादनकशेरुकम्॥११६॥

शृङ्गाटकाङ्कलोड्यंचगुरुविष्टम्भिशीतलम्। कुमुदोत्पलनालास्तुसपुष्पाःसफलाःस्मृताः॥११७॥

शीताःस्वादुकषायास्तुकफमारुतकोपनाः। कषायमीषद्विष्टम्भिरक्तपित्तहरंस्मृतम्॥११८॥

पौष्करंतुभवेद्बीजंमधुरंरसपाकयोः। बल्यःशीतोगुरुःस्निग्धस्तर्पणोबृंहणात्मकः॥११९॥

वातपित्तहरःस्वादुर्वृष्योमुञ्जातकःपरम्। जीवनोबृंहणोवृष्यःकण्ठ्यःशस्तोरसायने॥१२०॥

विदारिकन्दोबल्यश्चमूत्रलःस्वादुशीतलः। अम्लिकायाःस्मृतःकन्दोग्रहण्यर्शोहितोलघुः॥१२१॥

नात्युष्णःकफवातघ्नोग्राहीशस्तोमदात्यये। त्रिदोषंबद्धविण्मूत्रंसार्षपंशाकमुच्यते॥१२२॥

(तद्वत् स्याद्रक्तनालस्यरूक्षमम्लंविशेषतः।) तद्वत्पिण्डालुकंविद्यात्कन्दत्वाच्चमुखप्रियम्। सर्पच्छत्रकवर्ज्यास्तुबह्व्योऽन्याश्छत्रजातयः॥१२३॥

शीताःपीनसकर्त्र्यश्चमधुरागुर्व्यएवच। चतुर्थःशाकवर्गोऽयंपत्रकन्दफलाश्रयः॥१२४॥

इतिशाकवर्गश्चतुर्थः॥४॥

kēlūṭaṁ ca kadambaṁ ca nadīmāṣakamaindukam| viśadaṁ guru śītaṁ ca samabhiṣyandi cōcyatē||114||

utpalāni kaṣāyāṇi raktapittaharāṇi ca| tathā tālapralambaṁ syāduraḥkṣatarujāpaham||115||

kharjūraṁ tālaśasyaṁ ca raktapittakṣayāpaham| tarūṭabisaśālūkakrauñcādanakaśērukam||116||

śr̥ṅgāṭakāṅkalōḍyaṁ ca guru viṣṭambhi śītalam| kumudōtpalanālāstu sapuṣpāḥ saphalāḥ smr̥tāḥ||117||

śītāḥ svādukaṣāyāstu kaphamārutakōpanāḥ| kaṣāyamīṣadviṣṭambhi raktapittaharaṁ smr̥tam||118||

pauṣkaraṁ tu bhavēdbījaṁ madhuraṁ rasapākayōḥ| balyaḥ śītō guruḥ snigdhastarpaṇō br̥ṁhaṇātmakaḥ||119||

vātapittaharaḥ svādurvr̥ṣyō muñjātakaḥ param| jīvanō br̥ṁhaṇō vr̥ṣyaḥ kaṇṭhyaḥ śastō rasāyanē||120||

vidārikandō balyaśca mūtralaḥ svāduśītalaḥ| amlikāyāḥ smr̥taḥ kandō grahaṇyarśōhitō laghuḥ||121||

nātyuṣṇaḥ kaphavātaghnō grāhī śastō madātyayē| tridōṣaṁ baddhaviṇmūtraṁ sārṣapaṁ śākamucyatē||122||

(tadvat [1] syādraktanālasya rūkṣamamlaṁ viśēṣataḥ|) tadvat piṇḍālukaṁ vidyāt kandatvācca mukhapriyam| sarpacchatrakavarjyāstu bahvyō'nyāśchatrajātayaḥ||123||

śītāḥ pīnasakartryaśca madhurā gurvya ēva ca| caturthaḥ śākavargō'yaṁ patrakandaphalāśrayaḥ||124|| iti śākavargaścaturthaḥ

kelUTaM ca kadambaM ca nadImAShakamaindukam| viSadaM guru SItaM ca samaBiShyandi cocyate||114||

utpalAni kaShAyANi raktapittaharANi ca| tathA tAlapralambaM syAduraHkShatarujApaham||115||

KarjUraM tAlaSasyaM ca raktapittakShayApaham| tarUTabisaSAlUkakrau~jcAdanakaSerukam||116||

SRu~ggATakA~gkaloDyaM ca guru viShTamBi SItalam| kumudotpalanAlAstu sapuShpAH saPalAH smRutAH||117||

SItAH svAdukaShAyAstu kaPamArutakopanAH| kaShAyamIShadviShTamBi raktapittaharaM smRutam||118||

pauShkaraM tu BavedbIjaM madhuraM rasapAkayoH| balyaH SIto guruH snigdhastarpaNo bRuMhaNAtmakaH||119||

vAtapittaharaH svAdurvRuShyo mu~jjAtakaH param| jIvano bRuMhaNo vRuShyaH kaNThyaH Sasto rasAyane||120||

vidArikando balyaSca mUtralaH svAduSItalaH| amlikAyAH smRutaH kando grahaNyarSohito laGuH||121||

nAtyuShNaH kaPavAtaGno grAhI Sasto madAtyaye| tridoShaM baddhaviNmUtraM sArShapaM SAkamucyate||122||

(tadvat syAdraktanAlasya rUkShamamlaM viSeShataH|) tadvat piNDAlukaM vidyAt kandatvAcca muKapriyam| sarpacCatrakavarjyAstu bahvyo&nyASCatrajAtayaH||123||

SItAH pInasakartryaSca madhurA gurvya eva ca| caturthaH SAkavargo&yaM patrakandaPalASrayaH||124||

iti SAkavargaScaturthaH||4||

The qualities of the keluta etc.:

The keluta, kadamba (Anthocephalus cadamba Miq), nadi-mashaka and ainduka- common mountain ebony are non-slim, heavy, cold in potency and are said to increase discharges in body. [114]

The blue water lily/ utpalani (Nymphaea caerulea auct. W. Afr.) is an astringent and is effective in treating raktapitta. Similarly, the sprouts of palmyra palm/ talapralamba (Borassus flabellifer Linn.) are effective in curing urakshata (pulmonary lesion). [115]

Dates (kharjura, Phoenix sylvestris Roxb.) and talashasya (kernel of palmyra palm) are effective in curing raktapitta and wasting. Taruta (Dioscorea belophylla voight), lotus filaments, lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) bulbs and fruits, kaunchadana / blue star water-lily (Nymphaea stellata Willd.), kasheruka/ club-rush (Scirpus grossus Linn.f.), shringataka/ Indian water chest-nut (Trapa natans Linn.Var. bispinosa Roxb.Makino), and ankolodya/ Fox nut (Euryale ferox Salisb) are heavy, slow to digest, and cold in potency. [116]

The rhizomes of kumuda/ night-flower lotus (Nymphaea stellata Willd.) and utpala- blue water lily together with the flowers and fruits are said to be cold in potency, sweet, astringent. These tend to provoke kapha and vata. [117]

The seeds of sacred lotus (paushakarabija, or the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) are said to be slightly astringent, slow to digest in the intestines, effective agents for curing raktapitta, and sweet (in taste and post digestion). [118]

Munjatakah (salep, Orchis latifolia Linn.) is said to be strengthening, cold in potency, heavy, unctuous, nourishing, is effective in treating vata and pitta, sweet and highly aphrodisiac. [119]

The bulb of vidarikanda (Indian kudju, pueraria tuberosa (wild)) is vitalizing, nourishing, aphrodisiac, voice-tonic, it is recommended in rejuvenation; strengthening, diuretic, sweet and cold in potency. [120]

Amlikakanda (vitis pentaphylla Thunb.) is regarded as beneficial in assimilation disorder and piles, and is light, not very hot, is effective in treating cough and vata, is an astringent and is recommended in chronic alcoholism. [121]

The curry of mustard leaves/ sarshapashaka (Brassica campestris Linn. Var. Sarson Prain) vitiates all of the three doshas and suppresses urine and defecation. Similar are the properties of rosella which, in addition to these, is dry and acidic. Similar too are the properties of pindaluka/ common yam (Dioscorea species). But, it is more palatable as it is a kanda (bulb). [122]

Ingesting the sarpa mushroom is forbidden. The other varieties of edible mushrooms are cold in potency, cause rhinitis, and are sweet and heavy. Thus, ends the fourth section on vegetables including leaves, bulb and fruits [123-124]

Class of fruits

अथफलवर्गः-

तृष्णादाहज्वरश्वासरक्तपित्तक्षतक्षयान्। वातपित्तमुदावर्तंस्वरभेदंमदात्ययम्॥१२५॥

तिक्तास्यतामास्यशोषंकासंचाशुव्यपोहति। मृद्वीकाबृंहणीवृष्यामधुरास्निग्धशीतला॥१२६॥

मधुरंबृंहणंवृष्यंखर्जूरंगुरुशीतलम्। क्षयेऽभिघातेदाहेचवातपित्तेचतद्धितम्॥१२७॥

तर्पणंबृंहणंफल्गुगुरुविष्टम्भिशीतलम्। परूषकंमधूकंचवातपित्तेचशस्यते॥१२८॥

मधुरंबृंहणंबल्यमाम्रातंतर्पणंगुरु। सस्नेहंश्लेष्मलंशीतंवृष्यंविष्टभ्यजीर्यति॥१२९॥

तालशस्यानिसिद्धानिनारिकेलफलानिच। बृंहणस्निग्धशीतानिबल्यानिमधुराणिच॥१३०॥

मधुराम्लकषायंचविष्टम्भिगुरुशीतलम्। पित्तश्लेष्मकरंभव्यंग्राहिवक्रविशोधनम्॥१३१॥

अम्लंपरूषकंद्राक्षाबदराण्यारुकाणिच। पित्तश्लेष्मप्रकोपीणिकर्कन्धुनिकुचान्यपि॥१३२॥

नात्युष्णंगुरुसम्पक्वंस्वादुप्रायंमुखप्रियम्। बृंहणंजीर्यतिक्षिप्रंनातिदोषलमारुकम्॥१३३॥

द्विविधंशीतमुष्णंचमधुरंचाम्लमेवच। गुरुपारावतंज्ञेयमरुच्यत्यग्निनाशनम्॥१३४॥

भव्यादल्पान्तरगुणंकाश्मर्यफलमुच्यते। तथैवाल्पान्तरगुणंतूदमम्लंपरूषकात्॥१३५॥

कषायमधुरंटङ्कंवातलंगुरुशीतलम्। कपित्थमामंकण्ठघ्नंविषघ्नंग्राहिवातलम् ॥१३६॥

मधुराम्लकषायत्वात्सौगन्ध्याच्चरुचिप्रदम्। परिपक्वं चदोषघ्नंविषघ्नंग्राहिगुर्वपि॥१३७॥

बिल्वंतुदुर्जरंपक्वंदोषलंपूतिमारुतम्। स्निग्धोष्णतीक्ष्णंतद्बालंदीपनंकफवातजित्॥१३८॥

रक्तपित्तकरंबालमापूर्णंपित्तवर्धनम्। पक्वमाम्रंजयेद्वायुंमांसशुक्रबलप्रदम्॥१३९॥

कषायमधुरप्रायंगुरुविष्टम्भिशीतलम्। जाम्बवंकफपित्तघ्नंग्राहिवातकरंपरम्॥१४०॥

बदरंमधुरंस्निग्धंभेदनंवातपित्तजित्। तच्छुष्कंकफवातघ्नंपित्तेनचविरुध्यते॥१४१॥

कषायमधुरंशीतंग्राहिसिम्बि(ञ्चि)तिकाफलम्। गाङ्गेरुकीकरीरंचबिम्बीतोदनधन्वनम्॥१४२॥

मधुरंसकषायंचशीतंपित्तकफापहम्। सम्पक्वंपनसंमोचंराजादनफलानिच॥१४३॥

स्वादूनिसकषायाणिस्निग्धशीतगुरूणिच। कषायविशदत्वाच्चसौगन्ध्याच्चरुचिप्रदम्॥१४४॥

अवदंशक्षमंहृद्यंवातलंलवलीफलम्। नीपंशताह्वकं पीलुतृणशून्यंविकङ्कतम्॥१४५॥

प्राचीनामलकंचैवदोषघ्नंगरहारिच। ऐङ्गुदंतिक्तमधुरंस्निग्धोष्णंकफवातजित्॥१४६॥

तिन्दुकंकफपित्तघ्नंकषायंमधुरंलघु। विद्यादामलकेसर्वान्रसांल्लवणवर्जितान्॥१४७॥

रूक्षंस्वादुकषायाम्लंकफपित्तहरंपरम्। रसासृङ्मांसमेदोजान्दोषान्हन्तिबिभीतकम्॥१४८॥

स्वरभेदकफोत्क्लेदपित्तरोगविनाशनम्। अम्लंकषायमधुरंवातघ्नंग्राहिदीपनम्॥१४९॥

स्निग्धोष्णंदाडिमंहृद्यंकफपित्ताविरोधिच। रूक्षाम्लंदाडिमंयत्तुतत्पित्तानिलकोपनम्॥१५०॥

मधुरंपित्तनुत्तेषांपूर्वंदाडिममुत्तमम्। वृक्षाम्लंग्राहिरूक्षोष्णंवातश्लेष्मणिशस्यते॥१५१॥

अम्लिकायाःफलंपक्वंतस्मादल्पान्तरंगुणैः। गुणैस्तैरेवसंयुक्तंभेदनंत्वम्लवेतसम्॥१५२॥

शूलेऽरुचौविबन्धेचमन्देऽग्नौमद्यविप्लवे । हिक्काश्वासेचकासेचवम्यांवर्चोगदेषुच॥१५३॥

वातश्लेष्मसमुत्थेषुसर्वेष्वेवोपदिश्यते। केसरंमातुलुङ्गस्यलघुशेषमतोऽन्यथा॥१५४॥

रोचनोदीपनोहृद्यःसुगन्धिस्त्वग्विवर्जितः। कर्चूरःकफवातघ्नःश्वासहिक्कार्शसांहितः॥१५५॥

मधुरंकिञ्चिदम्लंचहृद्यंभक्तप्ररोचनम्। दुर्जरंवातशमनंनागरङ्गफलंगुरु ॥१५६॥

वातामाभिषुकाक्षोटमुकूलकनिकोचकाः। गुरूष्णस्निग्धमधुराःसोरुमाणाबलप्रदाः॥१५७॥

वातघ्नाबृंहणावृष्याःकफपित्ताभिवर्धनाः। प्रियालमेषांसदृशंविद्यादौष्ण्यंविनागुणैः॥१५८॥

श्लेष्मलंमधुरंशीतंश्लेष्मातकफलंगुरु। श्लेष्मलंगुरुविष्टम्भिचाङ्कोटफलमग्निजित्॥१५९॥

गुरूष्णंमधुरंरूक्षंकेशघ्नंचशमीफलम्। विष्टम्भयतिकारञ्जंवातश्लेष्माविरोधिच॥१६०॥

आम्रातकंदन्तशठमम्लंसकरमर्दकम्। रक्तपित्तकरंविद्यादैरावतकमेवच॥१६१॥

वातघ्नंदीपनंचैववार्ताकंकटुतिक्तकम्। वातलंकफपित्तघ्नंविद्यात्पर्पटकीफलम्॥१६२॥

पित्तश्लेष्मघ्नमम्लंचवातलंचाक्षिकीफलम्। मधुराण्यम्लपाकीनिपित्तश्लेष्महराणिच॥१६३॥

अश्वत्थोदुम्बरप्लक्षन्यग्रोधानांफलानिच। कषायमधुराम्लानिवातलानिगुरूणिच॥१६४॥

भल्लातकास्थ्यग्निसमंतन्मांसंस्वादुशीतलम्। पञ्चमःफलवर्गोऽयमुक्तःप्रायोपयोगिकः॥१६५॥

इतिफलवर्गः॥५॥

atha phalavargaḥ-

tr̥ṣṇādāhajvaraśvāsaraktapittakṣatakṣayān| vātapittamudāvartaṁ svarabhēdaṁ madātyayam||125||

tiktāsyatāmāsyaśōṣaṁ kāsaṁ cāśu vyapōhati| mr̥dvīkā br̥ṁhaṇī vr̥ṣyā madhurā snigdhaśītalā||126||

madhuraṁ br̥ṁhaṇaṁ vr̥ṣyaṁ kharjūraṁ guru śītalam| kṣayē'bhighātē dāhē ca vātapittē ca taddhitam||127||

tarpaṇaṁ br̥ṁhaṇaṁ phalgu guru viṣṭambhi śītalam| parūṣakaṁ madhūkaṁ ca vātapittē ca śasyatē||128||

madhuraṁ br̥ṁhaṇaṁ balyamāmrātaṁ tarpaṇaṁ guru| sasnēhaṁ ślēṣmalaṁ śītaṁ vr̥ṣyaṁ viṣṭabhya jīryati||129||

tālaśasyāni siddhāni nārikēlaphalāni ca| br̥ṁhaṇasnigdhaśītāni balyāni madhurāṇi ca||130||

madhurāmlakaṣāyaṁ ca viṣṭambhi guru śītalam| pittaślēṣmakaraṁ bhavyaṁ grāhi vakraviśōdhanam||131||

amlaṁ parūṣakaṁ drākṣā badarāṇyārukāṇi ca| pittaślēṣmaprakōpīṇi karkandhunikucānyapi||132||

nātyuṣṇaṁ guru sampakvaṁ svāduprāyaṁ mukhapriyam| br̥ṁhaṇaṁ jīryati kṣipraṁ nātidōṣalamārukam||133||

dvividhaṁ śītamuṣṇaṁ ca madhuraṁ cāmlamēva ca| guru pārāvataṁ jñēyamarucyatyagnināśanam||134||

bhavyādalpāntaraguṇaṁ kāśmaryaphalamucyatē| tathaivālpāntaraguṇaṁ tūdamamlaṁ parūṣakāt||135||

kaṣāyamadhuraṁ ṭaṅkaṁ vātalaṁ guru śītalam| kapitthamāmaṁ kaṇṭhaghnaṁ viṣaghnaṁ grāhi vātalam [1] ||136||

madhurāmlakaṣāyatvāt saugandhyācca rucipradam| paripakvaṁ [2] ca dōṣaghnaṁ viṣaghnaṁ grāhi gurvapi||137||

bilvaṁ tu durjaraṁ pakvaṁ dōṣalaṁ pūtimārutam| snigdhōṣṇatīkṣṇaṁ tadbālaṁ dīpanaṁ kaphavātajit||138||

raktapittakaraṁ bālamāpūrṇaṁ pittavardhanam| pakvamāmraṁ jayēdvāyuṁ māṁsaśukrabalapradam||139||

kaṣāyamadhuraprāyaṁ guru viṣṭambhi śītalam| jāmbavaṁ kaphapittaghnaṁ grāhi vātakaraṁ param||140||

badaraṁ madhuraṁ snigdhaṁ bhēdanaṁ vātapittajit| tacchuṣkaṁ kaphavātaghnaṁ pittē na ca virudhyatē||141||

kaṣāyamadhuraṁ śītaṁ grāhi simbi(ñci)tikāphalam| gāṅgērukī karīraṁ ca bimbī tōdanadhanvanam||142||

madhuraṁ sakaṣāyaṁ ca śītaṁ pittakaphāpaham| sampakvaṁ panasaṁ mōcaṁ rājādanaphalāni ca||143||

svādūni sakaṣāyāṇi snigdhaśītagurūṇi ca| kaṣāyaviśadatvācca saugandhyācca rucipradam||144||

avadaṁśakṣamaṁ hr̥dyaṁ vātalaṁ lavalīphalam| nīpaṁ śatāhvakaṁ [3] pīlu tr̥ṇaśūnyaṁ vikaṅkatam||145||

prācīnāmalakaṁ caiva dōṣaghnaṁ garahāri ca| aiṅgudaṁ tiktamadhuraṁ snigdhōṣṇaṁ kaphavātajit||146||

tindukaṁ kaphapittaghnaṁ kaṣāyaṁ madhuraṁ laghu| vidyādāmalakē sarvān rasāṁllavaṇavarjitān||147||

rūkṣaṁ svādu kaṣāyāmlaṁ kaphapittaharaṁ param| rasāsr̥ṅmāṁsamēdōjāndōṣān hanti bibhītakam||148||

svarabhēdakaphōtklēdapittarōgavināśanam| amlaṁ kaṣāyamadhuraṁ vātaghnaṁ grāhi dīpanam||149||

snigdhōṣṇaṁ dāḍimaṁ hr̥dyaṁ kaphapittāvirōdhi ca| rūkṣāmlaṁ dāḍimaṁ yattu tat pittānilakōpanam||150||

madhuraṁ pittanuttēṣāṁ pūrvaṁ dāḍimamuttamam| vr̥kṣāmlaṁ grāhi rūkṣōṣṇaṁ vātaślēṣmaṇi śasyatē||151||

amlikāyāḥ phalaṁ pakvaṁ tasmādalpāntaraṁ guṇaiḥ| guṇaistairēva saṁyuktaṁ bhēdanaṁ tvamlavētasam||152||

śūlē'rucau vibandhē ca mandē'gnau madyaviplavē [4] | hikkāśvāsē ca kāsē ca vamyāṁ varcōgadēṣu ca||153||

vātaślēṣmasamutthēṣu sarvēṣvēvōpadiśyatē| kēsaraṁ mātuluṅgasya laghu śēṣamatō'nyathā||154||

rōcanō dīpanō hr̥dyaḥ sugandhistvagvivarjitaḥ| karcūraḥ kaphavātaghnaḥ śvāsahikkārśasāṁ hitaḥ||155||

madhuraṁ kiñcidamlaṁ ca hr̥dyaṁ bhaktaprarōcanam| durjaraṁ vātaśamanaṁ nāgaraṅgaphalaṁ guru [5] ||156||

vātāmābhiṣukākṣōṭamukūlakanikōcakāḥ| gurūṣṇasnigdhamadhurāḥ sōrumāṇā balapradāḥ||157||

vātaghnā br̥ṁhaṇā vr̥ṣyāḥ kaphapittābhivardhanāḥ| priyālamēṣāṁ sadr̥śaṁ vidyādauṣṇyaṁ vinā guṇaiḥ||158||

ślēṣmalaṁ madhuraṁ śītaṁ ślēṣmātakaphalaṁ guru| ślēṣmalaṁ guru viṣṭambhi cāṅkōṭaphalamagnijit||159||

gurūṣṇaṁ madhuraṁ rūkṣaṁ kēśaghnaṁ ca śamīphalam| viṣṭambhayati kārañjaṁ vātaślēṣmāvirōdhi ca||160||

āmrātakaṁ dantaśaṭhamamlaṁ sakaramardakam| raktapittakaraṁ vidyādairāvatakamēva ca||161||

vātaghnaṁ dīpanaṁ caiva vārtākaṁ kaṭu tiktakam| vātalaṁ kaphapittaghnaṁ vidyāt parpaṭakīphalam||162||

pittaślēṣmaghnamamlaṁ ca vātalaṁ cākṣikīphalam| madhurāṇyamlapākīni pittaślēṣmaharāṇi ca||163||

aśvatthōdumbaraplakṣanyagrōdhānāṁ phalāni ca| kaṣāyamadhurāmlāni vātalāni gurūṇi ca||164||

bhallātakāsthyagnisamaṁ tanmāṁsaṁ svādu śītalam| pañcamaḥ phalavargō'yamuktaḥ prāyōpayōgikaḥ||165||

iti phalavargaḥ

atha PalavargaH-

tRuShNAdAhajvaraSvAsaraktapittakShatakShayAn| vAtapittamudAvartaM svaraBedaM madAtyayam||125||

tiktAsyatAmAsyaSoShaM kAsaM cASu vyapohati| mRudvIkA bRuMhaNI vRuShyA madhurA snigdhaSItalA||126||

madhuraM bRuMhaNaM vRuShyaM KarjUraM guru SItalam| kShaye&BiGAte dAhe ca vAtapitte ca taddhitam||127||

tarpaNaM bRuMhaNaM Palgu guru viShTamBi SItalam| parUShakaM madhUkaM ca vAtapitte ca Sasyate||128||

madhuraM bRuMhaNaM balyamAmrAtaM tarpaNaM guru| sasnehaM SleShmalaM SItaM vRuShyaM viShTaBya jIryati||129||

tAlaSasyAni siddhAni nArikelaPalAni ca| bRuMhaNasnigdhaSItAni balyAni madhurANi ca||130||

madhurAmlakaShAyaM ca viShTamBi guru SItalam| pittaSleShmakaraM BavyaM grAhi vakraviSodhanam||131||

amlaM parUShakaM drAkShA badarANyArukANi ca| pittaSleShmaprakopINi karkandhunikucAnyapi||132||

nAtyuShNaM guru sampakvaM svAduprAyaM muKapriyam| bRuMhaNaM jIryati kShipraM nAtidoShalamArukam||133||

dvividhaM SItamuShNaM ca madhuraM cAmlameva ca| guru pArAvataM j~jeyamarucyatyagninASanam||134||

BavyAdalpAntaraguNaM kASmaryaPalamucyate| tathaivAlpAntaraguNaM tUdamamlaM parUShakAt||135||

kaShAyamadhuraM Ta~gkaM vAtalaM guru SItalam| kapitthamAmaM kaNThaGnaM viShaGnaM grAhi vAtalam ||136||

madhurAmlakaShAyatvAt saugandhyAcca rucipradam| paripakvaM ca doShaGnaM viShaGnaM grAhi gurvapi||137||

bilvaM tu durjaraM pakvaM doShalaM pUtimArutam| snigdhoShNatIkShNaM tadbAlaM dIpanaM kaPavAtajit||138||

raktapittakaraM bAlamApUrNaM pittavardhanam| pakvamAmraM jayedvAyuM mAMsaSukrabalapradam||139||

kaShAyamadhuraprAyaM guru viShTamBi SItalam| jAmbavaM kaPapittaGnaM grAhi vAtakaraM param||140||

badaraM madhuraM snigdhaM BedanaM vAtapittajit| tacCuShkaM kaPavAtaGnaM pitte na ca virudhyate||141||

kaShAyamadhuraM SItaM grAhi simbi(~jci)tikAPalam| gA~ggerukI karIraM ca bimbI todanadhanvanam||142||

madhuraM sakaShAyaM ca SItaM pittakaPApaham| sampakvaM panasaM mocaM rAjAdanaPalAni ca||143||

svAdUni sakaShAyANi snigdhaSItagurUNi ca| kaShAyaviSadatvAcca saugandhyAcca rucipradam||144||

avadaMSakShamaM hRudyaM vAtalaM lavalIPalam| nIpaM SatAhvakaM pIlu tRuNaSUnyaM vika~gkatam||145||

prAcInAmalakaM caiva doShaGnaM garahAri ca| ai~ggudaM tiktamadhuraM snigdhoShNaM kaPavAtajit||146||

tindukaM kaPapittaGnaM kaShAyaM madhuraM laGu| vidyAdAmalake sarvAn rasAMllavaNavarjitAn||147||

rUkShaM svAdu kaShAyAmlaM kaPapittaharaM param| rasAsRu~gmAMsamedojAndoShAn hanti biBItakam||148||

svaraBedakaPotkledapittarogavinASanam| amlaM kaShAyamadhuraM vAtaGnaM grAhi dIpanam||149||

snigdhoShNaM dADimaM hRudyaM kaPapittAvirodhi ca| rUkShAmlaM dADimaM yattu tat pittAnilakopanam||150||

madhuraM pittanutteShAM pUrvaM dADimamuttamam| vRukShAmlaM grAhi rUkShoShNaM vAtaSleShmaNi Sasyate||151||

amlikAyAH PalaM pakvaM tasmAdalpAntaraM guNaiH| guNaistaireva saMyuktaM BedanaM tvamlavetasam||152||

SUle&rucau vibandhe ca mande&gnau madyaviplave | hikkASvAse ca kAse ca vamyAM varcogadeShu ca||153||

vAtaSleShmasamuttheShu sarveShvevopadiSyate| kesaraM mAtulu~ggasya laGu SeShamato&nyathA||154||

rocano dIpano hRudyaH sugandhistvagvivarjitaH| karcUraH kaPavAtaGnaH SvAsahikkArSasAM hitaH||155||

madhuraM ki~jcidamlaM ca hRudyaM Baktaprarocanam| durjaraM vAtaSamanaM nAgara~ggaPalaM guru ||156||

vAtAmABiShukAkShoTamukUlakanikocakAH| gurUShNasnigdhamadhurAH sorumANA balapradAH||157||

vAtaGnA bRuMhaNA vRuShyAH kaPapittABivardhanAH| priyAlameShAM sadRuSaM vidyAdauShNyaM vinA guNaiH||158||

SleShmalaM madhuraM SItaM SleShmAtakaPalaM guru| SleShmalaM guru viShTamBi cA~gkoTaPalamagnijit||159||

gurUShNaM madhuraM rUkShaM keSaGnaM ca SamIPalam| viShTamBayati kAra~jjaM vAtaSleShmAvirodhi ca||160||

AmrAtakaM dantaSaThamamlaM sakaramardakam| raktapittakaraM vidyAdairAvatakameva ca||161||

vAtaGnaM dIpanaM caiva vArtAkaM kaTu tiktakam| vAtalaM kaPapittaGnaM vidyAt parpaTakIPalam||162||

pittaSleShmaGnamamlaM ca vAtalaM cAkShikIPalam| madhurANyamlapAkIni pittaSleShmaharANi ca||163||

aSvatthodumbaraplakShanyagrodhAnAM PalAni ca| kaShAyamadhurAmlAni vAtalAni gurUNi ca||164||

BallAtakAsthyagnisamaM tanmAMsaM svAdu SItalam| pa~jcamaH Palavargo&yamuktaH prAyopayogikaH||165||

iti PalavargaH||5||

Now begins the section on fruits. The grape / mridvika (Vitis vinifera Linn.) quickly is effective in treating thirst, burning fever, dyspnea, raktapitta, pectoral lesions, wasting disorders of vata and pitta, mis-peristalsis, hoarseness of voice, chronic alcoholism, bitter taste in the mouth, and cough. It is nourishing, and aphrodisiac, sweet, unctuous and cold in potency. [125-126]

The date/khajura (phoenix sylvestris Roxb.) is sweet, nourishing, aphrodisiac, heavy and cold in potency. It is beneficial in wasting, trauma, burning fever, and disorders of vata and pitta. [127]

Common fig (Ficus carica Linn.) is nourishing, heavy, delays digestion, and is cold in potency. Sweet falsah/ parushaka (Grewia asiatia Linn.), and mohwah/madhuka (Madhuca indica J.F. Gmel.) are recommended in disorders of vata and pitta. [128]

Indian hog plum (Spondias pinnata Linn.P) is sweet, nourishing, strengthening, nourishing, heavy, slight unctuous, increases kapha, is cold in potency, aphrodisiac and delayed in digestion. [129]

The ripe fruits of palmyra/talashasyani (Borassus flaballifa Linn.) and coconut/narikelaphala (Cocus nucifera Linn.) are nourishing, unctuous, cold in potency, strengthening and sweet. [130]

The showy dillenia fruit/bhavyam (Dillenia indica Linn.) is sweet, acid, astringent in taste, delayed in digestion, heavy and cold in potency. It increases pitta and kapha and is astringent and a mouth-cleanser. [131]

The sour falsah, grape, small jujube, the peach, wild jujube and small jack provoke or aggravate pitta and kapha. [132]

Fully ripe peach/aruka (Prunus persica Batsch.) is not very hot. It is heavy, sweetish, palatable, nourishing, quickly digested and not very unwholesome. [133]

Of the two varieties of paravata fruits (Garcinia cowa Roxb.), one is sweet and cold in potency, and the other is sour and hot. It is known to be heavy and is effective in treating anorexia while stimulating agni. [134]

The fruit of white teak (Gmelina arborea Roxb.) / kashmaryaphalam (Gmelina arborea Roxb.) is said to be slightly different in quality from showy dillenia. Similarly, sour mulberry/ amlatuda (Morus alba Linn.) differs in quality slghtly from falsah. [135]

The pear fruit/tankam (Pyrus communis Linn.) is astringent and sweet in taste increases vata is heavy and cold in potency. The raw wood- apple/ kapittham (Feronia limonia (Linn.) Swingle adversely affects the voice, but neutralizes poison, is an astringent and increases vata. [136]

The ripe fruit of wood- apple being sweet, sour, astringent and fragrant, is relishing, is effective in treating discordance, acts as an antidote to poison, is an astringent and is heavy. [137]

The ripe bael fruit/bilvam (Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb.) is difficult of digestion, aggravator of all doshas and foul flatus. The immature beal, fruit is unctuous, hot, acute, digestive stimulant and is effective in treating kapha and vata. [138]

While the young fruits of amra/ mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) causes raktapitta and unripe mango increases pitta, the fully ripe mango subdues vata and increases flesh, semen and strength. [139]

The jambul (Syzygium cuminii Linn.Skeel) fruit is generally astringent and sweet in taste, heavy delayed in digestion and cold in potency. It is effective in treating kapha and pitta, is an astringent and greatly increases vata [140]

The small jujube (Ziziphus maruitiana Lam.) is a sweet, unctuous, laxative and is effective in treating vata and pitta. The dried small jujube (Ziziphus Sp.) is effective in treating kapha and vata and is not contraindicated in pitta. [141]

The sinchitika (a type of Badara) fruit is astringent, sweet in taste, cold in potency and astringent in action. The ginkgo fruit (Grewia hirsuta Vahl.), caper berry (Capparis decidua Edgew.), scarlet-fruited gourd/ bimbi phala (Coccinia indica W & A), todan (Grewia species) and fruits of dhaman /dhanvana (Grewia tiliaefolia Vahl.) are sweet, slightly astringent in taste, cold in potency and are effective in curing pitta and kapha. The fully ripe Indian jackfruit/panasa (Artocarpus integrifolia Linn.f.), banana/Mocha (Musa paradisiaca Linn.) and fruits of Indian ape flower tree/rajadana phala (Mimusops hexandra Roxb.) are sweet, slightly astringent, unctuous, cold in potency and heavy [141-143]

The lavanga-lata / lavali phala (Luvunga scandens (Roxb.)) fruit, being astringent, limpid and fragrant, is an appetizer, savoury, cordial and increases vata. [144]

Kadamba/Nipam (Mitragyna parviflora (Roxb.) Korth), Indian dill/Shatahvakam (Anethum sowa Roxb. ex Flem), tooth brush tree/Peelu (Salvadora persica Linn.), screw pine/ trinashunyam (Pandanus odoratissimus Linn.f.), governor’s plum/vikankatam (Flacourtia ramonthchi L. Herit) and puneala plum/pracinamalaka (Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch) are indeed dispellers of discordance and is effective in treating the effects of poison. [145]

The fruit of zachum oil plant/aingudam (Balanites aegyptiaca (Linn.) Delile), is bitter-sweet in taste, unctuous, hot and is effective in treating kapha and vata. The riber ebony fruit/tindukam (Diospyros embryopteris Pers.) is effective in treating kapha and pitta, astringent, sweet and light. The emblic myrobalan/amalaka (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.)is regarded as possessing all the taste except the salt. [146-147]

The belliric myrobalan/bibhitaka (Terminalia bellirica Roxb.)is dry, sweet, astringent, acid and an excellent is effective in treating kapha and pitta and dispels the disorders of body-fluid, blood, flesh and fat. [148]

The pomegranate/dadima (Punica granatum Linn.) is effective in treating hoarseness of voice, hyper-secretion of mucus, and disorders of pitta and vata. It is sweet, astringent and sour in taste, an appetizer, unctuous, hot, cordial and not antagonistic to kapha and pitta. The pomegranate which is dry and acid aggravates pitta and vata, the sweet one is effective in treating pitta. So, the qualities of pomegranate are described first. [149-151]

The kokum-butter fruit/vrikshamlam (Garcinia indica Choisy) is an astringent, dry and hot and is good for vata and kapha disorders. The ripe tamarind/amlika (Tamarindus indica Linn.) fruit is slightly different in quality. The amlavetasa (Hippophae rhamnoides sub sp. salicifolia) also possesses the same qualities and is a laxative. [152]

The filament of the citron flower/matulunga (Citrus medica Linn.) is indicated in intestinal colic, anorexia, constipation, weak digestive fire, chronic alcoholism, hiccups, dyspnea, cough, vomiting, disorders of stools and in all diseases born of vata and kapha. The filament of the citron is light but the rest of the parts are heavy. [153-154]

The long zedoary/karchuh (Curcuma zedoaria Rosc.) fruit, without the rind, is palatable, appetizing, cordial, fragrant, is effective in treating kapha and vata and is beneficial in cases of dyspnea, hiccup and piles. [155]

The common orange fruit/nagarangaphala (Citrus reticulata Blanco) is sweet, slightly sour, cordial, appetizer, difficult to digest, is effective in treating vata and is heavy to digest. [156]

The almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch. Variety sativa (sweet)), green almond/ abhisuka (Pistacia vera Linn.), walnut/akshota (Juglans regia Linn.), edible pine/Mukulaka (Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell-Arg), chilgoza pine/nikochaka (Pinus gerardiana wallich.) , and apricot/urumana(Prunus armeniaca Linn.), are heavy to digest, hot in potency, unctuous, sweet, strengthening, are effective in curing vata, nourishing, aphrodisiac and aggravate kapha and pitta. Buchanan’s mango/priyala (Buchanania lanzan Spreng) should be considered similar in action to the above except in the qualities of being hot. [157-158]

The sabestan plum / shleshmantakaphala (Cordia dichotoma Forst.f.) increases kapha, is sweet, cold in potency and heavy. The alangy / ankotaphala (Alangium salviifolium (Linn. F.) Wang.) increases kapha, is heavy, delayed in the intestines, and is effective in treating excessive heat. [159]

The shami fruit Prosopis spicigera Linn.) is heavy, hot, sweet, dry and depilatory, while the fruit of the Indian beech/karanja (Pongamia pinnata Pierre) is moves slowly through the intestines and is not adverse to vata and kapha. [160]

The Indian hog-plum/amrataka (Spondias pinnata (Linn.f) Kurz), lemon/Dantashatha (Citrus limon (Linn.) Burm.f.), bengal currant/karamardaka (Carissa spinarum Linn.), and common orange/airavata (Citrus sinensis (Linn.) Osbeck) are sour and cause raktapitta. [161]

The eggplant/aubergine/brinjal /vartaku (Solanum melongena Linn.) is effective in treating vata, is an appetizer, and is pungent and bitter. The Boxwood gardenia/parpatakaphala (Gardenia latifolia Ait) fruit aggravates vata and is effective in treating kapha and pitta. [162]

The akshiki fruit (Morinda tinctoria Roxb.), is effective in treating pitta and kapha, is sour in taste and increases vata. The fruits of the holy fig/ashvattha (Ficus religiosa Linn.), country fig/udumbaraphala (Ficus glomerata Roxb.), yellow barked fig/plaksha(Ficus lacor Buch- Ham) and banyan/ nyagrodhaphala(Ficus benghalensis Linn.)are sweet, sour after digestion, is effective in treating pitta and kapha, astringent, sweet and sour in taste, promotive of vata and heavy. [163-164]

The marking-nut/bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.f) is caustic like fire but the pulp of the fruit is sweet and cold in potency. Thus, is described the fifth section about fruits generally in use. [165]

Class of green herbs

अथहरितवर्गः-

रोचनंदीपनंवृष्यमार्द्रकंविश्वभेषजम्। वातश्लेष्मविबन्धेषुरसस्तस्योपदिश्यते॥१६६॥

रोचनोदीपनस्तीक्ष्णःसुगन्धिर्मुखशोधनः। जम्बीरःकफवातघ्नःक्रिमिघ्नोभक्तपाचनः॥१६७॥

बालंदोषहरं, वृद्धंत्रिदोषं, मारुतापहम्। स्निग्धसिद्धं, विशुष्कंतुमूलकंकफवातजित्॥१६८॥

हिक्काकासविषश्वासपार्श्वशूलविनाशनः। पित्तकृत्कफवातघ्नःसुरसःपूतिगन्धहा॥१६९॥

यवानीचार्जकश्चैवशिग्रुशालेयमृष्टकम्। हृद्यान्यास्वादनीयानिपित्तमुत्क्लेशयन्तिच॥१७०॥

गण्डीरोजलपिप्पल्यस्तुम्बरुःशृङ्गवेरिका। तीक्ष्णोष्णकटुरूक्षाणिकफवातहराणिच॥१७१॥

पुंस्त्वघ्नःकटुरूक्षोष्णोभूस्तृणोवक्रशोधनः। खराह्वाकफवातघ्नीबस्तिरोगरुजापहा॥१७२॥

धान्यकंचाजगन्धाचसुमुखश्चेतिरोचनाः। सुगन्धानातिकटुकादोषानुत्क्लेशयन्तिच॥१७३॥

ग्राहीगृञ्जनकस्तीक्ष्णोवातश्लेष्मार्शसांहितः। स्वेदनेऽभ्यवहारेचयोजयेत्तमपित्तिनाम्॥१७४॥

श्लेष्मलोमारुतघ्नश्चपलाण्डुर्नचपित्तनुत् । आहारयोगीबल्यश्चगुरुर्वृष्योऽथरोचनः॥१७५॥

क्रिमिकुष्ठकिलासघ्नोवातघ्नोगुल्मनाशनः। स्निग्धश्चोष्णश्चवृष्यश्चलशुनःकटुकोगुरुः॥१७६॥

शुष्काणिकफवातघ्नान्येतान्येषांफलानिच। हरितानामयंचैषषष्ठोवर्गःसमाप्यते॥१७७॥

इतिहरितवर्गः॥४॥

atha haritavargaḥ- rōcanaṁ dīpanaṁ vr̥ṣyamārdrakaṁ viśvabhēṣajam| vātaślēṣmavibandhēṣu rasastasyōpadiśyatē||166||

rōcanō dīpanastīkṣṇaḥ sugandhirmukhaśōdhanaḥ| jambīraḥ kaphavātaghnaḥ krimighnō bhaktapācanaḥ||167||

bālaṁ dōṣaharaṁ, vr̥ddhaṁ tridōṣaṁ, mārutāpaham| snigdhasiddhaṁ, viśuṣkaṁ tu mūlakaṁ kaphavātajit||168||

hikkākāsaviṣaśvāsapārśvaśūlavināśanaḥ| pittakr̥t kaphavātaghnaḥ surasaḥ pūtigandhahā||169||

yavānī cārjakaścaiva śigruśālēyamr̥ṣṭakam| hr̥dyānyāsvādanīyāni pittamutklēśayanti ca||170||

gaṇḍīrō jalapippalyastumbaruḥ śr̥ṅgavērikā| tīkṣṇōṣṇakaṭurūkṣāṇi kaphavātaharāṇi ca||171||

puṁstvaghnaḥ kaṭurūkṣōṣṇō bhūstr̥ṇō vakraśōdhanaḥ| kharāhvā kaphavātaghnī bastirōgarujāpahā||172||

dhānyakaṁ cājagandhā ca sumukhaścēti rōcanāḥ| sugandhā nātikaṭukā dōṣānutklēśayanti ca||173||

grāhī gr̥ñjanakastīkṣṇō vātaślēṣmārśasāṁ hitaḥ| svēdanē'bhyavahārē ca yōjayēttamapittinām||174||

ślēṣmalō mārutaghnaśca palāṇḍurna ca pittanut [1] | āhārayōgī balyaśca gururvr̥ṣyō'tha rōcanaḥ||175||

krimikuṣṭhakilāsaghnō vātaghnō gulmanāśanaḥ| snigdhaścōṣṇaśca vr̥ṣyaśca laśunaḥ kaṭukō guruḥ||176||

śuṣkāṇi kaphavātaghnānyētānyēṣāṁ phalāni ca| haritānāmayaṁ caiṣa ṣaṣṭhō vargaḥ samāpyatē||177||

iti haritavargaḥ

atha haritavargaH-

rocanaM dIpanaM vRuShyamArdrakaM viSvaBeShajam| vAtaSleShmavibandheShu rasastasyopadiSyate||166||

rocano dIpanastIkShNaH sugandhirmuKaSodhanaH| jambIraH kaPavAtaGnaH krimiGno BaktapAcanaH||167||

bAlaM doShaharaM, vRuddhaM tridoShaM, mArutApaham| snigdhasiddhaM, viSuShkaM tu mUlakaM kaPavAtajit||168||

hikkAkAsaviShaSvAsapArSvaSUlavinASanaH| pittakRut kaPavAtaGnaH surasaH pUtigandhahA||169||

yavAnI cArjakaScaiva SigruSAleyamRuShTakam| hRudyAnyAsvAdanIyAni pittamutkleSayanti ca||170||

gaNDIro jalapippalyastumbaruH SRu~ggaverikA| tIkShNoShNakaTurUkShANi kaPavAtaharANi ca||171||

puMstvaGnaH kaTurUkShoShNo BUstRuNo vakraSodhanaH| KarAhvA kaPavAtaGnI bastirogarujApahA||172||

dhAnyakaM cAjagandhA ca sumuKaSceti rocanAH| sugandhA nAtikaTukA doShAnutkleSayanti ca||173||

grAhI gRu~jjanakastIkShNo vAtaSleShmArSasAM hitaH| svedane&ByavahAre ca yojayettamapittinAm||174||

SleShmalo mArutaGnaSca palANDurna ca pittanut | AhArayogI balyaSca gururvRuShyo&tha rocanaH||175||

krimikuShThakilAsaGno vAtaGno gulmanASanaH| snigdhaScoShNaSca vRuShyaSca laSunaH kaTuko guruH||176||

SuShkANi kaPavAtaGnAnyetAnyeShAM PalAni ca| haritAnAmayaM caiSha ShaShTho vargaH samApyate||177||

iti haritavargaH||4||

Now begins the section on greens. The green ginger/adraka (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is an appetizer, digestion-stimulant, aphrodisiac and its juice is prescribed in cases of obstruction due to vata and kapha. [166]

The lemon/ jambira (Citrus limon (Linn.) Burm.F) is appetizer, digestive-stimulant, acute fragrant, mouth cleanser, is effective in treating kapha and vata, vermicide and helps the digestion of food. [167]

The garden radish/mulaka (Raphanus sativus Linn.) when tender allays vitiated doshas, but when overgrown, provokes these doshas. When prepared with unctuous substances it alleviates vata. And when dried, it alleviates kapha and vata. [168]

The holy basil/surasa (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) is effective in treating hiccups, cough, poison, dyspnea, pleural effusion, kapha and vata, and eliminates fetor. It, however, aggravates pitta .[169]

Carum/yavani (Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) sprague), shrubby basil/arjaka (Orthosiphon pallidus Royle), drumstick/shigru(Moringa oleifera Lam), small variety of radish /Shaleya (Raphanus sativus Linn.), and brown mustard/mristaka (Brassica juncea (Linn.) Czern. & Coss) are cordial, palatable and excite the pitta. [170]

The gandira (Coleus barbatus Benth.), the hog fruit/Jalapippali (Lippia nodiflora Rich.), Indian toothache/Tumbaru (Zanthoxylum armatum DC),and green coriander/sringaverika Coriandrum sativum Linn.)are acute, hot, pungent, dry and are effective in curing kapha and vata. [171]

The ginger grass/bhustrina (Hyptis suaveolens (Linn.) Poit) is anaphrodisiac, pungent, dry, hot, and useful as a mouth cleanser. Celery seeds/kharahva (Carum roxburghianum (D.C.) Benth. & Hk.f.) are effective in curing kapha and vata and painful urinary disorders. [172]

Coriander/dhanyaka (Coriandrum sativum Linn.), wild thyme/ajagandha (Thymus serpyllum Linn.) and sumukha (Ocimum sp.) are appetizers, fragrant, not very pungent, and further aggravate morbid dosha conditions [173]

The leek/grinjanaka (Allium ameloprasum Hook.f. non Linn.) is an astringent, acute and beneficial in vata and kapha disorders and in piles. This should be used in sudation therapy and as an article of diet by those who are not suffering from pitta-discordance. [174]

The onion/palandu (Allium cepa Linn) promotes kapha and is effective in treating vata but not of pitta. It is a good adjuvant for food and is a strength-enhancer, heavy, aphrodisiac and appetizing. [175]

The garlic/lashuna (Allium sativum Linn.) is effective in treating worms, dermatosis including leprosy, vata disorders and gulma. It is unctuous, hot, aphrodisiac, pungent and heavy. [176] These in their dried condition and their fruits are effective in curing kapha and vata. Thus, ends the sixth section on greens. [177]

Class of wines and alcoholic preparations

अथमद्यवर्गः-

प्रकृत्यामद्यमम्लोष्णमम्लंचोक्तंविपाकतः। सर्वंसामान्यतस्तस्यविशेषउपदेक्ष्यते॥१७८॥

atha madyavargaḥ-

prakr̥tyā madyamamlōṣṇamamlaṁ cōktaṁ vipākataḥ| sarvaṁ sāmānyatastasya viśēṣa upadēkṣyatē||178||

atha madyavargaH-

prakRutyA madyamamloShNamamlaM coktaM vipAkataH| sarvaM sAmAnyatastasya viSeSha upadekShyate||178||

The general qualities of wine:

Now begins the group of wines. Wine is naturally sour (in taste and digestion) and hot in potency. This is its general property. Its specific characteristics will now be described. [178]

कृशानांसक्तमूत्राणांग्रहण्यर्शोविकारिणाम्। सुराप्रशस्तावातघ्नीस्तन्यरक्तक्षयेषुच॥१७९॥

हिक्काश्वासप्रतिश्यायकासवर्चोग्रहारुचौ। वम्यानाहविबन्धेषुवातघ्नीमदिराहिता॥१८०॥

शूलप्रवाहिकाटोपकफवातार्शसांहितः। जगलोग्राहिरूक्षोष्णःशोफघ्नोभक्तपाचनः॥१८१॥

शोषार्शोग्रहणीदोषपाण्डुरोगारुचिज्वरान्। हन्त्यरिष्टःकफकृतान्रोगान्रोचनदीपनः ॥१८२॥

मुखप्रियःसुखमदःसुगन्धिर्बस्तिरोगनुत् । जरणीयःपरिणतोहृद्योवर्ण्यश्चशार्करः॥१८३॥

रोचनोदीपनोहृद्यःशोषशोफार्शसांहितः। स्नेहश्लेष्मविकारघ्नोवर्ण्यःपक्वरसोमतः॥१८४॥

जरणीयोविबन्धघ्नःस्वरवर्णविशोधनः। लेखनःशीतरसिकोहितःशोफोदरार्शसाम्॥१८५॥

सृष्टभिन्नशकृद्वातोगौडस्तर्पणदीपनः। पाण्डुरोगव्रणहितादीपनीचाक्षिकीमता ॥१८६॥

सुरासवस्तीव्रमदोवातघ्नोवदनप्रियः। छेदीमध्वासवस्तीक्ष्णोमैरेयोमधुरोगुरुः॥१८७॥

धातक्याऽभिषुतोहृद्यो रूक्षोरोचनदीपनः। माध्वीकवन्न चात्युष्णोमृद्वीकेक्षुरसासवः॥१८८॥

रोचनंदीपनंहृद्यंबल्यंपित्ताविरोधिच। विबन्धघ्नंकफघ्नंचमधुलघ्वल्पमारुतम्॥१८९॥

सुरासमण्डारूक्षोष्णायवानांवातपित्तला। गुर्वीजीर्यतिविष्टभ्यश्लेष्मलातुमधूलिका॥१९०॥

दीपनंजरणीयंचहृत्पाण्डुक्रिमिरोगनुत्। ग्रहण्यर्शोहितभेदिसौवीरकतुषोदकम्॥१९१॥

दाहज्वरापहंस्पर्शात्पानाद्वातकफापहम्। विबन्धघ्नमवस्रंसिदीपनंचाम्लकाञ्जिकम्॥१९२॥

प्रायशोऽभिनवंमद्यंगुरुदोषसमीरणम्। स्रोतसांशोधनंजीर्णंदीपनंलघुरोचनम्॥१९३॥

हर्षणंप्रीणनंमद्यंभयशोकश्रमापहम्। प्रागल्भ्यवीर्यप्रतिभातुष्टिपुष्टिबलप्रदम्॥१९४॥

सात्त्विकैर्विधिवद्युक्त्यापीतंस्यादमृतंयथा। वर्गोऽयंसप्तमोमद्यमधिकृत्यप्रकीर्तितः॥१९५॥

इतिमद्यवर्गःसप्तमः॥७॥

kr̥śānāṁ saktamūtrāṇāṁ grahaṇyarśōvikāriṇām| surā praśastā vātaghnī stanyaraktakṣayēṣu ca||179||

hikkāśvāsapratiśyāyakāsavarcōgrahārucau| vamyānāhavibandhēṣu vātaghnī madirā hitā||180||

śūlapravāhikāṭōpakaphavātārśasāṁ hitaḥ| jagalō grāhirūkṣōṣṇaḥ śōphaghnō bhaktapācanaḥ||181||

śōṣārśōgrahaṇīdōṣapāṇḍurōgārucijvarān| hantyariṣṭaḥ kaphakr̥tān rōgānrōcanadīpanaḥ [1] ||182||

mukhapriyaḥ sukhamadaḥ sugandhirbastirōganut [2] | jaraṇīyaḥ pariṇatō hr̥dyō varṇyaśca śārkaraḥ||183||

rōcanō dīpanō hr̥dyaḥ śōṣaśōphārśasāṁ hitaḥ| snēhaślēṣmavikāraghnō varṇyaḥ pakvarasō mataḥ||184||

jaraṇīyō vibandhaghnaḥ svaravarṇaviśōdhanaḥ| lēkhanaḥ śītarasikō hitaḥ śōphōdarārśasām||185||

sr̥ṣṭabhinnaśakr̥dvātō gauḍastarpaṇadīpanaḥ| pāṇḍurōgavraṇahitā dīpanī cākṣikī matā [3] ||186||

surāsavastīvramadō vātaghnō vadanapriyaḥ| chēdī madhvāsavastīkṣṇō mairēyō madhurō guruḥ||187||

dhātakyā'bhiṣutō hr̥dyō [4] rūkṣō rōcanadīpanaḥ| mādhvīkavanna [5] cātyuṣṇō mr̥dvīkēkṣurasāsavaḥ||188||

rōcanaṁ dīpanaṁ hr̥dyaṁ balyaṁ pittāvirōdhi ca| vibandhaghnaṁ kaphaghnaṁ ca madhu laghvalpamārutam||189||

surā samaṇḍā rūkṣōṣṇā yavānāṁ vātapittalā| gurvī jīryati viṣṭabhya ślēṣmalā tu madhūlikā||190||

dīpanaṁ jaraṇīyaṁ ca hr̥tpāṇḍukrimirōganut| grahaṇyarśōhita bhēdi sauvīrakatuṣōdakam||191||

dāhajvarāpahaṁ sparśāt pānādvātakaphāpaham| vibandhaghnamavasraṁsi dīpanaṁ cāmlakāñjikam||192||

prāyaśō'bhinavaṁ madyaṁ gurudōṣasamīraṇam| srōtasāṁ śōdhanaṁ jīrṇaṁ dīpanaṁ laghu rōcanam||193||

harṣaṇaṁ prīṇanaṁ madyaṁ bhayaśōkaśramāpaham| prāgalbhyavīryapratibhātuṣṭipuṣṭibalapradam||194||

sāttvikairvidhivadyuktyā pītaṁ syādamr̥taṁ yathā| vargō'yaṁ saptamō madyamadhikr̥tya prakīrtitaḥ||195||

iti madyavargaḥ saptamaḥ kRuSAnAM saktamUtrANAM grahaNyarSovikAriNAm| surA praSastA vAtaGnI stanyaraktakShayeShu ca||179||

hikkASvAsapratiSyAyakAsavarcograhArucau| vamyAnAhavibandheShu vAtaGnI madirA hitA||180||

SUlapravAhikATopakaPavAtArSasAM hitaH| jagalo grAhirUkShoShNaH SoPaGno BaktapAcanaH||181||

SoShArSograhaNIdoShapANDurogArucijvarAn| hantyariShTaH kaPakRutAn rogAnrocanadIpanaH ||182||

muKapriyaH suKamadaH sugandhirbastiroganut | jaraNIyaH pariNato hRudyo varNyaSca SArkaraH||183||

rocano dIpano hRudyaH SoShaSoPArSasAM hitaH| snehaSleShmavikAraGno varNyaH pakvaraso mataH||184||

jaraNIyo vibandhaGnaH svaravarNaviSodhanaH| leKanaH SItarasiko hitaH SoPodarArSasAm||185||

sRuShTaBinnaSakRudvAto gauDastarpaNadIpanaH| pANDurogavraNahitA dIpanI cAkShikI matA ||186||

surAsavastIvramado vAtaGno vadanapriyaH| CedI madhvAsavastIkShNo maireyo madhuro guruH||187||

dhAtakyA&BiShuto hRudyo rUkSho rocanadIpanaH| mAdhvIkavanna cAtyuShNo mRudvIkekShurasAsavaH||188||

rocanaM dIpanaM hRudyaM balyaM pittAvirodhi ca| vibandhaGnaM kaPaGnaM ca madhu laGvalpamArutam||189||

surA samaNDA rUkShoShNA yavAnAM vAtapittalA| gurvI jIryati viShTaBya SleShmalA tu madhUlikA||190||

dIpanaM jaraNIyaM ca hRutpANDukrimiroganut| grahaNyarSohita Bedi sauvIrakatuShodakam||191||

dAhajvarApahaM sparSAt pAnAdvAtakaPApaham| vibandhaGnamavasraMsi dIpanaM cAmlakA~jjikam||192||

prAyaSo&BinavaM madyaM gurudoShasamIraNam| srotasAM SodhanaM jIrNaM dIpanaM laGu rocanam||193||

harShaNaM prINanaM madyaM BayaSokaSramApaham| prAgalByavIryapratiBAtuShTipuShTibalapradam||194||

sAttvikairvidhivadyuktyA pItaM syAdamRutaM yathA| vargo&yaM saptamo madyamadhikRutya prakIrtitaH||195||

iti madyavargaH saptamaH||7||

Sura wine is recommended in cases of emaciation, suppression of urine, assimilation-disorders, piles, deficiency of milk and blood, and is effective in treating vata. [179]

The madira wine is beneficial in hiccups, dyspnea, coryza, cough, scybalous stools, anorexia, vomiting, constipation and is effective in treating vata. [180]

The jagala wine is beneficial in colic, dysentery, abdominal distension/borborygmi, kapha, vata and piles. It is an astringent, dry in property, hot in potency, effective in treating edema and stimulates digestion. [181]

The arishta or medicated wine is effective in treating consumption, piles, assimilation-disorders, anemia, anorexia, fever and other diseases when these arise from kapha. It is an effective appetizer. [182]

Sugar wine is palatable and a mild intoxicant. It is fragrant, effective in treating painful urinary disorders, promotes digestion, improves complexion, and is also a cardiac tonic. [183]

The pakvarasa wine is an appetizer, beneficial in consumption, complexion, edema and piles, and is an effective medication for treating kapha-disorders and disorders born of the overuse of unctuous articles. [184]

The shitarasika wine is a good appetizer, effective in treating constipation, and in improving/enhancing voice and complexion. It is also a lekhana (weight-loss medication) and is beneficial in treating edema, abdominal afflictions and piles. [185]

Gud (jaggery, or coarse, unrefined sugar) wine is a refreshing, nourishing drink that is also a very good appetizer. It is beneficial in treating wounds since it has antiseptic properties. [186]

The surasava wine is very strong (creating severe intoxication), effective in treating vata and palatable. The madhvasava is depletive and sharp and the maireya wine is sweet and heavy. [187]

Fire-flame bush/dhatakyasava (Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz.) wine is mild, dry, and appetizing. Grape and sugar wines are similar but not as hot. [188]

The honey wine is a light, appetizing and strengthening drink. It does not provoke the pitta, and is an effective tonic for treating constipation and kapha. However, it slightly increases vata. [189]

Suramanda wine (consumed undistilled/without filtering) made out of barley is dry, hot, increases vata and pitta, is heavy and delays digestion and madhulika wine increases kapha dosha. [190]

Sauviraka and tushodaka wines are very effective appetizers and laxatives. These are also very beneficial in treating cardiac disorders, anaemia and worms, assimilation-disorders and piles. [191]

The sour-congee wine, when topically applied, is effective in treating burning sensation and fever. In the form of potion, it is very effective in treating vata, kapha and constipation (it is a laxative and digestive stimulant. [192]

Fresh wine is generally heavy and aggravates the doshas, while old wine clears the body channels and, digestive-stimulant. Wine is exhilarating, pleasant, strengthening and relieves fear, grief and fatigue. It gives courage, virility, mental exaltation, satisfaction, plumpness and vitality. If it is taken by virtuous men in proper manner, it acts like nectar. Thus, the seventh section concerning wines has been described. [193-195]

Class of water

अथजलवर्गः-

जलमेकविधंसर्वंपतत्यैन्द्रंनभस्तलात्। तत् पतत्पतितंचैवदेशकालावपेक्षते॥१९६॥

खात् पतत्सोमवाय्वर्कैःस्पृष्टंकालानुवर्तिभिः। शीतोष्णस्निग्धरूक्षाद्यैर्यथासन्नंमहीगुणैः॥१९७॥

atha jalavargaḥ-

jalamēkavidhaṁ sarvaṁ patatyaindraṁ nabhastalāt|196|

tat [1] patat patitaṁ caiva dēśakālāvapēkṣatē||196||

khāt [3] patat sōmavāyvarkaiḥ spr̥ṣṭaṁ kālānuvartibhiḥ| śītōṣṇasnigdharūkṣādyairyathāsannaṁ mahīguṇaiḥ||197||

atha jalavargaH-

jalamekavidhaM sarvaM patatyaindraM naBastalAt| tat patat patitaM caiva deSakAlAvapekShate||196||

KAt patat somavAyvarkaiH spRuShTaM kAlAnuvartiBiH| SItoShNasnigdharUkShAdyairyathAsannaM mahIguNaiH||197||

Now begins the section on waters. All water is of one kind and falls from the heavens ordained by lndra. While it is falling and after it has fallen, it is affected by location and time. [196]

While falling from the sky it is influenced by the effects of the seasonal courses of the moon, the wind and the sun. When is has fallen on the earth, it is affected by the qualities of the earth on which it falls and these could be cold, hot, viscid, dry, etc. [197]

शीतंशुचिशिवंमृष्टंविमलंलघुषड्गुणम्। प्रकृत्यादिव्यमुदकं,

śītaṁ śuci śivaṁ mr̥ṣṭaṁ vimalaṁ laghu ṣaḍguṇam| prakr̥tyā divyamudakaṁ,...|198|

SItaM Suci SivaM mRuShTaM vimalaM laGu ShaDguNam| prakRutyA divyamudakaM,...

Rainwater is cold, pure, wholesome, palatable, clear, and light in digestion. These are the six qualities of rainwater. [197]

...भ्रष्टंपात्रमपेक्षते॥१९८॥

श्वेतेकषायंभवतिपाण्डरेस्यात्तुतिक्तकम्। कपिलेक्षारसंसृष्टमूषरेलवणान्वितम्॥१९९॥

कटुपर्वतविस्तारे मधुरंकृष्णमृत्तिके। एतत्षाड्गुण्यमाख्यातंमहीस्थस्यजलस्यहि। तथाऽव्यक्तरसंविद्यादैन्द्रंकारंहिमंचयत्॥२००॥

यदन्तरीक्षात्पततीन्द्रसृष्टं चोक्तैश्चपात्रैःपरिगृह्यतेऽम्भः। तदैन्द्रमित्येववदन्तिधीरा नरेन्द्रपेयंसलिलंप्रधानम् ॥२०१॥

ईषत्कषायमधुरंसुसूक्ष्मंविशदंलघु। अरूक्षमनभिष्यन्दिसर्वंपानीयमुत्तमम्॥२०२॥

गुर्वभिष्यन्दिपानीयंवार्षिकंमधुरंनवम्। तनुलघ्वनभिष्यन्दिप्रायःशरदिवर्षति॥२०३॥

तत्तुयेसुकुमाराःस्युःस्निग्धभूयिष्ठभोजनाः। तेषांभोज्येचभक्ष्येचलेह्येपेयेचशस्यते॥२०४॥

हेमन्तेसलिलंस्निग्धंवृष्यंबलहितंगुरु। किञ्चित्ततोलघुतरंशिशिरेकफवातजित्॥२०५॥

कषायमधुरंरूक्षंविद्याद्वासन्तिकंजलम्। ग्रैष्मिकंत्वनभिष्यन्दिजलमित्येवनिश्चयः॥ ऋतावृताविहाख्याताःसर्वएवाम्भसोगुणाः॥२०६॥

विभ्रान्तेषुतुकालेषुयत्प्रयच्छन्तितोयदाः। सलिलंतत्तुदोषाययुज्यतेनात्रसंशयः॥२०७॥

राजभीराजमात्रैश्चसुकुमारैश्चमानवैः। सुगृहीताःशरद्यापःप्रयोक्तव्याविशेषतः॥२०८॥

...bhraṣṭaṁ pātramapēkṣatē||198||

śvētē kaṣāyaṁ bhavati pāṇḍarē syāttu tiktakam| kapilē kṣārasaṁsr̥ṣṭamūṣarē lavaṇānvitam||199||

kaṭu parvatavistārē [1] madhuraṁ kr̥ṣṇamr̥ttikē| ētat ṣāḍguṇyamākhyātaṁ mahīsthasya jalasya hi| tathā'vyaktarasaṁ vidyādaindraṁ kāraṁ himaṁ ca yat||200||

yadantarīkṣāt patatīndrasr̥ṣṭaṁ cōktaiśca pātraiḥ parigr̥hyatē'mbhaḥ| tadaindramityēva vadanti dhīrā narēndrapēyaṁ salilaṁ pradhānam [2] ||201||

īṣatkaṣāyamadhuraṁ susūkṣmaṁ viśadaṁ laghu| arūkṣamanabhiṣyandi sarvaṁ pānīyamuttamam||202||

gurvabhiṣyandi pānīyaṁ vārṣikaṁ madhuraṁ navam| tanu laghvanabhiṣyandi prāyaḥ śaradi varṣati||203||

tattu yē sukumārāḥ syuḥ snigdhabhūyiṣṭhabhōjanāḥ| tēṣāṁ bhōjyē ca bhakṣyē ca lēhyē pēyē ca śasyatē||204||

hēmantē salilaṁ snigdhaṁ vr̥ṣyaṁ balahitaṁ guru| kiñcittatō laghutaraṁ śiśirē kaphavātajit||205||

kaṣāyamadhuraṁ rūkṣaṁ vidyādvāsantikaṁ jalam| graiṣmikaṁ tvanabhiṣyandi jalamityēva niścayaḥ| r̥tāvr̥tāvihākhyātāḥ sarva ēvāmbhasō guṇāḥ||206||

vibhrāntēṣu tu kālēṣu yat prayacchanti tōyadāḥ| salilaṁ tattu dōṣāya yujyatē nātra saṁśayaḥ||207||

rājabhī rājamātraiśca sukumāraiśca mānavaiḥ| sugr̥hītāḥ śaradyāpaḥ prayōktavyā viśēṣataḥ||208||

...BraShTaM pAtramapekShate||198||

Svete kaShAyaM Bavati pANDare syAttu tiktakam| kapile kShArasaMsRuShTamUShare lavaNAnvitam||199||

kaTu parvatavistAre madhuraM kRuShNamRuttike| etat ShADguNyamAKyAtaM mahIsthasya jalasya hi| tathA&vyaktarasaM vidyAdaindraM kAraM himaM ca yat||200||

yadantarIkShAt patatIndrasRuShTaM coktaiSca pAtraiH parigRuhyate&mBaH| tadaindramityeva vadanti dhIrA narendrapeyaM salilaM pradhAnam ||201||

IShatkaShAyamadhuraM susUkShmaM viSadaM laGu| arUkShamanaBiShyandi sarvaM pAnIyamuttamam||202||

gurvaBiShyandi pAnIyaM vArShikaM madhuraM navam| tanu laGvanaBiShyandi prAyaH Saradi varShati||203||

tattu ye sukumArAH syuH snigdhaBUyiShThaBojanAH| teShAM Bojye ca BakShye ca lehye peye ca Sasyate||204||

hemante salilaM snigdhaM vRuShyaM balahitaM guru| ki~jcittato laGutaraM SiSire kaPavAtajit||205||

kaShAyamadhuraM rUkShaM vidyAdvAsantikaM jalam| graiShmikaM tvanaBiShyandi jalamityeva niScayaH|| RutAvRutAvihAKyAtAH sarva evAmBaso guNAH ||206||

viBrAnteShu tu kAleShu yat prayacCanti toyadAH| salilaM tattu doShAya yujyate nAtra saMSayaH||207||

rAjaBI rAjamAtraiSca sukumAraiSca mAnavaiH| sugRuhItAH SaradyApaH prayoktavyA viSeShataH||208||

Changes in the properties of water based upon the properties of the surface it is in contact with:

Some properties of water change when it falls onto the earth. When it falls on white earth it acquires an astringent taste, on yellowish-white earth it becomes bitter, on tawny earth it becomes alkaline, and on brine earth it becomes saltish. Water flowing from the mountains becomes pungent and when it falls on black earth it becomes sweet. These are the six qualities acquired by water coming in contact with the earth, Celestial water hailstone and snow – in their natural form - have an indistinct taste. [198-200]

Sages and wise people called rainwater as celestial water that is showered from the sky by Indra (the Vedic King of all Gods). This is the best kind of water and is ideal for consumption. [201]

All water which is slightly astringent and sweet, subtle, clear, light, neither unctuous nor deliquescent is considered excellent. [202]

Rainwater that falls during the rainy (or monsoon) season in India, when fresh, is heavy, viscid, and sweet. The autumnal rain-water is mainly thin, light and not viscid. [203]

Rainwater is recommended for use as a supplement or an ingredient for making food, electuaries (a lickable substance mixed with honey or another sweet substance) , and drinks for those who are delicate and habituated to eating very unctuous food.[204]

The late-autumnal water is unctuous, aphrodisiac, conducive to strength and heavy. The winter water is slightly lighter and alleviates kapha and vata. [205]

Spring water is to be considered to be an astringent, is sweet and dry. Summer water is not greasy (anabhishyandi). Thus, the properties of water according to each and every season have been studied by sages and described here. [206]

Unseasonal rains bring about dosha imbalance. There is no doubt regarding this. [207]

Kings, members of the royalty or privileged upbringing and people of delicate constitution should collect autumnal waters and use them mainly. [208]

नद्यःपाषाणविच्छिन्नविक्षुब्धाभिहतोदकाः । हिमवत्प्रभवाःपथ्याःपुण्यादेवर्षिसेविताः॥२०९॥

नद्यःपाषाणसिकतावाहिन्योविमलोदकाः। मलयप्रभवायाश्चजलंतास्वमृतोपमम्॥२१०॥

पश्चिमाभिमुखायाश्चपथ्यास्तानिर्मलोदकाः। प्रायोमृदुवहागुर्व्योयाश्चपूर्वसमुद्रगाः॥२११॥

पारियात्रभवायाश्चविन्ध्यसह्यभवाश्चयाः। शिरोहृद्रोगकुष्ठानांताहेतुःश्लीपदस्यच॥२१२॥

nadyaḥ pāṣāṇavicchinnavikṣubdhābhihatōdakāḥ [1] | himavatprabhavāḥ pathyāḥ puṇyā dēvarṣisēvitāḥ||209||

nadyaḥ pāṣāṇasikatāvāhinyō vimalōdakāḥ| malayaprabhavā yāśca jalaṁ tāsvamr̥tōpamam||210||

paścimābhimukhā yāśca pathyāstā nirmalōdakāḥ| prāyō mr̥duvahā gurvyō yāśca pūrvasamudragāḥ||211||

pāriyātrabhavā yāśca vindhyasahyabhavāśca yāḥ| śirōhr̥drōgakuṣṭhānāṁ tā hētuḥ ślīpadasya ca||212||

nadyaH pAShANavicCinnavikShubdhABihatodakAH | himavatpraBavAH pathyAH puNyA devarShisevitAH||209||

nadyaH pAShANasikatAvAhinyo vimalodakAH| malayapraBavA yASca jalaM tAsvamRutopamam||210||

paScimABimuKA yASca pathyAstA nirmalodakAH| prAyo mRuduvahA gurvyo yASca pUrvasamudragAH||211||

pAriyAtraBavA yASca vindhyasahyaBavASca yAH| SirohRudrogakuShThAnAM tA hetuH SlIpadasya ca||212||

The properties of river water from the mountains:

The water of rivers that originate from the Himalayas, whose flow is broken, agitated and obstructed by rocks, and on whose banks dwell Gods and Rishis is considered wholesome and holy. The water of the rivers originating from the Malaya mountains, which carry stones and sand in their course, is pure and is like nectar. [209-210]

The water of rivers flowing westward is considered wholesome and pure while that of the slow-flowing ones towards the eastern seas is generally heavy. [211]

The waters of rivers originating from the Pariyatra, Vindhya or Sahya mountains cause diseases of the head and the heart, dermatosis and elephantiasis. [212]

वसुधाकीटसर्पाखुमलसन्दूषितोदकाः। वर्षाजलवहानद्यःसर्वदोषसमीरणाः॥२१३॥

वापीकूपतडागोत्ससरःप्रस्रवणादिषु। आनूपशैलधन्वानांगुणदोषैर्विभावयेत्॥२१४॥

पिच्छिलंक्रिमिलंक्लिन्नंपर्णशैवालकर्दमैः। विवर्णंविरसंसान्द्रंदुर्गन्धंनहितंजलम्॥२१५॥

विस्रंत्रिदोषंलवणमम्बुयद्वरुणालयम्। इत्यम्बुवर्गःप्रोक्तोऽयमष्टमःसुविनिश्चितः॥२१६॥

vasudhākīṭasarpākhumalasandūṣitōdakāḥ| varṣājalavahā nadyaḥ sarvadōṣasamīraṇāḥ||213||

vāpīkūpataḍāgōtsasaraḥprasravaṇādiṣu| ānūpaśailadhanvānāṁ guṇadōṣairvibhāvayēt||214||

picchilaṁ krimilaṁ klinnaṁ parṇaśaivālakardamaiḥ| vivarṇaṁ virasaṁ sāndraṁ durgandhaṁ na hitaṁ jalam||215||

visraṁ tridōṣaṁ lavaṇamambu yadvaruṇālayam| ityambuvargaḥ prōktō'yamaṣṭamaḥ suviniścitaḥ||216||

vasudhAkITasarpAKumalasandUShitodakAH| varShAjalavahA nadyaH sarvadoShasamIraNAH||213||

vApIkUpataDAgotsasaraHprasravaNAdiShu| AnUpaSailadhanvAnAM guNadoShairviBAvayet||214||

picCilaM krimilaM klinnaM parNaSaivAlakardamaiH| vivarNaM virasaM sAndraM durgandhaM na hitaM jalam||215||

visraM tridoShaM lavaNamambu yadvaruNAlayam| ityambuvargaH prokto&yamaShTamaH suviniScitaH||216||

The waters of the rivers that flow during the rainy season and are polluted by earthworms, serpents, mice, excrement and aggravate all the three doshas. [213]

The qualities of the waters of tanks, wells, ponds, springs, lakes and cascades should be classified according to their locations - in wetland, mountainous lands and arid land. [214]

The water which is slimy, insect-ridden and putrefied by leaves, moss and slush, discolored, distasteful, dense and stinking is unfit for consumption. Sea-water has the smell of raw flesh, aggravates the three doshas, and is saltish in taste. [215-216]

इतिजलवर्गोऽष्टमः॥८॥

iti jalavargō'ṣṭamaḥ ||8||

iti jalavargo&ShTamaH||8||

Thus, the eighth section, pertaining to water, has been laid down.

Class of milk and its varieties

अथगोरसवर्गः-

स्वादुशीतंमृदुस्निग्धंबहलंश्लक्ष्णपिच्छिलम्। गुरुमन्दंप्रसन्नंचगव्यंदशगुणंपयः॥२१७॥ तदेवङ्गुणमेवौजःसामान्यादभिवर्धयेत्। प्रवरंजीवनीयानांक्षीरमुक्तंरसायनम्॥२१८॥ महिषीणांगुरुतरंगव्याच्छीततरंपयः। स्नेहान्यूनमनिद्रायहितमत्यग्नयेचतत्॥२१९॥ रूक्षोष्णंक्षीरमुष्ट्रीणामीषत्सलवणंलघु। शस्तंवातकफानाहक्रिमिशोफोदरार्शसाम्॥२२०॥ बल्यंस्थैर्यकरंसर्वमुष्णंचैकशफंपयः। साम्लंसलवणंरूक्षंशाखावातहरंलघु॥२२१॥ छागंकषायमधुरंशीतंग्राहिपयोलघु। रक्तपित्तातिसारघ्नंक्षयकासज्वरापहम्॥२२२॥ हिक्काश्वासकरंतूष्णंपित्तश्लेष्मलमाविकम्। हस्तिनीनांपयोबल्यंगुरुस्थैर्यकरंपरम्॥२२३॥ जीवनंबृंहणंसात्म्यंस्नेहनंमानुषंपयः। नावनंरक्तपित्तेचतर्पणंचाक्षिशूलिनाम्॥२२४॥

atha gōrasavargaḥ-

svādu śītaṁ mr̥du snigdhaṁ bahalaṁ ślakṣṇapicchilam| guru mandaṁ prasannaṁ ca gavyaṁ daśaguṇaṁ payaḥ||217|| tadēvaṅguṇamēvaujaḥ sāmānyādabhivardhayēt| pravaraṁ jīvanīyānāṁ kṣīramuktaṁ rasāyanam||218|| mahiṣīṇāṁ gurutaraṁ gavyācchītataraṁ payaḥ| snēhānyūnamanidrāya hitamatyagnayē ca tat||219|| rūkṣōṣṇaṁ kṣīramuṣṭrīṇāmīṣatsalavaṇaṁ laghu| śastaṁ vātakaphānāhakrimiśōphōdarārśasām||220|| balyaṁ sthairyakaraṁ sarvamuṣṇaṁ caikaśaphaṁ payaḥ| sāmlaṁ salavaṇaṁ rūkṣaṁ śākhāvātaharaṁ laghu||221|| chāgaṁ kaṣāyamadhuraṁ śītaṁ grāhi payō laghu| raktapittātisāraghnaṁ kṣayakāsajvarāpaham||222|| hikkāśvāsakaraṁ tūṣṇaṁ pittaślēṣmalamāvikam| hastinīnāṁ payō balyaṁ guru sthairyakaraṁ param||223|| jīvanaṁ br̥ṁhaṇaṁ sātmyaṁ snēhanaṁ mānuṣaṁ payaḥ| nāvanaṁ raktapittē ca tarpaṇaṁ cākṣiśūlinām||224||

atha gorasavargaH-

svAdu SItaM mRudu snigdhaM bahalaM SlakShNapicCilam| guru mandaM prasannaM ca gavyaM daSaguNaM payaH||217|| tadeva~gguNamevaujaH sAmAnyAdaBivardhayet| pravaraM jIvanIyAnAM kShIramuktaM rasAyanam||218|| mahiShINAM gurutaraM gavyAcCItataraM payaH| snehAnyUnamanidrAya hitamatyagnaye ca tat||219|| rUkShoShNaM kShIramuShTrINAmIShatsalavaNaM laGu| SastaM vAtakaPAnAhakrimiSoPodarArSasAm||220|| balyaM sthairyakaraM sarvamuShNaM caikaSaPaM payaH| sAmlaM salavaNaM rUkShaM SAKAvAtaharaM laGu||221|| CAgaM kaShAyamadhuraM SItaM grAhi payo laGu| raktapittAtisAraGnaM kShayakAsajvarApaham||222|| hikkASvAsakaraM tUShNaM pittaSleShmalamAvikam| hastinInAM payo balyaM guru sthairyakaraM param||223|| jIvanaM bRuMhaNaM sAtmyaM snehanaM mAnuShaM payaH| nAvanaM raktapitte ca tarpaNaM cAkShiSUlinAm||224||

Now begins the section on cow’s milk and its products. Cow’s milk has ten properties viz. sweet, cold, soft, unctuous, dense, glossy, viscid, heavy, slow and clear. [217]

Possessing these qualities which are common with those of the vital essence (ojas), milk promotes vital essence. Milk is said to be foremost among vitalizers and rejuvenators of health. [218]

Buffalo’s milk is heavier and is colder in potency and more unctuous than the cow’s milk and is beneficial in insomnia and in reducing excess of agni (digestion and metabolism). [219]

Camel’s milk is slightly dry, hot, saltish, light and recommended in vata and kapha disorders, constipation, parasitic infection, edema, abdominal afflictions and piles. [220]

The milk of the animals of uncloven hoof (equines, including horses, mares, etc) is strengthening, stabilizing, hot, slightly sour and saltish, dry, is effective in treating vata afflictions of the extremities, and is light. [221]

Goat’s milk is an astringent, is sweet, cold in potency, light and is effective in treating raktapitta (bleeding disorders), diarrhea, wasting, cough and fever. [222]

Sheep’s milk causes hiccups, dyspnea, is hot and increases pitta and kapha. Elephant’s milk is strengthening, heavy and an excellent stabilizer of the body. [223]

The human milk is vitalizing, nourishing and wholesome, increases suppleness, is useful as a nasal medication in raktapitta (bleeding disorders) and is also soothing to persons having pain in eyes. [224]

Qualities of curd:

रोचनंदीपनंवृष्यंस्नेहनंबलवर्धनम्। पाकेऽम्लमुष्णंवातघ्नंमङ्गल्यंबृंहणंदधि॥२२५॥ पीनसेचातिसारेचशीतकेविषमज्वरे। अरुचौमूत्रकृच्छ्रेचकार्श्येचदधिशस्यते॥२२६॥ शरद्ग्रीष्मवसन्तेषुप्रायशोदधिगर्हितम्। रक्तपित्तकफोत्थेषुविकारेष्वहितंचतत्॥२२७॥

rōcanaṁ dīpanaṁ vr̥ṣyaṁ snēhanaṁ balavardhanam| pākē'mlamuṣṇaṁ vātaghnaṁ maṅgalyaṁ br̥ṁhaṇaṁ dadhi||225|| pīnasē cātisārē ca śītakē viṣamajvarē| arucau mūtrakr̥cchrē ca kārśyē ca dadhi śasyatē||226|| śaradgrīṣmavasantēṣu prāyaśō dadhi garhitam| raktapittakaphōtthēṣu vikārēṣvahitaṁ ca tat||227||

rocanaM dIpanaM vRuShyaM snehanaM balavardhanam| pAke&mlamuShNaM vAtaGnaM ma~ggalyaM bRuMhaNaM dadhi||225|| pInase cAtisAre ca SItake viShamajvare| arucau mUtrakRucCre ca kArSye ca dadhi Sasyate||226|| SaradgrIShmavasanteShu prAyaSo dadhi garhitam| raktapittakaPottheShu vikAreShvahitaM ca tat||227||

Curd is an appetizer and an aphrodisiac. It increases unctuousness and strength, is sour on digestion, hot in potency, is effective in treating vata disorders and is auspicious and nourishing. It is recommended in rhinitis, diarrhoea, cold, irregular fevers, anorexia, dysuria and emaciation. [225-226]

Generally, curd is prohibited in autumn, summer and spring seasons. It is also unwholesome in raktapitta (bleeding disorders) and disorders of kapha. [227]

त्रिदोषंमन्दकं, जातंवातघ्नंदधि, शुक्रलः। सरः, श्लेष्मानिलघ्नस्तुमण्डःस्रोतोविशोधनः॥२२८॥

tridōṣaṁ [1] mandakaṁ, jātaṁ vātaghnaṁ dadhi, śukralaḥ| saraḥ, ślēṣmānilaghnastu maṇḍaḥ srōtōviśōdhanaḥ||228|| tridoShaM mandakaM, jAtaM vAtaGnaM dadhi, SukralaH| saraH, SleShmAnilaGnastu maNDaH srotoviSodhanaH||228||

Immature or partly formed curd aggravates all the three doshas and mature curd is effective in treating vata. The cream of curds is seminiferous and the whey is considered effective in treating kapha and vata and cleaning the channels. [228]

Benefits of butter-milk:

शोफार्शोग्रहणीदोषमूत्रग्रहोदरारुचौ। स्नेहव्यापदिपाण्डुत्वेतक्रंदद्याद्गरेषुच॥२२९॥

śōphārśōgrahaṇīdōṣamūtragrahōdarārucau| snēhavyāpadi pāṇḍutvē takraṁ dadyādgarēṣu ca||229||

SoPArSograhaNIdoShamUtragrahodarArucau| snehavyApadi pANDutve takraM dadyAdgareShu ca||229||

Butter milk should be administered in cases of edema, piles, assimilation-disorders, suppression of urine, abdominal diseases, anorexia and complications arising from oleation therapy, anemia, and gara poisoning. [229]

Benefits of butter:

सङ्ग्राहिदीपनंहृद्यंनवनीतंनवोद्धृतम्। ग्रहण्यर्शोविकारघ्नमर्दितारुचिनाशनम्॥२३०॥

saṅgrāhi dīpanaṁ hr̥dyaṁ navanītaṁ navōddhr̥tam| grahaṇyarśōvikāraghnamarditārucināśanam||230|| sa~ggrAhi dIpanaM hRudyaM navanItaM navoddhRutam| grahaNyarSovikAraGnamarditArucinASanam||230||

Fresh-made butter is considered an astringent, appetizer, and effective in treating assimilation-disorders, piles, trauma and anorexia. [230]

Benefits of ghee:

स्मृतिबुद्ध्यग्निशुक्रौजःकफमेदोविवर्धनम्। वातपित्तविषोन्मादशोषालक्ष्मीज्वरापहम् ॥२३१॥ सर्वस्नेहोत्तमंशीतंमधुरंरसपाकयोः सहस्रवीर्यंविधिभिर्घृतंकर्मसहस्रकृत्॥२३२॥ मदापस्मारमूर्च्छायशोषोन्मादगरज्वरान् योनिकर्णशिरःशूलंघृतंजीर्णमपोहति॥२३३॥ सर्पींष्यजाविमहिषीक्षीरवत्स्वानिनिर्दिशेत्।

smr̥tibuddhyagniśukraujaḥkaphamēdōvivardhanam| vātapittaviṣōnmādaśōṣālakṣmījvarāpaham [1] ||231|| sarvasnēhōttamaṁ śītaṁ madhuraṁ rasapākayōḥ| sahasravīryaṁ vidhibhirghr̥taṁ karmasahasrakr̥t||232|| madāpasmāramūrcchāyaśōṣōnmādagarajvarān| yōnikarṇaśiraḥśūlaṁ ghr̥taṁ jīrṇamapōhati||233|| sarpīṁṣyajāvimahiṣīkṣīravat svāni nirdiśēt|234| smRutibuddhyagniSukraujaHkaPamedovivardhanam| vAtapittaviShonmAdaSoShAlakShmIjvarApaham ||231|| sarvasnehottamaM SItaM madhuraM rasapAkayoH sahasravIryaM vidhiBirGRutaM karmasahasrakRut||232|| madApasmAramUrcCAyaSoShonmAdagarajvarAn yonikarNaSiraHSUlaM GRutaM jIrNamapohati||233|| sarpIMShyajAvimahiShIkShIravat svAni nirdiSet|

Ghee helps enhance memory, intelligence, agni (digestion and metabolism), shukra (semen), oja (vital essence), kapha and fat. It is considered effective in treating vata, pitta, toxic conditions, insanity, consumption, inauspiciousness and fever. It is considered the most unctuous of edible substances, cold in potency, ‘sweet’ (in taste as well as after digestion) and when prepared according to proper pharmaceutical methods, its potency is increased thousandfold and is efficacious in a thousand ways. Preserved ghee is effective in treating intoxication, epilepsy, fainting, consumption, insanity, toxic conditions, fever and pain in the vagina, ear and head. The ghee made of milks of goat, sheep and buffalo are considered to have qualities of the milks of the respective animals they are made of. [231-233]

Qualities of various milk products:

पीयूषोमोरटंचैवकिलाटाविविधाश्चये॥२३४॥ दीप्ताग्नीनामनिद्राणांसर्वएवसुखप्रदाः। गुरवस्तर्पणावृष्याबृंहणाःपवनापहाः॥२३५॥ विशदागुरवोरूक्षाग्राहिणस्तक्रपिण्डकाः। गोरसानामयंवर्गोनवमःपरिकीर्तितः॥२३६॥

pīyūṣō mōraṭaṁ caiva kilāṭā vividhāśca yē||234|| dīptāgnīnāmanidrāṇāṁ sarva ēva sukhapradāḥ| guravastarpaṇā vr̥ṣyā br̥ṁhaṇāḥ pavanāpahāḥ||235|| viśadā guravō rūkṣā grāhiṇastakrapiṇḍakāḥ| gōrasānāmayaṁ vargō navamaḥ parikīrtitaḥ||236||

The early and late colostrums and various kinds of creamcheese (kilatha) are beneficial to people having strong agni or those suffering from insomnia. These are heavy, nourishing, aphrodisiac, and are effective in treating vata. [234-235]

The solid portion of curds is limpid, heavy, dry, and astringent. [236]

इतिगोरसवर्गोनवमः॥९॥ iti gōrasavargō navamaḥ ||9|| iti gorasavargo navamaH||9|| Thus, has been described the ninth section on cow’s milk and its product.

Class of sugarcane and its products:

अथेक्षुवर्गः- वृष्यःशीतःसरःस्निग्धोबृंहणोमधुरोरसः। शैत्यात्प्रसादान्माधुर्यात्पौण्ड्रकाद्वंशकोवरः।

athēkṣuvargaḥ- vr̥ṣyaḥ śītaḥ saraḥ snigdhō br̥ṁhaṇō madhurō rasaḥ| ślēṣmalō bhakṣitasyēkṣōryāntrikastu [1] vidahyatē||237|| śaityāt prasādānmādhuryāt pauṇḍrakādvaṁśakō varaḥ|238| athekShuvargaH- vRuShyaH SItaH saraH snigdho bRuMhaNo madhuro rasaH|


SaityAt prasAdAnmAdhuryAt pauNDrakAdvaMSako varaH|

Now described are sugarcane juices and derived products. Sugarcane juice should ideally be consumed right off the cane by chewing. Machine-pressed juice does not have the same quality and can be irritating. Sugarcane juice is an aphrodisiac, cold in potency, laxative, unctuous, nourishing, sweet and increases kapha. The vamshaka variety of sugarcane is considered inferior to the white variety (paundraka) in the matter of coolness. [237]

Qualities of treacle (gud, jaggery):

प्रभूतक्रिमिमज्जासृङ्मेदोमांसकरोगुडः॥२३८॥ क्षुद्रोगुडश्चतुर्भागत्रिभागार्धावशेषितः। रसोगुरुर्यथापूर्वंधौतःस्वल्पमलोगुडः॥२३९॥ ततोमत्स्यण्डिकाखण्डशर्कराविमलाःपरम्। यथायथैषांवैमल्यंभवेच्छैत्यंतथातथा॥२४०॥ वृष्याक्षीणक्षतहितासस्नेहागुडशर्करा। कषायमधुराशीतासतिक्तायासशर्करा॥२४१॥ रूक्षावम्यतिसारघ्नीच्छेदनीमधुशर्करा। तृष्णासृक्पित्तदाहेषुप्रशस्ताःसर्वशर्कराः॥२४२॥

prabhūtakrimimajjāsr̥ṅmēdōmāṁsakarō guḍaḥ||238|| kṣudrō guḍaścaturbhāgatribhāgārdhāvaśēṣitaḥ| rasō gururyathāpūrvaṁ dhautaḥ svalpamalō guḍaḥ||239|| tatō matsyaṇḍikākhaṇḍaśarkarā vimalāḥ param| yathā yathaiṣāṁ vaimalyaṁ bhavēcchaityaṁ tathā tathā||240|| vr̥ṣyā kṣīṇakṣatahitā sasnēhā guḍaśarkarā| kaṣāyamadhurā śītā satiktā yāsaśarkarā||241|| rūkṣā vamyatisāraghnī cchēdanī madhuśarkarā| tr̥ṣṇāsr̥kpittadāhēṣu praśastāḥ sarvaśarkarāḥ||242||

praBUtakrimimajjAsRu~gmedomAMsakaro guDaH||238|| kShudro guDaScaturBAgatriBAgArdhAvaSeShitaH| raso gururyathApUrvaM dhautaH svalpamalo guDaH||239|| tato matsyaNDikAKaNDaSarkarA vimalAH param| yathA yathaiShAM vaimalyaM BavecCaityaM tathA tathA||240|| vRuShyA kShINakShatahitA sasnehA guDaSarkarA| kaShAyamadhurA SItA satiktA yAsaSarkarA||241|| rUkShA vamyatisAraGnI cCedanI madhuSarkarA| tRuShNAsRukpittadAheShu praSastAH sarvaSarkarAH||242||

Treacle (gud, jaggery) greatly enhances marrow, blood, fat and flesh. However, it is prone to causing worms. Treacle made of juice of the sugar-cane boiled down to one fourth, one third or one half its original quantities is called coarse gud or immature gud. The greater the condensation, the heavier the gud. Conversely, purified gud is that which has very little impurity. [238-239]

Further purification turns it into matsyandika/ curd sugar. Sugar-candy/khanda and crystal-sugar/sharkara are considered extremely pure. According to its degree of purity its cooling quality is increased. [240]

The sugar from sugar cane juice (gur) is aphrodisiac, slightly unctuous and beneficial to those who are emaciated and suffering from pectoral lesions. The sugar prepared from yasasharkara (Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb.) Desv.) or camel thorn is astringent, sweet, cold in potency and slightly bitter. [241]

The honey-sugar is dry, is effective in treating vomiting and diarrhea and depletive. All sugars are beneficial in thirst, raktapitta and burning sensation. [242]

Qualities of honey:

माक्षिकंभ्रामरंक्षौद्रंपौत्तिकंमधुजातयः। माक्षिकंप्रवरंतेषांविशेषाद्भ्रामरंगुरु॥२४३॥ माक्षिकंतैलवर्णंस्याद्घृतवर्णंतुपौत्तिकम्। क्षौद्रंकपिलवर्णंस्याच्छ्वेतंभ्रामरमुच्यते॥२४४॥

mākṣikaṁ bhrāmaraṁ kṣaudraṁ pauttikaṁ madhujātayaḥ| mākṣikaṁ pravaraṁ tēṣāṁ viśēṣādbhrāmaraṁ guru||243|| mākṣikaṁ tailavarṇaṁ syādghr̥tavarṇaṁ tu pauttikam| kṣaudraṁ kapilavarṇaṁ syācchvētaṁ bhrāmaramucyatē||244||


mAkShikaM BrAmaraM kShaudraM pauttikaM madhujAtayaH| mAkShikaM pravaraM teShAM viSeShAdBrAmaraM guru||243|| mAkShikaM tailavarNaM syAdGRutavarNaM tu pauttikam| kShaudraM kapilavarNaM syAcCvetaM BrAmaramucyate||244||

Honey is of four kinds: bee-honey, wasp-honey, insect-honey and large-bee-honey. Bee honey is the best of them and wasp-honey is especially heavy to digest. [243]

Bee-honey is of the color of oil and large-bee honey is said to be of the color of ghee, Insect-honey is tawny and wasp-honey is stated to be white. [244]

वातलंगुरुशीतंचरक्तपित्तकफापहम्। सन्धातृ च्छेदनं रूक्षं कषायं मधुरं मधु ||२४५|| हन्यान्मधूष्णमुष्णार्तमथवासविषान्वयात्। गुरुरूक्षकषायत्वाच्छैत्याच्चाल्पंहितंमधु॥२४६॥

vātalaṁ guru śītaṁ ca raktapittakaphāpaham| sandhātr̥ cchēdanaṁ rūkṣaṁ kaṣāyaṁ madhuraṁ madhu ||245|| hanyānmadhūṣṇamuṣṇārtamathavā saviṣānvayāt| gururūkṣakaṣāyatvācchaityāccālpaṁ hitaṁ madhu||246||

vAtalaM guru SItaM ca raktapittakaPApaham| sandhAtRu cchedanaM rUkShaM kaShAyaM madhuraM madhu ||245|| hanyAnmadhUShNamuShNArtamathavA saviShAnvayAt| gururUkShakaShAyatvAcCaityAccAlpaM hitaM madhu||246||

Honey aggravates vata, is heavy to digest, cold in potency, is effective in treating raktapitta and kapha disorders and is viscid, dry, astringent and sweet. [245]

Heated or warm honey can be fatal. It can kill if given in conditions arouse due to excess heat owing to its poisonous effect during the process of accumulation. Being heavy, dry, astringent and cold in potency, it is also wholesome in small doses. [246]

नातःकष्टतमंकिञ्चिन्मध्वामात्तद्धिमानवम्। उपक्रमविरोधित्वात्सद्योहन्याद्यथाविषम्॥२४७॥ आमेसोष्णाक्रियाकार्यासामध्वामेविरुध्यते। मध्वामंदारुणंतस्मात्सद्योहन्याद्यथाविषम्॥२४८॥

nātaḥ kaṣṭatamaṁ kiñcinmadhvāmāttaddhi mānavam| upakramavirōdhitvāt sadyō hanyādyathā viṣam||247|| āmē sōṣṇā kriyā kāryā sā madhvāmē virudhyatē| madhvāmaṁ dāruṇaṁ tasmāt sadyō hanyādyathā viṣam||248||

nAtaH kaShTatamaM ki~jcinmadhvAmAttaddhi mAnavam| upakramavirodhitvAt sadyo hanyAdyathA viSham||247|| Ame soShNA kriyA kAryA sA madhvAme virudhyate| madhvAmaM dAruNaM tasmAt sadyo hanyAdyathA viSham||248||

There is no disease more difficult to treat than honey-induced ama disorder. The severity of treatment itself can kill the patient as quickly as poison. [247]

In chyme disorders (ama), treatment with drugs of hot potency is indicated. However, hot things are contra-indicated in the ama-disorder induced by honey. Hence honey-induced ama-disorder is a serious condition causing death as immediately as poison. [248]

नानाद्रव्यात्मकत्वाच्चयोगवाहिपरंमधु। इतीक्षुविकृतिप्रायोवर्गोऽयंदशमोमतः॥२४९॥

nānādravyātmakatvācca yōgavāhi paraṁ madhu| itīkṣuvikr̥tiprāyō vargō'yaṁ daśamō mataḥ||249||


nAnAdravyAtmakatvAcca yogavAhi paraM madhu| itIkShuvikRutiprAyo vargo&yaM daSamo mataH||249||

Since honey is composed of various substances, it is the best of vehicles (or medium) for administering medication. [249]

इतीक्षुवर्गोदशमः॥१०॥

itīkṣuvargō daśamaḥ ||10||

itIkShuvargo daSamaH||10||

Thus ends this tenth section mainly dealing with sugar-cane products.

Class of cooked food preparations:

अथकृतान्नवर्गः- क्षुत्तृष्णाग्लानिदौर्बल्यकुक्षिरोगज्वरापहा। स्वेदाग्निजननीपेयावातवर्चोनुलोमनी॥२५०॥ तर्पणीग्राहिणीलघ्वीहृद्याचापिविलेपिका। मण्डस्तुदीपयत्यग्निंवातंचाप्यनुलोमयेत्॥२५१॥ मृदूकरोतिस्रोतांसिस्वेदंसञ्जनयत्यपि। लङ्घितानांविरिक्तानांजीर्णेस्नेहेचतृष्यताम्॥२५२॥ दीपनत्वाल्लघुत्वाच्चमण्डःस्यात्प्राणधारणः। लाजपेयाश्रमघ्नीतुक्षामकण्ठस्यदेहिनः॥२५३॥ तृष्णातीसारशमनोधातुसाम्यकरःशिवः। लाजमण्डोऽग्निजननोदाहमूर्च्छानिवारणः ॥२५४॥ मन्दाग्निविषमाग्नीनांबालस्थविरयोषिताम्। देयश्चसुकुमाराणांलाजमण्डःसुसंस्कृतः॥२५५॥ क्षुत्पिपासापहःपथ्यःशुद्धानांचमलापहः। शृतःपिप्पलिशुण्ठीभ्यांयुक्तो लाजाम्लदाडिमैः॥२५६॥ कषायमधुराःशीतालघवोलाजसक्तवः।

atha kr̥tānnavargaḥ- kṣuttr̥ṣṇāglānidaurbalyakukṣirōgajvarāpahā| svēdāgnijananī pēyā vātavarcōnulōmanī||250|| tarpaṇī grāhiṇī laghvī hr̥dyā cāpi vilēpikā| maṇḍastu dīpayatyagniṁ vātaṁ cāpyanulōmayēt||251|| mr̥dūkarōti srōtāṁsi svēdaṁ sañjanayatyapi| laṅghitānāṁ viriktānāṁ jīrṇē snēhē ca tr̥ṣyatām||252|| dīpanatvāllaghutvācca maṇḍaḥ syāt prāṇadhāraṇaḥ| lājapēyā śramaghnī tu kṣāmakaṇṭhasya dēhinaḥ||253|| tr̥ṣṇātīsāraśamanō dhātusāmyakaraḥ śivaḥ| lājamaṇḍō'gnijananō dāhamūrcchānivāraṇaḥ ||254|| mandāgniviṣamāgnīnāṁ bālasthavirayōṣitām| dēyaśca sukumārāṇāṁ lājamaṇḍaḥ susaṁskr̥taḥ||255|| kṣutpipāsāpahaḥ pathyaḥ śuddhānāṁ ca malāpahaḥ| śr̥taḥ pippaliśuṇṭhībhyāṁ yuktō lājāmladāḍimaiḥ||256|| kaṣāyamadhurāḥ śītā laghavō lājasaktavaḥ|257|

atha kRutAnnavargaH- kShuttRuShNAglAnidaurbalyakukShirogajvarApahA| svedAgnijananI peyA vAtavarconulomanI||250|| tarpaNI grAhiNI laGvI hRudyA cApi vilepikA| maNDastu dIpayatyagniM vAtaM cApyanulomayet||251|| mRudUkaroti srotAMsi svedaM sa~jjanayatyapi| la~gGitAnAM viriktAnAM jIrNe snehe ca tRuShyatAm||252|| dIpanatvAllaGutvAcca maNDaH syAt prANadhAraNaH| lAjapeyA SramaGnI tu kShAmakaNThasya dehinaH||253|| tRuShNAtIsAraSamano dhAtusAmyakaraH SivaH| lAjamaNDo&gnijanano dAhamUrcCAnivAraNaH ||254|| mandAgniviShamAgnInAM bAlasthavirayoShitAm| deyaSca sukumArANAM lAjamaNDaH susaMskRutaH||255|| kShutpipAsApahaH pathyaH SuddhAnAM ca malApahaH| SRutaH pippaliSuNThIByAM yukto lAjAmladADimaiH||256|| kaShAyamadhurAH SItA laGavo lAjasaktavaH|

Now begins the section on cooked foods. Thin gruel removes hunger, thirst, weariness, weakness, stomach disorder and fever. It causes perspiration, stimulates agni and regulates the course of flatus and feces. [250]

Thick gruel (vilepi) is nourishing, astringent, and is light. Gruel-water (manda) kindles agni and regulates the downward course of vata. It softens the channels and causes perspiration. It sustains life on account of its ability to stimulate agni and lightness especially in those who have undergone reduction (laghana) therapies, purificatory procedures, and in those who have developed thirst after any unctuous dose has been digested. [251-252]

The thin gruel of roasted paddy removes fatigue particularly in people ailing with weakened voice. [253] The gruel water of roasted cornflour alleviates thirst and diarrhea, maintains normalcy of tissue elements, is generally considered beneficial to health and even auspicious, stimulates agni and is effective in treating burning sensation as well as fainting. The gruel water of fried corn, well-seasoned, must be given to people suffering from weak and irregular agni, to children, the aged, women and to persons of delicate health. [254-255]

If it is mixed with long pepper (Piper longum Linn.) and dried ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), boiled with corn and sour pomegranates, gruel water of roasted corn flour allays hunger and thirst, is nourishing and removes the residual morbidity in those who have undergone purificatory procedures. The roasted corn-flour is an astringent, is sweet in taste, is cold in potency, and is light. [256]

सुधौतःप्रस्रुतःस्विन्नःसन्तप्तश्चौदनोलघुः॥२५७॥ भृष्टतण्डुलमिच्छन्तिगरश्लेष्मामयेष्वपि। अधौतोऽप्रस्रुतोऽस्विन्नःशीतश्चाप्योदनोगुरुः॥२५८॥ मांसशाकवसातैलघृतमज्जफलौदनाः। बल्याःसन्तर्पणाहृद्यागुरवोबृंहयन्तिच॥२५९॥ तद्वन्माषतिलक्षीरमुद्गसंयोगसाधिताः।

sudhautaḥ prasrutaḥ svinnaḥ santaptaścaudanō laghuḥ||257|| bhr̥ṣṭataṇḍulamicchanti garaślēṣmāmayēṣvapi| adhautō'prasrutō'svinnaḥ śītaścāpyōdanō guruḥ||258|| māṁsaśākavasātailaghr̥tamajjaphalaudanāḥ| balyāḥ santarpaṇā hr̥dyā guravō br̥ṁhayanti ca||259|| tadvanmāṣatilakṣīramudgasaṁyōgasādhitāḥ|260| sudhautaH prasrutaH svinnaH santaptaScaudano laGuH||257|| BRuShTataNDulamicCanti garaSleShmAmayeShvapi| adhauto:'prasruto:'svinnaH SItaScApyodano guruH||258|| mAMsaSAkavasAtailaGRutamajjaPalaudanAH| balyAH santarpaNA hRudyA guravo bRuMhayanti ca||259|| tadvanmAShatilakShIramudgasaMyogasAdhitAH|

Rice that is well cleansed, squeezed out, steam-softened and warm makes light food. In toxic conditions and kapha disorders, fried rice is indicated. Cooked rice if uncleansed, with the boiled water not pressed out, not properly softened and eaten cold is heavy to digest. [257-258]

Rice prepared with flesh, vegetables, fat oil, ghee, marrow or fruit is strengthening, nourishing, cordial, and heavy. Likewise, rice cooked together with black gram, tila, milk and green gram. [259]

कुल्माषागुरवोरूक्षावातलाभिन्नवर्चसः॥२६०॥ स्विन्नभक्ष्यास्तुयेकिचित्सौप्यगौधूमयाविकाः। भिषक्तेषांयथाद्रव्यमादिशेद्गुरुलाघवम्॥२६१॥

kulmāṣā guravō rūkṣā vātalā bhinnavarcasaḥ||260|| svinnabhakṣyāstu yē kicit saupyagaudhūmayāvikāḥ| bhiṣak tēṣāṁ yathādravyamādiśēdgurulāghavam||261|| kulmAShA guravo rUkShA vAtalA BinnavarcasaH||260|| svinnaBakShyAstu ye kicit saupyagaudhUmayAvikAH| BiShak teShAM yathAdravyamAdiSedgurulAGavam||261||

Kulmasha (a variety of pea) is heavy to digest, dry, vata provoking and loosens the stools. [260]

As regards steamed dishes made out of pulses, wheat and barley, the physician should determine their qualities of heaviness and lightness in accordance with the substances used. [261]

अकृतंकृतयूषंचतनुंसांस्कारिकंरसम्। सूपमम्लमनम्लंचगुरुंविद्याद्यथोत्तरम्॥२६२॥

akr̥taṁ kr̥tayūṣaṁ ca tanuṁ sāṁskārikaṁ rasam| sūpamamlamanamlaṁ ca guruṁ vidyādyathōttaram||262||

akRutaM kRutayUShaM ca tanuM sAMskArikaM rasam| sUpamamlamanamlaM ca guruM vidyAdyathottaram||262||

Unseasoned soup and well-seasoned soup, thin and thick meat juices, sour and non-sour broths – these should be regarded heavier (to digest) than the other in the given order. [262]

सक्तवोवातलारूक्षाबहुवर्चोनुलोमिनः। तर्पयन्तिनरंसद्यःपीताःसद्योबलाश्चते॥२६३॥ मधुरालघवःशीताःसक्तवःशालिसम्भवाः। ग्राहिणोरक्तपित्तघ्नास्तृष्णाच्छर्दिज्वरापहाः॥२६४॥

saktavo vAtalA rUkShA bahuvarconulominaH| tarpayanti naraM sadyaH pItAH sadyobalAshca te||263|| madhurA laghavaH shItAH saktavaH shAlisambhavAH| grAhiNo raktapittaghnAstRuShNAcchardijvarApahAH||264||

saktavō vātalā rūkṣā bahuvarcōnulōminaḥ| tarpayanti naraṁ sadyaḥ pītāḥ sadyōbalāśca tē||263|| madhurā laghavaḥ śītāḥ saktavaḥ śālisambhavāḥ| grāhiṇō raktapittaghnāstr̥ṣṇācchardijvarāpahāḥ||264||

Roasted corn flour is dry, aggravates vata, increases fecal matter and regulates peristalsis. When taken, it immediately nourishes and strengthens the person. [263]

The flour of roasted shali rice is sweet, light, cold in potency, astringent, and is effective in treating raktapitta, thirst, vomiting and fever. [264]

हन्याद्व्याधीन्यवापूपोयावकोवाट्यएवच। उदावर्तप्रतिश्यायकासमेहगलग्रहान्॥२६५॥ धानासञ्ज्ञास्तुयेभक्ष्याःप्रायस्तेलेखनात्मकाः। शुष्कत्वात्तर्पणाश्चैवविष्टम्भित्वाच्चदुर्जराः॥२६६॥ विरूढधानाशष्कुल्योमधुक्रोडाःसपिण्डकाः। पूपाःपूपलिकाद्याश्चगुरवःपैष्टिकाःपरम्॥२६७॥

hanyādvyādhīn yavāpūpō yāvakō vāṭya ēva ca| udāvartapratiśyāyakāsamēhagalagrahān||265|| dhānāsañjñāstu yē bhakṣyāḥ prāyastē lēkhanātmakāḥ| śuṣkatvāttarpaṇāścaiva viṣṭambhitvācca durjarāḥ||266|| virūḍhadhānā śaṣkulyō madhukrōḍāḥ sapiṇḍakāḥ| pūpāḥ pūpalikādyāśca guravaḥ paiṣṭikāḥ param||267||

hanyAdvyAdhIn yavApUpo yAvako vATya eva ca| udAvartapratiSyAyakAsamehagalagrahAn||265|| dhAnAsa~jj~jAstu ye BakShyAH prAyaste leKanAtmakAH| SuShkatvAttarpaNAScaiva viShTamBitvAcca durjarAH||266|| virUDhadhAnA SaShkulyo madhukroDAH sapiNDakAH| pUpAH pUpalikAdyASca guravaH paiShTikAH param||267||

Apupa (pancake of barley) is effective in treating coryza, cough, urinary disorders and throat spasm while fried barley also causes udavarta (a disease due to vitiation of vata owing to suppression of urges). [265]

The barley preparation known as dhana is generally considered a revulsant. It is nourishing because of its dryness and difficult to digest owing to its delaying tendency in the intestines. [266]

Virudha-dhana (germinated barley), shashkuli, madhukrodas with pindakas, pupa, pupalika (kind of seet cake fried in ghee or oil), and other preparations of flour are extremely heavy. [267]

फलमांसवसाशाकपललक्षौद्रसंस्कृताः। भक्ष्यावृष्याश्चबल्याश्चगुरवोबृंहणात्मकाः॥२६८॥ वेशवारोगुरुःस्निग्धोबलोपचयवर्धनः। गुरवस्तर्पणावृष्याःक्षीरेक्षुरसपूपकाः ॥२६९॥ सगुडाःसतिलाश्चैवसक्षीरक्षौद्रशर्कराः। भक्ष्यावृष्याश्चबल्याश्चपरंतुगुरवःस्मृताः॥२७०॥

phalamāṁsavasāśākapalalakṣaudrasaṁskr̥tāḥ| bhakṣyā vr̥ṣyāśca balyāśca guravō br̥ṁhaṇātmakāḥ||268|| vēśavārō guruḥ snigdhō balōpacayavardhanaḥ| guravastarpaṇā vr̥ṣyāḥ kṣīrēkṣurasapūpakāḥ [1] ||269|| saguḍāḥ satilāścaiva sakṣīrakṣaudraśarkarāḥ| bhakṣyā vr̥ṣyāśca balyāśca paraṁ tu guravaḥ smr̥tāḥ||270|| PalamAMsavasASAkapalalakShaudrasaMskRutAH| BakShyA vRuShyASca balyASca guravo bRuMhaNAtmakAH||268|| veSavAro guruH snigdho balopacayavardhanaH| guravastarpaNA vRuShyAH kShIrekShurasapUpakAH ||269|| saguDAH satilAScaiva sakShIrakShaudraSarkarAH| BakShyA vRuShyASca balyASca paraM tu guravaH smRutAH||270||

Cooked dishes prepared with fruits, flesh, fat, vegetables, tila-paste and honey are considered an aphrodisiac and are strengthening, heavy to digest and nourishing. [268]

The veshavara (a kind of seasoning) is heavy, unctuous and increases strength and plumpness. Apupa preparations made of milk and sugarcane juices are heavy, nourishing and aphrodisiac. [269]

Preparation mixed with gud, tila or milk, with honey and sugar are considered aphrodisiac, strengthening and very heavy. [270]

सस्नेहाःस्नेहसिद्धाश्चभक्ष्याविविधलक्षणाः। गुरवस्तर्पणावृष्याहृद्यागौधूमिकामताः॥२७१॥ संस्काराल्लघवःसन्तिभक्ष्यागौधूमपैष्टिकाः। धानापर्पटपूपाद्यास्तान्बुद्ध्वानिर्दिशेत्तथा॥२७२॥

sasnēhāḥ snēhasiddhāśca bhakṣyā vividhalakṣaṇāḥ| guravastarpaṇā vr̥ṣyā hr̥dyā gaudhūmikā matāḥ||271|| saṁskārāllaghavaḥ santi bhakṣyā gaudhūmapaiṣṭikāḥ| dhānāparpaṭapūpādyāstān buddhvā nirdiśēttathā||272||

sasnehAH snehasiddhASca BakShyA vividhalakShaNAH| guravastarpaNA vRuShyA hRudyA gaudhUmikA matAH||271|| saMskArAllaGavaH santi BakShyA gaudhUmapaiShTikAH| dhAnAparpaTapUpAdyAstAn buddhvA nirdiSettathA||272||

The many kinds of preparations of wheat mixed with unctuous substances or cooked with them are heavy, nourishing, aphrodisiac and cordial. [271]

The preparations of wheat flour such as dhana, parpata, apupa (a kind of fine bread/cake of flour) etc, become light when seasoned. Knowing them thus, one should prescribe them. [272]

पृथुकागुरवोभृष्टान् भक्षयेदल्पशस्तुतान्। यावाविष्टभ्यजीर्यन्तिसरसाभिन्नवर्चसः॥२७३॥

pr̥thukā guravō bhr̥ṣṭān [1] bhakṣayēdalpaśastu tān| yāvā viṣṭabhya jīryanti sarasā bhinnavarcasaḥ||273||

pRuthukA guravo BRuShTAn BakShayedalpaSastu tAn| yAvA viShTaBya jIryanti sarasA BinnavarcasaH||273||

Flattened rice is heavy. It must be eaten in small quantities after being fried. Fried barley is slow to digest while un-fried barley causes loose stools. [273]

सूप्यान्नविकृताभक्ष्यावातलारूक्षशीतलाः। सकटुस्नेहलवणानल्पशोभक्षयेत्तुतान्॥२७४॥

sūpyānnavikr̥tā bhakṣyā vātalā rūkṣaśītalāḥ| sakaṭusnēhalavaṇānalpaśō bhakṣayēttu tān||274||

sUpyAnnavikRutA BakShyA vAtalA rUkShaSItalAH| sakaTusnehalavaNAnalpaSo BakShayettu tAn||274||

Preparations of pulses aggravate vata, and are dry and cold in potency. They must be taken in small quantities with pungent, unctuous and saltish substances. [274]

मृदुपाकाश्चयेभक्ष्याःस्थूलाश्चकठिनाश्चये। गुरवस्तेव्यतिक्रान्तपाकाःपुष्टिबलप्रदाः॥२७५॥ द्रव्यसंयोगसंस्कारंद्रव्यमानंपृथक्तथा। भक्ष्याणामादिशेद्बुद्ध्वायथास्वंगुरुलाघवम्॥२७६॥


mr̥dupākāśca yē bhakṣyāḥ sthūlāśca kaṭhināśca yē| guravastē vyatikrāntapākāḥ puṣṭibalapradāḥ||275|| dravyasaṁyōgasaṁskāraṁ dravyamānaṁ pr̥thak tathā| bhakṣyāṇāmādiśēdbuddhvā yathāsvaṁ gurulāghavam||276||

mRudupAkASca ye BakShyAH sthUlASca kaThinASca ye| guravaste vyatikrAntapAkAH puShTibalapradAH||275|| dravyasaMyogasaMskAraM dravyamAnaM pRuthak tathA| BakShyANAmAdiSedbuddhvA yathAsvaM gurulAGavam||276|| Summary of qualities:

Preparations that need to be cooked over a low fire for a long time and are thick and hard are heavy, get slowly digested and impart plumpness and strength. [275]

The heaviness and lightness of preparations must be determined according to the combination of the above mentioned substances, the nature of preparation and the measure of each substance. [276]

(नानाद्रव्यैः समायुक्तःपक्वामक्लिन्नभर्जितैः। विमर्दकोगुरुर्हृद्योवृष्योबलवतांहितः॥२७७॥) रसालाबृंहणीवृष्यास्निग्धाबल्यारुचिप्रदा। स्नेहनंतर्पणंहृद्यंवातघ्नंसगुडंदधि॥२७८॥

(nānādravyaiḥ [1] samāyuktaḥ pakvāmaklinnabharjitaiḥ| vimardakō gururhr̥dyō vr̥ṣyō balavatāṁ hitaḥ)||277|| rasālā br̥ṁhaṇī vr̥ṣyā snigdhā balyā rucipradā| snēhanaṁ tarpaṇaṁ hr̥dyaṁ vātaghnaṁ saguḍaṁ dadhi||278||

(nAnAdravyaiH samAyuktaH pakvAmaklinnaBarjitaiH| vimardako gururhRudyo vRuShyo balavatAM hitaH||277||) rasAlA bRuMhaNI vRuShyA snigdhA balyA rucipradA| snehanaM tarpaNaM hRudyaM vAtaGnaM saguDaM dadhi||278||

Vimardaka (Cassia tora) prepared with ripe, unripe, softened and roasted substances is heavy, cordial, aphrodisiac and well-suited to physically strong individuals. [277]

The preparation called rasala (curds or puddings mixed sugar and spices) is nourishing, aphrodisiac, unctuous, strengthening and an appetizer. Curds taken with gud enhances unctuousness, is nourishing, cordial and is effective in treating vata. [278]

द्राक्षाखर्जूरकोलानांगुरुविष्टम्भिपानकम्। परूषकाणांक्षौद्रस्ययच्चेक्षुविकृतिंप्रति॥२७९॥ तेषांकट्वम्लसंयोगान् पानकानांपृथक्पृथक्। द्रव्यंमानंचविज्ञायगुणकर्माणिचादिशेत्॥२८०॥ कट्वम्लस्वादुलवणालघवोरागषाडवाः। मुखप्रियाश्चहृद्याश्चदीपनाभक्तरोचनाः॥२८१॥ आम्रामलकलेहाश्चबृंहणाबलवर्धनाः। रोचनास्तर्पणाश्चोक्ताःस्नेहमाधुर्यगौरवात्॥२८२॥ बुद्ध्वासंयोगसंस्कारंद्रव्यमानंचतच्छ्रितम्। गुणकर्माणिलेहानांतेषांतेषांतथावदेत्॥२८३॥

drākṣākharjūrakōlānāṁ guru viṣṭambhi pānakam| parūṣakāṇāṁ kṣaudrasya yaccēkṣuvikr̥tiṁ prati||279|| tēṣāṁ kaṭvamlasaṁyōgān [1] pānakānāṁ pr̥thak pr̥thak| dravyaṁ mānaṁ ca vijñāya guṇakarmāṇi cādiśēt||280|| kaṭvamlasvādulavaṇā laghavō rāgaṣāḍavāḥ| mukhapriyāśca hr̥dyāśca dīpanā bhaktarōcanāḥ||281|| āmrāmalakalēhāśca br̥ṁhaṇā balavardhanāḥ| rōcanāstarpaṇāścōktāḥ snēhamādhuryagauravāt||282|| buddhvā saṁyōgasaṁskāraṁ dravyamānaṁ ca tacchritam| guṇakarmāṇi lēhānāṁ tēṣāṁ tēṣāṁ tathā vadēt||283||


drAkShAKarjUrakolAnAM guru viShTamBi pAnakam| parUShakANAM kShaudrasya yaccekShuvikRutiM prati||279|| teShAM kaTvamlasaMyogAn pAnakAnAM pRuthak pRuthak| dravyaM mAnaM ca vij~jAya guNakarmANi cAdiSet||280|| kaTvamlasvAdulavaNA laGavo rAgaShADavAH| muKapriyASca hRudyASca dIpanA BaktarocanAH||281|| AmrAmalakalehASca bRuMhaNA balavardhanAH| rocanAstarpaNAScoktAH snehamAdhuryagauravAt||282|| buddhvA saMyogasaMskAraM dravyamAnaM ca tacCritam| guNakarmANi lehAnAM teShAM teShAM tathA vadet||283||

A potion made of grapes, dates and Indian jujube/ kola is heavy and delayed in the intestines. So is the potion made of sweet parushaka (a tree), honey and the products of sugar-cane. [279] The qualities and actions of these beverages should be determined by knowing the individual nature of the substances, the quantity used and the combination of pungent and acidic tastes. [280]

The preparations called raga and shadava (confectionary) are pungent, sour, sweet, salt and light. They are pleasant to taste, cordial, digestive-stimulant and appetizers. [281]

The linctuses of mango and emblic myrobalan, on account of being unctuous, sweet and heavy, are said to be strengthening, appetizing and nourishing. [282]

Depending upon the admixture, preparation and measure of ingredients used in these electuaries, the characteristics and action of each of them should be determined. [283]

रक्तपित्तकफोत्क्लेदिशुक्तंवातानुलोमनम्। कन्दमूलफलाद्यंचतद्वद्विद्यात्तदासुतम्॥२८४॥ शिण्डाकीचासुतंचान्यत्कालाम्लंरोचनंलघु। विद्याद्वर्गंकृतान्नानामेकादशतमंभिषक्॥२८५॥

raktapittakaphōtklēdi śuktaṁ vātānulōmanam| kandamūlaphalādyaṁ ca tadvadvidyāttadāsutam||284|| śiṇḍākī cāsutaṁ cānyat kālāmlaṁ rōcanaṁ laghu| vidyādvargaṁ kr̥tānnānāmēkādaśatamaṁ bhiṣak||285||

raktapittakaPotkledi SuktaM vAtAnulomanam| kandamUlaPalAdyaM ca tadvadvidyAttadAsutam||284|| SiNDAkI cAsutaM cAnyat kAlAmlaM rocanaM laGu| vidyAdvargaM kRutAnnAnAmekAdaSatamaM BiShak||285||

The shukta beverage (sour liquor or gruel) aggravates raktapitta and kapha, and regulates vata. One should know the properties of the bulbs, roots and fruits etc. fermented in this beverage to have the same qualities. [284]

Shindaki (a sour, fermented preparation) and other fermented articles that turn sour owing to long periods of preservation are appetizing and light. The physician should know this section on cooked foods. [285]

इतिकृतान्नवर्गएकादशः॥११॥

iti kr̥tānnavarga ēkādaśaḥ||11||

iti kRutAnnavarga ekAdaSaH||11||

Thus ends the eleventh section on cooked foods.

Class on food articles:

कषायानुरसं स्वादुसूक्ष्ममुष्णंव्यवायिच। पित्तलंबद्धविण्मूत्रंनचश्लेष्माभिवर्धनम्॥२८६॥ वातघ्नेषूत्तमंबल्यंत्वच्यंमेधाग्निवर्धनम्। तैलंसंयोगसंस्कारात्सर्वरोगापहंमतम्॥२८७॥ तैलप्रयोगादजरानिर्विकाराजितश्रमाः। आसन्नतिबलाःसङ्ख्येदैत्याधिपतयःपुरा॥२८८॥ ऐरण्डतैलंमधुरंगुरुश्लेष्माभिवर्धनम्। वातासृग्गुल्महृद्रोगजीर्णज्वरहरंपरम्॥२८९॥ कटूष्णंसार्षपंतैलंरक्तपित्तप्रदूषणम्। कफशुक्रानिलहरंकण्डूकोठविनाशनम् ॥२९०॥ प्रियालतैलंमधुरंगुरुश्लेष्माभिवर्धनम्। हितमिच्छन्तिनात्यौष्ण्यात्संयोगेवातपित्तयोः॥२९१॥ आतस्यंमधुराम्लंतुविपाकेकटुकंतथा। उष्णवीर्यंहितंवातेरक्तपित्तप्रकोपणम्॥२९२॥ कुसुम्भतैलमुष्णंचविपाकेकटुकंगुरु। विदाहिचविशेषेणसर्वदोषप्रकोपणम्॥२९३॥ फलानांयानिचान्यानितैलान्याहारसंविधौ युज्यन्तेगुणकर्मभ्यांतानिब्रूयाद्यथाफलम्॥२९४॥

kaṣāyānurasaṁ [1] svādu sūkṣmamuṣṇaṁ vyavāyi ca| pittalaṁ baddhaviṇmūtraṁ na ca ślēṣmābhivardhanam||286|| vātaghnēṣūttamaṁ balyaṁ tvacyaṁ mēdhāgnivardhanam| tailaṁ saṁyōgasaṁskārāt sarvarōgāpahaṁ matam||287|| tailaprayōgādajarā nirvikārā jitaśramāḥ| āsannatibalāḥ saṅkhyē daityādhipatayaḥ purā||288|| airaṇḍatailaṁ madhuraṁ guru ślēṣmābhivardhanam| vātāsr̥ggulmahr̥drōgajīrṇajvaraharaṁ param||289|| kaṭūṣṇaṁ sārṣapaṁ tailaṁ raktapittapradūṣaṇam| kaphaśukrānilaharaṁ kaṇḍūkōṭhavināśanam [2] ||290|| priyālatailaṁ madhuraṁ guru ślēṣmābhivardhanam| hitamicchanti nātyauṣṇyātsaṁyōgē vātapittayōḥ||291|| ātasyaṁ madhurāmlaṁ tu vipākē kaṭukaṁ tathā| uṣṇavīryaṁ hitaṁ vātē raktapittaprakōpaṇam||292|| kusumbhatailamuṣṇaṁ ca vipākē kaṭukaṁ guru| vidāhi ca viśēṣēṇa sarvadōṣaprakōpaṇam||293|| phalānāṁ yāni cānyāni tailānyāhārasaṁvidhau [3] | yujyantē guṇakarmabhyāṁ tāni brūyādyathāphalam||294||


kaShAyAnurasaM svAdu sUkShmamuShNaM vyavAyi ca| pittalaM baddhaviNmUtraM na ca SleShmABivardhanam||286|| vAtaGneShUttamaM balyaM tvacyaM medhAgnivardhanam| tailaM saMyogasaMskArAt sarvarogApahaM matam||287|| tailaprayogAdajarA nirvikArA jitaSramAH| AsannatibalAH sa~gKye daityAdhipatayaH purA||288|| airaNDatailaM madhuraM guru SleShmABivardhanam| vAtAsRuggulmahRudrogajIrNajvaraharaM param||289|| kaTUShNaM sArShapaM tailaM raktapittapradUShaNam| kaPaSukrAnilaharaM kaNDUkoThavinASanam ||290|| priyAlatailaM madhuraM guru SleShmABivardhanam| hitamicCanti nAtyauShNyAtsaMyoge vAtapittayoH||291|| AtasyaM madhurAmlaM tu vipAke kaTukaM tathA| uShNavIryaM hitaM vAte raktapittaprakopaNam||292|| kusumBatailamuShNaM ca vipAke kaTukaM guru| vidAhi ca viSeSheNa sarvadoShaprakopaNam||293|| PalAnAM yAni cAnyAni tailAnyAhArasaMvidhau yujyante guNakarmaByAM tAni brUyAdyathAPalam||294||

Til (Sesamum indicum Linn.) oil is an astringent in after-taste, mildly sweet, hot, and diffusive that aggravates pitta and causes constipation and oliguria. It does not increase kapha. It is the best among pacifiers of vata, enhances strength, is good for the skin and increases intelligence and agni. Til oil is considered a very effective vehicle for administering various drugs [286-287] The medicinal properties of the Til oil have also been mentioned in the vedic scriptures - using the oil, the legendary daitya (demon) kings overcame aging, diseases, and fatigue, while gaining great strength in their battles with the Devas (Gods).[288]

Castor oil (Ricinus communis Linn.) is sweet, heavy, and kapha-aggravating. It is highly effective in treating vata, rakta gulma, heart-diseases and chronic fever. [289]

The white rape-seed (Brassica campestris Linn. Var. Sarson Prain) is pungent, hot, vitiates blood and pitta, and depletes kapha and semen. It is also very effective in treating vata-disorders, pruritus and urticaria. [290]

The oil of Buchanan’s mango (priyala, Buchanans mango /Buchanania lanzan Spreng) is sweet, heavy and kapha-aggravating. It is beneficial in vata-pitta combination diseases as it is not very hot in potency. [291]

The linseed (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) oil is sweet, sour and pungent (after digestion), and hot in potency. It is beneficial in vata but aggravates rakta & pitta. [292]

The safflower (Carthamus tinctorius Linn.) oil is hot, pungent after digestion, and heavy. It is excessively irritant and provokes all doshas. [293]

The qualities of other oils used in food but derived from fruits are not mentioned here. These are known by the qualities of the fruits themselves. [294]

मधुरोबृंहणोवृष्योबल्योमज्जातथावसा। यथासत्त्वंतुशैत्योष्णेवसामज्ज्ञोर्विनिर्दिशेत्॥२९५॥

madhurō br̥ṁhaṇō vr̥ṣyō balyō majjā tathā vasā| yathāsattvaṁ tu śaityōṣṇē vasāmajjñōrvinirdiśēt||295||


madhuro bRuMhaNo vRuShyo balyo majjA tathA vasA| yathAsattvaM tu SaityoShNe vasAmajj~jorvinirdiSet||295||


Animal marrow and fat are sweet, nourishing, aphrodisiac, strengthening, and hot or cool depending upon the nature or type of the animal. [295]

सस्नेहंदीपनंवृष्यमुष्णंवातकफापहम्। विपाकेमधुरंहृद्यंरोचनंविश्वभेषजम्॥२९६॥ श्लेष्मलामधुराचार्द्रागुर्वीस्निग्धाचपिप्पली। साशुष्काकफवातघ्नीकटूष्णावृष्यसम्मता ॥२९७॥ नात्यर्थमुष्णंमरिचमवृष्यंलघुरोचनम्। छेदित्वाच्छोषणत्वाच्चदीपनंकफवातजित् ॥२९८॥ वातश्लेष्मविबन्धघ्नंकटूष्णंदीपनंलघु। हिङ्गुशूलप्रशमनंविद्यात्पाचनरोचनम्॥२९९॥ रोचनंदीपनंवृष्यंचक्षुष्यमविदाहिच। त्रिदोषघ्नंसमधुरं सैन्धवंलवणोत्तमम्॥३००॥ सौक्ष्म्यादौष्ण्याल्लघुत्वाच्चसौगन्ध्याच्चरुचिप्रदम्। सौवर्चलंविबन्धघ्नंहृद्यमुद्गारशोधिच॥३०१॥ तैक्ष्ण्यादौष्ण्याद्व्यवायित्वाद्दीपनंशूलनाशनम्। ऊर्ध्वंचाधश्चवातानामानुलोम्यकरंबिडम्॥३०२॥ सतिक्तकटुसक्षारंतीक्ष्णमुत्क्लेदिचौद्भिदम्। नकाललवणेगन्धःसौवर्चलगुणाश्चते॥३०३॥ सामुद्रकंसमधुरं, सतिक्तंकटुपांशुजम्। रोचनंलवणंसर्वंपाकिस्रंस्यनिलापहम्॥३०४॥

sasnēhaṁ dīpanaṁ vr̥ṣyamuṣṇaṁ vātakaphāpaham| vipākē madhuraṁ hr̥dyaṁ rōcanaṁ viśvabhēṣajam||296|| ślēṣmalā madhurā cārdrā gurvī snigdhā ca pippalī| sā śuṣkā kaphavātaghnī kaṭūṣṇā vr̥ṣyasammatā [1] ||297|| nātyarthamuṣṇaṁ maricamavr̥ṣyaṁ laghu rōcanam| chēditvācchōṣaṇatvācca dīpanaṁ kaphavātajit [2] ||298|| vātaślēṣmavibandhaghnaṁ kaṭūṣṇaṁ dīpanaṁ laghu| hiṅgu śūlapraśamanaṁ vidyāt pācanarōcanam||299|| rōcanaṁ dīpanaṁ vr̥ṣyaṁ cakṣuṣyamavidāhi ca| tridōṣaghnaṁ samadhuraṁ [3] saindhavaṁ lavaṇōttamam||300|| saukṣmyādauṣṇyāllaghutvācca saugandhyācca rucipradam| sauvarcalaṁ vibandhaghnaṁ hr̥dyamudgāraśōdhi ca||301|| taikṣṇyādauṣṇyādvyavāyitvāddīpanaṁ śūlanāśanam| ūrdhvaṁ cādhaśca vātānāmānulōmyakaraṁ biḍam||302|| satiktakaṭu sakṣāraṁ tīkṣṇamutklēdi caudbhidam| na kālalavaṇē gandhaḥ sauvarcalaguṇāśca tē||303|| sāmudrakaṁ samadhuraṁ, satiktaṁ kaṭu pāṁśujam| rōcanaṁ lavaṇaṁ sarvaṁ pāki sraṁsyanilāpaham||304||

nAtyarthamuShNaM maricamavRuShyaM laGu rocanam| CeditvAcCoShaNatvAcca dIpanaM kaPavAtajit ||298|| vAtaSleShmavibandhaGnaM kaTUShNaM dIpanaM laGu| hi~ggu SUlapraSamanaM vidyAt pAcanarocanam||299|| rocanaM dIpanaM vRuShyaM cakShuShyamavidAhi ca| tridoShaGnaM samadhuraM ( 'saindhavaguNe samadhuram IShanmadhuram' iti SivadAsasenaH; ) saindhavaM lavaNottamam||300|| saukShmyAdauShNyAllaGutvAcca saugandhyAcca rucipradam| sauvarcalaM vibandhaGnaM hRudyamudgAraSodhi ca||301|| taikShNyAdauShNyAdvyavAyitvAddIpanaM SUlanASanam| UrdhvaM cAdhaSca vAtAnAmAnulomyakaraM biDam||302|| satiktakaTu sakShAraM tIkShNamutkledi caudBidam| na kAlalavaNe gandhaH sauvarcalaguNASca te||303|| sAmudrakaM samadhuraM, satiktaM kaTu pAMSujam| rocanaM lavaNaM sarvaM pAki sraMsyanilApaham||304||

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is slightly unctuous, stimulates digestion, aphrodisiac, hot, effective in treating vata and kapha, and sweet after digestion. [296]

Green long pepper (Piper longum Linn.) increases kapha, is sweet, heavy and unctuous. Dried pepper alleviates kapha and vata, is pungent and hot, and is considered an aphrodisiac. [297]

Black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.) is not very hot, is anaphrodisiac, light, appetizing and is depletive and desiccatingt. It is is effective in treating kapha and vata. [298]

Asafoetida (Ferula narthex Boiss.) is regarded to be effective in treating vata, kapha and obstipation. It is pungent, hot, appetizing, light, and alleviates colicky pain. [299]

Rock salt is considered the best of salts - it is an appetizer and an aphrodisiac. It also improves eye-sight and is a non-irritant. It is effective in treating dosha imbalances and is slightly sweet. [300]

The sanchal salt is subtle, hot, light, fragrant, relishing, removes obstruction, cordial [palatable] and clears belching. [301]

Bida salt being sharp, hot, and diffusive, stimulates digestion, is effective in treating colicky pain and regulates the upward and downward courses of vata. [302]

The efflorescent (audbhida) salt is slightly bitter, pungent, slightly alkaline, sharp and liquefacient. kalabag rock-salt has no smell. Its qualities are similar to those of sanchal salt. [303]

The sea-salt is slightly sweet while the earth-salt is slightly bitter and pungent. All salts are appetizing, digestive, laxative and are effective in treating vata. [304]

हृत्पाण्डुग्रहणीरोगप्लीहानाहगलग्रहान्। कासंकफजमर्शांसियावशूकोव्यपोहति॥३०५॥ तीक्ष्णोष्णोलघुरूक्षश्चक्लेदीपक्ता विदारणः। दाहनोदीपनश्छेत्तासर्वःक्षारोऽग्निसन्निभः ॥३०६॥

hr̥tpāṇḍugrahaṇīrōgaplīhānāhagalagrahān| kāsaṁ kaphajamarśāṁsi yāvaśūkō vyapōhati||305|| tīkṣṇōṣṇō laghurūkṣaśca klēdī paktā [1] vidāraṇaḥ| dāhanō dīpanaśchēttā sarvaḥ kṣārō'gnisannibhaḥ [2] ||306||

hRutpANDugrahaNIrogaplIhAnAhagalagrahAn| kAsaM kaPajamarSAMsi yAvaSUko vyapohati||305|| tIkShNoShNo laGurUkShaSca kledI paktA vidAraNaH| dAhano dIpanaSCettA sarvaH kShAro&gnisanniBaH ||306||

Yavakshara (barley alkali) is effective in treating diseases of the heart, anaemia, assimilation disorders, spleenic disorders, constipation, throat-spasm, cough of the kapha type and piles. [305]

All alkalis are like fiery, sharp, hot, light, dry, liquefacient, digestive, corrosive, caustic, stimulates digestion and destructive of tissues. [306]

कारवीकुञ्चिकाऽजाजीयवानीधान्यतुम्बुरु। रोचनंदीपनंवातकफदौर्गन्ध्यनाशनम्॥३०७॥

kāravī kuñcikā'jājī yavānī dhānyatumburu| rōcanaṁ dīpanaṁ vātakaphadaurgandhyanāśanam||307|| kAravI ku~jcikA&jAjI yavAnI dhAnyatumburu| rocanaM dIpanaM vAtakaPadaurgandhyanASanam||307||

Celery seeds (karavi, Carum bulbocastanum W.Koch.), black cumin (kunchika, Nigella sativa Linn.), cumin (ajaji, Cuminum cyminum Linn.), bishops weed (yavani, Trachyspermum ammi Linn.), coriander (dhanyaka, Coriandrum sativum) and Indian tooth-ache (tumburu, Zanthoxylum armatum DC) are appetizing, stimulate digestion, alleviate vata and kapha, and remove foul odour.[307]

आहारयोगिनांभक्तिनिश्चयोनतुविद्यते। समाप्तो द्वादशश्चायंवर्गआहारयोगिनाम्॥३०८॥

āhārayōgināṁ bhaktiniścayō na tu vidyatē| samāptō [1] dvādaśaścāyaṁ varga āhārayōginām||308||

AhArayoginAM BaktiniScayo na tu vidyate| samApto dvAdaSaScAyaM varga AhArayoginAm||308||


Dietary adjuvants do not, however, fit into a rigid classification. [308]

इत्याहारयोगिवर्गोद्वादशः॥१२॥

ityāhārayōgivargō dvādaśaḥ ||12||

ityAhArayogivargo dvAdaSaH||12||

Thus ends the twelfth section on the articles used in cooked foods.

General considerations in qualities

शूकधान्यंशमीधान्यंसमातीतंप्रशस्यते। पुराणंप्रायशोरूक्षंप्रायेणाभिनवंगुरु ॥३०९॥

यद्यदागच्छति क्षिप्रंतत्तल्लघुतरंस्मृतम्। निस्तुषंयुक्तिभृष्टंचसूप्यंलघुविपच्यते॥३१०॥

śūkadhānyaṁ śamīdhānyaṁ samātītaṁ praśasyatē| purāṇaṁ prāyaśō rūkṣaṁ prāyēṇābhinavaṁ guru [1] ||309||

yadyadāgacchati [2] kṣipraṁ tattallaghutaraṁ smr̥tam| nistuṣaṁ yuktibhr̥ṣṭaṁ ca sūpyaṁ laghu vipacyatē||310||

SUkadhAnyaM SamIdhAnyaM samAtItaM praSasyate| purANaM prAyaSo rUkShaM prAyeNABinavaM guru ||309||

yadyadAgacCati kShipraM tattallaGutaraM smRutam| nistuShaM yuktiBRuShTaM ca sUpyaM laGu vipacyate||310||

Cereals and pulses that are one-year-old (not older) are recommended. Old grain is generally dry and the new generally heavy to digest. [309]

That grain which grows quicker is considered lighter than the others. The decorticated and slightly roasted pulse is digested easily. [310]

मृतंकृशंचातिमेद्यंवृद्धंबालंविषैर्हतम्। अगोचरभृतंव्यालसूदितंमांसमुत्सृजेत्॥३११॥

अतोऽन्यथाहितंमांसंबृंहणंबलवर्धनम्।

mr̥taṁ kr̥śaṁ cātimēdyaṁ vr̥ddhaṁ bālaṁ viṣairhatam| agōcarabhr̥taṁ vyālasūditaṁ māṁsamutsr̥jēt||311||

atō'nyathā hitaṁ māṁsaṁ br̥ṁhaṇaṁ balavardhanam|312|

mRutaM kRuSaM cAtimedyaM vRuddhaM bAlaM viShairhatam| agocaraBRutaM vyAlasUditaM mAMsamutsRujet||311||

ato&nyathA hitaM mAMsaM bRuMhaNaM balavardhanam|

The flesh of the animal which is dead, emaciated, very fat, old, too young, killed by poisoning, reared in unnatural habitat or killed by a tiger or snake should be avoided. Except for the above scenarios, flesh of animals described in this and prior chapters is wholesome, nourishing and promotes strength. [311]

प्रीणनःसर्वभूतानांहृद्योमांसरसःपरम्॥३१२॥

शुष्यतांव्याधिमुक्तानांकृशानांक्षीणरेतसाम्। बलवर्णार्थिनांचैवरसंविद्याद्यथामृतम्॥३१३॥

सर्वरोगप्रशमनंयथास्वंविहितंरसम्। विद्यात्स्वर्यंबलकरंवयोबुद्धीन्द्रियायुषाम्॥३१४॥

व्यायामनित्याःस्त्रीनित्यामद्यनित्याश्चयेनराः। नित्यंमांसरसाहारानातुराःस्युर्नदुर्बलाः॥३१५॥

prīṇanaḥ sarvabhūtānāṁ hr̥dyō māṁsarasaḥ param||312||

śuṣyatāṁ vyādhimuktānāṁ kr̥śānāṁ kṣīṇarētasām| balavarṇārthināṁ caiva rasaṁ vidyādyathāmr̥tam||313||

sarvarōgapraśamanaṁ yathāsvaṁ vihitaṁ rasam| vidyāt svaryaṁ balakaraṁ vayōbuddhīndriyāyuṣām||314||

vyāyāmanityāḥ strīnityā madyanityāśca yē narāḥ| nityaṁ māṁsarasāhārā nāturāḥ syurna durbalāḥ||315||

prINanaH sarvaBUtAnAM hRudyo mAMsarasaH param||312||

SuShyatAM vyAdhimuktAnAM kRuSAnAM kShINaretasAm| balavarNArthinAM caiva rasaM vidyAdyathAmRutam||313||

sarvarogapraSamanaM yathAsvaM vihitaM rasam| vidyAt svaryaM balakaraM vayobuddhIndriyAyuShAm||314||

vyAyAmanityAH strInityA madyanityASca ye narAH| nityaM mAMsarasAhArA nAturAH syurna durbalAH||315||

Meat juice has been considered to be the most nourishing of food articles for those who are wasted, convalescing, emaciated, deficient in semen and desirous of enhanced strength and complexion – in fact, for such patients, meat juice has been regarded as nectar itself. [312-313]

Meat juice administered as indicated is effective in treating most diseases. It promotes or enhances voice, youth, intelligence, sense-faculties and longevity. [314]

If those given to constant exercise and indulgence in women and wine take meat juice daily, they will never fall ill or become weak. [315]

Signs of bad quality (avoidable) vegetables, fruits and greens

क्रिमिवातातपहतंशुष्कंजीर्णमनार्तवम्। शाकंनिःस्नेहसिद्धंचवर्ज्यंयच्चापरिस्रुतम्॥३१६॥

पुराणमामंसङ्क्लिष्टंक्रिमिव्यालहिमातपैः। अदेशकालजंक्लिन्नंयत्स्यात्फलमसाधुतत्॥३१७॥

हरितानां यथाशाकंनिर्देशःसाधनादृते। मद्याम्बुगोरसादीनांस्वेस्वेवर्गेविनिश्चयः॥३१८॥

krimivātātapahataṁ śuṣkaṁ jīrṇamanārtavam| śākaṁ niḥsnēhasiddhaṁ ca varjyaṁ yaccāparisrutam||316||

purāṇamāmaṁ saṅkliṣṭaṁ krimivyālahimātapaiḥ| adēśakālajaṁ klinnaṁ yatsyātphalamasādhu tat||317||

haritānāṁ [1] yathāśākaṁ nirdēśaḥ sādhanādr̥tē| madyāmbugōrasādīnāṁ svē svē vargē viniścayaḥ||318||

krimivAtAtapahataM SuShkaM jIrNamanArtavam| SAkaM niHsnehasiddhaM ca varjyaM yaccAparisrutam||316||

purANamAmaM sa~gkliShTaM krimivyAlahimAtapaiH| adeSakAlajaM klinnaM yatsyAtPalamasAdhu tat||317||

haritAnAM yathASAkaM nirdeSaH sAdhanAdRute| madyAmbugorasAdInAM sve sve varge viniScayaH||318||

Vegetable spoilt by maggots, wind, sun, or those that are dried, decayed, off-season, cooked without unctuous substances, or eaten without draining off boiled water should be avoided. [316]

Fruits that are old, unripe or damaged by insects, snakes, frost or sun, and those that are of improper season and place or are putrified should be regarded as not good for use. [317]

The rules regarding greens are the same as vegetables, except in the mode of preparation. As regards wine, water and milk etc. these have been described in their respective actions. [318]

Beverages after food

यदाहारगुणैः पानंविपरीतंतदिष्यते। अन्नानुपानंधातूनांदृष्टंयन्नविरोधिच॥३१९॥

आसवानांसमुद्दिष्टामशीतिंचतुरुत्तराम्। जलंपेयमपेयंचपरीक्ष्यानुपिबेद्धितम्॥३२०॥

स्निग्धोष्णं मारुतेशस्तंपित्तेमधुरशीतलम्। कफेऽनुपानंरूक्षोष्णंक्षयेमांसरसःपरम्॥३२१॥

उपवासाध्वभाष्यस्त्रीमारुतातपकर्मभिः। क्लान्तानामनुपानार्थंपयःपथ्यंयथाऽमृतम्॥३२२॥

सुराकृशानांपुष्ट्यर्थमनुपानंविधीयते। कार्श्यार्थंस्थूलदेहानामनुशस्तंमधूदकम्॥३२३॥

अल्पाग्नीनामनिद्राणांतन्द्राशोकभयक्लमैः। मद्यमांसोचितानांचमद्यमेवानुशस्यते॥३२४॥

yadāhāraguṇaiḥ [1] pānaṁ viparītaṁ tadiṣyatē| annānupānaṁ dhātūnāṁ dr̥ṣṭaṁ yanna virōdhi ca||319||

āsavānāṁ samuddiṣṭāmaśītiṁ caturuttarām| jalaṁ pēyamapēyaṁ ca parīkṣyānupibēddhitam||320||

snigdhōṣṇaṁ [2] mārutē śastaṁ pittē madhuraśītalam| kaphē'nupānaṁ rūkṣōṣṇaṁ kṣayē māṁsarasaḥ param||321||

upavāsādhvabhāṣyastrīmārutātapakarmabhiḥ| klāntānāmanupānārthaṁ payaḥ pathyaṁ yathā'mr̥tam||322||

surā kr̥śānāṁ puṣṭyarthamanupānaṁ vidhīyatē| kārśyārthaṁ sthūladēhānāmanu śastaṁ madhūdakam||323||

alpāgnīnāmanidrāṇāṁ tandrāśōkabhayaklamaiḥ| madyamāṁsōcitānāṁ ca madyamēvānuśasyatē||324||

yadAhAraguNaiH pAnaM viparItaM tadiShyate| annAnupAnaM dhAtUnAM dRuShTaM yanna virodhi ca||319||

AsavAnAM samuddiShTAmaSItiM caturuttarAm| jalaM peyamapeyaM ca parIkShyAnupibeddhitam||320||

snigdhoShNaM mArute SastaM pitte madhuraSItalam| kaPe&nupAnaM rUkShoShNaM kShaye mAMsarasaH param||321||

upavAsAdhvaBAShyastrImArutAtapakarmaBiH| klAntAnAmanupAnArthaM payaH pathyaM yathA&mRutam||322||

surA kRuSAnAM puShTyarthamanupAnaM vidhIyate| kArSyArthaM sthUladehAnAmanu SastaM madhUdakam||323||

alpAgnInAmanidrANAM tandrASokaBayaklamaiH| madyamAMsocitAnAM ca madyamevAnuSasyate||324||

That drink which is opposite in quality to that of the food taken is the proper corrigent (agent that neutralizes the undesirable-effects of a particular medication or diet). Whatever drink is not deleterious to doshas and dhatus is to be considered the right post-prandial drink. [319]

One should take as his post-prandial drink that which is wholesome and fit to consume based on thorough examination of kinds of water and (eighty-four kinds of) wines described previously. [320]

Unctuous and hot drinks in conditions of vata, sweet and cooling ones in those of pitta, dry and hot ones in kapha, and meat juices in wasting are considered to be the best. [321]

For those fatigued by fasting, travel, lecturing, company of women, or exposure to wind, sun and exertion, milk as a post-prandial drink is considered as wholesome as nectar. [322]

Sura wine is recommended as a post-prandial drink for nourishing the emaciated. Combination of honey and water is recommended as a post-prandial drink for reducing the corpulent. [323]

For those suffering from weak agni and insomnia as a result of torpor, grief, fear and fatigue and those accustomed to wine and meat, wine is prescribed as a post-prandial drink. [324]

Benefits of anupana (vehicle)

अथानुपानकर्मगुणान्प्रवक्ष्यामः- अनुपानंतर्पयति, प्रीणयति, ऊर्जयति, बृंहयति, पर्याप्तिमभिनिर्वर्तयति, भुक्तमवसादयति, अन्नसङ्घातंभिनत्ति, मार्दवमापादयति, क्लेदयति, जरयति, सुखपरिणामितामाशुव्यवायितांचाहारस्योपजनयतीति॥३२५॥

भवतिचात्र- अनुपानंहितंयुक्तंतर्पयत्याशुमानवम्। सुखंपचतिचाहारमायुषेचबलायच॥३२६॥

athānupānakarmaguṇān [1] pravakṣyāmaḥ- anupānaṁ tarpayati, prīṇayati, ūrjayati, br̥ṁhayati, paryāptimabhinirvartayati, bhuktamavasādayati, annasaṅghātaṁbhinatti, mārdavamāpādayati, klēdayati, jarayati, sukhapariṇāmitāmāśuvyavāyitāṁ cāhārasyōpajanayatīti||325||

bhavati cātra- anupānaṁ hitaṁ yuktaṁ tarpayatyāśu mānavam| sukhaṁ pacati cāhāramāyuṣē ca balāya ca||326||

athAnupAnakarmaguNAn pravakShyAmaH- anupAnaM tarpayati, prINayati, Urjayati, bRuMhayati, paryAptimaBinirvartayati, BuktamavasAdayati, annasa~gGAtaM Binatti, mArdavamApAdayati, kledayati, jarayati, suKapariNAmitAmASuvyavAyitAM cAhArasyopajanayatIti||325||

Bavati cAtra- anupAnaM hitaM yuktaM tarpayatyASu mAnavam| suKaM pacati cAhAramAyuShe ca balAya ca||326||

Now described are the qualities and actions of post-prandial drinks. Post-prandial drinks give nourishment, pleasure, energy, sense of satisfaction, help any food consumed to settle down, helps break down food consumed, impart softness, liquefy, digest and bring about quick assimilation and diffusion in the body. [325]

Post prandial drink, properly administered, can satisfy a person immediately, digest the food effectively and give life and strength. [326]

Contra-inidcations of drinking water after meals

नोर्ध्वाङ्गमारुताविष्टानहिक्काश्वासकासिनः। नगीतभाष्याध्ययनप्रसक्तानोरसिक्षताः॥३२७॥

पिबेयुरुदकंभुक्त्वातद्धिकण्ठोरसिस्थितम्। स्नेहमाहारजंहत्वा भूयोदोषायकल्पते॥३२८॥

nōrdhvāṅgamārutāviṣṭā na hikkāśvāsakāsinaḥ| na gītabhāṣyādhyayanaprasaktā nōrasi kṣatāḥ||327||

pibēyurudakaṁ bhuktvā taddhi kaṇṭhōrasi sthitam| snēhamāhārajaṁ hatvā [1] bhūyō dōṣāya kalpatē||328||

nordhvA~ggamArutAviShTA na hikkASvAsakAsinaH| na gItaBAShyAdhyayanaprasaktA norasi kShatAH||327||

pibeyurudakaM BuktvA taddhi kaNThorasi sthitam| snehamAhArajaM hatvA BUyo doShAya kalpate||328||

Neither those in whom vata is provoked in the upper parts of the body nor those that suffer from hiccups, dyspnea or cough, nor those that are engaged in singing, lecturing or studying, nor those that are suffering from the pectoral lesions should drink water after eating, for it takes away from the throat and chest the unctuous quality of the meal eaten and leads to great morbidity. [327-328]

अन्नपानैकदेशोऽयमुक्तःप्रायोपयोगिकः। द्रव्याणिनहिनिर्देष्टुंशक्यंकार्त्स्न्येननामभिः॥३२९॥

यथानानौषधंकिञ्चिद्देशजानांवचोयथा। द्रव्यंतत्तत्तथावाच्यमनुक्तमिहयद्भवेत्॥३३०॥

annapānaikadēśō'yamuktaḥ prāyōpayōgikaḥ| dravyāṇi na hi nirdēṣṭuṁ śakyaṁ kārtsnyēna nāmabhiḥ||329||

yathā nānauṣadhaṁ kiñciddēśajānāṁ vacō yathā| dravyaṁ tattattathā vācyamanuktamiha yadbhavēt||330||

annapAnaikadeSo&yamuktaH prAyopayogikaH| dravyANi na hi nirdeShTuM SakyaM kArtsnyena nAmaBiH||329||

yathA nAnauShadhaM ki~jciddeSajAnAM vaco yathA| dravyaM tattattathA vAcyamanuktamiha yadBavet||330||

The foods and drinks that are generally in use have been described in this chapter for it is not possible to indicate all substances by their names and properties. [329]

Since there is no substance that may not be used as a medicine, the substances not spoken of here (anukta dravya) should be assessed with reference to their qualities observed by people native to the region where they can be found naturally. [330]

Qualities of creatures according to their habitat and food

चरःशरीरावयवाःस्वभावोधातवःक्रिया। लिङ्गंप्रमाणंसंस्कारोमात्राचास्मिन्परीक्ष्यते॥३३१॥

caraḥ śarīrāvayavāḥ svabhāvō dhātavaḥ kriyā| liṅgaṁ pramāṇaṁ saṁskārō mātrā cāsmin parīkṣyatē||331||

caraH SarIrAvayavAH svaBAvo dhAtavaH kriyA| li~ggaM pramANaM saMskAro mAtrA cAsmin parIkShyate||331||

An animal's food and habitat, body-parts, constitution, body-elements, activity, sex, size, mode of preparation and measure are herein explained. [331]

चरोऽनूपजलाकाशधन्वाद्योभक्ष्यसंविधिः। जलजानूपजाश्चैवजलानूपचराश्चये॥३३२॥

गुरुभक्ष्याश्चयेसत्त्वाःसर्वेतेगुरवःस्मृताः। लघुभक्ष्यास्तुलघवोधन्वजाधन्वचारिणः॥३३३॥

carō'nūpajalākāśadhanvādyō bhakṣyasaṁvidhiḥ| jalajānūpajāścaiva jalānūpacarāśca yē||332||

gurubhakṣyāśca yē sattvāḥ sarvē tē guravaḥ smr̥tāḥ| laghubhakṣyāstu laghavō dhanvajā dhanvacāriṇaḥ||333||

caro&nUpajalAkASadhanvAdyo BakShyasaMvidhiH| jalajAnUpajAScaiva jalAnUpacarASca ye||332||

guruBakShyASca ye sattvAH sarve te guravaH smRutAH| laGuBakShyAstu laGavo dhanvajA dhanvacAriNaH||333||

An animal’s habitat could be wetlands, water, sky, and arid lands or deserts, while its food is generally called feed. Animals native to water and wetlands or those that eat heavy feed are regarded as heavy (i.e., their meat is heavy). Light feeders are light (their meat is light), such as those that dwell in arid lands or move around arid lands. [332-333]

शरीरावयवाःसक्थिशिरःस्कन्धादयस्तथा। सक्थिमांसाद्गुरुः स्कन्धस्ततःक्रोडस्ततःशिरः॥३३४॥

वृषणौचर्ममेढ्रंचश्रोणीवृक्कौयकृद्गुदम्। मांसाद्गुरुतरंविद्याद्यथास्वंमध्यमस्थिच॥३३५॥

śarīrāvayavāḥ sakthiśiraḥskandhādayastathā| sakthimāṁsādguruḥ [1] skandhastataḥ krōḍastataḥ śiraḥ||334||

vr̥ṣaṇau carma mēḍhraṁ ca śrōṇī vr̥kkau yakr̥dgudam| māṁsādgurutaraṁ vidyādyathāsvaṁ madhyamasthi ca||335||

SarIrAvayavAH sakthiSiraHskandhAdayastathA| sakthimAMsAdguruH skandhastataH kroDastataH SiraH||334||

vRuShaNau carma meDhraM ca SroNI vRukkau yakRudgudam| mAMsAdgurutaraM vidyAdyathAsvaM madhyamasthi ca||335||

The key limbs of animals, from the standpoint of their meat, are the thigh-bone, head, shoulder and others. Flesh of the shoulder region is heavier than that of the thigh-bone. Flesh from the chest region is considered heavier than that of the shoulder region, and meat of the head is heavier than that of the chest. Among organs, the testes, skin, phallus, hips, kidneys, liver, rectum, trunk and bone-marrow are heavier than the flesh of any part of the animal’s body. [334-335]

स्वभावाल्लघवोमुद्गास्तथालावकपिञ्जलाः। स्वभावाद्गुरवोमाषावराहमहिषास्तथा॥३३६॥

धातूनांशोणितादीनांगुरुंविद्याद्यथोत्तरम्। अलसेभ्योविशिष्यन्तेप्राणिनोयेबहुक्रियाः॥३३७॥

svabhāvāllaghavō mudgāstathā lāvakapiñjalāḥ| svabhāvādguravō māṣā varāhamahiṣāstathā||336||

dhātūnāṁ śōṇitādīnāṁ guruṁ vidyādyathōttaram| alasēbhyō viśiṣyantē prāṇinō yē bahukriyāḥ||337||

svaBAvAllaGavo mudgAstathA lAvakapi~jjalAH| svaBAvAdguravo mAShA varAhamahiShAstathA||336||

dhAtUnAM SoNitAdInAM guruM vidyAdyathottaram| alaseByo viSiShyante prANino ye bahukriyAH||337||

By nature, green gram is light to digest. So, too, are meats of the quail and the grey-partridge. On the other hand, black gram is heavy to digest and so are the flesh of hog and buffalo. [336]

The blood and other dhatus are regarded as increasingly heavy in their due order. The more active and lithe-footed the animal, the lighter its meat is [337]

गौरवंलिङ्गसामान्येपुंसांस्त्रीणांतुलाघवम्। महाप्रमाणागुरवःस्वजातौलघवोऽन्यथा॥३३८॥

gauravaṁ liṅgasāmānyē puṁsāṁ strīṇāṁ tu lāghavam| mahāpramāṇā guravaḥ svajātau laghavō'nyathā||338||

gauravaM li~ggasAmAnye puMsAM strINAM tu lAGavam| mahApramANA guravaH svajAtau laGavo&nyathA||338||

In general, heaviness is the characteristic of males while lightness is the characteristic of females. Those that are massive in size in each class are heavy and those that are otherwise are light. [338]

गुरूणांलाघवंविद्यात्संस्कारात्सविपर्ययम्। व्रीहेर्लाजायथाचस्युःसक्तूनांसिद्धपिण्डिकाः॥३३९॥

gurūṇāṁ lāghavaṁ vidyāt saṁskārāt saviparyayam| vrīhērlājā yathā ca syuḥ saktūnāṁ siddhapiṇḍikāḥ||339||

gurUNAM lAGavaM vidyAt saMskArAt saviparyayam| vrIherlAjA yathA ca syuH saktUnAM siddhapiNDikAH||339||

Heavy articles, it should be known, become lighter on preparation (or cooking) and the light ones become heavier just as rice becomes light when roasted and roasted corn flour becomes heavy when cooked and prepared into balls. [339]

अल्पादानेगुरूणांचलघूनांचातिसेवने। मात्राकारणमुद्दिष्टंद्रव्याणांगुरुलाघवे॥३४०॥

गुरूणामल्पमादेयंलघूनांतृप्तिरिष्यते। मात्रांद्रव्याण्यपेक्षन्ते मात्राचाग्निमपेक्षते॥३४१॥

alpādānē gurūṇāṁ ca laghūnāṁ cātisēvanē| mātrā kāraṇamuddiṣṭaṁ dravyāṇāṁ gurulāghavē||340||

gurūṇāmalpamādēyaṁ laghūnāṁ tr̥ptiriṣyatē| mātrāṁ dravyāṇyapēkṣantē [1] mātrā cāgnimapēkṣatē||341||

alpAdAne gurUNAM ca laGUnAM cAtisevane| mAtrA kAraNamuddiShTaM dravyANAM gurulAGave||340||

gurUNAmalpamAdeyaM laGUnAM tRuptiriShyate| mAtrAM dravyANyapekShante mAtrA cAgnimapekShate||341||

Heavy articles should be consumed in small measures and light ones in large quantities. [340]

Food articles should thus be consumed in proper measure and the proper measure should be in accordance with the strength of the individual’s agni. [341]

बलमारोग्यमायुश्चप्राणाश्चाग्नौप्रतिष्ठिताः। अन्नपानेन्धनैश्चाग्निर्ज्वलतिव्येतिचान्यथा ॥३४२॥

balamārōgyamāyuśca prāṇāścāgnau pratiṣṭhitāḥ| annapānēndhanaiścāgnirjvalati vyēti cānyathā [1] ||342||

balamArogyamAyuSca prANAScAgnau pratiShThitAH| annapAnendhanaiScAgnirjvalati vyeti cAnyathA ||342||

Strength, health, longevity and vital breath are dependent on the state of agni that burns when fed by the fuel of food and drink or dwindles when deprived of them. [342]

गुरुलाघवचिन्तेयंप्रायेणाल्पबलान्प्रति। मन्दक्रियाननारोग्यान्सुकुमारान्सुखोचितान्॥३४३॥

gurulāghavacintēyaṁ prāyēṇālpabalān prati| mandakriyānanārōgyān sukumārānsukhōcitān||343||

gurulAGavacinteyaM prAyeNAlpabalAn prati| mandakriyAnanArogyAn sukumArAnsuKocitAn||343||

The consideration of heaviness and lightness of food articles is particularly important for those who are generally weak, indolent, unhealthy, fragile or in a delicate condition of health, and those given to luxury. [343]

दीप्ताग्नयःखराहाराःकर्मनित्यामहोदराः। येनराःप्रतितांश्चिन्त्यंनावश्यंगुरुलाघवम्॥३४४॥

dīptāgnayaḥ kharāhārāḥ karmanityā mahōdarāḥ| yē narāḥ prati tāṁścintyaṁ nāvaśyaṁ gurulāghavam||344||

dIptAgnayaH KarAhArAH karmanityA mahodarAH| ye narAH prati tAMScintyaM nAvaSyaM gurulAGavam||344||

For those whose agni is strong, are accustomed to tough-to-digest food articles, are accustomed to hard labor and have a large capacity for consumption and digestion of food, the consideration of heavy and light food is not necessary. [344]

हिताभिर्जुहुयान्नित्यमन्तरग्निंसमाहितः। अन्नपानसमिद्भिर्नामात्राकालौविचारयन्॥३४५॥

आहिताग्निःसदापथ्यान्यन्तरग्नौजुहोतियः।j दिवसेदिवसेब्रह्मजपत्यथददातिच॥३४६॥

नरंनिःश्रेयसेयुक्तंसात्म्यज्ञंपानभोजने। भजन्तेनामयाःकेचिद्भाविनोऽप्यन्तरादृते॥३४७॥

hitābhirjuhuyānnityamantaragniṁ samāhitaḥ| annapānasamidbhirnā mātrākālau vicārayan||345||

āhitāgniḥ sadā pathyānyantaragnau juhōti yaḥ| divasē divasē brahma japatyatha dadāti ca||346||

naraṁ niḥśrēyasē yuktaṁ sātmyajñaṁ pānabhōjanē| bhajantē nāmayāḥ kēcidbhāvinō'pyantarādr̥tē||347||

hitABirjuhuyAnnityamantaragniM samAhitaH| annapAnasamidBirnA mAtrAkAlau vicArayan||345||

AhitAgniH sadA pathyAnyantaragnau juhoti yaH| divase divase brahma japatyatha dadAti ca||346||

naraM niHSreyase yuktaM sAtmyaj~jaM pAnaBojane| Bajante nAmayAH kecidBAvino&pyantarAdRute||347||

A person with discipline and self-control should always feed his agni with the fuel of wholesome food and drink and stay mindful of the consideration of measure and time. [345]

The man whose agni is well tended, who feeds it duly with wholesome diet, who does daily meditation, charity and the pursuit of spiritual salvation, and who takes food and drinks that are wholesome to him, will not fall to approaching diseases except for special reasons. [346-347]

षड्त्रिंशतंसहस्राणिरात्रीणांहितभोजनः। जीवत्यनातुरोजन्तुर्जितात्मासम्मतःसताम्॥३४८॥

ṣaḍtriṁśataṁ sahasrāṇi rātrīṇāṁ hitabhōjanaḥ| jīvatyanāturō janturjitātmā sammataḥ satām||348||

ShaDtriMSataM sahasrANi rAtrINAM hitaBojanaH| jIvatyanAturo janturjitAtmA sammataH satAm||348||

The disciplined man who practices wholesome diet lives for a period of 36000 nights i.e. hundred years, is blessed by good people and is free from disease. [348]

प्राणाःप्राणभृतामन्नमन्नंलोकोऽभिधावति। वर्णःप्रसादःसौस्वर्यंजीवितंप्रतिभासुखम्॥३४९॥

तुष्टिःपुष्टिर्बलंमेधासर्वमन्नेप्रतिष्ठितम्। लौकिकंकर्मयद्वृत्तौस्वर्गतौयच्चवैदिकम्॥३५०॥ कर्मापवर्गेयच्चोक्तंतच्चाप्यन्नेप्रतिष्ठितम्।

prāṇāḥ prāṇabhr̥tāmannamannaṁ lōkō'bhidhāvati| varṇaḥ prasādaḥ sausvaryaṁ jīvitaṁ pratibhā sukham||349||

tuṣṭiḥ puṣṭirbalaṁ mēdhā sarvamannē pratiṣṭhitam| laukikaṁ karma yadvr̥ttau svargatau yacca vaidikam||350||

karmāpavargē yaccōktaṁ taccāpyannē pratiṣṭhitam|351|

prANAH prANaBRutAmannamannaM loko&BidhAvati| varNaH prasAdaH sausvaryaM jIvitaM pratiBA suKam||349||

tuShTiH puShTirbalaM medhA sarvamanne pratiShThitam| laukikaM karma yadvRuttau svargatau yacca vaidikam||350|| karmApavarge yaccoktaM taccApyanne pratiShThitam|

As Lord Atreya had mentioned, the source of life for all living beings is food and all living beings are food and all the world seeks food. Complexion, clarity, good voice, long life, understanding, happiness, satisfaction, growth, strength and intelligence are all established in food. [349]

Whatever is beneficial for worldly happiness, whatever pertains to the vedic sacrifices leading to heaven and whatever actions lead to spiritual salvation are said to be established through food. [350]

Summary

तत्रश्लोकः- अन्नपानगुणाःसाग्र्यावर्गाद्वादशनिश्चिताः॥३५१॥

सगुणान्यनुपानानिगुरुलाघवसङ्ग्रहः अन्नपानविधावुक्तंतत्परीक्ष्यं विशेषतः॥३५२॥

इत्यग्निवेशकृतेतन्त्रेचरकप्रतिसंस्कृतेश्लोकस्थानेऽन्नपानविधिर्नामसप्तविंशोऽध्यायः॥२७॥

tatra ślōkaḥ- annapānaguṇāḥ sāgryā vargā dvādaśa niścitāḥ||351||

saguṇānyanupānāni gurulāghavasaṅgrahaḥ| annapānavidhāvuktaṁ tat parīkṣyaṁ [1] viśēṣataḥ||352||

tatra SlokaH- annapAnaguNAH sAgryA vargA dvAdaSa niScitAH||351||

saguNAnyanupAnAni gurulAGavasa~ggrahaH annapAnavidhAvuktaM tat parIkShyaM viSeShataH||352||

In summary, the characteristics of food and drinks, twelve classifications of articles of diet (along with with the foremost of them), post-prandial drinks with their characteristics and the statement in brief regarding heaviness and lightness of the articles of diet- all these have been described in this chapter on diet and dietetics. [351-352]

Thus, in the Section on General Principles in the treatise compiled by Agnivesha and revised by Charaka, the twenty-seventh chapter entitled ‘The Regimen of food and beverages” stands completed.

Tattva Vimarsha

  1. Extrinsic charactgeristics, intrinsic qualities, modes of preparation, texture, and taste of a food article are important attributes for it to be suitable for human consumption
  2. All food items have natural qualities – beneficial and harmful - that need to be weighed in before recommended for consumption.
  3. There are twelve categories of food described in detail in this chapter that need to be studied before prescribing to a patient.
  4. Green vegetables that have been contaminated, dried, and are old and unseasonal should not be used.
  5. Preparations that require cooking over a low fire for a long time and are thick and hard are considered heavy, slow-to-digest, fatty and strength-enhancing.
  6. The heaviness and lightness of preparations must be determined according to the combination of the substances, the nature of preparation and the measure of each substance.
  7. Aged cereals and pulses (about a year old) are recommended for consumption. The old grain is generally dry and light and the new generally heavy.
  8. Grains that get cooked quicker are considered lighter to digest than the others. The decorticated and slightly roasted pulse is digested easily.
  9. The drink which is opposite in quality to that of the food taken is the proper corrigent (agent that neutralizes the undesirable-effects of a particular medication or diet). Whatever drink is not deleterious to doshas and dhatus is to be considered the right post-prandial drink.
  10. One should take as his post-prandial drink that which is wholesome and fit to consume based on its thorough examination.
  11. Unctuous and hot drinks in conditions of vata, sweet and cooling ones in those of pitta, dry and hot ones in kapha, and meat juices in wasting are considered to be the best.
  12. The digestion depends upon inherent property of the food article as well as its interaction with the agni (body’s digestive capacity).
  13. Qualities and effects of food are altered after processing, its vehicle and interaction with body.

Vidhi Vimarsha

For over 4000 years, the Charaka Samhita and its predecessor, the Agnivesha Tantra have provided a wealth of knowledge on managing life, not just health and disease management. Sages and practitioners passed on this distilled knowledge by word-to-mouth for centuries. Over the course of this period, the environment around us has changed significantly – affecting us and the living beings around us. Habitats have changed rendering some creatures extinct or endangered, while others have adapted themselves or evolved. Further, social traditions have dictated changes to our dietary habits. However, the fundamental principles governing food, in general, remain the same, e.g., the role of agni (digestive fire), Prakriti (body constitution), rasa, guna, veerya, vipaka and prabhava (characteristics) of various foods. These fundamental principles can be applied today for healthy living. Newer articles of food like dhanya (paddy), shaka (vegetables), harita (greens), mamsa (meat), phala (fruits) and kritanna (cooked food or drinks) can be characterized and used by an experienced Ayurvedic physician. It is a herculean job to describe all the foods available all over the world and describe their rasa, guna, veerya, vipaka and prabhava (characteristics) but we have made a humble attempt to take the skeleton of the Chapter Annapanavidhi Adhyaya as it is and try to enter the newer articles as per Ayurvedic perspective.

An old saying states "if you took fourteen greens (greens means not only the leaf, also flower, fruits, nala, tuber, and fungi) then you may survive from the strain of Kartika" (the month of October and November). During this period, there is increased incidence of seasonal diseases. Though this chapter maintains chronological order according to the dietetic code, it has a special aspect for the alleviation of three doshas, to achieve excellent dhatus (body tissues), and clear the micro and macro channels of the body.

To stay healthy and prevent diseases during a change of season, following “Fourteen Greens” are advised. Surana (Amorphophallus campanulatus Blume) is effective for arsha (piles). Kebuka (Costus speciosus Koenig) prevents worm infestation. Yavashakam (Chenopodium purpurascens) is a liver tonic. Kasamarda (Cassia occidentalis Linn.) is effective in a cough. Sarshapashaka (Brassica campestris Linn. Var.rapa (L) Hartm) is tikshna in quality, and it is worst among the greens but effective in the particular season.

Neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) is effective in pittaja skin diseases. Jayanti (Sesbania sesban (Linn.) Merrill) is effective in common seasonal cold and effective in dysuria and has some anti-poisonous effect. Dwarf copperleaf- Shalakalyani (Alternanthera sessilis (Linn) R.Br. ex DC) dispels the accumulated pitta dosha. Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Miers ex Hook.f.& Thoms) pacifies morbid vitiation of all three doshas. Patola patra (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb) purifies the accumulated pitta dosha.

Shleshmaka (Cordia dichatoma Frost. F.) is an appetizer in that particular season. Helenca (Enhydra fluctuans Lour) suppresses the pitta dosha. Bhandir (Clerodendrum infortunatum auct. nonLinn.C.B. Clarke) is effective in worm infestation. Sunishannaka (Marsilea minuta Linn.) gives nutrition to the nervous system and prevents insomnia.

The vegetables or greens may be classified into six varieties.

  1. Patra shaka–(leafy vegetables)
  2. Pushpa shaka –(flower vegetables)
  3. Phala shaka (fruit vegetables)
  4. Nala shaka (tube/pot herbs vegetables)
  5. Kanda shaka (rhizome vegetables)
  6. Samsvedaja (produced from moist heat)

And they are successively heavier in their order. Among them, patra shaka is lightest one, but it should not be used in rainy season, because of the tejo quality becomes diluted by the seasonal effect. Autumn season (pitta kala) is the best to take all types of greens.

The commonly used cooked food & beverages:

Pulava (Polao):

The rice boiled with ghee (pulava), is heavy, hridaya, gives satiety, strength and an aphrodisiac.

Patola yuṣha(soup):

The yusha of patola mixed with small amount of ghee and jiraka is an appetizer, cleansing the strotas, and beneficial for jwara and other pitta disorders.

Krishara (Khichadi):

Rice and mung krishara mixed with small amount of salt, ginger, hing, and ghee gives strength and nourishes the body and also beneficial for grahani and jwara.

Roti:

Roti made from wheat is nourishing, gives satisfaction, nourishes the dhatus, increases semen and is heavy. Roti made from yava is vishada, dry, increases vata and feces, diminishes kapha and it is beneficial for patients of madhumeha.

Angarakoti (litti):

It is commonly known as vati in Rajasthan. It is usually taken with lentil soup (dala). Simple vati is light, appetizer, gives strength, nourishing, increase semen and is satisfying.

Masala vati (Sattabhari):

Commonly known as litti or makuni. It is very tasty, heavy, nourishing, increases heat in the body and purifies the malas (malashodhaka).

Indarika (Idli):

It is most popular in the southern part of India. It is soft, sweet, light, cold, gives strength, diminishes vata and pitta, increases kapha; It is nourishing and appetizer.

Adosha (dosa):

The simple dosa does not alter the doshika state, that is why Acharya Priyavrata Sharma named it as adosa. But spicy dosa is just the opposite in nature- it is heavy, hot and vidahi, naturally harmful for the patient of grahani, amlapitta, and arsha, etc.

Lentil soup (daal):

Daal is usually heavy to digest, but is an appetizer, gives strength and vishtambhi (causing obstruction in the bowel). Uncovered lentil when prepared with sour (tomato, tamarind, unripe mango, etc.) it gets light. Among the lentils mung, daal is light and is considered best. Channa daal increases vata, arahada daal is heavy and gives strength, and urad daal diminishes vata dosha.

Rasamam (rasam):

The ingredients for the preparation of rasam are tomato-1/4 Kg, pepper-1 tsp, green chilly-2 nos, ginger-1/2 inch, jeera- 1tsp, garlic-2-3 pods, coriander leaves-few; Rasam is pungent, sour, tikshna (increase agni), hot, vidahi, appetizer, increase vata and pitta, diminishes kapha and increase semen. Naturopathic physicians consider it a useful remedy for common cold and indigestion.

Lehah (chutney):

The sweet lehah is unctuous, gives satiety, nourishing body. The sour lehah is an appetizer, increases agni and vitiate rakta and pitta.

Mango and pudina chutney increase appetite and vata anulomaka.

Ragashadavah (murabba /achara):

Raga is sour-sweet in taste, but the one with sour in taste is known as shadava. It is a strong appetizer, hridaya, and light.

Gudamram (gudamma):

The unripe mango, when prepared with guda (molasses) and mixed with small amount of jeera, is known as gudamram. It is sweet-sour in taste, diminishes vata and increases kapha and pitta.

Parpata (papada):

Papada when heated with fire it is light, appetizer and increases agni. Normally the urada papada and others when fried with ghee or oil, become heavy.

Vataka (vada):

The urada vataka is an appetizer, gives strength, aphrodisiac, nourishing, increase feces, diminishes vata, increase kapha and pitta, and it is beneficial in the disease like ardita. If it is mixed with curd, chhachh, maththa, etc. then it turns to light, juicy and very soft in nature.

Vadi (vadi/vari):

The vadi which prepared from vesana and fried with oil or ghee is an appetizer, gives strength to the body. If it is mixed with kadhi then it increased in size and known as phulauri-it is very tasty, juicy, clear the mala (malashodhaka).

Purika(puri):

The puri that is fried with ghee increases kapha, semen, gives strength, tasty, heavy, oleates body and diminishes vata.

Kachavatī (kachauri):

Wheat burley mixed with little salt and fried in ghee, it is soft, very tasty and other qualities like puri, appetizer and gives strength to the body.

Ghritapurh (ghevar):

It has nourishing quality, hridaya, aphrodisiac, increase kapha, heavy, and it diminishes vata-pitta.

Sayavaḥ (gujhiya):

Gujhiya is nourishing, aphrodisiac, strengthening the body, sweet in taste, heavy, appetizer, diminishes vata and pitta and is better for a person with strong agni (diptagni).

Pupaḥ apupaḥ (malapuya, puya):

Malapuya is heavy, aphrodisiac, sweet, soft, tarpaka (nourishing), and diminishes vata-pitta and apupah (puya) is slightly inferior in quality than pupah.

Kshirika(kheer):

Rice and milk boiled and after proper boiling, sugar, ela and cinnamon are added. It increases kapha and diminishes vata and pitta, appetizer, nourishing, oleates the body, and increases semen.

Sevika (vermicelli):

Vermicelli is usually cooked with milk and sugar- it gives strength, diminishes vata and pitta, heavy and is nourishing.

Lapsika (Halwa):

It is heavy, nourishing, increases semen, diminishes vata-pitta and increases kapha.

Palalam (Tilakuta):

Crushed sesame and sugar is hot, heavy, slightly decreases the flow of urine, diminishes vata and increases kapha and pitta.

Lajah (Khila/puffed rice):

Puffed rice prepared from shali rice is light, cold, strengthening body, sweet, decreases mala and mutra and it is effective in Vamana (vomiting) and thirst.

Prithuka (Chewda):

It is heavy, increases kapha, gives strength, and it diminishes vata. In boiled form, it is known as poha- rich in fiber, recommended in constipation.

Kulmashah (Ghughri):

It is made by chana (gram) or mung daal, either in boiled or unboiled state. It is heavy, dry, a stimulant of vata and purgative.

Saktavah (Saktu):

It is prepared from fried chana or paddy rice. Then ground and sieved. Saktu, when taken with salt without ghee, is dry and provokes vata but with ghee and sugar, it diminishes vata and pitta. It is rich in protein. Good energy food and muscle building.

Mantha:

Saktu, when churned with ghee, sugar, and cold-water, is known as mantha. It is effective in the summer season, and it is effective in treating thirst, emaciation, burning sensation. It is often mixed with ice and is considered a very popular beverage.

Rasala (shrikhand):

Rasala is sweet, nourishing, tasty, aphrodisiac, diminishes vata and pitta, unctuous and cold, purgative. It strengthens the body and reduces fatigue.

Sitodakam panaka (sharbata):

Water mixed with sugar and fragrance like chandana, kevada sitodaka is known as sharbata. It is sweet, cold, anulomaka, diminishes vata-pitta, strengthening the body, increase urination, and diminishes daahah (burning sensation) and thirst.

Chayam (tea):

In the modern society tea is one of the most common beverage. It has pungent rasa, hot in potency, constipating and stimulant. In the text Ayurvedavijshana it is mentioned as shyamaparni, and in shaligrama nighantu, it is called chaya.

Kapha (coffee):

Coffee is dry, stimulant, hot in potency, diminishes kapha-vata, increases urination, a good stimulant for heart and causes insomnia.

Mishtannam (mithai):

Laddu etc. are heavy, unctuous, increase kapha, nourishing, and if taken in excessive quantity, it may lead to disease like sthaulya, prameha, etc.

Lavanakinam (namkin):

Shringataka (kind of pastry) etc. are too heavy to digest and in excess, it vitiates rakta and produces the disease like atisara, etc.

Annexure-I: The Herbs mentioned in this chapter with their English & Botanical name

Sanskrit name English Name Botanical Name
Sukadhanyavarga? (class of corns or mono cotyledons)
Raktasali Red rice Oryza sativa Linn.Red variety
Mahāśāliḥ
Kalamaḥ
Śakunāhṝtaḥ (vakra)
Tūrṇaka (cūrṇakaḥ)
Dirghasuka
Gauraḥ
Pāṇḍuka
Lāṅgulau
Sugandhaka basmati rice
Lohavālaḥ
Sariva
Pramodakaḥ
Pataṅaga
Tapaniya
Yavaka Oat Avena byzantina C.Koch.
Hāyanāḥ
Pāṁsu Deep-water paddy
Vapya
Naiṣadhaka Inferior variety of sali
Ṣaṣṭikaḥ Dhānya
ṣaṣṭikaḥ Sastika rice
Varaka (cinaka) Common millet Panicum miliaceum Linn.
Uddalaka(vanakodrava) Kodo millet Paspalum scrobiculatum var. sommeronii Stapf.
Cina
Sarada
Ujjvala
Dardurāḥ
Gandhanāḥ (gandhalāḥ) Fragrant rice
Kuruvinda
Vṛīhiḥ Dhānya
Vṛīhiḥ
Pāṭalaḥ
Koradūṣaḥ (kodrava) Sanwa millet Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn.
Śyāmākaḥ (sāṁvā) Japanese Barnyard Millet Echinochloa frumentacea Link.
Hastiśyāmāka (baṛāsāṁvā) Barnyard Millet Echinochloa crus galli- (Linn.) Beauv
Nivara (tinni ka cavala) Hygroryza aristata (Retz.)Nees ex Wight & Arn
Toyaparṇī
Gavedhukāḥ Job’s tears Coix lacryma-JobiLinn
Prasantika
Setaria italica Linn. Beauv.
Lauhitya
Aṇu
Priyaṅgavaḥ (kaṅgunī) Italian millet Setaria italica Linn. Beauv.
Mukundo
Jhiṇṭi
Garmūṭī Job’s tear (bigger variety) Coix gigantea Koenig ex Roxb.
Varuka Sorghum halepense Linn.
Varaka (syamabija) Seed of Saccharum munja Roxb.
Sibira
Utkaṭa
Jūrṇāhvāḥ (jvāra) Great millet Sorghum vulgare (Linn.)Pers.
Yava Barley Hordeum vulgare Linn.
Veṇuyava Barley shaped bamboo fruit Bambusa arundinacea(Retz.)Roxb.
Godhūmaḥ Wheat Triticum aestivum Linn.
Nandimukhi Crowfoot grass Eleusine indica Gaertn.
Madhūlī (maḍuā, markaṭatṛṇa, nṛtyakuṇḍaka) Finger Millet Eleusine coracana Gaerin.
Śamīdhānyaḥvargaḥ (class of di-cotyledons)
Mudgaḥ Greengram Vigna radiata (Linn.) Wilczec
Māṣaḥ Black gram Vigna mungo Linn. Heppersyn. Phaseolus Mungo Linn. Non-Roxb & auct
Rājamāṣaḥ (lobiyā, boḍā) Black eye-pea Vigna unguiculata Linn. Walp
Kulattha Horse-gram Dolichos biflorus Linn.
Makuṣṭhako Moth-gram Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.)Marechal
Caṇakaḥ Chickpea Cicer arietinum Linn.
Khaṇḍikāḥ (khesārī-tripuṭakalāya) Chickling vetch Lathyrus sativus Linn.
Hareṇu (choṭī yā deśī maṭara) Common pea Pisum sativum Sub sp.sativum, Co.ver. speciosum Dierb. Alef
Kalāyaḥ Chickling vetch
Til (kṛṣṇatila) Seasam Sesamum indicum Linn
Śimbijātayaḥ Different types of legumes
Simbi Legume
Āḍhakī Pigeon-pea Cajanus cajan (Linn.) Mill Sp.
Avalgujaḥ (bākucī) Babchi Seeds Psoralea corylifolia Linn.
Aiḍagaja (cakramarda) Wild Senna/Sickle Senna Cassia tora Linn
Niṣpāva (sema) Lablab Dolichos lablab Linn. var.

typicusPrain.

Kākāṇḍa Sword bean Mucuna monosperma DC
Uma (atasi) Linseed Linum usitatissimum Linn.
Atmagupta Cowhage Mucuna prurita Hook
Māṁsavargaḥ
Śākavargaḥ
Pāṭhā Velvet-Leaf Pareira Cissampelos pareira Linn.
Śuṣā (kāsamarda) Negro coffee Cassia occidentalis Linn
Śaṭīśāka (kapūrakacarī) Spiked Ginger Lily Hedychium spicatum Ham ex. Smith
Vastuka Chenopodium murale Linn.
Suniṣaṇṇāka (caupatiyā) Marsilea minuta Linn.
Kakamaci Black nightshade Solanum nigrum Linn.
Rājakṣavaka (dugdhikā) Asthma weed Euphorbia thymifolia Linn.
Kalasaka(cañcu bheda) Jute plant Corchorus capsularis Linn.
Kālāyaṁ(kālākhyaṁ) śāka
Cāṅagerī Indian sorrel Oxalis corniculata Linn.
Upodika (poi) Indian spinach Basella rubra Linn.
Taṇḍulīyakaḥ Prickly Amaranth Amaranthus spinosus Linn.
Maṇḍūkaparṇī Indian pennywort Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban
Vetrāgraṁ (beṁta) Country willow / Bareilly Cane Calamus tenuis Roxb.
Kucelā (rājapāṭhā- akarṇaviddhikābhedaḥ) Cyclea arnotii Meirs
Vanatiktakam (pathyasundaraka yā grīṣmasundara gīmāśāka) Mollugo spergula Linn.
Karkoṭaka (baḍā kakoḍā) Sponge gourd/ BurCucumber Momordica dioica Roxb.ex Willd
Avalgujaka (bakuci) Babchi Psoralea corylifolia Linn
Paṭolaṁ Pointed gourd Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.
Śakulādanī (kuṭakī) Kurroa Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.
Vṛṣapuṣpā (vāsapuṣpā) Flower of Vasaka Adhatoda vasica Nees
Śārṅgeṣṭā (lākhana) Black night shade Dregea volubilis (Linn.f) Benth.
Kembūkaṁ Swamp cabbage Ipomoea aquatica Forsk
Kaṭhillaka (raktapunarnavā) Hog weed Boerhavia diffusa Linn.
Nāḍīśāka (naracā in bengali) Wild Tossa jute Corchorus olitorius Linn
Kalaya (khesari) Chickling vetch Lathyrus sativus Linn.
Gojihva (vanagobhi) Elephant’s foot Launaea asplenifolia Hook.f.
Vartaka Brinjal Solanum melongena Linn.
Tilaparṇikā (hulahula) Dog mustard / Wildmustard Cleome icosandra Linn.
Kaulakaṁ (kāravellakaḥ) Carilla Momordica charantia Linn.
Kārkaṣaṁ Momordica sp.
Naimbaṁ ṣākaṁ Neem leaves Azadirachta indica A.Juss
Pārpaṭakaṁ (pittapāpaḍā) Trailing rungia Fumaria vaillantii Loisel
Supyasaka- Patrasaka
Phañji Bind weed Rivea ornate (Roxb.) Choisy
Cilli White goosefoot Chenopodium album Linn.
Kutumbakaḥ (gūmāpatra) White Dead Nettle shrub Lamium album Linn.
Aluka Tubers of Aluka Dioscorea species
Kuṭiñjara patra (tāmramūlī) Digera muricata (Linn.)Mart
Śaṇa Bengal hemp plant Crotalaria verrucosa Linn
Śālmalipuṣpā Silk cotton Salmalia malabarica (DC) Schott & Endl
Karbudāraḥ Mountain ebony Bauhinia variegata Linn.
Suvarcala Heliotrope Malva rotundifolia Linn.
Niṣpāvaḥ (Sema) Lablab bean Dolichos lablab Linn.
Kovidara Variegated mountain ebony Bauhinia purpurea Linn
Pattura Coxcomb Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) R.Br.ex DC
Cuñcuparṇikā Multa jute Corchorus Sp.
Kumarajivo Amaranthus paniculatus Linn.
Loṭṭākaḥ (raktamariṣa) Chinese spinach Amaranthus tricolor Linn.
Pālaṅkyā Spinach Spinacia oleracea Linn.
Māriṣa Amaranth Amaranthus blitus Linn.var. oleraceusDuthie
Kalambanalika (karemua ki nala) Swamp cabbage Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.
Āsūryaḥ (rāī) Mustard Brassica juncea (Linn.) Czern & Coss
Kusumbha Safflower Carthamus tinctorius Linn.
Vṛkadhūmakaḥ (bhūmiśirīṣa) Young Siris
Lakṣmaṇā
Prapunnāḍa Fetid cassia/Ringworm plant Cassia tora Linn.
Nalini Stalk of lotus Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.
Kuṭherakaḥ Shrubby basil Ocimum sp.
Loṇikā (nonīśāka) Common Indian purslane Portulaca quadrifida Linn.
Yavaśākaṁ (vāstuka) Red variety of white goose foot Chenopodium purpurascens B.DE JUSS.ex JACQ
Kūṣmāṇḍa White gourd Benincasa hispida Thunb. Cong
Avalgujam Babchi leaves Psoralea corylifolia Linn.
Yātukaḥ (śālaparṇī bheda) Desmodium Sp.
Śālakalyāṇī (śālīñca bheda) Alternanthera sp.
Triparṇī (haṁsapadī) Maidenhair Fern Adiantum lunulatum Burm.
Pīluparṇikā (moraṭa) Trilobed virgin’s bower Maerua arenaria Hook.F & Th.
Śaṇa Flower of Bengal hemp Crotalaria juncea Linn.
Kovidāra puṣpa Pink Bauhinia Bauhinia purpurea Linn.
Karbudāra puṣpa Mountain Ebony Bauhinia variegata Linn.
Śālmalī puṣpa Silk cotton Salmalia malabarica (DC)Schott & Endl
Nyagrodha pallavāḥ Banyan Tender leaves of Ficus benghalensis Linn.
Udumbara pallavāḥ Gular fig / Country Fig Tender leaves of Ficus racemosa Linn
Aśvattha pallavāḥ Holy fig Tender leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn.
Plakṣa pallavāḥ White fig Tender leaves of Ficus lacor Buch.-Ham
Padma pallavāḥ Lotus Tender leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn
Vatsādanī (amṛtāpatra) Guduchi Tinosporacordifolia (Willd) Miers ex Hook f. & Thoms
Gaṇḍīra
Citraka White flowered Leadwort Plumbago zeylanica Linn.
Sreyasi (rasna) Elephant pepper Pluchea lanceolata C.B. Clarke
Bilvaparṇī Limonia crenulata Roxb.
Bilvapatraṁ Leaves of Bael tree Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb.
Bhaṇḍī (Sirīṣa) East Indian walnut Albizia lebbeck (Linn.) Willd
Śatāvarīśākaṁ Climbing asparagus Asparagus racemosus Willd
Bala Heart-leaved sida /Country Mallow Sida cordifolia Linn.
Jivantisaka Cork swallow wort Leptadenia reticulata W.& A.
Parvaṇyāḥ Leaves of scutch grass Polygonum sp.
Parvapuṣpyā Polygonum sp.
Tiktaṁ lāṅgalī Glory Lily Gloriosa superba Linn.
Urubūkayoḥ patraśākaṁ(rakta eraṇḍa patra) Red flowered castoroil plant Ricinus communis Linn.
Tilaśākaṁ Leaf of Gingelly Sesamum indicum Linn.
Vetasaśākaṁ Goat Willow Salix caprea Linn.
Pañcāṅgulasyaśākaṁ (śveta eraṇḍa) Castor oil plant Ricinus communis Linn.
Kausumbhaṁ Safflower Carthamus tinctorius Linn.
Trapusa Common Cucumber Cucumis sativus Linn.
Ervāruka (phūṭa kākaḍī) Phut cucumber Cucumis utilissimus Roxb.
Alabu (lamba kaddu) Bottle-gourd Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.
Cirbhaṭa (māravāṛa meṁ kākaṛī) Sweet Melon Cucumis momordica Duth & Full.
Kūṣmāṇḍa Ripen white gourd Benincasa hispida (Thunb) Cogn.
Kelūṭa
Kadamba Kadam Anthocephalus cadamba Miq
Nadīmāṣaka(udīmānaka)
Ainduka (nikṣāraḥ) Common mountain ebony
Utpalani Blue water lily Nymphaea caerulea auct. W. Afr.
Tālapralambaṁ (tālāṅkura) sprouts of Palmyra Borassus flabellifer Linn.
Kharjura Date Phoenix sylvestris Roxb.
Talasasya (Talaphala) Sasya=mastaka majja Palmyra Borassus flabellifer Linn.
Tarūṭa Taruta Dioscorea belophylla Voight
Bisa (kamalakāṇḍa) Lotus stem Nelumbonucifera Gaertn.
Saluka (kamalakanda) Lotus bulbs Nelumbonucifera Gaertn.
Krauñcādana (utpalabīja-bheṁṭa)= dhiñculikā= dhiñculika Seed of Blue Star Water-lily Nymphaeastellata Willd.
Kaśeruka (ciñcoḍakā) Club-rush Scirpusgrossus Linn.f.
Śṛṅgāṭaka Indian water chest-nut Trapa natans Linn.Var. bispinosa Roxb.Makino
Aṅkoloḍya (makhānā)= hrasvotpalakandaḥ Fox nut Euryaleferox Salisb.
Kumuda nāla-puṣpa-phala Night-flower lotus Nymphaea stellata Willd.
Utpala nāla-puṣpa-phala Blue water lily Nymphaeastellata Willd.
Pauṣkarabīja (kamalagaṭṭā) Seeds of sacred lotus Seeds of Nelumbonucifera Gaertn.
Muñjātakaḥ (sālamapañcā) Salep Orchislatifolia Linn.
Vidarikanda Bulb of Indian kudju Puerariatuberosa (Willd) DC
Amlikakanda Bulb of Betel yarn Vitispentaphylla Thunb
Sārṣapaśāka Mustard leaves Mustard leaves Brassicacampestris Linn. Var.Sarson Prain
Piṇḍāluka Common yam Dioscorea species
Chatraka (except sarpaphaṇākāraṁ chatrakam Mushroom
Phalavargaḥ
Mṛdvīkā Grape Vitisvinifera Linn.
Kharjura Date Phoenixsylvestris Roxb.
Phalgu Common fig Ficuscarica Linn.
Parūṣaka Sweet Falsah Grewiaasiatia Linn.
Madhuka Mohwah Madhucaindica J.F. Gmel.
Āmrātaṁ Indian hog-plum Spondiaspinnata Linn.P
Talasasyani Palmyra Borassusflabellifer Linn.
Narikelaphala Coconut Cocusnucifera Linn.
Bhavyaṁ Showy Dillenia fruits Dilleniaindica Linn.
Amla parūṣaka Sour kind of Falsah Grewiaasiatia Linn.
Amla drākṣā Sour kind of Grape Vitisvinifera Linn.
Amla badara Jujube (sour kind) Ziziphus maruitiana Lam.
Aruka Peach Prunuspersica Batasch.
Karkandhu Wild ziziphus Ziziphus nummularia Burm.F.
Nikuca (amlalakuca) Artocarpuslakoocha Roxb.
Aruka (Pakva) Prunuspersica Batasch.
Paravata Garciniacowa Roxb.
Kasmaryaphalam (kasmari phala) White teak Gmelinaarborea Roxb.
Amlatuda Mulberry Morusalba Linn.
Ṭaṅkaṁ Pear fruit Pyruscommunis Linn.
Kapitthaṁ Raw wood- apple Feronialimonia (Linn.) Swingle
Bilvaṁ Bael Eaglemormelos Corr.
Amra Mango Mangiferaindica Linn.
Jambava Jambul Syzygiumcumimi Linn.Skeel
Badaraṁ Jujube Ziziphus maruitiana Lam.
Siñcitika (badara jati)
Gāṅgeruka Gingo fruit Grewiahirsuta Vahl.
Karira phala Caper Capparisdeciduas Edgew.
Bimbi phala Scarlet-fruited gourd Cocciniaindica W & A
Todana phala Todan Grewiaspecies
Dhanvana phala Fruits of common Indian linden / Dhaman Grewiatiliaefolia Vahl.
Panasa-Pakva Indian jack fruit Artocarpus integrifolia Linn. f.
Moca (kela) Banana Musaparadisiaca Linn.
Rajadana phala Fruits of Indian ape flower tree Mimusopshexandra Roxb.
Lavaliphala Luvungascandens (Roxb.) Buch.-Ham.ex Wight.
Nīpaṁ Cadamba Mitragynaparviflora (Roxb.) Korth
Śatāhvakaṁ ( sabhārgakaṁ) –she Dill Anethumsowa Roxb. ex Flem
Pilu Tooth brush tree Salvadorapersica Linn.
Tṛṇaśūnyaṁ (kevaḍe kā phala) Screw pine Pandanusodoratissimus Linn.f.
Vikaṅkatam Governor’s Plum Thorny stuff Flacourtiaramonthii L. Herit
Prācīnāmalakaṁ Puneala plum Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.)Raeusch.
Aiṅgudaṁ (aiṅgudī phala) Zachum oil plant Balanitesaegyptica Linn. Delile
Tindukaṁ Gaub Persimmon/ Riber Ebony Diospyrosembryopteris Pers.
Amalaka Emblic myrobalan Emblica officinalis Gaertn.
Bibhitakam Belliric myrobalan Terminalia bellirica Roxb.
Dāḍimaṁ Pomegranate Punicagranatum Linn.
Vṛkṣāmlaṁ (mahādrakam) Kokum-butter Garciniaindica Choisy
Amlikā (tintiḍī/imalī) Tamarind Tamarindusindica Linn.
Amlavetasa Amlavetasa Hippophaerhamnoides sub sp. salicifolia
Mātuluṅga Kesara of citron Citrusmedica Linn.
Karcūraḥ Long Zedoary Curcumazedoaria Rosc.
Nāgaraṅgaphala Common Orange Citrusreticulata Blanco
Vatama (badama) Almond Prunusamygdalus Batsch. Variety sativa (sweet)
Abhiṣuka (pistā) Green Almond Pistaciavera Linn.
Akṣoṭa (akharoṭa) Walnut Juglansregia Linn.
Mukulaka Edible pine Baliospermummontanum (Willd.) Muell-Arg
Nikocaka (cilagoja) Chilgoza pine Pinusgerardiana Wallich.
Urumāṇa (jardālu, khuvānī) Apricot Prunusarmeniaca Linn.
Priyala Buchanan’s mango Buchananialanzan Spreng
Ṣleṣmātaka phalaṁ Sabestan plum Cordiadichotoma Forst.f.
Aṅkoṭaphala Alangy Alangiumsalviifolium Linn. F. Wang.
Samiphalam Prosopisspicigera Linn.
Karañja Fruit of Indian Beech Pongamiapinnata Pierre
Amrataka Indian Hog plum Spondias pinnata (Linn.f) Kurz
Dantaśaṭha(jamvīrīnivū) Lemon Citruslimon Linn. Burm.f.
Karamardaka Bengal currant Carissaspinarum Linn.
Airāvata (nāgaraṅgam) Common Orange Citrus sinensis (Linn.)osbeck
Vārtāka Brinjal Solanummelongena Linn.
Parpaṭakīphalam (pāpaḍā) Gardenialatifolia Ait
Ākṣikīphala Akshiki fruit Morindatinctoria Roxb.
Aśvattha phala Fruits of the Holy fig Ficusreligiosa Linn.
Udumbara phala Country Fig /Gular fig Ficus glomerata Roxb.
Plakṣa phala Yellow Barked fig Ficuslacor Buch- Ham
Nyagrodha phala anyan Ficusbenghalensis Linn.
Bhallātaka Marking nut Semecarpusanacardium Linn.f
Haritavargaḥ
Ārdraka /viśvabheṣaja Green Ginger Zingiberofficinale Rosc.
Jambīra Jambira Citruslimon (Linn.) Burm.F
Mūlaka Garden Radish Raphanussativus Linn.
Surasaḥ (tulasī)/pūtigandhahā Holy basil Ocimumsanctum Linn.
Yavānī Bishop’s weed, carum seeds, or thymol seeds Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprague
Arjaka Shrubby Basil Orthosiphonpallidus Royle
Śigru Drumstick Moringaoleifera Lam
Śāleya (Mūlakapotikā) Small variety of Radish Raphanus sativus Linn.(small variety)
Mṛṣṭaka Brown mustard Brassica juncea (Linn.) Czern. & Coss
Gaṇḍīra Coleus barbatus Benth.
Jalapippalī Hog fruit Lippianodiflora Rich.
Tumbaruḥ Indian tooth ache Zanthoxylumarmatum DC.
Śṛṅgaverikā (ārdrikā- harī dhanīyā) Green coriander Coriandrumsativum Linn.
Bhūstṛṇa Ginger grass Hyptissauveolens poll
Kharāhvā (ajamodā) Celery seeds Carumroxburghianum D.C. Craib
Dhānyaka (dhaniyā śuṣka) Coriander Coriandrumsativum Linn.
Ajagandhā (vana yavānī) Wild thyme Thymus serpyllum Linn
Sumukha (tulasī bheda) Occimumsp
Gṛñjanaka (eka putī rasona) Leek Allium ameloprasum Hook.f. non Linn
Palāṇḍu Onion Alliumcepa Linn.
Laśunaḥ Garlic Alliumsativum Linn.
Āhārayogivarga
Tila Gingelly Sesamumindicum Linn.
Airaṇḍatailaṁ Castor Ricinuscommunis Linn.
Sārṣapaṁ tailaṁ Rape-seed Brassicacampestris Linn. Var. Sarson Prain
Priyālatailaṁ Buchanans mango Buchananialanzan Spreng
Ātasī Linseed Linumusitatissimum Linn.
Kusumbhataila Safflower Carthamustinctorius Linn.
Viśvabheṣaja Ginger Zingiberofficinale Rosc.
Ārdrapippalī/śuṣkapippalī Long pepper Piperlongum Linn.
Maricaḥ Black pepper Pipernigrum Linn.
Hiṅgu Asafoetida Ferulanarthex Boiss.
Kāravī (kṛṣṇa jīraka) Celery Carumbulbocastanum W.Koch.
Kuñcikā Black cumin Nigellasativa Linn.
Ajājī (jīraka) Cumin seed Cuminumcyminum Linn.
Yavānī Bishop’s weed Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprague
Dhānyaka Coriander Coriandrumsativum Linn.
Tumburu (nepālī dhaniyā) Indian tooth-ache Zanthoxylum armatum DC.